Sample records for adults critical review

  1. Critical Review about Thematic Relations in Adults'Concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The general area investigated by Lin and Murphy was thematic relations used for classification in adults'category con-struction. The present study aims to discover whether thematic categorization could be found in American adult college students and whether thematic groupings have significant conceptual content. Most of the previous studies focus on children's classifica-tion, while the current study explores that of adults'. That is the significance of the current study.

  2. Marketing in Adult Education. A Critical Review of Literature. (United States)

    Wells, Rita L.

    In the literature on marketing in adult education there is much debate on the ethics of marketing educational programs; although many individuals have written about the potential negative impacts of big business and high-pressure advertising in education, others have viewed marketing as an acceptable process that attempts to establish mutually…

  3. Disturbances of sodium in critically ill adult neurologic patients: a clinical review. (United States)

    Tisdall, Martin; Crocker, Matthew; Watkiss, Jonathan; Smith, Martin


    Disorders of sodium and water balance are common in critically ill adult neurologic patients. Normal aspects of sodium and water regulation are reviewed. The etiology of possible causes of sodium disturbance is discussed in both the general inpatient and the neurologic populations. Areas of importance are highlighted with regard to the differential diagnosis of sodium disturbance in neurologic patients, and management strategies are discussed. Specific discussions of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of cerebral salt wasting syndrome, the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and central diabetes insipidus are presented, as well as the problems of overtreatment. The importance of diagnosis at an early stage of these diseases is stressed, with a recommendation for conservative management of milder cases.

  4. [Anemia in the critically ill child and adult: a narrative review]. (United States)

    Demaret, P; Loeckx, I; Mulder, A; Devos, P; Lebrun, F


    Anemia is frequent in the pediatric and adult intensive care unit. Anemia decreases oxygen transport which can be harmful in the critically ill patient; it is independently associated with a poor prognosis. The major prophylactic measure against anemia is the limitation of blood draws: several approaches can be used to limit phlebotomy overdraw without harming the patient. Red blood cell transfusion is the quickest way to increase the hemoglobin level, but it is not without risk. It is therefore important to promote the use of evidence-based transfusion strategies. Iron could be useful in case of iron deficiency, but this condition is difficult to diagnose in the critically ill patient. Erythropoietin is no longer relevant in the intensive care unit in the era of restrictive transfusion practice, at least for its hematological effects. Several questions remain to be addressed in order to improve anemia management in the intensive care unit.

  5. Drug treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: a critical review of adult guideline recommendations. (United States)

    Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Sequeira, Reginald P; Alkhaja, Alwaleed K; Damanhori, Awatif H H


    This review evaluates the guideline recommendations for the management of hypertension in pregnancy as presented by 25 national/international guidelines developed for the management of arterial hypertension in adults. There is a general consensus that oral α-methyldopa and parenteral labetalol are the drugs of choice for nonsevere and severe hypertension in pregnancy, respectively. Long-acting nifedipine is recommended by various guidelines as an alternative for first-line and second-line therapy in nonsevere and severe hypertension. The safety of β-blockers, atenolol in particular, in early and late stages of pregnancy is unresolved; their use is contraindicated according to several guidelines. Diuretic-associated harmful effects on maternal and fetal outcomes are controversial: their use is discouraged in pregnancy. It is important to develop specific guidelines for treating hypertension in special groups such as adult females of childbearing age and sexually active female adolescents to minimize the risk of adverse effects of drugs on the fetus. In several guidelines, the antihypertensive classes, recommended drug(s), intended drug formulation, and route of administration are not explicit. These omissions should be addressed in future guideline revisions in order to enhance the guidelines' utility and credibility in clinical practice.

  6. A Critical Comprehensive Review of Religiosity and Anxiety Disorders in Adults. (United States)

    Khalaf, Dany R; Hebborn, Ludger F; Dal, Sylvain J; Naja, Wadih J


    Over the past three decades, there has been increasing research with respect to the relation of religion and mental health disorders. Consequently, the current article aims to first provide a comprehensive literature review of the interplay between different domains of religiosity and a wide variety of categorical anxiety disorders in adults, and secondly, to uncover the major methodological flaws often yielding mixed, contradictory and unreliable results. The search was conducted using the PubMed/Medline database and included papers published between 1970 and 2012, under a rigorous set of inclusion/exclusion criteria. A total of ten publications were retained as part of the current study, and three main outcomes were identified: (1) certain aspects of religiosity and specific religious interventions have mostly had a protective impact on generalized anxiety disorder (40% of the studies); (2) other domains of religiosity demonstrated no association with post-traumatic stress disorder (30% of the studies); and (3) mixed results were seen for panic and phobic disorders.

  7. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review. (United States)

    Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble


    Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  8. Predictive power of the Braden scale for pressure sore risk in adult critical care patients: a comprehensive review. (United States)

    Cox, Jill


    Critical care is designed for managing the sickest patients within our healthcare system. Multiple factors associated with an increased likelihood of pressure ulcer development have been investigated in the critical care population. Nevertheless, there is a lack of consensus regarding which of these factors poses the greatest risk for pressure ulceration. While the Braden scale for pressure sore risk is the most commonly used tool for measuring pressure ulcer risk in the United States, research focusing on the cumulative Braden Scale score and subscale scores is lacking in the critical care population. This author conducted a literature review on pressure ulcer risk assessment in the critical care population, to include the predictive value of both the total score and the subscale scores. In this review, the subscales sensory perception, mobility, moisture, and friction/shear were found to be associated with an increased likelihood of pressure ulcer development; in contrast, the Activity and Nutrition subscales were not found to predict pressure ulcer development in this population. In order to more precisely quantify risk in the critically ill population, modification of the Braden scale or development of a critical care specific risk assessment tool may be indicated.

  9. What Makes Critical Thinking Critical for Adult ESL Students (United States)

    Miekley, Joshua P.


    Critical-thinking skills help to prepare adult education students for a successful transition to college degree programs and for job advancement. Yet fostering critical thinking poses a challenge to ESL instructors. Brookfield (2012) provides a way forward for adult educators when he explains that the crux of critical thinking is to discover one's…

  10. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba" (United States)

    Player, John


    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  11. Review - Critical Han Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Ye


    Full Text Available Review of: Thomas Mullaney, James Leibold, Stéphane Gros, and Eric Armand Vanden Bussche (eds. 2012. Critical Han Studies: The History, Representation, and Identity of China's Majority. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. This path-breaking volume is an academic collaboration that emerged out of the "Critical Han Studies Conference and Workshop" at Stanford University in April 2008. Eleven scholars contributed to the question of what it means to be 'Han' in China, both historically and at present. Constituting over ninety percent of China's population, the Han are not only the largest ethnic group in China, but are also one of the largest categories of collective identity in the world. Despite this, the dominant Han group has so far eluded careful scholarly scrutiny, with the Han often referred to as an unmarked majority category in contemporary China. This volume challenges such conventional views by conceptualizing new interdisciplinary approaches to the question of Hanness. The eleven essays of the volume are divided into three themes: 'Han and China', 'The Problem of Han Origins', and 'The Problem of Han Formations'. The first theme, comprised of four essays, analyzes the ties that bind the category of Han to those of Chinese ethnicity, race, and polity. Kevin Carrico in "Recentering China: The Cantonese in and Beyond the Han" questions a single, unitary Hanness that he believes conceals "countless other perceived and imagined lines of differentiation" (25. The study examines how multiple identities...

  12. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash


    BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace mineral essential to health and has an important role in immunity, defence against tissue damage and thyroid function. Improving selenium status could help protect against overwhelming tissue damage and infection in critically ill adults. This Cochrane review......, to May 20, 2014), EMBASE (Ovid SP, to May 20, 2014), CAB, BIOSIS and CINAHL. We handsearched the reference lists of the newest reviews and cross-checked with our search in MEDLINE. We contacted the main authors of included studies to request any missed, unreported or ongoing studies. The latest search...... in order to retrieve relevant and missing data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and we resolved any disagreements by discussion. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity analyses to assess the effects...

  13. A Critical Review on the Surgical Treatment of 153 Cases of Adult Patent Ductus Arteriosus within 1964-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective This paper evaluates the experiences of treatment of adult patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in Nanjing Medical University in recent 36 years. Methods From October 1964 to December 2000, 153 adult PDA patients in our hospital were operated by means of ligation of PDA(105), ductal division (24), intra-aortic suture with left heart bypass(11), cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) without heart beating(7), and the duct occlusion with cardiac catheterization(6). Results The mortalities of the afore mentioned 5 techniques were 0.0%,4.2%,0.0%,14.3%,0.0% respectively. Conclusion Ligation of PDA is still a safe, simple and efficient method, while CPB is suitable for patients with certain special types of PDA or/and other deformities of the heart. Perhaps the advent of interventional therapy would offer a safer and simpler method of choice in the treatment of PDA.

  14. Financial Literacy: A Critical Adult Education Appraisal (United States)

    English, Leona M.


    This chapter critically examines financial literacy education, asking what its assumptions are and what adult educators need to ask of its curriculum, its bases, and the people being taught to be financially literate.

  15. Milrinone for cardiac dysfunction in critically ill adult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, Geert; Bekema, Hanneke J; Wetterslev, Jørn;


    INTRODUCTION: Milrinone is an inotrope widely used for treatment of cardiac failure. Because previous meta-analyses had methodological flaws, we decided to conduct a systematic review of the effect of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: This systematic...... review was performed according to The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Searches were conducted until November 2015. Patients with cardiac dysfunction were included. The primary outcome was serious adverse events (SAE) including mortality at maximum follow-up. The risk of bias...... analyses displayed statistical and/or clinical heterogeneity of patients, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and/or settings and all featured missing data. DISCUSSION: The current evidence on the use of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction suffers from considerable risks...

  16. Critical review on biofilm methods. (United States)

    Azeredo, Joana; Azevedo, Nuno F; Briandet, Romain; Cerca, Nuno; Coenye, Tom; Costa, Ana Rita; Desvaux, Mickaël; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Hébraud, Michel; Jaglic, Zoran; Kačániová, Miroslava; Knøchel, Susanne; Lourenço, Anália; Mergulhão, Filipe; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Nychas, George; Simões, Manuel; Tresse, Odile; Sternberg, Claus


    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research into the formation and elimination of biofilms is important for many disciplines. Several new methodologies have been recently developed for, or adapted to, biofilm studies that have contributed to deeper knowledge on biofilm physiology, structure and composition. In this review, traditional and cutting-edge methods to study biofilm biomass, viability, structure, composition and physiology are addressed. Moreover, as there is a lack of consensus among the diversity of techniques used to grow and study biofilms. This review intends to remedy this, by giving a critical perspective, highlighting the advantages and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms.

  17. Critical review on biofilm methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Joana; F. Azevedo, Nuno; Briandet, Romain;


    into the formation and elimination of biofilms is important for many disciplines. Several new methodologies have been recently developed for, or adapted to, biofilm studies that have contributed to deeper knowledge on biofilm physiology, structure and composition. In this review, traditional and cutting-edge methods...... to study biofilm biomass, viability, structure, composition and physiology are addressed. Moreover, as there is a lack of consensus among the diversity of techniques used to grow and study biofilms. This review intends to remedy this, by giving a critical perspective, highlighting the advantages...... and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms....

  18. Critical review on biofilm methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Joana; F. Azevedo, Nuno; Briandet, Romain;


    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research...... into the formation and elimination of biofilms is important for many disciplines. Several new methodologies have been recently developed for, or adapted to, biofilm studies that have contributed to deeper knowledge on biofilm physiology, structure and composition. In this review, traditional and cutting-edge methods...... to study biofilm biomass, viability, structure, composition and physiology are addressed. Moreover, as there is a lack of consensus among the diversity of techniques used to grow and study biofilms. This review intends to remedy this, by giving a critical perspective, highlighting the advantages...

  19. Activity trackers: a critical review. (United States)

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph


    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard.

  20. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in critically ill adult patients. (United States)

    Ma, Lijie; Liu, Yuhao; Lu, Zhifeng; Zhao, Li; Wang, Sheng


    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is usually present in patients with pancreatic diseases. Surprisingly, recent studies indicated that patients with critical illness often suffer from pancreatic injury due to non-specific reasons other than pancreatic diseases, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is also commonly observed in critically ill adult patients without preexisting pancreatic diseases. It is well known that malnutrition is the main clinical consequence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, thus, the high incidence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is most likely to be an important contributor of malnutrition which is a frequent problem associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in critically ill patients admitted into intensive care unit. In order to prevent pancreatic exocrine insufficiency due to primary pancreatic diseases, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is indispensable to treat indigestion, malabsorption and nutritional deficiency. Similarly, pancreatic enzyme supplementation has the potential to be an adjuvant therapy in critically ill patients with enteral nutrition therapy, which may be helpful to improve the nutritional status and the prognosis of critically ill patients by reducing the occurrence of malnutrition. Here, we reviewed the diagnostic methods of pancreatic exocrine function, the epidemiology and risk factors of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and potential treatment strategies for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in critically ill adult patients.

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in adult civilian, military, and sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): a systematic critical review. (United States)

    Asken, Breton Michael; DeKosky, Steven T; Clugston, James R; Jaffee, Michael S; Bauer, Russell M


    This review seeks to summarize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies that have evaluated structural changes attributed to the mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adult civilian, military, and athlete populations. Articles from 2002 to 2016 were retrieved from PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar, using a Boolean search string containing the following terms: "diffusion tensor imaging", "diffusion imaging", "DTI", "white matter", "concussion", "mild traumatic brain injury", "mTBI", "traumatic brain injury", and "TBI". We added studies not identified by this method that were found via manually-searched reference lists. We identified 86 eligible studies from English-language journals using, adult, human samples. Studies were evaluated based on duration between injury and DTI assessment, categorized as acute, subacute/chronic, remote mTBI, and repetitive brain trauma considerations. Since changes in brain structure after mTBI can also be affected by other co-occurring medical and demographic factors, we also briefly review DTI studies that have addressed socioeconomic status factors (SES), major depressive disorder (MDD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The review describes population-specific risks and the complications of clinical versus pathophysiological outcomes of mTBI. We had anticipated that the distinct population groups (civilian, military, and athlete) would require separate consideration, and various aspects of the study characteristics supported this. In general, study results suggested widespread but inconsistent differences in white matter diffusion metrics (primarily fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], radial diffusivity [RD], and axial diffusivity [AD]) following mTBI/concussion. Inspection of study designs and results revealed potential explanations for discrepant DTI findings, such as control group variability, analytic techniques, the manner in which regional differences were reported, and

  2. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning. (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen


    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  3. Simulation Gaming: A Critical Review. (United States)

    Roberts, Nancy

    The review of the empirical literature on simulation gaming categorizes positive, negative, and contradictory aspects of gaming as an educational tool as revealed by the research. The review, which concentrates on simulation games for elementary and secondary school students, is presented in seven sections. Section I presents a brief history of…

  4. The War against People: Adult Education Practice for Critical Democracy (United States)

    Connolly, Brid; Hussey, Peter


    The purpose of this article is to explore the role of adult education for critical democracy, in order to address the social suffering that these authors have encountered in their work as critical adult community educators. Brid Connolly and Peter Hussey explored this through dialogue, as a process of education and research. Dialogue is the moment…

  5. Head-to-head comparison of procalcitonin and presepsin for the diagnosis of sepsis in critically ill adult patients: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis (United States)

    Hayashida, Kei; Kondo, Yutaka; Hara, Yoshitaka; Aihara, Morio; Yamakawa, Kazuma


    Introduction Early diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention, including appropriate antibiotic therapy and goal-directed resuscitation, are necessary to reduce mortality in patients with sepsis. However, a single clinical or biological marker indicative of sepsis has not been adopted unanimously. Although procalcitonin and presepsin are promising biomarkers that can effectively differentiate between sepsis/infection and systemic inflammatory response syndrome of non-infectious origin, little is known about which marker is superior. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of procalcitonin and presepsin for the diagnosis of sepsis/infection in critically ill adult patients. The primary objective is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these 2 biomarkers to a reference standard of sepsis/infection and to compare the diagnostic accuracy with each other. We will search electronic bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for retrospective and prospective diagnostic test studies. We will assign 2 reviewers to review all collected titles and associated abstracts, review full articles, and extract study data. We will use the Quality of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-II tool to report study characteristics and to evaluate methodological quality. If pooling is possible, we will use bivariate random effects and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models to calculate parameter estimates to output summary ROCs, pooled sensitivity and specificity data, and 95% CIs around the summary operating point. We will also assess heterogeneity via clinical and methodological subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will provide guidance on the triage of these tests, help to determine whether existing tests should be revised or replaced, and may also identify knowledge gaps in sepsis diagnosis that could direct further research

  6. Organisational Learning: A Critical Review. (United States)

    Wang, Catherine L.; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.


    A literature review identified five foci of organizational learning: collectivity of individual learning, process or system, culture or metaphor, knowledge management, and continuous improvement. The concept of organizational learning was redefined to incorporate the perspective of creativity and radical innovation. (Contains 78 references.) (SK)

  7. Critical review on biofilm methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Joana; F. Azevedo, Nuno; Briandet, Romain


    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research in...... and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms....

  8. Pattern languages in HCI: a critical review


    Dearden, Andy; Finlay, J


    This paper presents a critical review of patterns and pattern languages in human-computer interaction (HCI). In recent years, patterns and pattern languages have received considerable attention in HCI for their potential as a means for developing and communicating information and knowledge to support good design. This review examines the background to patterns and pattern languages in HCI, and seeks to locate pattern languages in relation to other approaches to interaction design. The review ...

  9. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai


    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  10. Critical Literacy: Deaf Adults Speak Out (United States)

    Enns, Charlotte


    The purpose of this paper is to describe a variety of teaching and learning strategies that were used within a classroom of Deaf adults participating in a high school English course as part of an upgrading program. The class was conducted in a bilingual manner; that is, being Deaf and communicating with American Sign Language (ASL) was not…

  11. Reassessing Subjectivity, Criticality, and Inclusivity: Marcuse's Challenge to Adult Education. (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen


    Although Herbert Marcuse did not write as an adult educator, his analysis of subjectivity, criticality, and inclusivity has implications for adult education. He demonstrated how apparently humanistic tolerance for diversity can be manipulated to reinforce dominant ideology, and he made a case for aesthetic education as a site for critical…

  12. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone


    the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure...... in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more...... general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors...

  13. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature (United States)

    Schieble, Melissa


    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  14. Pattern languages in HCI: A critical review


    Dearden, A.; Finlay, J


    This article presents a critical review of patterns and pattern languages in human-computer interaction (HCI). In recent years, patterns and pattern languages have received considerable attention in HCI for their potential as a means for developing and communicating information and knowledge to support good design. This review examines the background to patterns and pattern languages in HCI, and seeks to locate pattern languages in relation to other approaches to interaction design. The revie...

  15. A critical review of clarifier modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek; Nopens, Ingmar; Rieger, Leiv;

    This outline paper aims to provide a critical review of secondary settling tank (SST) modelling approaches used in current wastewater engineering and develop tools not yet applied in practice. We address the development of different tier models and experimental techniques in the field with a part...

  16. Music in Peacebuilding: A Critical Literature Review (United States)

    Sandoval, Elaine


    The critical literature review summarizes and appraises studies that have been pursued by music scholars examining the contributions of music to peacebuilding as well as the role of music in violence. These two bodies of literature are rarely brought into dialogue, but I juxtapose them in order to confront the idea of music's exceptionalism as…

  17. Critical Review of Membrane Bioreactor Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naessens, W.; Maere, T.; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios;


    modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on hydrodynamic and integrated modelling in MBR is critically reviewed. Hydrodynamic models are used at different scales and focus mainly on fouling and only little on system design/optimisation. Integrated models also focus on fouling although the ones...

  18. Writing a Critical Review of Descriptive or Experimental Research. (United States)

    Petzold, Robert G.


    Outlines essential elements of critical reviews and presents findings of a study which examined the format of dissertation reviews in previous issues of the BULLETIN. Presents guidelines for writing the summary and critical evaluation sections of a dissertation review. (GEA)

  19. Dreams End: A Young Adult Urban Fantasy with Critical Introduction


    Leavitt, Elizabeth


    This two-section thesis explores the subjective nature of villainy. The larger section, "Dream’s End," is an urban-fantasy young-adult fiction piece I’ve written in epistolary form. I preface the fiction with a critical introduction in which I briefly examine existing definitional scholarship on 1) epistolary fiction, 2) the urban fantasy genre, and 3) the young adult genre. Epistolary fiction may be letters, diaries, or journal entries. Following this exploration, I examine the subjective na...

  20. Burnout in critical care nurses: a literature review. (United States)

    Epp, Kirstin


    Burnout and its development in critical care nurses is a concept that has received extensive study, yet remains a problem in Canada and around the world. Critical care nurses are particularly vulnerable to developing burnout due to the chronic occupational stressors they are exposed to, including high patient acuity, high levels of responsibility, working with advanced technology, caring for families in crisis, and involved in morally distressing situations, particularly prolonging life unnecessarily. The purpose of this article is to explore how the chronic stressors that critical care nurses are exposed to contribute to the development of burnout, and strategies for burnout prevention. A review of the literature between the years 2007 and 2012 was conducted and included the search terms burnout, moral distress, compassion fatigue, intensive care, critical care, and nursing. The search was limited to the adult population, English language, and Western cultures. The results revealed that nurse managers play a crucial role in preventing burnout by creating a supportive work environment for critical care nurses. Strategies for nurse managers to accomplish this include being accessible to critical care nurses, fostering collegial relationships among the different disciplines, and making a counsellor or grief team available to facilitate debriefing after stressful situations, such as a death. In addition, critical care nurses can help prevent burnout by being a support system for each other and implementing self-care strategies.

  1. A Critical Review on Singapore English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A critical review is given on Singapore English. The historical introduction of the language provides readers a longitu-dinal insight into the development of this special variety. Then, the language features of Colloquial Singapore English and Stan-dard Singapore English are discussed, and a comparison of the use of Singapore and standard British English is made to show the differences in grammatical and lexical features of these two varieties of English.

  2. Reviews on Critical Thinking in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    作为创新能力的基础,思辨能力非常重要,思辨能力的培养引起广泛关注,国内关于思辨能力的研究主要是分为三个部分:理论回顾、思辨能力测量工具和及其培养。%As the basis of innovation,critical thinking is important and it attracts wide attention.The domestic researches on critical thinking can be divided into three groups: the introduction and theoretical reviews,the development of assessment tools,and the cultivation.

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  4. Enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients: critical review and algorithm creation Terapia nutricional enteral para pacientes adultos en estado crítico: análisis crítico de la literatura y la creación de algoritmo


    Araújo-Junqueira, L.; Daurea A. De-Souza


    Introduction: Undernutrition directly affects critically ill patient's clinical outcome and mortality rates. Objective: Interdisciplinar algorithm creation aiming to optimize the enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients. Data source: Pubmed, SciELO, Scholar Google, Web of Science, Scopus, with research of these key words: protocols, enteral nutrition, nutritional support, critical care, undernutrition, fasting. Setting: Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal Uni...

  5. The effectiveness of yoga for depression: a critical literature review. (United States)

    Louie, Lila


    In the United States, the prevalence of depression is quite high-9% in the general population-with women, young adults, and seniors particularly vulnerable. In recent years, increasing numbers of people are turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for relief from depression and other mental health problems. One form of CAM, yoga, has been growing in popularity; this rise in popularity has, in part, been driven by interest in how this practice, with its mindfulness and meditation aspects, may decrease depression. This critical literature review examines six recent studies on yoga as an intervention; specifically, this review focuses on yoga styles in which the practice of yoga poses, called asanas, is the core component. Although the significant positive findings are promising, the studies had methodological limitations; identification of these limitations can inform future studies.

  6. Critical care management of severe traumatic brain injury in adults


    Haddad Samir H; Arabi Yaseen M


    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical and socio-economic problem, and is the leading cause of death in children and young adults. The critical care management of severe TBI is largely derived from the "Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury" that have been published by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The main objectives are prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain insults, preservation of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP...

  7. Dual diagnosis in older adults: a review. (United States)

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian


    Dual diagnosis is associated with frequent relapse, poor treatment engagement and overall unsatisfactory treatment outcomes. A comprehensive review of the contemporary literature examining this issue was conducted, finding a paucity of literature concerning dual diagnosis in older adults. Of the literature appraised for this review, a number of studies examined US Veteran's Affairs populations, which were largely male. Studies concerning older mental health populations were scarce. During the literature search, a number of background studies that influenced contemporary research regarding dual diagnosis in older adults were found; these studies were examined regarding their contribution to contemporary paradigms concerning older adults with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. This review presents the results of the contemporary literature concerning dual diagnosis in older adults. Several recurring themes emerge from the literature, including the notion of a statistically small population that, in absolute terms, represents a sizeable number of individuals coming to the attention of aged mental health services in the future. Additionally, the potential for under-diagnosis in this cohort is highlighted, potentially creating a hidden population of older adults with dual diagnosis.

  8. Older adult loneliness: myths and realities [Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, P.A.


    The focus in this paper is on the social domain of quality of life, and more particularly loneliness. The empirical literature on older adult loneliness is reviewed, thereby challenging three often-held assumptions that figure prominently in public debates on loneliness. The first assumption that lo

  9. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov


    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  10. Critical review: medical students' motivation after failure. (United States)

    Holland, Chris


    About 10 % of students in each years' entrants to medical school will encounter academic failure at some stage in their programme. The usual approach to supporting these students is to offer them short term remedial study programmes that often enhance approaches to study that are orientated towards avoiding failure. In this critical review I will summarise the current theories about student motivation that are most relevant to this group of students and describe how they are enhanced or not by various contextual factors that medical students experience during their programme. I will conclude by suggesting ways in which support programmes for students who have encountered academic failure might be better designed and researched in the future.

  11. Critical Criminological Understandings of Adult Pornography and Woman Abuse: New Progressive Directions in Research and Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter DeKeseredy


    Full Text Available There is a small, but growing, social scientific literature on the racist and violent nature of contemporary adult pornography. However, considerably more empirical and theoretical work needs to be done to advance a critical criminological understanding of how such hurtful sexual media contribute to various forms of woman abuse in intimate relationships. The main objective of this article is to briefly review the relevant literature and to suggest a few new progressive empirical and theoretical directions.

  12. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas


    Full Text Available One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i dyes; (ii heavy metals; (iii phenols; (iv pesticides and (v pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods; (ii agricultural residues and wastes; (iii low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources. These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc., but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful topics such as: (i adsorption capacity; (ii kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes and (iii critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents.

  13. Radiopharmaceuticals drug interactions: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Oliveira, Ralph [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/CRCN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares. Servico de Controle de Qualidade]. E-mail:; Smith, Sheila W. [University of Maryland, Baltimore, MF (United States). School of Pharmacy and Medicine. Dept. of Pharmaceutical Health Service Research; Carneiro-Leao, Ana Maria A. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal


    Radiopharmaceuticals play a critical role in modern medicine primarily for diagnostic purposes, but also for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. These interactions which have an impact on image by competing with the radiopharmaceutical for binding sites for example can lead to false negative results. Drugs that accelerate the metabolism of the radiopharmaceutical can have a positive impact (i.e. speeding its clearance) or, if repeating image is needed, a negative impact. In some cases, for example in cardiac image among patients taking doxirubacin, these interactions may have a therapeutic benefit. The incidence of drug-radiopharmaceuticals adverse reactions is unknown, since they may not be reported or even recognized. Here, we compiled the medical literature, using the criteria of a systematic review established by the Cochrane Collaboration, on pharmaceutical-drug interactions to provide a summary of documented interactions by organ system and radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose is to provide a reference on drug interactions that could inform the nuclear medicine staff in their daily routine. Efforts to increase adverse event reporting, and ideally consolidate reports worldwide, can provide a critically needed resource for prevention of drug-radiopharmaceuticals interactions. (author)

  14. A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battefeld, Diana, E-mail: [Institut for Astrophysics, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 (Germany); Peter, Patrick, E-mail: [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)


    Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be fine-tuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large non-Gaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research.

  15. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics (United States)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun


    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  16. Nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo or hypertonic saline in adult critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, Casper; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander


    BACKGROUND: Nebulised dornase alfa is used off-label in critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the benefits and harms of nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline on patient-important outcome measures in adult critically ill patients. METHODS: We performed...... a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing nebulised dornase alfa with placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline. The predefined outcome measures were all-cause mortality...

  17. Critical health literacy: a review and critical analysis. (United States)

    Chinn, Deborah


    Though there has been a considerable expansion of interest in the health literacy concept worldwide, there has also been criticism that this concept has been poorly defined, that it stretches the idea of "literacy" to an indefensible extent and more specifically, that it adds little to the existing concerns and intervention approaches of the better established discipline of health promotion. This paper takes as a starting point the expanded model of health literacy advanced by Nutbeam (2000) and addresses these concerns by interrogating the concept of "critical health literacy" in order to draw conclusions about its utility for advancing the health of individuals and communities. The constituent domains of critical health literacy are identified; namely information appraisal, understanding the social determinants of health, and collective action, and as far as possible each are clearly delineated, with links to related concepts made explicit. The paper concludes that an appreciation of work undertaken in a range of different disciplines, such as media studies, medical sociology, and evidence-based medicine can enhance our understanding of the critical health literacy construct and help us understand its usefulness as a social asset which helps individuals towards a critical engagement with health information. There is some evidence that aspects of critical health literacy have indeed been found to be a resource for better health outcomes, but more research is needed in this area, both to develop quantitative and qualitative approaches to evaluating health literacy skills, and to offer convincing evidence that investment in programmes designed to enhance critical health literacy are worthwhile.

  18. Critical Review of Language Learning Strategies in EFL Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article is a critical review of the development of language learning strategies(LLS) in EFL. It reviews the theoretical framework of language learning strategies and empirical research. Based on the review,it critically discusses the implications and limitations of the framework and research behind the construction of the theory.

  19. Critical Review of Language Learning Strategies in EFL Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article is a critical review of the development of language learning strategies (LLS) in EFL. It reviews the theoretical framework of language learning strategies and empirical research. Based on the review,it critically discusses the implications and limitations of the framework and research behind the construction of the theory.

  20. Physical Activity Benefits and Needs in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Systematic Review of the Literature (United States)

    Bartlo, Pamela; Klein, Penelope J.


    Regular physical activity is vital for adult individuals with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to assess critically the evidence on effectiveness of physical activity interventions for adults with intellectual disability. An electronic database search was conducted. Research was then assessed for methodological rigor, and…

  1. A Critical Review of the Critical Period Research. (United States)

    Scovel, Thomas


    Discusses how perspectives on the critical period hypothesis (CPH) have shifted over the last 20-20 years, because of the work of applied linguistics and other disciplines. Advises caution into translating CPH research into personal practice or public policy. (Author/VWL)

  2. A review on adult pragmatic assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Sobhani Rad


    Full Text Available Pragmatics is defined as appropriate use of language either to comprehend ideas or to interact in social situations effectively. Pragmatic competence, which is processed in the right hemisphere, comprises a number of interrelated skills that manifest in a range of adaptive behaviors. Due to the widespread influence of language in communication, studying pragmatic profiles, by developing appropriate tools, is of importance. Here, a range of pragmatic theories and assessment instruments available for use in adult patients is reviewed.

  3. Radiopharmaceuticals drug interactions: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira


    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals play a critical role in modern medicine primarily for diagnostic purposes, but also for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. These interactions which have an impact on image by competing with the radiopharmaceutical for binding sites for example can lead to false negative results. Drugs that accelerate the metabolism of the radiopharmaceutical can have a positive impact (i.e. speeding its clearance or, if repeating image is needed, a negative impact. In some cases, for example in cardiac image among patients taking doxirubacin, these interactions may have a therapeutic benefit. The incidence of drug-radiopharmaceuticals adverse reactions is unknown, since they may not be reported or even recognized. Here,we compiled the medical literature, using the criteria of a systematic review established by the Cochrane Collaboration, on pharmaceutical-drug interactions to provide a summary of documented interactions by organ system and radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose is to provide a reference on drug interactions that could inform the nuclear medicine staff in their daily routine. Efforts to increase adverse event reporting, and ideally consolidate reports worldwide, can provide a critically needed resource for prevention of drug-radiopharmaceuticals interactions.Os radiofármacos desempenham função crítica na medicina moderna, primariamente para fins diagnósticos, mas também no monitoramento da progressão de doenças assim como na avaliação de respostas ao tratamento. O uso da tecnologia por imagem tem crescido e conseqüentemente as prescrições de medicamentos (radiofármacos em especial com esse propósito. Este fato, aumenta o risco de interações entre medicamentos e radiofármacos. Interações que podem ter um impacto na

  4. Adult Pancreatic Hemangioma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard S. Mundinger


    Full Text Available We report an adult pancreatic hemangioma diagnosed on pathological specimen review following pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for a symptomatic cystic mass in the head of the pancreas. Eight cases of adult pancreatic hemangioma have been reported in literature since 1939. Presenting symptoms, radiographic diagnosis, pathologic characteristics, and treatment of adult pancreatic hemagiomas are discussed following review of all published cases.

  5. Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage among Older Adults (United States)

    Kim, Young Sek


    By searching the keywords of "older adult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers, (b)…

  6. Functional magnetic resonance and swallowing: critical literature review,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Santilli de Lima


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Aspects of the neuroanatomical representation of swallowing have been investigated in humans through brain mapping techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. OBJECTIVE: This critical qualitative review of the literature analyzed international scientific publications in the PubMed database that investigated the activation of the central nervous system in humans during the act of swallowing. METHODS: This investigation was limited to articles that investigated adults older than 18 years, published in English or Portuguese, between January 2002 and December 2013. Publications that did not have access to the full text, that were repeated by overlapping keywords, case studies, literature reviews, letters to the editor, and those not directly related to the topic of the investigation were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 649 articles were identified, of which 21 matched the inclusion criteria. CONCLUSION: The main purpose of the manuscripts that investigate the swallowing process through fMRI were: to characterize swallowing in different pathologies; to compare swallowing in different age groups; to describe brain activation in different stimulation conditions. These studies indicate multiple cortical regions involved in swallowing control. Overall, the studies indicate that fMRI is a non-invasive and quantitative method that allows the investigation of characteristics that are quite often not clinically visible.

  7. Critical Machine Based Scheduling -A Review (United States)

    Vivek, P.; Saravanan, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Pugazhenthi, R.


    This article aims to identify the natural occurrence of the critical machines in scheduling. The exciting scheduling in the real time manufacturing environment is focused on considering equal weight-age of all the machines, but very few researchers were considered the real time constraint(s) like processor/ machine/ workstation availability, etc.,. This article explores the gap between the theory and practices by identifying the critical machine in scheduling and helps the researcher to find the suitable problem in their case study environment. Through the literature survey, it is evident that, in scheduling the occurrence of the critical machine is in nature. The critical machine is found in various names and gives a various range of weight-age based on the particular manufacturing environment and it plays a vital role in scheduling which includes one or more circumstances of occurrence in the production environment. Very few researchers were reported that in manufacturing environment, the critical machine occurrence is in nature, but most of the researchers were focused to optimize the manufacturing environment by only reducing the cycle time. In real-time manufacturing environment, the scheduling of critical machine(s) was keenly monitored and some weight-age was considered.

  8. Connecting Critical Reflection and Group Development in Online Adult Education Classrooms (United States)

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Barnett, Nicole


    This qualitative multi-case study explored the space where critical reflection and group development met within the online environment for the adult learner. Using critical reflection with adult learners through their responses to Stephen Brookfield's (1995) Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ) in the online environment precipitated instructional…

  9. Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles. (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Bílová, Martina; Müller, Ivo


    This article evaluates, by means of multivariate regression, critical factors influencing the collisions of motor vehicles with adult (over 17 years) cyclists that result in fatal injury of cyclists. The analysis is based on the database of the Traffic Police of Czech Republic from the time period 1995-2007. The results suggest that the most consequential categories of factors under study are: inappropriate driving speed of automobile; the head-on crash; and night-time traffic in places without streetlights. The cyclists' faults are of most serious consequence on crossroads when cyclists deny the right of way. Males are more likely to suffer a fatal injury due to a collision with a car than females. The most vulnerable age group are cyclists above 65 years. A fatal injury of a cyclist is more often driver's fault than cyclist's (598 vs. 370). In order to reduce the fatal risk, it is recommended to separate the road traffic of motor vehicles from bicyclists in critical road-sections; or, at least, to reduce speed limits there.

  10. Review of "Political Psychology: Critical Perspectives"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nesbitt-Larking


    Full Text Available The core focus of "Political Psychology: Critical Perspectives" is an interrelated set of European-based theories and perspectives that emphasize both the social context of the individual and the capacity of citizens to engage in strategic discursive and rhetorical agency. Through an explanation of social representations, social identity, self-categorization and other theories, Tileagă raises questions about mainstream methodologies in political psychology and offers alternatives. The core achievements of the book consist of the integrated presentation of a range of critical European-based political psychology approaches as well as a subtle exploration of the interplay between the individual and the social.

  11. The Grand Tack model: a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Sean N


    The `Grand Tack' model proposes that the inner Solar System was sculpted by the giant planets' orbital migration in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Jupiter first migrated inward then Jupiter and Saturn migrated back outward together. If Jupiter's turnaround or "tack" point was at ~1.5 AU the inner disk of terrestrial building blocks would have been truncated at ~1 AU, naturally producing the terrestrial planets' masses and spacing. During the gas giants' migration the asteroid belt is severely depleted but repopulated by distinct planetesimal reservoirs that can be associated with the present-day S and C types. The giant planets' orbits are consistent with the later evolution of the outer Solar System. Here we confront common criticisms of the Grand Tack model. We show that some uncertainties remain regarding the Tack mechanism itself; the most critical unknown is the timing and rate of gas accretion onto Saturn and Jupiter. Current isotopic and compositional measurements of Solar System bodies -- including ...

  12. Year in review 2010: Critical Care - infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagani, Leonardo; Afshari, Arash; Harbarth, Stephan


    ABSTRACT: Infections remain among the most important concerns in critically ill patients. Early and reliable diagnosis of infection still poses difficulties in this setting but also represents a crucial step toward appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Increasing antimicrobial resistance challenges...... established approaches to the optimal management of infections in the intensive care unit. Rapid infection diagnosis, antibiotic dosing and optimization through pharmacologic indices, progress in the implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs, and management of fungal...

  13. Suicide in police--a critical review. (United States)

    Hem, E; Berg, A M; Ekeberg, A O


    Police officers are commonly referred to as a high-risk group for suicide. So far no comprehensive review has been published about epidemiologic studies among police. This article systematically explores the worldwide literature on suicide in police. None of the recent nationwide studies show elevated suicide rates among police. Other studies show inconsistent results. Conclusively, it is not documented that there is an elevated suicide rate in police. A particular problem in previous research has been methodological shortcomings. There is need for further systematic research, and this review points out some strategies of research.

  14. Mandibular reconstruction in adults: a review. (United States)

    Goh, Bee Tin; Lee, Shermin; Tideman, Henk; Stoelinga, Paul J W


    Mandibular defects may result from trauma, inflammatory disease and benign or malignant tumours. Mastication, speech and facial aesthetics are often severely compromised without reconstruction. The goal of mandibular reconstruction is to restore facial form and function, implying repair of mandibular continuity and muscle attachments. There should also be room for implant insertion so as to allow for rehabilitation of occlusion and articulation, whereas the function of the inferior alveolar nerve should be restored to assure adequate sensitivity of the lips. Mandibular reconstruction principles and techniques have evolved dramatically over the years. Refinements in techniques continue to improve patient quality of life. This paper reviews current techniques of mandibular reconstruction in adults and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  15. Titania Photocatalysis beyond Recombination: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunsho Ohtani


    Full Text Available This short review paper shows the significance of recombination of a photoexcited electron and a hole in conduction and valence bands, respectively, of a titania photocatalyst, since recombination has not yet been fully understood and has not been evaluated adequately during the past several decades of research on heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  16. Writing the New West: A Critical Review (United States)

    Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.


    A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

  17. Genetics of Stuttering: A Critical Review. (United States)

    Yairi, Ehud; And Others


    This article reviews and critiques the research on possible genetic factors in stuttering. The failure to consider epidemiologic factors is thought to have biased previous research, but recent data provide evidence that spontaneous recovery and chronicity are influenced by genetic factors. Findings support previous conclusions about combined…

  18. "Imagining the Moon": Critical Pedagogy, Discourse Tensions, and the Adult Basic Writing Classroom (United States)

    Siha, Alfred A. Z.


    The purpose of this qualitative action research study was to explore how critical pedagogy can foster writing competency and critical consciousness among adult basic writing students in a community college writing classroom. To this end, critical pedagogy and related critical discourses were used to theoretically frame this study. These theories…

  19. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review. (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A


    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  20. Critical review of prostate cancer predictive tools. (United States)

    Shariat, Shahrokh F; Kattan, Michael W; Vickers, Andrew J; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Scardino, Peter T


    Prostate cancer is a very complex disease, and the decision-making process requires the clinician to balance clinical benefits, life expectancy, comorbidities and potential treatment-related side effects. Accurate prediction of clinical outcomes may help in the difficult process of making decisions related to prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss attributes of predictive tools and systematically review those available for prostate cancer. Types of tools include probability formulas, look-up and propensity scoring tables, risk-class stratification prediction tools, classification and regression tree analysis, nomograms and artificial neural networks. Criteria to evaluate tools include discrimination, calibration, generalizability, level of complexity, decision analysis and ability to account for competing risks and conditional probabilities. The available predictive tools and their features, with a focus on nomograms, are described. While some tools are well-calibrated, few have been externally validated or directly compared with other tools. In addition, the clinical consequences of applying predictive tools need thorough assessment. Nevertheless, predictive tools can facilitate medical decision-making by showing patients tailored predictions of their outcomes with various alternatives. Additionally, accurate tools may improve clinical trial design.

  1. Critical Adult Education and the Political-Philosophical Debate between Nancy Fraser and Axel Honneth (United States)

    Huttunen, Rauno


    Critical adult education is inspired by Paulo Freire's educational writings. For him, the aim of the pedagogy of the oppressed is to emancipate people from social and economic repression. Critical adult education is intellectual work that aims to make the world more just. One might ask what exactly justice and injustice mean here, however. Is the…

  2. Critical Review of Basic Afterglow Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Granot, Jonathan


    The long lived afterglow emission that follows gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) was predicted prior to its detection in 1997, in the X-rays, optical and radio. It is thought to arise from the shock that is driven into the external medium as the latter decelerates the relativistic outflow that drives the GRB, and persists well after most of the energy in the outflow is transferred to the shocked external medium. As the blast wave decelerates, the typical emission frequency shifts to longer wavelength. Recent observations following the launch of the Swift satellite challenge the traditional afterglow modeling and call into questions some of the basic underlying concepts. This brief review outlines some of the major strengths and weaknesses of the standard afterglow model, as well as some of the challenges that it faces in explaining recent data, and potential directions for future study that may eventually help overcome some of the current difficulties.

  3. Fibromyalgia: A Critical and Comprehensive Review. (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea T; Gershwin, M Eric


    Fibromyalgia is a disorder that is part of a spectrum of syndromes that lack precise classification. It is often considered as part of the global overview of functional somatic syndromes that are otherwise medically unexplained or part of a somatization disorder. Patients with fibromyalgia share symptoms with other functional somatic problems, including issues of myalgias, arthralgias, fatigue and sleep disturbances. Indeed, there is often diagnostic and classification overlap for the case definitions of a variety of somatization disorders. Fibromyalgia, however, is a critically important syndrome for physicians and scientists to be aware of. Patients should be taken very seriously and provided optimal care. Although inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune disorders have all been ascribed to be etiological events in the development of fibromyalgia, there is very little data to support such a thesis. Many of these disorders are associated with depression and anxiety and may even be part of what has been sometimes called affected spectrum disorders. There is no evidence that physical trauma, i.e., automobile accidents, is associated with the development or exacerbation of fibromyalgia. Treatment should be placed on education, patient support, physical therapy, nutrition, and exercise, including the use of drugs that are approved for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Treatment should not include opiates and patients should not become poly pharmacies in which the treatment itself can lead to significant morbidities. Patients with fibromyalgia are living and not dying of this disorder and positive outlooks and family support are key elements in the management of patients.

  4. A Scoping Review of Treatments for Older Adults with Substance Use Problems (United States)

    Mowbray, Orion; Quinn, Adam


    Objectives: To identify effective treatment services for older, substance-using adults, an examination of the evidence associated with interventions for this group is presented. Methods: Using explicit, validated criteria to identify effective interventions, 22 publications were included in a review and were subject to a critical appraisal of…

  5. Adult Education and Social Transformation: On Gramsci, Freire, and the Challenge of Comparing Comparisons. Essay Review. (United States)

    Schugurensky, Daniel


    Reviews three books that critique and compare the ideas of Gramsci and Freire: "Revolutionary Social Transformation: Democratic Hopes, Political Possibilities and Critical Education" (Paula Allman); "Radical Heroes: Gramsci, Freire and the Politics of Adult Education" (Diana Coben); and "Gramsci, Freire and Adult…

  6. The Babinski sign--a critical review. (United States)

    Kumar, S P


    In 1896, Josph Babinski, a French neurologist, first described the best known neurologic eponym--"the Babinski sign". This sign is characterised by dorsiflexion of the big toe, by recruitment of the extensor hallucis longus muscle, on stimulating the sole of the foot. He himself emphasised from the outset the intimate relationship between this sign and the shortening movement in other leg muscles, which forms the flexion synergy of the lower limb. The Babinski sign is not a new reflex, rather it is released as a result of breakdown of the harmonious integration of the flexion and extension component of the normal defence reflex mechanism, due to pyramidal tract dysfunction. A pathological Babinski sign should be clearly distinguished from upgoing toes that may not always be a part of the flexion synergy. This article reviews the Babinski sign in detail, focusing on the historical perspectives, role of pyramidal tract dysfunction, art of elicitation and interpretation. The significance of assessing this phenomenon in the entire leg and the clinical clues that will help to dispel the myths regarding the Babinski sign has been emphasized.

  7. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review. (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik


    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment.

  8. Evaporation enhancement in soils: a critical review (United States)

    Rutten, Martine; van de Giesen, Nick


    Temperature gradients in the top layer of the soil are, especially during the daytime, steeper than would be expected if thermal conduction was the primary heat transfer mechanism. Evaporation seems to have significant influence on the soil heat budget. Only part of the surface soil heat flux is conducted downwards, increasing the soil temperatures, and part is used for evaporation, acting as a sink to the soil heat budget. For moist soils, the evaporation is limited by the transport of water molecules to the surface. The classical view is that water vapor is transported from the evaporation front to the surface by diffusion. Diffusion is mixing due to the random movement of molecules resulting in flattening concentration gradients. In soil, the diffusive vapor flux and the resulting latent heat flux are generally small. We found that transport enhancement is necessary in order to sustain vapor fluxes that are large enough to sustain latent heat fluxes, as well as being large enough to explain the observed temperature gradients. Enhancement of vapor diffusion is a known phenomenon, subject to debate on the explanations of underlying mechanism. In an extensive literature review on vapor enhancement in soils, the plausibility of various mechanisms was assessed. We reviewed mechanisms based on (combinations of) diffusive, viscous, buoyant, capillary and external pressure forces including: thermodiffusion, dispersion, Stefan's flow, Knudsen diffusion, liquid island effect, hydraulic lift, free convection, double diffusive convection and forced convection. The analysis of the order of magnitude of the mechanisms based on first principles clearly distinguished between plausible and implausible mechanisms. Thermodiffusion, Stefan's flow, Knudsen effects, liquid islands do not significantly contribute to enhanced evaporation. Double diffusive convection seemed unlikely due to lack of experimental evidence, but could not be completely excluded from the list of potential

  9. Pharmacological therapy for acromegaly: a critical review. (United States)

    Muller, Alex F; Van Der Lely, Aart Jan


    The treatment of acromegaly has changed considerably over the last few decades. In the late 1970s, the introduction of the dopamine receptor agonists made it possible to reduce growth hormone (GH) secretion by somatotropinomas for the first time. Thereafter, the introduction of the somatostatin analogues in the early 1980s had major implications. Recently, the first data on the use of genetically engineered human GH receptor (GHR) antagonists that block GH actions have become available. These GHR antagonists reduce both the biochemical abnormalities of acromegaly, as well as improve clinical signs and symptomatology. In this article we firstly review available data on dopamine agonists. Currently these compounds should be considered in patients with a mixed GH-prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma and/or those in whom pre-treatment insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are below 750 microg/L. We then discuss the somatostatin analogues. These compounds are capable of achieving biochemical control of GH and IGF-I in 50-60% of patients and tumour shrinkage in some 30%. In particular, candidates for treatment with these compounds are those patients who have undergone an unsuccessful transsphenoidal operation or who await the therapeutic effect of external pituitary irradiation. In selected patients primary medical therapy with somatostatin analogues is certainly a feasible option. To date, pegvisomant is the only available member of a new class of drugs that was especially designed to block the GHR. Pegvisomant is the most effective treatment for normalising IGF-I concentrations and appears to have a good safety profile. However, liver function tests should be regularly monitored and tumour size should be closely followed. Finally, we propose a treatment algorithm for acromegaly.

  10. A critical review of Electric Earthquake Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vallianatos


    and can guarantee reliable electric field measurements, although improvements are still possible with new generation electrodes and smart measurement schemes facilitating noise suppression. It is increasingly apparent that simultaneous electric and magnetic measurements are indispensable and conducted in most new experiments. There is also an emerging trend towards multi-parametric, broadband observations that should provide far better data and constraints on the source processes. The physics of electrification mechanisms are beginning to clarify, as also is the potential of solid state effects: charge and current densities under controlled conditions are such, that if scaled up to the size of seismogenic zones, they would yield observable EEP. However, there are still many unknowns, requiring careful experimentation and theoretical development. Research is also directed towards decoding the physics of stress/strain changes that cause electrification, exploiting properties such as are the fractal nature of faulting and Self-Organised Criticality (SOC. The first evidence of possible electromagnetic precursors due to a SOC system has been published recently. Modelling of the source processes from first principles is stepping up and certain classes of observed signals can now be predicted by theory, providing new and more rigorous means of data authentication; such models have also established the feasibility of long range EEP signals. Although progress is apparent, the knowledge is still grossly incomplete and EEP data are not indisputable, if tested with the full rigour of scientific verification methods. The new research philosophy requires time and vigilance before it begins to pay off, but it appears to have taken a more promising course.

  11. Mentors and Proteges: A Critical Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Merriam, Sharan


    This review divides the literature on mentoring into three sections: mentoring in adult growth and development, in the business world, and in academic settings. Although the literature is biased in favor of the phenomenon, the concept needs clarification and more rigorous research and evaluation. (SK)

  12. Critical Environmental Adult Education in Canada: Student Environmental Activism (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth; Chubb, Aaron


    Today recent polls have indicated that the Canadian public considers the environment and climate change as their top concern (De Souza, 2007), perhaps eclipsed only by recent economic fears. In keeping with the historical responsiveness of adult educators, environmental adult education (EAE) is widespread across North America. However, this area…

  13. Using Concept Maps to Engage Adult Learners in Critical Analysis (United States)

    Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.; Conceição, Simone C. O.


    An understanding of learning theories can help adult educators become more effective practitioners and meet the needs of the learners they serve. Adult educators who understand how individuals learn can be better prepared to use effective strategies during the learning process. This article addresses the use of concept maps as a strategy to engage…

  14. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review]. (United States)

    Gilet, A-L


    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  15. A review of the economics of adult congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Seckeler, Michael D; Thomas, Ian D; Andrews, Jennifer; Joiner, Keith; Klewer, Scott E


    Adults living with congenital heart disease (CHD) now outnumber children with the disease. Thanks to medical advances over the past 75 years, many of these fatal childhood heart problems have changed to chronic medical conditions. As the population of adults with CHD increases, they will require increasingly complex medical, surgical and catheter-based therapies. In addition, social burdens including education, employment and insurability, which increase the societal costs of adult CHD, are now being recognized for adults living with CHD. This review summarizes the available literature on the economics of adult CHD.

  16. The Young Adult Book Review Media: An Evaluation. (United States)

    Locker, Linda S.

    This study examines eight reviewing tools which include reviews for young adult (YA) books. The following journals are examined to determine scope, coverage, analysis of content, and reviewing policies: "Booklist,""School Library Journal,""Horn Book Magazine,""Wilson Library Bulletin,""Voice of Youth…

  17. Adult Education in Radiologic Technology: A Review. (United States)

    Dowd, Steven B.

    In almost all its aspects, radiologic technology education is adult education. Boyle's (1981) adult learning model has four components: (1) the learner in terms of motivation; (2) learning as a change process; (3) the experiential role of education; and (4) the facilitative role of the educator. Andragogy, as defined by Knowles (1977, 1980), is a…

  18. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review. (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily J; Kadell, Andria R


    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed.

  19. Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Critical Review of Current Practice (United States)

    McCallin, Antoinette; Nayar, Shoba


    Changes in the funding and delivery of research programmes at the university level have, in recent years, resulted in significant changes to research supervision. This paper critically reviews key influences effecting postgraduate supervision. Analysis draws on literature spanning 2000-2010 to determine the appropriateness of traditional models of…

  20. Automatic Generation and Ranking of Questions for Critical Review (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Calvo, Rafael A.; Rus, Vasile


    Critical review skill is one important aspect of academic writing. Generic trigger questions have been widely used to support this activity. When students have a concrete topic in mind, trigger questions are less effective if they are too general. This article presents a learning-to-rank based system which automatically generates specific trigger…

  1. Strangeness nuclear physics: a critical review on selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, Elena; Garbarino, Gianni


    Selected topics in strangeness nuclear physics are critically reviewed. This includes production, structure and weak decay of $\\Lambda$--Hypernuclei, the $\\bar K$ nuclear interaction and the possible existence of $\\bar K$ bound states in nuclei. Perspectives for future studies on these issues are also outlined.

  2. Surveys of the American Deaf Population: A Critical Review (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.


    This is a critical review of surveys conducted on the American deaf population since 1990. There is no agreement among the surveys on the number of deaf and hard of hearing individuals in the US. This behooves us to study the question: Why the lack of agreement in estimates and prevalence rates of the American general deaf and the deaf child…

  3. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, R.


    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, {close_quotes} was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  4. Critical review of wind tunnel modeling of atmospheric heat dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.


    There is increasing concern by scientists that future proposed energy or power parks may significantly affect the environment by releasing large quantities of heat and water vapor to the atmosphere. A critical review is presented of the potential application of physical modeling (wind tunnels) to assess possible atmospheric effects from heat dissipation systems such as cooling towers. A short inventory of low-speed wind tunnel facilities is included in the review. The useful roles of wind tunnels are assessed and the state-of-the-art of physical modeling is briefly reviewed. Similarity criteria are summarized and present limitations in satisfying these criteria are considered. Current physical models are defined and limitations are discussed. Three experimental problems are discussed in which physical modeling may be able to provide data. These are: defining the critical atmospheric heat load; topographic and local circulation effects on thermal plumes; and plume rise and downstream effects.

  5. A Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education. (United States)

    Mezirow, Jack


    Interpreting the ideas of Jurgen Habermas, the nature of three generic domains of adult learning is posited, each with its own interpretive categories, ways of determining which knowledge claims are warranted, methods of inquiry as well as its own learning goals, learning needs and modes of educational intervention. (CT)

  6. Physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults: a review. (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Kilding, Andrew; Pidgeon, Philippa; Ashley, Linda; Gillis, Dawn


    Dancing is a mode of physical activity that may allow older adults to improve their physical function, health, and well-being. However, no reviews on the physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults have been published in the scientific literature. Using relevant databases and keywords, 15 training and 3 cross-sectional studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Grade B-level evidence indicated that older adults can significantly improve their aerobic power, lower body muscle endurance, strength and flexibility, balance, agility, and gait through dancing. Grade C evidence suggested that dancing might improve older adults' lower body bone-mineral content and muscle power, as well as reduce the prevalence of falls and cardiovascular health risks. Further research is, however, needed to determine the efficacy of different forms of dance, the relative effectiveness of these forms of dance compared with other exercise modes, and how best to engage older adults in dance participation.

  7. Older Adult Education in a Maltese University of the Third Age: A Critical Perspective. (United States)

    Formosa, Marvin


    Research using Freire's critical pedagogy and critical educational gerontology revealed that a Maltese University of the Third Age uses traditional one-way models of educational practice that fail to engage learners in transformative learning. Overemphasis on adult participation neglects the question of the purpose of learning. (Contains 72…

  8. "We Don't Believe Media Anymore": Mapping Critical Literacies in an Adult Immigrant Language Classroom (United States)

    Waterhouse, Monica


    This article maps critical literacies conceptually and empirically in the context of adult immigrant language classrooms. It begins by describing Deleuze and Guattari's cartographic approach. Then it traces critical literacies situated conceptually within a Freirean paradigm before mapping them differently through the Deleuzian-informed Multiple…

  9. Artificial neural networks in foodstuffs: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goyal


    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical review of literature concerning the artificial neural networks (ANN in foodstuffs. The main aim is to provide background information, motivation for applications and an exposition to the methodologies employed in the development of ANN techniques in foodstuffs. This review includes that all the latest works on the application of ANN to foodstuffs which have been reported excellently with positive and encouraging results. This review paper highlights the methodologies and algorithms employed for ANN models suitable for various foodstuffs, viz., avocados, tomatoes, cherries, grape, mosambi juice, apple juice, chicken nuggets, pistachio nuts, potato chips, kalakand, cakes, processed cheese, butter, milk and other foodstuffs. This review paper would be very beneficial for those working in food industry, academicians, students, researchers, scientists, factories manufacturing the food products and regulatory authorities, as it provides comprehensive latest information.

  10. Dielectric properties of tissues and biological materials: a critical review. (United States)

    Foster, K R; Schwan, H P


    We critically review bulk electrical properties of tissues and other biological materials, from DC to 20 GHz, with emphasis on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the properties. We summarize the classical principles behind dielectric relaxation and critically review recent developments in this field. Special topics include a summary of the significant recent advances in theories of counterion polarization effects, dielectric properties of cancer vs. normal tissues, properties of low-water-content tissues, and macroscopic field-coupling considerations. Finally, the dielectric properties of tissues are summarized as empirical correlations with tissue water content in other compositional variables; in addition, a comprehensive table is presented of dielectric properties. The bulk electrical properties of tissues are needed for many bioengineering applications of electric fields or currents, and they provide insight into the basic mechanisms that govern the interaction of electric fields with tissue.

  11. Benefits and challenges of electrical demand response: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik;


    Advances in IT, control and forecasting capabilities have made demand response a viable, and potentially attractive, option to increase power system flexibility. This paper presents a critical review of the literature in the field of demand response, providing an overview of the benefits and chal......Advances in IT, control and forecasting capabilities have made demand response a viable, and potentially attractive, option to increase power system flexibility. This paper presents a critical review of the literature in the field of demand response, providing an overview of the benefits...... and challenges of demand response. These benefits include the ability to balance fluctuations in renewable generation and consequently facilitate higher penetrations of renewable resources on the power system, an increase in economic efficiency through the implementation of real-time pricing, and a reduction...

  12. Waterborne Elizabethkingia meningoseptica in Adult Critical Care1 (United States)

    Owens, Daniel S.; Jepson, Annette; Turton, Jane F.; Ashworth, Simon; Donaldson, Hugo; Holmes, Alison H.


    Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is an infrequent colonizer of the respiratory tract; its pathogenicity is uncertain. In the context of a 22-month outbreak of E. meningoseptica acquisition affecting 30 patients in a London, UK, critical care unit (3% attack rate) we derived a measure of attributable morbidity and determined whether E. meningoseptica is an emerging nosocomial pathogen. We found monomicrobial E. meningoseptica acquisition (n = 13) to have an attributable morbidity rate of 54% (systemic inflammatory response syndrome >2, rising C-reactive protein, new radiographic changes), suggesting that E. meningoseptica is a pathogen. Epidemiologic and molecular evidence showed acquisition was water-source–associated in critical care but identified numerous other E. meningoseptica strains, indicating more widespread distribution than previously considered. Analysis of changes in gram-negative speciation rates across a wider London hospital network suggests this outbreak, and possibly other recently reported outbreaks, might reflect improved diagnostics and that E. meningoseptica thus is a pseudo-emerging pathogen. PMID:26690562

  13. Adult intussusception: An 8 years institutional review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Assam Udo


    Full Text Available Background: Intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults. Its diagnosis could be elusive based solely on clinical features because of protean presentation. Supplementary imaging allows for preoperative diagnosis, early institution of definitive management, and a better clinical outcome. Patients and Methods: Records of adults managed for intestinal obstruction by laparotomy in a surgical unit of a tertiary health facility were retrospectively examined. The subgroup having an intraoperative diagnosis of intussusception was extracted and analyzed. Data obtained included age, sex, and primary symptom at presentation. Presence of intestinal perforation, the histology of the lead point of resected tissues, and the final disposition of the patients were documented. Results: Four hundred and three patients underwent surgical management of intestinal obstruction. Eight patients (2% had an intraoperative diagnosis of intussusception at laparotomy; four males and four females (male: female = 1:1. Abdominal pain was the presentation in 7 (87.5% and anal protrusion in 1 (12.5%. Four patients (50% had bowel perforation with peritonitis. Seven of the resected intestines had lead points which were benign. Two patients (25% died from sepsis. Resection and anastomosis were done for all the patients. Conclusion: Intussusception in adults is uncommon but carries a high morbidity and mortality which can be reduced with a good clinical assessment, appropriate imaging, and early laparotomy.

  14. Critical thinking in nursing: Scoping review of the literature. (United States)

    Zuriguel Pérez, Esperanza; Lluch Canut, Maria Teresa; Falcó Pegueroles, Anna; Puig Llobet, Montserrat; Moreno Arroyo, Carmen; Roldán Merino, Juan


    This article seeks to analyse the current state of scientific knowledge concerning critical thinking in nursing. The methodology used consisted of a scoping review of the main scientific databases using an applied search strategy. A total of 1518 studies published from January 1999 to June 2013 were identified, of which 90 met the inclusion criteria. The main conclusion drawn is that critical thinking in nursing is experiencing a growing interest in the study of both its concepts and its dimensions, as well as in the development of training strategies to further its development among both students and professionals. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that critical thinking has been investigated principally in the university setting, independent of conceptual models, with a variety of instruments used for its measurement. We recommend (i) the investigation of critical thinking among working professionals, (ii) the designing of evaluative instruments linked to conceptual models and (iii) the identification of strategies to promote critical thinking in the context of providing nursing care.

  15. Nursing assistants' communication styles in Korean American older adults with dementia: a review of the literature. (United States)

    Kim, Haesook; Woods, Dianna Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Ruiz, Maria Elena; Salem, Benissa; Jeffers-Skrine, Kia; Salem, Nancy


    As ethnic diversity increases in the United States with the anticipated increase in dementia, it is critical to understand the implications of dementia and culturally appropriate communication for ethnic minority older adults with dementia. Utilizing the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing model and the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model, this article describes the relationship between nursing assistants' communication style and behavioral symptoms of dementia, focused on Korean American older adults with dementia residing in nursing homes. The discussion includes reviewing currently available studies, nursing implications, and suggestions for future studies.

  16. Social media use of older adults: a mini-review


    Leist, Anja


    Background. Maintaining social relationships has been defined as a core element of aging well. With a considerable amount of older adults living alone, social media provides the possibility to engage in meaningful social contact, e. g., by joining online social networks and online discussion forums. Objective. The review encompasses current knowledge of prerequisites in social media use of older adults such as functional capacity, ICT-related knowledge, and favorable attitudes towards social ...

  17. Concise Review: Quiescence in Adult Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumman, M; Dhawan, J; Kassem, Moustapha


    Adult stem cells (ASCs) are tissue resident stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury. In uninjured tissues, ASCs exist in a nonproliferating, reversibly cell cycle-arrested state known as quiescence or G0. A key function of the quiescent state is to preserve...... stemness in ASCs by preventing precocious differentiation, and thus maintaining a pool of undifferentiated ASCs. Recent evidences suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state and that excessive or defective quiescence may lead to compromised tissue regeneration or tumorigenesis. The aim...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvino Henrique Novotny


    Full Text Available Biochar (carbonized biomass for agricultural use has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for Brazil, since its "inspiration" is from the historical Terra Preta de Índios(Amazon Dark Earth, and also because Brazil is the world's largest charcoal producer, generating enormous residue quantities in form of fine charcoal and due to the availability of different residual biomasses, mainly from agroindustry (e.g., sugar-cane bagasse; wood and paper-mill wastes; residues from biofuel industries; sewage sludge etc, that can be used for biochar production, making Brazil a key actor in the international scenario in terms of biochar research and utilization. In the last decade, numerous studies on biochar have been carried out and now a vast literature, and excellent reviews, are available. The objective of this paper is therefore to deliver a critical review with some highlights on biochar research, rather than an exhaustive bibliographic review. To this end, some key points considered critical and relevant were selected and the pertinent literature "condensed", with a view to guide future research, rather than analyze trends of the past.

  19. A Critical Comparison of Learning Style Instruments Frequently Used with Adult Learners. (United States)

    Rule, David L.; Grippin, Pauline C.

    Theoretical framework, instrument development, and psychometric qualities are reviewed for some measures of learning style currently in use with adults. Instruments reviewed include: (1) Kolb's Learning Style Inventory I; (2) Kolb's Learning Style Inventory II; (3) the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; (4) the Productivity Environmental Preferences…

  20. Year in review 2005: critical care--nephrology. (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Ronco, Claudio


    We summarize original research in the field of critical care nephrology accepted or published in 2005 in Critical Care and, when considered relevant or directly linked to this research, in other journals. The articles have been grouped into four categories to facilitate a rapid overview. First, physiopathology, epidemiology and prognosis of acute renal failure (ARF): an extensive review and some observational studies have been performed with the aim of describing aspects of ARF physiopathology, precise epidemiology and long-term outcomes. Second, several authors have performed clinical trials utilizing a potential nephro-protective drug, fenoldopam, with different results. Third, the issue of continuous renal replacement therapies dose has been addressed in a small prospective study and a large observational trial. And fourth, alternative indications to extracorporeal treatment of ARF and systemic inflammatory response syndrome have been explored by three original clinical studies.

  1. Entropy in the Critical Zone: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quijano


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic entropy was initially proposed by Clausius in 1865. Since then it has been implemented in the analysis of different systems, and is seen as a promising concept to understand the evolution of open systems in non-equilibrium conditions. Information entropy was proposed by Shannon in 1948, and has become an important concept to measure information in different systems. Both thermodynamic entropy and information entropy have been extensively applied in different fields related to the Critical Zone, such as hydrology, ecology, pedology, and geomorphology. In this study, we review the most important applications of these concepts in those fields, including how they are calculated, and how they have been utilized to analyze different processes. We then synthesize the link between thermodynamic and information entropies in the light of energy dissipation and organizational patterns, and discuss how this link may be used to enhance the understanding of the Critical Zone.

  2. A Critical Review of Theoretical Perspectives on Emerging Economy Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Ayden


    Full Text Available This study provides a critical review of the mainstream (i.e. internationalization process model and eclectic paradigm and emergent perspectives (i.e. springboard perspective and linkage, leverage, and learning model on internationalization process of emerging economy multinational enterprises (EE MNEs. It discusses the theoretical knowledge on multinational enterprise (MNE behavior by providing the contributions of each perspective to the literature, their explanations about EE MNEs' international expansion, as well as the extensions, modifications, and criticism made on them. The comparative discussion of the extant literature demonstrates that each theoretical perspective explains a particular trajectory of MNE internationalization; therefore, an integration of the current perspectives on MNE internationalization is needed.

  3. Enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients: critical review and algorithm creation Terapia nutricional enteral para pacientes adultos en estado crítico: análisis crítico de la literatura y la creación de algoritmo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Araújo-Junqueira


    Full Text Available Introduction: Undernutrition directly affects critically ill patient's clinical outcome and mortality rates. Objective: Interdisciplinar algorithm creation aiming to optimize the enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients. Data source: Pubmed, SciELO, Scholar Google, Web of Science, Scopus, with research of these key words: protocols, enteral nutrition, nutritional support, critical care, undernutrition, fasting. Setting: Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Uberlándia, MG, Brazil. Measurements and main results: Were established in the algorithm a following sequential steps: After a clinical-surgical diagnosis, including the assessment of hemodynamic stability, were requested passage of a feeding tube in post-pyloric position and a drainage tube in gastric position. After hemodynamic stability it should be done the nutritional status diagnosis, calculated nutritional requirements, as well as chosen formulation of enteral feeding. Unless contraindicated, aiming to increase tolerance was started infusion with small volumes (15 ml/h of a semi-elemental diet, normocaloric, hypolipidic (also hyperproteic, with addition of glutamine. To ensure infusion of the diet, as well as the progressive increase of infusion rates, the patient was monitored for moderate or severe intestinal intolerance. The schedule and infusion rates were respected and diet was not routinely suspended for procedures and diagnostic tests, unless indicated by the medical team. Conclusions: For nutrition therapy success it is essential routine monitoring and extensive interaction between the professionals involved. Nutritional conducts should be reevaluated and improved, seeking complete and specialized care to the critically ill patients. Adherence to new practices is challenging, though instruments such as protocols and algorithms help making information more accessible and comprehensible.Introducción: La hiponutrición afecta

  4. Developments in solar still desalination systems: A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.


    Solar still desalination uses a sustainable and pollution-free source to produce high-quality water. The main limitation is low productivity and this has been the focus of intensive research. A major concern while increasing productivity is to maintain economic feasibility and simplicity. The authors present a critical review of the research work conducted on solar stills development. Studies addressing each parameter of concern are grouped together and results compared. Novelty in design and newly introduced features are presented. Modeling efforts of flow circulation within the still and methods to estimate internal heat transfer coefficients are discussed and future research needs are outlined. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  5. Fibrinolytic Regulation of Pulmonary Epithelial Sodium Channels: a Critical Review


    Ji, Hong-Long


    Luminal fluid homeostasis in the respiratory system is crucial to maintain the gas-\\ud blood exchange in normal lungs and mucociliary clearance in the airways. Epithelial\\ud sodium channels (ENaC) govern ~70% of alveolar fluid clearance. Four ENaC subunits\\ud have been cloned, namely, α, β, γ, and δ ENaC subunits in mammalian cells. This\\ud critical review focuses on the expression and function of ENaC in human and murine\\ud lungs, and the post-translational regulation by fibrinolysins. Nebul...

  6. Critical review of the levelised cost of energy metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklar-Chik, M. D.


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ‘levelised cost of energy’ metric used in electricity project development. This metric is widely used, because it is a simple metric to calculate the cost per unit of electricity for a given technology connected to the electricity network. However, it neglects certain key terms such as inflation, integration costs, and system costs. The implications of incorporating these additional costs would provide a more comprehensive metric for evaluating electricity generation projects, and for the system as a whole. It is therefore recommended to refine the metric for the South African context.

  7. Behavior analytic studies of creativity: A critical review. (United States)

    Winston, A S; Baker, J E


    Studies that treat creativity as operant behavior were critically reviewed. Of the twenty studies, most met minimal requirements for methodological adequacy; all provided at least some evidence for increased creative responding. Major difficulties involved potential confounds between instructions and contingencies, lack of an independent record of the training interaction, lack of social validation data, and very limited evidence for generalization. Several issues were discussed: problems in the behavioral definition of creativity, objections to the use of contingent reinforcement, and the need for empirical analysis of the creative process.

  8. Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M. H.; Livengood, C. D.


    Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for conclusions regarding the state of knowledge

  9. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review (United States)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca


    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  10. Imaging of Adult Ocular and Orbital Pathology - a Pictorial Review (United States)

    Grech, Reuben; Cornish, Kurt Spiteri; Galvin, Patrick Leo; Grech, Stephan; Looby, Seamus; O’Hare, Alan; Mizzi, Adrian; Thornton, John; Brennan, Paul


    Orbital pathology often presents a diagnostic challenge to the reporting radiologist. The aetiology is protean, and clinical input is therefore often necessary to narrow the differential diagnosis. With this manuscript, we provide a pictorial review of adult ocular and orbital pathology. PMID:24967016

  11. Adult-Child Incest: A Review of Research and Treatment. (United States)

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.


    Reviews the literature which addressses adult-child incest as a form of child abuse. Highlights incest as a class phenomenon; characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and the other parent; dynamics of the incest family; effects of incest on the victim; treating and preventing incest; and legal requirements regarding incest reporting. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foram Dhebar


    Full Text Available Elderly is defined as being 65 years of age or older. Geriatrics or geriatric medicine is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people. The number of persons above the age of 60 years is fast growing, especially in India. Falls are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury, fractures & the leading cause of emergency department visits by older adults. Low balance confidence is a major health problem among older adults restricting their participation in daily life. Objective of this review is to determine what interventions are most effective in increasing balance confidence in older adults. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS published clinical guidelines 2011 that recommended all adults aged 65 years and older be screened for falls. Prevention of the fall can be done by combination of exercise include Strengthening exercise, Balance & co-ordination exercise,Hydrotherapy and allied therapeutics such as tai chi and yoga.

  13. Potentially inappropriate prescribing and the risk of adverse drug reactions in critically ill older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli TB


    Full Text Available Background: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM use in the elderly is associated with increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs, but there is limited information regarding PIM use in the intensive care unit (ICU setting. Objective: The aim of the study is to describe the prevalence and factors associated with the use of PIM and the occurrence of PIM-related adverse reactions in the critically ill elderly. Methods: This study enrolled all critically ill older adults (60 years or more admitted to medical or cardiovascular ICUs between January and December 2013, in a large tertiary teaching hospital. For all patients, clinical pharmacists listed the medications given during the ICU stay and data on drugs were analyzed using 2012 Beers Criteria, to identify the prevalence of PIM. For each identified PIM the medical records were analyzed to evaluate factors associated with its use. The frequency of ADRs and, the causal relationship between PIM and the ADRs identified were also evaluated through review of medical records. Results: According to 2012 Beers Criteria, 98.2% of elderly patients used at least one PIM (n=599, of which 24.8% were newly started in the ICUs. In 29.6% of PIMs, there was a clinical circumstance that justified their prescription. The number of PIMs was associated with ICU length of stay and total number of medications. There was at least one ADR identified in 17.8% of patients; more than 40% were attributed to PIM, but there was no statistical association. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of PIM used in acutely ill older people, but they do not seem to be the major cause of adverse drug reactions in this population. Although many PIMs had a clinical circumstance that led to their prescription during the course of ICU hospitalization, many were still present upon hospital discharge. Therefore, prescription of PIMs should be minimized to improve the safety of elderly patients.

  14. Volcanic hazard impacts to critical infrastructure: A review (United States)

    Wilson, G.; Wilson, T. M.; Deligne, N. I.; Cole, J. W.


    Effective natural hazard risk assessment requires the characterisation of both hazards and vulnerabilities of exposed elements. Volcanic hazard assessment is at an advanced state and is a considerable focus of volcanic scientific inquiry, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analysing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. This paper reviews documented disruption and physical damage of critical infrastructure elements resulting from four volcanic hazards (tephra fall, pyroclastic density currents, lava flows and lahars) of eruptions in the last 100 years. We define critical infrastructure as including energy sector infrastructure, water supply and wastewater networks, transportation routes, communications, and critical components. Common trends of impacts and vulnerabilities are summarised, which can be used to assess and reduce volcanic risk for future eruptions. In general, tephra falls cause disruption to these infrastructure sectors, reducing their functionality, whilst flow hazards (pyroclastic density currents, lava flows and lahars) are more destructive causing considerable permanent damage. Volcanic risk assessment should include quantification of vulnerabilities and we challenge the volcanology community to address this through the implementation of a standardised vulnerability assessment methodology and the development and use of fragility functions, as has been successfully implemented in other natural hazard fields.

  15. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges. (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J


    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  16. Workforce Readiness: Changes in Critical Thinking Skills of Adult Learners in an Accelerated Undergraduate Degree Program (United States)

    Slemp, Kathleen N.


    This mixed-method case study explored the change in critical thinking skills over the span of the adult student's accelerated lock-step cohort experience pursuing an organizational management and leadership degree completion program at a liberal arts institution in the Midwest. Three areas of research informed this study: workforce readiness,…

  17. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere


    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  18. Reproducing Gender Inequality: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Turkish Adult Literacy Textbook. Research Brief #7 (United States)

    Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther


    Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

  19. Reminiscence and adaptation to critical life events in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, Jojanneke; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Pot, Anne Margriet


    Objectives: The role of reminiscence as a way of adapting to critical life events and chronic medical conditions was investigated in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Reminiscence is the (non)volitional act or process of recollecting memories of one's self in the past. Method:

  20. "Media Mediators": Advocating an Alternate Paradigm for Critical Adult Education ICT Policy (United States)

    Remtulla, Karim A.


    This article explores the efficacy of current education program approaches to prepare instructors to achieve critical thinking and active learning from their students by integrating ICTs with traditional adult education practices. An argument is put forward that the increasing presence and influence of ICTs in education necessitates a paradigmatic…

  1. Critical Internet Resource Evaluation Skills for Adult Learners in Online Learning Environments. (United States)

    Cushing, B. E.


    Discusses the need for adult learners in online environments to be able to critically evaluate Internet resources. Highlights include differences and similarities between Internet resources and library information sources, adapting traditional evaluation techniques to Internet information resources, printing documents found online, and determining…

  2. Young Adult Fiction by African American Writers, 1968-1993: A Critical and Annotated Guide. (United States)

    Kutenplon, Deborah; Olmstead, Ellen

    This bibliography presents annotations and critical appraisals of all fiction titles published between 1968 and 1993 by African American authors and targeting young adult readers--166 titles by 57 authors. Only works of fiction--historical fiction, modern realistic fiction, fantasy and science fiction, and mystery and suspense--by African American…

  3. Dental Students' Use of AMSTAR to Critically Appraise Systematic Reviews. (United States)

    Teich, Sorin T; Heima, Masahiro; Lang, Lisa


    The idea of basing clinical procedures upon evidence gathered by observation is less than 200 years old, with the first set of evidence-based position papers dating back only to the early 1970s. The relationship between evidence-based education and health outcomes is difficult to test and may be indirect, but teaching critical appraisal skills may be beneficial in developing knowledge. Systematic reviews have a central role in the process of clinical decision making in practice and therefore should be of high quality, following a rigorous protocol that can be evaluated with validated tools. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students utilized the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) appraisal tool to evaluate systematic reviews in the context of a treatment planning course. During the in-class final exam, students were required to appraise the quality of a systematic review and to justify their answers. Of the 74 third-year students who took the exam, 100% answered all questions on the AMSTAR form. The mean number of correct answers was nine (SD=1.047, Min=6, Max=10), with no student providing all 11 correct answers. The fact that nearly 90% of the students provided eight or more correct answers suggests that AMSTAR can be used by students to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews. It also was evident that although the AMSTAR tool requires less than 15 minutes to complete an evaluation, using it requires extensive training and repetition to achieve consistent and reliable results.

  4. Contemporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy in adults: Fundamental principles and systematic review of the evidence. (United States)

    Squiers, John J; Lima, Brian; DiMaio, J Michael


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides days to weeks of support for patients with respiratory, cardiac, or combined cardiopulmonary failure. Since ECMO was first reported in 1974, nearly 70,000 runs of ECMO have been implemented, and the use of ECMO in adults increased by more than 400% from 2006 to 2011 in the United States. A variety of factors, including the 2009 influenza A epidemic, results from recent clinical trials, and improvements in ECMO technology, have motivated this increased use in adults. Because ECMO is increasingly becoming available to a diverse population of critically ill patients, we provide an overview of its fundamental principles and a systematic review of the evidence basis of this treatment modality for a variety of indications in adults.

  5. A critical review of {sup 55}Fe dosimetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thind, K.S. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Whitby, Ontario (Canada)


    The available literature on {sup 55}Fe dosimetry has been devoted to environmental exposures and medical iron kinetic studies. For occupational dosimetry, ICRP published a non-recycling dosimetric model for iron. These ICRP publications do not provide information on iron excretion. Johnson and Dunford published dose conversion factors and urinary excretion curves based on the ICRP and MIRD iron metabolic models. A critical review of these models was undertaken to select a model for occupational dose assignment. The review indicated that the information and recommendations in ICRP and Johnson and Dunford are dependent on unrealistic assumptions that do not agree with known iron metabolism. Therefore, an alternative model is proposed for dosimetric application. Calculations of dose conversion factors and urinary excretion curve for class W{sup 55}Fe inhalation exposure (1 {mu}m AMAD) using the proposed model are compared with predictions based on ICRP and Johnson and Dunford models. The difference in the practical outcome (i.e., dose assignment) is examined by applying the proposed and reviewed models to a realistic bioassay case. The Johnson and Dunford model yields a dose estimate which is roughly a factor of ten higher than values predicted by ICRP and the proposed model. Some of the disagreement is due to uncertainty in the fraction of radio-iron excretion via urine. Further research on this subject is recommended. In the interim, the proposed model is recommended for occupational dose assignment. 31 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.


    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  7. Radically Reducing the Costs of Panel Critical Reviews According to ISO 14040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Christiansen, Kim; Wernet, Gregor


    We suggest a procedure that radically reduces the critical review costs without compromising their thoroughness and overall quality. This procedure has 3 elements: A fixed panel for all reviews, an already critically reviewed background database, and a software-supported review procedure. The pre...

  8. Atherosclerosis, cholesterol, nutrition, and statins – a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebbers, Jan-Olaf


    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, which causes approximately half of all deaths of adults over age 60 in industrialized nations, is a pandemic among inappropriately nourished and/or physically hypoactive children, adolescents, and adults world wide. Although nowadays statins are widely prescribed to middle age and elderly adults with high blood lipid levels as pharmacological prevention for the late complications of atherosclerosis, from a critical point of view statins seem not to solve the problem, especially when compared with certain natural ingredients of our nutrition like micronutrients as alternative strategy. Statin ingestion is associated with lowering of serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein concentrations; some prospective studies have shown statistical associations with subsequent modest reduction of mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, specific biochemical pathways and pharmacological roles of statins in prevention of atherosclerosis, if any, are unknown. Moreover, there have been no systematic cost-benefit analyses of life-style prophylaxis versus statin prophylaxis versus combined life-style plus statin prophylaxis versus neither life-style nor statin prophylaxis for clinically significant complications of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. Further, in the trials of effectiveness statins were not compared with management of nutrition, which is the most appropriate alternative intervention. Such studies seem to be important, as the ever increasing world population, especially in developing countries, now demand expensive statins, which may be unaffordable for mitigating the pandemic. Studies of this kind are necessary to identify more precisely those patients for whom cardiovascular benefits will outweigh the risks and costs of the statin treatment in comparison with nutritional interventions. Against the background of the current pathogenetic concept of atherogenesis some of its possible risk factors, particularly the

  9. Instrumented measurement of balance and postural control in individuals with lower limb amputation: a critical review. (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M; Sullivan, S John; Nitz, Jennifer C


    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks and outcome measures utilized in studies investigating static and dynamic balance using instrumented measurement devices in individuals with a LLA. A systematic search was conducted on multiple databases using keyword or subject headings appropriate to the respective database. Articles investigating static or dynamic balance in adults with LLA by means of instrumented measures were considered for the review. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. The static balance ability of individuals with an LLA has been investigated thoroughly, but their dynamic balance attributes remain relatively unexplored. Although the individual studies do provide valuable information on balance ability in the LLA, the heterogeneity in study designs and measures did not allow an overall analysis of the tasks and the outcome measures used. On the basis of these findings, this review provides an insight into the measurement of balance in amputees to inform novice researchers and clinicians working with individuals with an LLA.

  10. Critical Review of Three Researches on Lexical Developmental Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jue; LI Xiao-yun


    Lexical developmental hypothesis arouses many linguists’interests and stimulates them to test it in various ways. However, in testing this model, quite a few collisions emerge between different research conclusions. This essay critically re-views three researches which focus on how bilingual’s L2 vocabulary processing way varies with proficiency level, and sorts out the discrepancies between results concerning the effect of concept mediation on L2 lexical processing. After a close analysis of the researches’variables, including yardstick of subjects’proficiency, subjects’L2 learning strategies, word imageability, and translation direction, the writer proposes possible causes of the discrepancies, and justifies the hypotheses implicated by the lexical developmental model.

  11. A Critical Review of Some Ecological Studies on Scientific Journals (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shigeaki

    There have been hot discussions about the number and the rate of growth of scientific journals. The purpose of this review is intended to provide a critical assessment of those ecological studies on scientific journals. In 1961, Price presented his famous graph curve, and noted that rate of growth of journals had been fairly consisted at 5 per cent annum for nearly 300 years. But Price's graph curve has some primary error, and the author suggest to examine carefully his study. There is another problem that the loose definition of scientific journals is used. The author try to give a clear definition on the term ‘scientific journals’, and try to reestimate historically the growth rate in numbers of current scientific journals, referring several reliable studies previously conducted. The Author's estimation is about 1.85 per cent a year from the last of 18 century.

  12. Inflammatory muscle diseases: a critical review on pathogenesis and therapies. (United States)

    Dalakas, Marinos C


    Based on unique clinicopathological criteria, the most common immune inflammatory muscle disorders include Dermatomyositis (DM), Polymyositis (PM), Necrotizing Myositis (NM), and sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis (sIBM). DM is an undeniably a complement-mediated microangiopathy with destruction of capillaries, hypoperfusion, and inflammatory cell stress on the perifascicular regions. Necrotizing Myopathy is a poorly studied subacute myopathy triggered by toxic, viral, or autoimmune factors with macrophages as the final effector cells. In PM and IBM cytotoxic CD8-positive T-cells clonally expand in situ and invade MHC-I-expressing muscle fibers. In sIBM, in addition to autoimmune inflammation, there are degenerative features characterized by vacuolization and accumulation of stressor and amyloid-related molecules. Advances in the immunobiology of these disorders are discussed including the interaction between pro-inflammatory and beta-amyloid or stressor proteins. A critical review regarding tissue biomarkers and strategies for more effective treatments are presented.

  13. The nuclear fuel cycle for transmutation: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, H.; Kienzler, B.; Kolarik, Z.; Wiese, H.W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, FZK (Germany); Segev, M. [Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheba (Israel); Salvadores, M.; Slesarev, I.; Zaetta, A. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    This review presents a critical common FZK and CEA discussion of the transmutation possibilities of actinide nuclei and of fission products as Tc and I in reactors (PWRs and FBRs) and in accelerator-driven subcritical configurations. The activities in the Research Center Karlsruhe in the chemical area are briefly discussed. Activities in the chemical area at CEA are presented elsewhere at this conference. The alternate waste disposal with transmutation is compared to the direct disposal option, as seen from the FZK point of view. Work in France on this point is still underway according to a law, voted in the French Parliament in 1991. The aim of this study is to evaluate, how the short-term and long-term risks of nuclear waste, including both direct disposal and transmutation scenarios, realistically could be minimized. (authors) 30 refs.

  14. A Critical Review of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh, MOTWANI


    Full Text Available Sreenivas, Srinivasarao and Srinivasa (2013 said that “The health care market has become consumer centered and expecting high quality care at a reasonable price. The mushroomed development of corporate hospitals in India, competition is also bringing massive changes in industry structure. In this context, hospital services’ marketing is slowly and surely coming of age and is being woven into the fabric of hospitals planning and public relations programmes.” The essence of any marketing activity is marketing mix, and the central theme of the present paper revolves around the contemporary service marketing mix offered by Indian hospitals. In this paper author has critically reviewed 51 papers to describe elements of hospital service marketing mix; product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence.

  16. Critical review of complementary therapies in haemato-oncology. (United States)

    Joske, D J L; Rao, A; Kristjanson, L


    There is evidence of the increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine by Australians diagnosed with cancer. Given the increasing desire of cancer patients to use complementary and alternative medicine, it is important that clinicians have a good understanding of the evidence available in this field. This critical review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence pertaining to a range of complementary therapies that are used in a supportive role in the treatment of cancer patients. Treatment methods considered are acupuncture, music therapy, massage and touch therapies and psychological interventions. The efficacy of these complementary therapies in terms of improvement in symptoms and quality of life is examined. Evidence that relates to an effect on immune function and survival is also investigated.

  17. Modern statistical models for forensic fingerprint examinations: a critical review. (United States)

    Abraham, Joshua; Champod, Christophe; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude


    Over the last decade, the development of statistical models in support of forensic fingerprint identification has been the subject of increasing research attention, spurned on recently by commentators who claim that the scientific basis for fingerprint identification has not been adequately demonstrated. Such models are increasingly seen as useful tools in support of the fingerprint identification process within or in addition to the ACE-V framework. This paper provides a critical review of recent statistical models from both a practical and theoretical perspective. This includes analysis of models of two different methodologies: Probability of Random Correspondence (PRC) models that focus on calculating probabilities of the occurrence of fingerprint configurations for a given population, and Likelihood Ratio (LR) models which use analysis of corresponding features of fingerprints to derive a likelihood value representing the evidential weighting for a potential source.

  18. A Critical Review on the Concept of Social Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Leibetseder


    Full Text Available Purpose—A critical analysis of the term social technology from a social science point of view.Design/Methodology/Approach—Review of the term “social technology” from a social science point of perspective in connection to the study of governmentality and power in a Foucauldian way.Findings—The article covers the perspective that social technology provides social science knowledge for a purpose. Such a notion allows an in depth debate about the meaning of social order in modern societies. Establishing distinctive techniques now forms the basis of the modern state and governance. Social technology forms the basis of governmental decisions; it allows for a use of social theories and methods for a purpose in politics and introduces a specific conception of power between the individual and public powers. Therefore, it alters government in three ways: It provides expert power to define solutions for social problems based on social science knowledge. It transforms government. Social technology exemplifies a support system for an ordered method of the way of government, it allows for the conduct of others and self based on scientific expertise. It can define new areas of problems in need of a change of government.Research limitations/implications—Consequently, social technology requests a critical analysis using a governmental approach. Such an approach focuses on problems on the governed subject and how governing works and why it has evolved in that way towards the subject and what kind of ideas and thinking lies within the discourse.Research type—general review.

  19. A Critical Review on the Concept of Social Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Leibetseder


    Full Text Available Purpose—A critical analysis of the term social technology from a social science point of view.Design/Methodology/Approach—Review of the term “social technology” from a social science point of perspective in connection to the study of governmentality and power in a Foucauldian way.Findings—The article covers the perspective that social technology provides social science knowledge for a purpose. Such a notion allows an in depth debate about the meaning of social order in modern societies. Establishing distinctive techniques now forms the basis of the modern state and governance. Social technology forms the basis of governmental decisions; it allows for a use of social theories and methods for a purpose in politics and introduces a specific conception of power between the individual and public powers. Therefore, it alters government in three ways: It provides expert power to define solutions for social problems based on social science knowledge. It transforms government. Social technology exemplifies a support system for an ordered method of the way of government, it allows for the conduct of others and self based on scientific expertise. It can define new areas of problems in need of a change of government.Research limitations/implications—Consequently, social technology requests a critical analysis using a governmental approach. Such an approach focuses on problems on the governed subject and how governing works and why it has evolved in that way towards the subject and what kind of ideas and thinking lies within the discourse.

  20. Review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety control in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. T.; Smith, D. R.


    Basic elements in the review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety in transportation are the magnitudes of reactivity changes that may occur to a shipment of packages and those inherent in the regulatory procedure of assessment. The generic representation of criticality of reflected arrays of uncontained fissionable materials is used as a basis for comparison of packaged fissionable materials. The reactivities associated with array changes and perturbations representative of credible conditions that may occur in storage or transportation are summarized for air-spaced units of fissionable materials. Calculations of packaged fissionable material determined reactivities associated with similar changes to arrays of packages. Typical thermal insulating materials being studied are Celotex, wood, Foamglas, and a bonded vermiculite. The effect on the array neutron multiplication of these, with and without steel as an inner and outer container material, is examined. The present stage of the study has produced results illustrating the variable margin of subcriticality manifested by the criteria. Depending upon the packaging, mass loading and array reflector condition, the margin of subcriticality can be of the order of 1% in k/sub eff/.

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review. (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M


    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  2. A critical review on the scaling theory of dispersion (United States)

    Zech, Alraune; Mai, Juliane; Attinger, Sabine; Dietrich, Peter; Teutsch, Georg; Fiori, Aldo; Rubin, Yoram


    The phenomenon of dispersive mixing of solutes in aquifers is subject of research since decades. The characterization of dispersivity at a particular field site is a prerequisite to predict the movement and spreading of a contaminant plume. Experimental investigations have shown, that field-scale dispersivities vary over orders of magnitude, which apparently depends on the scale of measurement. Gelhar et al. [1992] and Schulze-Makuch [2005] have reviewed a large number of transport experiments reported in the literature. Based on that data Schulze-Makuch [2005] performed a trend analysis of longitudinal dispersivity, fostering the empirical relationship of a power law between dispersivities and the scale of measurement without an upper bound. The goal of our study is to critically revisit not only the data used for the trend analysis but the power-law scale dependence of longitudinal dispersivity (e.g. Neuman [1990], Xu and Eckstein [1995]). Our particular focus is on the reported dispersivities of large amount (larger than 100m) and large measurement scales (in the order of kilometers). We aim to evaluate current theories of transport against a critical "mass" of field experiments and to bracket the conditions of their applicability. We further aim to evaluate the adequacy of the field sampling techniques that were employed from the perspective of more than 30 years development in modeling and field characterization. Given the tremendous progress in field data acquisition techniques and new insights gained, it is reasonable to expect that interpretations of past experiments may be flawed due to the limitations or inadequacy of field sampling techniques. Gelhar, L.W., C. Welty, and K.R. Rehfeldt, 1992, A critical review of data on field-scale dispersion in aquifers, Water Resources Research 28, No. 7: 1955-1974. Schulze-Makuch, D., 2005, Longitudinal dispersivity data and implications for scaling behavior, Ground Water, Vol. 43, No. 3, 443-456. Neuman, S.P., 1990

  3. Gold nanoparticles delivery in mammalian live cells: a critical review. (United States)

    Lévy, Raphaël; Shaheen, Umbreen; Cesbron, Yann; Sée, Violaine


    Functional nanomaterials have recently attracted strong interest from the biology community, not only as potential drug delivery vehicles or diagnostic tools, but also as optical nanomaterials. This is illustrated by the explosion of publications in the field with more than 2,000 publications in the last 2 years (4,000 papers since 2000; from ISI Web of Knowledge, 'nanoparticle and cell' hit). Such a publication boom in this novel interdisciplinary field has resulted in papers of unequal standard, partly because it is challenging to assemble the required expertise in chemistry, physics, and biology in a single team. As an extreme example, several papers published in physical chemistry journals claim intracellular delivery of nanoparticles, but show pictures of cells that are, to the expert biologist, evidently dead (and therefore permeable). To attain proper cellular applications using nanomaterials, it is critical not only to achieve efficient delivery in healthy cells, but also to control the intracellular availability and the fate of the nanomaterial. This is still an open challenge that will only be met by innovative delivery methods combined with rigorous and quantitative characterization of the uptake and the fate of the nanoparticles. This review mainly focuses on gold nanoparticles and discusses the various approaches to nanoparticle delivery, including surface chemical modifications and several methods used to facilitate cellular uptake and endosomal escape. We will also review the main detection methods and how their optimum use can inform about intracellular localization, efficiency of delivery, and integrity of the surface capping.

  4. Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Some Critical Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yi Zhang; Jie Cui; Ye Zhang; Zhen-Long Wang; Tie Chong; Zi-Ming Wang


    Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss some critical issues of isoflavones protective against the development of prostate cancer (PCa).Data Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained primarily from PubMed and Embase from 1975 to 2015.Study Selection: Articles were selected with the search terms "isoflavone", "Phytoestrogen", "soy", "genistin", and "PCa".Results: Isoflavones do not play an important role on prostate-specific antigen levels reduction in PCa patients or healthy men.The effect ofisoflavones on sex hormone levels and PCa risk may be determined by equol converting bacteria in the intestine, specific polymorphic variation and concentrations of isoflavones.The intake of various types of phytoestrogens with lower concentrations in the daily diet may produce synergistic effects against PCa.Moreover, prostate tissue may concentrate isoflavones to potentially anti-carcinogenic levels.In addition, it is noteworthy that isoflavones may act as an agonist in PCa.Conclusions: Isoflavones play a protective role against the development of PCa.However, careful consideration should be given when isoflavones are used in the prevention and treatment of PCa.

  5. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.


    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165

  6. Xerostomia related to HIV infection /AIDS: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Fuzer Grael TINÓS

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of oral manifestations in HIV positive individuals is quite common. Xerostomia appears as one of the most frequent problems and may lead to a reduction in the quality of life of this population. Objective: This study was a critical review of the relationship between xerostomia and HIV infection, to attract the attention of dentists on the importance of dental care to these patients. Material and method: We included articles published between 2000 and 2009, indexed in PUBMED database. The descriptors used were "HIV" and "xerostomia", the exclusion criteria adopted were: the absence of these descriptors associated, non-location of the full-text, articles based on case studies or case series and the absence of the abstract in the database. Result: Based on studies in the review, it can be said that the xerostomia is a common manifestation of HIV infection, predisposing the patient to several other oral problems. Among the risk factors for its occurrence it was reported: low counts of CD4+ T cells, high plasma viral load, the use of some medications and antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS can change the salivary glands, and were considered important risk factors for the occurrence of xerostomia the presence of didanosine and the drug class which corresponds to protease inhibitors in antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Potential-induced degradation in photovoltaic modules: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Khoo, Yong Sheng; Hacke, Peter; Naumann, Volker; Lausch, Dominik; Harvey, Steven P.; Singh, Jai Prakash; Chai, Jing; Wang, Yan; Aberle, Armin G.; Ramakrishna, Seeram


    Potential-induced degradation (PID) has received considerable attention in recent years due to its detrimental impact on photovoltaic (PV) module performance under field conditions. Both crystalline silicon (c-Si) and thin-film PV modules are susceptible to PID. While extensive studies have already been conducted in this area, the understanding of the PID phenomena is still incomplete and it remains a major problem in the PV industry. Herein, a critical review of the available literature is given to serve as a one-stop source for understanding the current status of PID research. This paper also aims to provide an overview of future research paths to address PID-related issues. This paper consists of three parts. In the first part, the modelling of leakage current paths in the module package is discussed. The PID mechanisms in both c-Si and thin-film PV modules are also comprehensively reviewed. The second part summarizes various test methods to evaluate PV modules for PID. The last part focuses on studies related to PID in the omnipresent p-type c-Si PV modules. The dependence of temperature, humidity and voltage on the progression of PID is examined. Preventive measures against PID at the cell, module and system levels are illustrated. Moreover, PID recovery in standard p-type c-Si PV modules is also studied. Most of the findings from p-type c-Si PV modules are also applicable to other PV module technologies.

  8. Breastfeeding Self-efficacy: A Critical Review of Available Instruments. (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Graber, Melanie; Cusson, Regina M; Young, Sera L


    Increasing breastfeeding rates in the United States is a national priority. Yet, initiation and duration of breastfeeding remains below national targets. Breastfeeding self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of both breastfeeding initiation and duration and is therefore an important characteristic to be able to measure. However, there is currently a myriad of instruments for measuring breastfeeding self-efficacy, which makes selection of an appropriate instrument difficult. Thus, our aim was to identify, compare, and critically review available breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments. In a systematic review, 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments were identified. The instruments' purposes, theoretical framework, final scale development, and application in 5 most recent settings were analyzed. The 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments apply a number of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in their development, with Bandura's social cognitive theory being most common. Content, construct, and predictive validity were strong for most scales. Some, but not all, have been successfully adapted to novel settings. In sum, there are several measurements of breastfeeding self-efficacy that can and should be employed to better understand reasons for suboptimal breastfeeding rates and the effects of interventions on breastfeeding self-efficacy. Instrument selection should be based on domains of primary interest, time available, peripartum timing, and assessment of previous adaptations. Failure to apply appropriate measures in research may garner results that are inconclusive, inaccurate, or nonrepresentative of true study effects.

  9. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ubeda


    Full Text Available Odours generated in livestock buildings constitute one of the most relevant air quality issues of intensive livestock production. Reducing nuisance episodes related to odour exposure is therefore essential for a sustainable livestock production. In this study, the state-of-the-art on odour mitigation techniques in livestock housing is critically reviewed. Scientific advances in the last decade are revised and research needs are also identified. The complex nature of livestock odours is firstly reviewed and examined. Then, the most relevant odour control strategies are analyzed in terms of present knowledge and future needs. The strategies considered are: nutritional strategies, manure additives, building design, air filtration, manure covers, manure treatment systems and windbreaks. Finally, future research needs and priorities when establishing mitigation techniques are identified. Despite important recent advances, there are still some challenges for scientists, producers and regulators, particularly related to field evaluation of odours. Therefore, to control livestock odours effectively, using standardized field assessment techniques will be required. Also, investigating measurement and model errors may be useful to better understand the limitations of the current methods, as well as to identify research priorities.

  10. Selenium speciation from food source to metabolites: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Emmie; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelis, Rita [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent (Belgium)


    Especially in the last decade, a vast number of papers on Se and its role in health issues have been published. This review gives a brief, critical overview of the main analytical findings reported in these papers. Of particular interest is the Se content in different food sources worldwide and the extent to which their consumption is reflected in the Se content of human tissues and body fluids. Several food sources, both natural (Brazil nuts, garlic, Brassica juncea) and Se-enriched (yeast-based supplements), are discussed as to origin, characteristics, Se metabolism and impact of their consumption on the human body. The continuous development of new and improvement of existing analytical techniques has provided different powerful tools to unravel the Se species and their function. An up-to-date literature study on Se speciation analysis is given, illustrating how analytical chemistry in its different facets aids in the identification of Se compounds and provides insight into the complete metabolic pathway of Se throughout the human body. This review includes a detailed image of the current state-of-the-art of Se speciation analysis in these food sources and in human tissues and body fluids. (orig.)

  11. Static Magnetic Field Therapy: A Critical Review of Treatment Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha P. Colbert


    Full Text Available Static magnetic field (SMF therapy, applied via a permanent magnet attached to the skin, is used by people worldwide for self-care. Despite a lack of established SMF dosage and treatment regimens, multiple studies are conducted to evaluate SMF therapy effectiveness. Our objectives in conducting this review are to: (i summarize SMF research conducted in humans; (ii critically evaluate reporting quality of SMF dosages and treatment parameters and (iii propose a set of criteria for reporting SMF treatment parameters in future clinical trials. We searched 27 electronic databases and reference lists. Only English language human studies were included. Excluded were studies of electromagnetic fields, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnets placed on acupuncture points, animal studies, abstracts, posters and editorials. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design and 10 essential SMF parameters. Three reviewers assessed quality of reporting and calculated a quality assessment score for each of the 10 treatment parameters. Fifty-six studies were reviewed, 42 conducted in patient populations and 14 in healthy volunteers. The SMF treatment parameters most often and most completely described were site of application, magnet support device and frequency and duration of application. Least often and least completely described were characteristics of the SMF: magnet dimensions, measured field strength and estimated distance of the magnet from the target tissue. Thirty-four (61% of studies failed to provide enough detail about SMF dosage to permit protocol replication by other investigators. Our findings highlight the need to optimize SMF dosing parameters for individual clinical conditions before proceeding to a full-scale clinical trial.

  12. Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review


    DENNIS, ELIZABETH A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.


    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the...

  13. Updating the treatment of recurrent tonsillitis in adults. Review


    Gascón-Rubio, María Cristina; Alonso-Alonso, Albino José


    Introduction and Objectives: Acute pharyngitis in adults (APA) is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in primary care. The main objective of this review is to update the therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of APA and to determine which interventions have the greatest impact in reducing morbidity and improving the quality of life of patients, which directly affects the consumption of health resources. Material and Methods: First clinical criteria of the FAA, indi...

  14. A Review and Critique of the Portrayal of Older Adult Learners in Adult Education Journals, 1980-2006 (United States)

    Chen, Li-Kuang; Kim, Young Sek; Moon, Paul; Merriam, Sharan B.


    The aging population is a worldwide challenge. Understanding how older adults have been portrayed would provide a foundation on which future scholarship can build. This study assesses and critiques the assumptions underlying the portrayal of older adults and their learning in adult education journals from 1980 to 2006. On reviewing 93 articles in…

  15. Magnetic reversals in basal Ediacaran cap carbonates: A critical review (United States)

    Raub, T. D.; Evans, D. A.


    At least one paleomagnetic reversal has been reported from each of three "Snowball Earth" postglacial cap cabonate units: Walsh cap of Kimberley, northern Australia; Mirassol d'Oeste in Amazonia; and Hadash in Oman. Our data from Nuccaleena cap dolostone of South Australia add a fourth to that list. We critically review all four studies and note that: a) Strict stratigraphic control on position of reversals is only documented for Mirassol d'Oeste and Nuccaleena caps. The Walsh cap sites are not stratigraphically constrained, and the Hadash reversal stratigraphy is only apparent after site data are combined from sections separated by 10's to 100's of km. b) Although Walsh, Hadash, and Nuccaleena remanences pass regional fold tests, the folding events could be substantially younger than cap deposition. Dual-polarity remagnetizations are well-documented in other carbonates. Despite satisfactory rock-magnetic results from Mirassol d'Oeste, critical field stability tests on the age of magnetization are lacking. c) Indirect syn-sedimentary tests of magnetization are only documented and passed for Nuccaleena dolostone. Mean Nuccaleena magnetization directions are similar to those of the paraconformably underlying glacial Elatina Formation, which passes a synsedimentary fold test; and two postglacial reversal levels are correlatable across three sections and ~50 km of nearly continuous on-strike exposure. d) Reversals from Mirassol d'Oeste and Nuccaleena cap carbonates cannot correlate directly with each other if post-Snowball paleooceanographic carbon isotope trends or values are assumed to be globally synchronous. Allowing for complex ocean chemistry, the two units could be broadly coeval, but if both paleomagnetic signals are primary then they must be diachronous on polarity-zone timescales. e) Given the pattern of observed reversal profiles established with confidence for at least the Nuccaleena cap, we contend that only magnetostratigraphic studies of high spatial

  16. Abiotic soil changes induced by engineered nanomaterials: A critical review. (United States)

    Dror, Ishai; Yaron, Bruno; Berkowitz, Brian


    A large number of research papers on the fate of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil-water system have appeared in recent years, focusing on ENM transport, persistence and toxicological impact. It is clear from these publications that soil is a major sink for ENMs, and that only a small portion degrades or is mobilized further into groundwater. However, to date, very few studies have examined the impact of ENMs on the natural soil-subsurface matrix and its properties. Moreover, it is now well accepted that chemical contaminants are capable of changing soil properties either by inducing direct chemical or physical changes, or through indirect changes by, e.g., influencing biological activity that in turn modifies soil properties. Here, we review studies on the deposition, retention, and accumulation of ENMs in soil, indicative of the extent to which soil acts as a major sink of ENMs. We then examine evidence of how these retained particles lead to modification of surface properties, which are manifested by changes in the sorption capacity of soil for other (organic and inorganic) solutes, and by surface charges and composition different than the natural surfaces. Finally, we demonstrate how this results in physical and hydrological changes to soil properties, including hydraulic conductivity, swelling capacity and wettability. The overall picture revealed in this critical review sheds light on a perspective that has received little attention thus far. These aspects of soil change, due to exposure and subsequent accumulation of ENMs, may ultimately prove to be one of the most important impacts of ENM releases to the environment.

  17. More than Meets the Eye: Adult Education for Critical Consciousness in Luis Camnitzer's Art (United States)

    Zorrilla, Ana Carlina


    The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between art and adult education for critical consciousness through the conceptual art of Luis Camnitzer. The theoretical framework grounding this research was critical public pedagogy, influenced by both critical theory and Stuart Hall's systems of representation (1997). This framework…

  18. Planning and the Public Interest. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available From an ethical perspective, the biggest difficulty for planners is to take the best approach in responding to the decision makers and in acting in the public interest because it always becomes subject of pressures arising with the governmental change, on the one hand, and the societal change on the other hand. Even though many debates arise regarding its existence, for planners, as well as for the planning profession, the public interest has always been legitimizing principles as a norm of practice (Alexander, 2002. The paper critically analyses the planning activity in relation to the public interest and highlights the importance of reciprocity between the two. In order to analyse this issue, the article starts with the presentation of different perspectives regarding the public interest, touching upon its conceptual meaning which is followed by a historical review of its origins and transformation. The third section presents its contextual meaning, its representatives, and the change of its content starting from the 19th century until nowadays and discusses the planners’ ability to represent it. The final part comprises the conclusions that indicate that the planning activity should serve the public interest and, by that, it would serve also the interest of planning as a profession. It emphasises two important issues of the present days: the definition of the public interest and the rational decision making within the planning process.

  19. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian


    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  20. What is bizarre in bizarre delusions? A critical review. (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Sass, L; Parnas, J


    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) treats the presence of bizarre delusions (BD) as the heaviest-weighted clinical criterion of schizophrenia. Although BD play a major role in contemporary diagnostic systems, only a few empirical studies explore this issue. These studies provide highly heterogenous results because they are based on different experimental paradigms, in terms of definition, clinical sample, and number of raters. Here, we first discuss the psychopathological sources of the concept of BD, which were initially described as either nonsensical or incomprehensible. Then, we provide a critical review of contemporary studies on the reliability of BD and their methodological and conceptual limitations. Current approaches have focused intensely on BD's reliability and have defined BD strictly in terms of delusional content--mainly in terms of the physical impossibility or the cultural or historical incomprehensibility of the delusional claims. These approaches have neglected formal features of experience that underlie BD and the crucial issue of the nature and validity of BD. In the discussion, we argue that clinical diagnosis of BD cannot be limited to delusional contents alone and requires taking into account the subjective side of BD (how altered experience manifests itself) as well as the conditions of intersubjective encounter (how BD are expressed to and experienced by the clinician). The notion of "bizarreness" in schizophrenia is not purely theoretical; it has practical relevance for the therapeutic encounter and implications on further empirical research and on diagnostic approaches.

  1. Health system reform in Mexico: a critical review. (United States)

    Laurell, Asa Cristina


    Last year Lancet published a series of articles on Mexico's 2004 health system reform. This article reviews the reform and its presentation in the Lancet series. The author sees the 2004 reform as a continuation of those initiated in 1995 at the largest public social security institute and in 1996 at the Ministry of Health, following the same conceptual design: "managed competition". The cornerstone of the 2004 reform-the voluntary Popular Health Insurance (PHI)--will not resolve the problems of the public health care system. The author assesses the robustness and validity of the evidence on which the 2004 reform is based, noting some inconsistencies and methodological errors in the data analysis and in the construction of the "effective coverage" index. Finally, some predictions about the future of PHI are outlined, given its intrinsic weaknesses. The next two or three years are critical for the viability of PHI: both families and states will face increasing difficulties in paying the insurance premium; health infrastructure and staff are insufficient to guarantee the health package services; and the private service contracting will further strain state health ministries' ability to strengthen service supply. Moreover, redistribution of federal health expenditure favoring PHI at the cost of the Social Security Institute will further endanger public health care delivery.

  2. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review (United States)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.


    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  3. A Review : Benefits and Critical Factors of Customer Relationship Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Pal Dhaka


    Full Text Available Customer Relationship Management (CRM is a technical jargon which is a blend of methodologies, software and internet, which are used by a company to achieve its goal through the identification and satisfaction of customer’s stated and unstated needs and wants. This software addresses customer life cycle management. This system manages company interactions with current and future customers. It involves technology to organize, automate and synchronize business processes. CRM application is an essential tool for a company to grow and help to increase the satisfaction of customers. There are many benefits of CRM; those make the market environment customer centric. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies and identify those benefits which affect customers and company both. But CRM has many problems also because of them CRM gets failure. Its failure rate is more than its success rate. We also elaborated its failure factors and along with them its critical success factors which help in making CRM a successful project for a company, however implementation of CRM is a complex task.

  4. Global health diplomacy: A critical review of the literature. (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald; Lencucha, Raphael; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle


    Global health diplomacy (GHD) describes the practices by which governments and non-state actors attempt to coordinate and orchestrate global policy solutions to improve global health. As an emerging field of practice, there is little academic work that has comprehensively examined and synthesized the theorization of Global Health Diplomacy (GHD), nor looked at why specific health concerns enter into foreign policy discussion and agendas. With the objective of uncovering the driving forces behind and theoretical explanations of GHD, we conducted a critical literature review. We searched three English-language scholarly databases using standardized search terms which yielded 606 articles. After screening of abstracts based on our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we retained 135 articles for importing into NVivo10 and coding. We found a lack of rigorous theorizing about GHD and fragmentation of the GHD literature which is not clearly structured around key issues and their theoretical explanations. To address this lack of theoretical grounding, we link the findings from the GHD literature to how theoretical concepts used in International Relations (IR) have been, and could be invoked in explaining GHD more effectively. To do this, we develop a theoretical taxonomy to explain GHD outcomes based on a popular categorization in IR, identifying three levels of analysis (individual, domestic/national, and global/international) and the driving forces for the integration of health into foreign policy at each level.

  5. Feasibility of Eyetracking in Critical Care Environments - A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Klausen, Andreas; Röhrig, Rainer; Lipprandt, Myriam


    Achieving a good understanding of the socio-technical system in critical or emergency situations is important for patient safety. Research in human-computer interaction in the field of anesthesia or surgery has the potential to improve usability of the user interfaces and enhance patient safety. Therefore eye-tracking is a technology for analyzing gaze patterns. It can also measure what is being perceived by the physician during medical procedures. The aim of this review is the applicability of eye-tracker in the domain of simulated or real environments of anesthesia, surgery or intensive care. We carried out a literature research in PubMed. Two independent researchers screened the titles and abstracts. The remaining 8 full-papers were analyzed based on the applicability of eye-trackers. The articles contain topics like training of surgeons, novice vs. experts or the cognitive workload. None of the publications address our goal. The applicability or limitations of the eye-tracker technology were stated incidentally.

  6. Review of Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (second edition)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article, through giving an overview of Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis(second edition), introduces six methodology of doing Critical Discourse Analysis. It is hoped that this article will help those interested in CDA better usher into this field.

  7. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D


    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  8. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes


    Full Text Available Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20. Most of the interventions were community based (n=16, although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16, with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  9. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Peach, Brian C; Garvan, Gerard J; Garvan, Cynthia S; Cimiotti, Jeannie P


    Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care.

  10. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Kueider

    Full Text Available A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative.

  11. A Critical Review of the First Language in Second Language Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    First and second language reading are different but they are interacted according to the language transfer theory in second languageacquisition. This critical review has a review of the sample article to show first language in second language reading.

  12. CPP magnetoresistance of magnetic multilayers: A critical review (United States)

    Bass, Jack


    We present a comprehensive, critical review of data and analysis of Giant (G) Magnetoresistance (MR) with Current-flow Perpendicular-to-the-layer-Planes (CPP-MR) of magnetic multilayers [F/N]n (n=number of repeats) composed of alternating nanoscale layers of ferromagnetic (F) and non-magnetic (N) metals, or of spin-valves that allow control of anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) orientations of the magnetic moments of adjacent F-layers. GMR, a large change in resistance when an applied magnetic field changes the moment ordering of adjacent F-layers from AP to P, was discovered in 1988 in the geometry with Current flow in the layer-Planes (CIP). The CPP-MR has two advantages over the CIP-MR: (1) relatively simple two-current series-resistor (2CSR) and more general Valet-Fert (VF) models allow more direct access to the underlying physics; and (2) it is usually larger, which should be advantageous for devices. When the first CPP-MR data were published in 1991, it was not clear whether electronic transport in GMR multilayers is completely diffusive or at least partly ballistic. It was not known whether the properties of layers and interfaces would vary with layer thickness or number. It was not known whether the CPP-MR would be dominated by scattering within the F-metals or at the F/N interfaces. Nothing was known about: (1) spin-flipping within F-metals, characterized by a spin-diffusion length, lsfF; (2) interface specific resistances (AR=area A times resistance R) for N1/N2 interfaces; (3) interface specific resistances and interface spin-dependent scattering asymmetry at F/N and F1/F2 interfaces; and (4) spin-flipping at F/N, F1/F2 and N1/N2 interfaces. Knowledge of spin-dependent scattering asymmetries in F-metals and F-alloys, and of spin-flipping in N-metals and N-alloys, was limited. Since 1991, CPP-MR measurements have quantified the scattering and spin-flipping parameters that determine GMR for a wide range of F- and N-metals and alloys and of F/N pairs. This

  13. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: Review of short forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Úbeda


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a theoretical review of the main short forms that have been developed by several authors based on different versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The development of short forms has been growing parallel to the appearance of new versions of the full scale. A short form allows estimating the intellectual capacity of someone with less time of administration, which could be very useful if the assessment objective is to obtain an overall measure of intellectual capacity.

  14. Marine monitoring surveys for desalination plants-A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Lattemann, Sabine


    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies are standard practice and a regulatory requirement for most new desalination projects today. However, most of the EIA studies are limited to predictive information; that is, they gather information on the project and the project\\'s environment before project implementation to make predictions about likely impacts. The EIAs may involve comprehensive studies, such as field monitoring, laboratory toxicity testing, and modeling studies. Consequently, the"surprising paucity of useful experimental data, either from laboratory tests or from field monitoring studies", which was observed by the US National Research Council in 2008, has been gradually decreasing. However, there is still a long-term research need on the site-specific effects of desalination plants after project commissioning has taken place. A main challenge of field research is the adequate design of the monitoring studies, which have to adequately distinguish the effects of the desalination project from natural processes over long periods of time. The existing monitoring studies have so far used a wide range of approaches and methods to investigate the environmental impacts of desalination plant discharges. Shortfalls are often that they are limited in scope, short-term, or localized. In essence, many studies fall short of recognizing the potentially synergetic effects of the single waste components of the discharges on marine organisms and the complexity of the potential responses by the ecosystem. While the possible risk of damage arising from the concentrate discharge to the marine environment in close proximity to the outfall is at hand, no conclusive evidence can yet be provided concerning the long-term impacts of desalination plant discharges, let alone the cumulative impacts on certain sea areas. This paper conducts a critical review of existing monitoring programs for desalination plants. Shortcomings of current practices are identified and relevant

  15. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review. (United States)

    Henry, T B


    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish.

  16. Critical Review of Diagnostic Methods Used in Chronic Pancreatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan T Beck


    Full Text Available This paper provides a balanced assessment of the various pancreatic function tests and imaging techniques used in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatic disease. Function tests that study the digestive capacity of the pancreas (fat absorption of dietary lipids, fluorescein- or radiolabelled fats, bentiromide test, etc have high specificity, but very low sensitivity. This is because 90% of pancreas has to be destroyed before steatorrhea or creatorrhea occurs. Tests that directly measure pancreatic bicarbonate and protein secretion (secretin test, etc are more accurate and may detect pancreatic dysfunction even before anatomical changes occur. Measurement of pancreatic enzymes in serum or urine, or the decreased decline of serum amino acids during their incorporation into pancreatic enzymes, are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to help diagnose pancreatic disease. Sensitive and specific tumour markers are not yet available. Thus screening tests are not cost-effective - if they are negative, they do not exclude pancreatic disease; and if positive, they have to be confirmed by more specific tests. Imaging techniques are the most commonly used methods of investigation. The usefulness of abdominal survey films, barium studies, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography is critically reviewed. Most of the radiological methods can be combined with cytology or biopsy. Histology demonstrating malignancy establishes this diagnosis, but negative biopsies do not exclude malignant tumours. Presently only ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound can diagnose cancers sufficiently early to allow for possible `curative' surgery, and only endoscopic ultrasound is capable to stage tumours for the assessment of resectability.

  17. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research. (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L


    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk.

  18. Fathers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness as Predictors of Adult Sons' Perceptions of Fathers' Sarcasm, Criticism, and Verbal Aggressiveness. (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others


    Finds that approximately 40% of the variance in adult sons' reports of fathers' messages (sarcasm, criticism, and verbal aggressiveness) was attributable to fathers' self-reported argumentativeness and verbal aggression. (SR)

  19. Acquiring visual information for locomotion by older adults: a systematic review. (United States)

    Uiga, Liis; Cheng, Kenneth C; Wilson, Mark R; Masters, Rich S W; Capio, Catherine M


    Developments in technology have facilitated quantitative examination of gaze behavior in relation to locomotion. The objective of this systematic review is to provide a critical evaluation of available evidence and to explore the role of gaze behavior among older adults during different forms of locomotion. Database searches were conducted to identify research papers that met the inclusion criteria of (1) study variables that included direct measurement of gaze and at least one form of locomotion, (2) participants who were older adults aged 60 years and above, and (3) reporting original research. Twenty-five papers related to walking on a straight path and turning (n=4), stair navigation (n=3), target negotiation and obstacle circumvention (n=13) and perturbation-evoked sudden loss of balance (n=5) were identified for the final quality assessment. The reviewed articles were found to have acceptable quality, with scores ranging from 47.06% to 94.12%. Overall, the current literature suggests that differences in gaze behavior during locomotion appear to change in late adulthood, especially with respect to transfer of gaze to and from a target, saccade-step latency, fixation durations on targets and viewing patterns. These changes appear to be particularly pronounced for older adults with high risk of falling and impaired executive functioning.

  20. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda


    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  1. New Guidelines for Assessment of Malnutrition in Adults: Obese Critically Ill Patients. (United States)

    Mauldin, Kasuen; O'Leary-Kelley, Colleen


    Recently released recommendations for detection and documentation of malnutrition in adults in clinical practice define 3 types of malnutrition: starvation related, acute disease or injury related, and chronic disease related. The first 2 are more easily recognized, but the third may be more often unnoticed, particularly in obese patients. Critical care patients tend to be at high risk for malnutrition and thus require a thorough nutritional assessment. Compared with patients of earlier times, intensive care unit patients today tend to be older, have more complex medical and comorbid conditions, and often are obese. Missed or delayed detection of malnutrition in these patients may contribute to increases in hospital morbidity and longer hospital stays. Critical care nurses are in a prime position to screen patients at risk for malnutrition and to work with members of the interprofessional team in implementing nutritional intervention plans.

  2. Gold nanoparticles delivery in mammalian live cells: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Lévy


    Full Text Available Functional nanomaterials have recently attracted strong interest from the biology community, not only as potential drug delivery vehicles or diagnostic tools, but also as optical nanomaterials. This is illustrated by the explosion of publications in the field with more than 2,000 publications in the last 2 years (4,000 papers since 2000; from ISI Web of Knowledge, ‘nanoparticle and cell’ hit. Such a publication boom in this novel interdisciplinary field has resulted in papers of unequal standard, partly because it is challenging to assemble the required expertise in chemistry, physics, and biology in a single team. As an extreme example, several papers published in physical chemistry journals claim intracellular delivery of nanoparticles, but show pictures of cells that are, to the expert biologist, evidently dead (and therefore permeable. To attain proper cellular applications using nanomaterials, it is critical not only to achieve efficient delivery in healthy cells, but also to control the intracellular availability and the fate of the nanomaterial. This is still an open challenge that will only be met by innovative delivery methods combined with rigorous and quantitative characterization of the uptake and the fate of the nanoparticles. This review mainly focuses on gold nanoparticles and discusses the various approaches to nanoparticle delivery, including surface chemical modifications and several methods used to facilitate cellular uptake and endosomal escape. We will also review the main detection methods and how their optimum use can inform about intracellular localization, efficiency of delivery, and integrity of the surface capping. Raphaël Lévy is a BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool. He graduated in Physics at the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg (France. In 2002, after a Master in Soft Condensed Matter Physics, he obtained a PhD in Physics at the University Louis Pasteur. He then moved to

  3. Factors confounding the assessment of reflection : a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.; Dornan, T.; Aper, L.; Scherpbier, A.; Valcke, M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Derese, A.


    Background: Reflection on experience is an increasingly critical part of professional development and lifelong learning. There is, however, continuing uncertainty about how best to put principle into practice, particularly as regards assessment. This article explores those uncertainties in order to

  4. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CH


    Full Text Available Catherine H Yu,1,2 Giuliana Guarna,1 Pamela Tsao,3 Jude R Jesuthasan,1 Adrian NC Lau,3,4 Ferhan S Siddiqi,1 Julie Anne Gilmour,3 Danyal Ladha,1 Henry Halapy,5 Andrew Advani1–3 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 5Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases.Methods: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included.Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated.Conclusion: While the majority of

  5. Learning Career Management Skills in Europe: A Critical Review (United States)

    Sultana, Ronald G.


    Career management skills (CMS) are increasingly touted as necessary for all citizens, young and adult, particularly given the realities of employment and self-employment in a knowledge-based society, where "protean", "portfolio" careers are expected to increasingly become the norm, and lifelong career guidance an entitlement of…

  6. Critical feeding periods for last instar nymphal and pharate adults of the whiteflies, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci. (United States)

    Gelman, Dale B; Hu, Jing S


    A critical feeding period is the time after which 50% of a given species of insect can be removed from its food source and complete development by undergoing adult eclosion. The critical feeding period was determined for the greenhouse white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Biotype B) (Homptera/Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Fourth (last) instar and pharate adult whiteflies were removed from green bean leaves, staged, placed on filter paper in small Petri dishes containing drops of water, and observed daily for eclosion. For T. vaporariorum reared at 25 degrees C and L:D 16:8, 55 and 80% adult eclosion were observed when whiteflies were removed at stages 4 (0.23-0.26 mm in body depth) and 5 (> or = 0.27 mm in body depth), respectively, so that at least 50% eclosion was only achieved in this species of whitefly when adult eye development had already been initiated (in Stage 4), and 80% eclosion when adult wing development had been initiated (Stage 5). In contrast, 63% of B. tabaci emerged as adults if removed from the leaf at Stage 3 (0.18-0.22 mm in body depth), and 80% emerged if removed at Stage 4/5, stages in which adult formation had not yet been initiated. The mean number of eggs laid by experimental (those removed at Stages 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9) and control (those that remained on the leaf prior to eclosion) whiteflies, and the mean percent hatch of these eggs were not significantly different in experimental and control groups. Stages 7, 8 and 9 are characterized by a light red adult eye, medium red bipartite adult eye and dark red or red-black bipartite adult eye, respectively. Mean adult longevity also was not significantly different between experimental and control groups. However, for all groups of T. vaporariorum, adult female longevity was significantly (at least 2 times) greater than male longevity. Our results identify the critical feeding periods for last instar/pharate adults of two important pest species of

  7. Use of procalcitonin for the detection of sepsis in the critically ill burn patient: a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Mann, Elizabeth A; Wood, Geri L; Wade, Charles E


    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the evidence for use of routine procalcitonin testing to diagnose the presence of sepsis in the burn patient. The electronic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, ProQuest, and SCOPUS were searched for relevant studies using the MeSH terms burn, infection, procalcitonin, and meta-analysis. The focus of the review was the adult burn population, but other relevant studies of critically ill patients were included as data specific to the patient with burns are limited. Studies were compiled in tabular form and critically appraised for quality and level of evidence. Four meta-analyses, one review of the literature, one randomized controlled trial, nine prospective observational, and three retrospective studies were retrieved. Six of these studies were specific to the burn population, with one specific to burned children. Only one meta-analysis, one adult burn and one pediatric burn study reported no benefit of procalcitonin testing to improve diagnosis of sepsis or differentiate sepsis from non-infectious systemic inflammatory response. The collective findings of the included studies demonstrated benefit of incorporating procalcitonin assay into clinical sepsis determination. Evaluation of the burn specific studies is limited by the use of guidelines to define sepsis and inconsistent results from the burn studies. Utility of the procalcitonin assay is limited due to the lack of availability of rapid, inexpensive tests. However, it appears procalcitonin assay is a safe and beneficial addition to the clinical diagnosis of sepsis in the burn intensive care unit.

  8. A critical review of predefined diet quality scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers, P.M.C.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ocke, M.C.


    The literature on predefined indexes of overall diet quality is reviewed. Their association with nutrient adequacy and health outcome is considered, but our primary interest is in the make-up of the scores. In total, twenty different indexes have been reviewed, four of which have gained most attenti

  9. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators (United States)

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel


    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  10. Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature. (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R


    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services.

  11. Updating the treatment of recurrent tonsillitis in adults. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina GASCÓN-RUBIO


    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Acute pharyngitis in adults (APA is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in primary care. The main objective of this review is to update the therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of APA and to determine which interventions have the greatest impact in reducing morbidity and improving the quality of life of patients, which directly affects the consumption of health resources. Material and Methods: First clinical criteria of the FAA, indications of tonsillectomy and patterns of antibiotic therapy according to clinical guidelines of national and international scientific societies were defined. Subsequently, the literature related to the treatment of the FAA including other therapeutic options not covered in previous clinical guidelines (P. Leucotomos extract, vaccination by the mucosal route, AM3 and beta-glucans, homeopathy and herbal medicine was revised. ClinicalKey bases and PubMed data were used. Results: The comparison of the studies was difficult due to the disparity of criteria for inclusion and diagnostics, sample sizes, time tracking and poor uniformity in the clinical scales measuring variations. Conclusions: Therefore we cannot conclude whether a therapeutic option is more effective than another in the treatment and prevention of adult APA.

  12. A Review on the Linear and Nonlinear Critical Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans


    values with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases the 'easier numerical methods' are really just a gamble. In this presentation the methods will be discussed. For this purpose linearisations of the nonlinear dynamical problem are made. A linearisation of the nonlinear dynamical problem simplifies......In recent years several authors have proposed 'easier numerical methods' to find multiple attractors and the critical speed in railway dynamical problems. Actually, the methods do function in some cases, but they are not safe in the sense that you will calculate the relevant critical parameter...... the calculations and may give relevant answers to important questions such as the possibility of resonance phenomena in the designs, but a linearisation is not always allowed, and it does not help to find the critical speed of a railway vehicle. We shall also address the curious fact that the hunting motion...

  13. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo


    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  14. Nanofluidic technology for biomolecule applications: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napoli, M.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Pennathur, S.


    In this review, we present nanofluidic phenomena, particularly as they relate to applications involving analysis of biomolecules within nanofabricated devices. The relevant length scales and physical phenomena that govern biomolecule transport and manipulation within nanofabricated nanofluidic devic

  15. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review. (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad


    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  16. A Critical Review of Qualitative Interviews in Applied Linguistics (United States)

    Mann, Steve


    This article asks what applied linguistics can learn from related disciplines with regard to the collection, analysis and representation of qualitative interviews. It assesses the contributions of qualitative sociology, anthropology, discursive psychology and outlines four "discourse dilemmas" which might provide the basis for a more critical and…

  17. A Review on Developing Critical Thinking Skills through Literary Texts (United States)

    Shukri, Noraini Ahmad; Mukundan, Jayakaran


    Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process, especially those learning the target language at a higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009;…

  18. Critical Factors in Mobile Learning: A Quasi-Systematic Review (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sergio Assis; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pereira; Arnaud, Lucas; de Souza, Jano Moreira


    The advance of mobile industry and research has expanded e-learning in order to support an efficient and effective educational process. However, the promised benefits are as much attractive as the existing difficulties and barriers. In this paper, we intend to identify and summarize the critical factors in mobile learning through a…

  19. A Critical Review of the IELTS Writing Test (United States)

    Uysal, Hacer Hande


    Administered at local centres in 120 countries throughout the world, IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is one of the most widely used large-scale ESL tests that also offers a direct writing test component. Because of its popularity and its use for making critical decisions about test takers, it is crucial to draw attention to…

  20. A Review on Developing Critical Thinking Skills through Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraini Ahmad Shukri


    Full Text Available Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010. As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the arguments of others and of their own, coming to well-reasoned resolutions to any complex problems and to be able to resolve conflicts encountered in their daily lives. Critical thinking requires them to be actively involved in their own learning process as they attempt to individually understand and apply the information they are exposed to during the classroom interaction (Landsberger, 1999; Tung & Chang, 2009. The many advantageous and feasibility of teaching instruction that incorporates the study of literature in the ESL classroom which suggests that literature texts, if correctly chosen and instructed, can prove to be beneficial to ESL students’ overall level of literacy and critical thinking skills. Numerous empirical researches also asserted that literary texts that are authentic, enjoyable, and motivating would naturally increase both their knowledge of the target language patterns and cultural awareness. Keywords: Critical thinking, ESL classroom, literature, literary text

  1. A Psychodynamic Approach to Suicide: A Critical and Selective Review. (United States)

    Lees, John; Stimpson, Quentin


    This paper begins by critically exploring Freudian and post-Freudian understandings of suicide while drawing several examples from clinical practice. The paper then reconsiders psychodynamic approaches to suicidal clients from a Levinasian ethical position. Suggests that suicide may be a logical part of what it is to be human, rather than an…

  2. Toward an Interdisciplinary Perspective: A Review of Adult Learning Frameworks and Theoretical Models of Motor Learning (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.


    Researchers have yet to agree on an approach that supports how adults best learn novel motor skills in formal educational contexts. The literature fails to adequately discuss adult motor learning from the standpoint of adult education. Instead, the subject is addressed by other disciplines. This review attempts to integrate perspectives across…

  3. A Theoretical Basis for Adult Learning Facilitation: Review of Selected Articles (United States)

    Muneja, Mussa S.


    The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…

  4. Whole body vibration in sport: a critical review. (United States)

    Costantino, C; Gimigliano, R; Olvirri, S; Gimigliano, F


    Whole body vibration training is a recent area of study in athletic conditioning, health and rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the effectiveness of this type of training in sport. A search was conducted across several electronic databases and studies on effects of whole body vibration training on sport performance were reviewed. Thirteen articles were included in the final analysis. The following variables were considered: participants investigated (sex and age), characteristics of the vibration (frequency and amplitude), training (type of sport, exposure time and intensity, tests used, type of study, effects examined and results obtained). This review considers proposed neural mechanisms and identifies studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of WBV in sports. It considers where WBV might act and suggests that vibration can be an effective training stimulus. Future studies should focus on evaluating the long-term effects of vibration training and identify optimum frequency and amplitude, improve strength and muscular performance.

  5. A review of critical in-flight events research methodology (United States)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.; Smith, P. E.


    Pilot's cognitive responses to critical in-flight events (CIFE's) were investigated, using pilots, who had on the average about 2540 flight hours each, in four experiments: (1) full-mission simulation in a general aviation trainer, (2) paper and pencil CIFE tests, (3) interactive computer-aided scenario testing, and (4) verbal protocols in fault diagnosis tasks. The results of both computer and paper and pencil tests showed only 50 percent efficiency in correct diagnosis of critical events. The efficiency in arriving at a diagnosis was also low: over 20 inquiries were made for 21 percent of the scenarios diagnosed. The information-seeking pattern was random, with frequent retracing over old inquiries. The measures for developing improved cognitive skills for CIFE's are discussed.

  6. Von Glaserfeld`s Radical Constructivism: A Critical Review (United States)

    Hardy, Michael D.

    We explore Ernst von Glaserfelds radical constructivism, its criticisms, and our own thoughts on what it promises for the reform of science and mathematics teaching. Our investigation reveals that many criticisms of radical constructivism are unwarranted; nevertheless, in its current cognitivist form radical constructivism may be insufficient to empower teachers to overcome objectivist cultural traditions. Teachers need to be empowered with rich understandings of philosophies of science and mathematics that endorse relativist epistemologies; for without such they are unlikely to be prepared to reconstruct their pedagogical practices. More importantly, however, is a need for a powerful social epistemology to serve as a referent for regenerating the culture of science education. We recommend blending radical constructivism with Habermas theory of communicative action to provide science teachers with a moral imperative for adopting a constructivist epistemology.

  7. Year in review 2013: critical care - respiratory infections


    Nair, Girish B; Niederman, Michael S


    Infectious complications, particularly in the respiratory tract of critically ill patients, are related to increased mortality. Severe infection is part of a multiple system illness and female patients with severe sepsis have a worse prognosis compared to males. Kallistatin is a protective hormokine released during monocyte activation and low levels in the setting of septic shock can predict adverse outcomes. Presepsin is another biomarker that was recently evaluated and is elevated in patien...

  8. Systematic review of the impact of adult drug-treatment courts. (United States)

    Brown, Randall T


    The U.S. correctional system is overburdened with individuals suffering from substance use disorders. These illnesses also exact a heavy toll on individual and public health and well-being. Effective methods for reducing the negative impact of substance use disorders comprise critical concerns for policy makers. Drug treatment court (DTC) programs are present in more than 1800 county, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in the United States as an alternative to incarceration for offenders with substance use disorders. This review article summarizes the available descriptive information on representative DTC populations and the observational studies of drug court participants, and it specifically reviews the available experimental effectiveness literature on DTCs. The review concludes by examining the limitations of the current literature, challenges to conducting research in drug court samples, and potential future directions for research on DTC interventions. A review of nonexperimental and quasi-experimental literature regarding the impact of DTCs points toward benefit versus traditional adjudication in averting future criminal behavior and in reducing future substance use, at least in the short term. Randomized effectiveness studies of DTCs are scant (3 were identified in the literature on U.S. adult drug courts), and methodological issues develop in combining their findings. These randomized trials failed to demonstrate a consistent effect on rearrest rates for drug-involved offenders participating in DTC versus typical adjudication. The 2 studies examining reconviction and reincarceration, however, demonstrated reductions for the DTC group versus those typically adjudicated.

  9. Year in review 2013: Critical Care--respiratory infections. (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Niederman, Michael S


    Infectious complications, particularly in the respiratory tract of critically ill patients, are related to increased mortality. Severe infection is part of a multiple system illness and female patients with severe sepsis have a worse prognosis compared to males. Kallistatin is a protective hormokine released during monocyte activation and low levels in the setting of septic shock can predict adverse outcomes. Presepsin is another biomarker that was recently evaluated and is elevated in patients with severe sepsis patients at risk of dying. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has introduced new definitions for identifying patients at risk of ventilator-associated complications (VACs), but several other conditions, such as pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome, may cause VACs, and not all patients with VACs may have ventilator-associated pneumonia. New studies have suggested strategies to identify patients at risk for resistant pathogen infection and therapies that optimize efficacy, without the overuse of broad-spectrum therapy in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia. Innovative strategies using optimized dosing of antimicrobials, maximizing the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs in critically ill patients, and newer routes of drug delivery are being explored to combat drug-resistant pathogens. We summarize the major clinical studies on respiratory infections in critically ill patients published in 2013.

  10. Obesity and Physical Frailty in Older Adults: A Scoping Review of Intervention Trials (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.


    Many frail older adults are thin, weak, and undernourished; this component of frailty remains a critical concern in the geriatric field. However, there is also strong evidence that excessive adiposity contributes to frailty by reducing the ability of older adults to perform physical activities and increasing metabolic instability. Our scoping review explores the impact of being obese on physical frailty in older adults by summarizing the state of the science for both clinical markers of physical function and biomarkers for potential underlying causes of obesity-related decline. We used the five-stage methodological framework of Arksey and O’Malley to conduct a scoping review of randomized trials of weight loss and/or exercise interventions for obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) in older adults (aged > 60 yrs), examining the outcomes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid accumulation in muscle, as well as direct measures of physical function. Our initial search yielded 212 articles; exclusion of cross-sectional and observational studies, cell culture and animal studies, disease-specific interventions, and articles published before 2001 led to a final result of 21 articles. Findings of these trials included the following major points: The literature consistently confirmed benefits of lifestyle interventions to physical function assessed at the clinical level. Generally speaking, weight loss alone produced a greater effect than exercise alone and the best outcomes were achieved with a combination of weight loss and exercise, especially exercise programs that combined aerobic, resistance, and flexibility training. Weight loss interventions tended to reduce markers of inflammation and/or oxidative damage when more robust weight reduction was achieved and maintained over time, whereas exercise did not change markers of inflammation. However, participation in a chronic exercise program did reduce the oxidative stress induced by an acute bout of exercise. Weight loss

  11. Critical success factors for competitiveness of construction companies: A critical review (United States)

    Hanafi, Abdul Ghafur; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd


    Making progress basically, a fundamental issue for the construction companies to get by in a highly competitive industry. From time to time, industry players are facing stiff and tough competition due to large number of players, whether existing or new players involved from various background and track record. Furthermore, the large numbers of component deciding the competitiveness of contractors, whose organization structures and governance have turned out to be more muddled. Different construction companies have their own unique criteria which may differ from one to another. The enormous amount of issues needs to bring down to manageable numbers so that measures can be identified and scrutinized to enhance competitiveness. This paper discusses the result from the critical investigation from past studies in the Asian countries, namely China, India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Several fundamental factors have been identified as CSFs in construction companies in respective country. Also highlighted a critical survey based upon various literatures written on this subject where critical success factors (CSFs) as a yardstick to gauge the relationship among CSFs in various construction companies in the Asian region. Far reaching estimation of an organization's performance and resulting input to its supervision is crucial for business change. Estimation additionally empowers organizations to be contrasted from one another on the premise of institutionalized data, permitting best practices to be distinguished and connected more widely. Different countries have their own set of critical success factors (CSFs) which may differ in term of priority and at the same time share common elements of success factor in accomplishment as a construction companies. The study, which is exploratory in nature, embraced the content investigation and inductive technique to accomplish its objectives.

  12. Diagnosis of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically Ill adults by Sonoclot coagulation analysis. (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Tong, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xing-Qin; Duan, Peng-Kai; Tang, You-Qing; Su, Lei


    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) diagnosis is hampered by the limited availability of reliable clinical or laboratory tests. Currently available tests are time consuming and expensive. We investigated whether coagulation and platelet function analyses using the Sonoclot system were suitable for overt DIC diagnosis in critically ill adults. This was an observational diagnostic study performed in 498 patients presenting with an underlying disorder associated with DIC. Overt DIC patients were identified according to an International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) score of >5. Coagulation and platelet parameters were analyzed using the Sonoclot system, and compared with ISTH as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curves were used to evaluate the value of the Sonoclot parameters. There were no differences for age or gender between the groups. Significant correlations were observed between activated clotting time (ACT) and ISTH score (r = 0.7; P coagulation dysfunction in patients with overt DIC.

  13. Comorbid psychopathology in adolescents and young adults treated for substance use disorders: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenbergh, C.; Brink, W. van den; Zwart, K.P.; Vreugdenhil, C.; Wijngaarden-Cremers, P. van; Gaag, R.J. van der


    OBJECTIVE: In a recent review, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in non-treated adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) in the general population was summarized. This review looks into the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents and young adults tr

  14. Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.


    Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…

  15. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.


    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1,217 studies were…

  16. Adult Children of Divorce and Intimate Relationships: A Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Brooks, Morgan C.


    Reviews research specific to the effects of parental divorce on adults in terms of relationship issues. Specific purposes of this review are to (a) explore research specific to intimacy and marital attitudes in adult children of divorce, (b) inform couple and family counselors of effects of parental divorce, and (c) relay implications for…

  17. Truss optimization with discrete design variables: a critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias


    This review presents developed models, theory, and numerical methods for structural optimization of trusses with discrete design variables in the period 1968 – 2014. The comprehensive reference list collects, for the first time, the articles in the field presenting deterministic optimization meth...

  18. Critical Readiness Review EHS Water Quality and Microbiology (United States)

    Woo, Cindy


    Presentation reviews the status in reference to the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) of the water quality and microbiology for the International Space Station. It includes information about crew training, hardware delivery, and those items that will be returned for study.

  19. Analytical approaches for arsenic determination in air: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel, E-mail: [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M. [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Mining, Mechanic and Energetic Engineering, ETSI, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Alsioufi, Louay [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)


    This review describes the different steps involved in the determination of arsenic in air, considering the particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous phase. The review focuses on sampling, sample preparation and instrumental analytical techniques for both total arsenic determination and speciation analysis. The origin, concentration and legislation concerning arsenic in ambient air are also considered. The review intends to describe the procedures for sample collection of total suspended particles (TSP) or particles with a certain diameter expressed in microns (e.g. PM10 and PM2.5), or the collection of the gaseous phase containing gaseous arsenic species. Sample digestion of the collecting media for PM is described, indicating proposed and established procedures that use acids or mixtures of acids aided with different heating procedures. The detection techniques are summarized and compared (ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ET-AAS), as well those techniques capable of direct analysis of the solid sample (PIXE, INAA and XRF). The studies about speciation in PM are also discussed, considering the initial works that employed a cold trap in combination with atomic spectroscopy detectors, or the more recent studies based on chromatography (GC or HPLC) combined with atomic or mass detectors (AFS, ICP-MS and MS). Further trends and challenges about determination of As in air are also addressed. - Highlights: • Review about arsenic in the air. • Sampling, sample treatment and analysis of arsenic in particulate matter and gaseous phase. • Total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation analysis.

  20. Progress in electrical energy storage system:A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Chen; Thang Ngoc Cong; Wei Yang; Chunqing Tan; Yongliang Li; Yulong Ding


    Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed.Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage,compressed air energy storage,battery,flow battery,fuel cell,solar fuel,superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor,and thermal energy torage.Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteris-tics,applications and deployment status.

  1. Critical review of kraft recovery boiler air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Callum, C.; Blackwell, B.R.


    Combustion air systems offered by major world suppliers of kraft recovery boilers are reviewed. A preliminary mathematical analysis of the air-jet trajectories in the furnace indicated that the conventional air systems leave room for improving the jet penetration into the furnace core. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani


    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  3. Critical appraisal and data extraction for systematic reviews of prediction modelling studies: the CHARMS checklist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel G M Moons


    Full Text Available Carl Moons and colleagues provide a checklist and background explanation for critically appraising and extracting data from systematic reviews of prognostic and diagnostic prediction modelling studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  4. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.


    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  5. International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies : A critical review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.N.; Danis, W.D.; Cavusgil, S.T.


    This article systematically reviews and critically examines international entrepreneurship research in emerging economies (IEEE research), and articulates its importance, timeliness and relevance in consideration of the growing influence of emerging markets in the global economy. A systematic analys

  6. Conceptualising engagement with digital behaviour change interventions: a systematic review using principles from critical interpretive synthesis. (United States)

    Perski, Olga; Blandford, Ann; West, Robert; Michie, Susan


    "Engagement" with digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) is considered important for their effectiveness. Evaluating engagement is therefore a priority; however, a shared understanding of how to usefully conceptualise engagement is lacking. This review aimed to synthesise literature on engagement to identify key conceptualisations and to develop an integrative conceptual framework involving potential direct and indirect influences on engagement and relationships between engagement and intervention effectiveness. Four electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect) were searched in November 2015. We identified 117 articles that met the inclusion criteria: studies employing experimental or non-experimental designs with adult participants explicitly or implicitly referring to engagement with DBCIs, digital games or technology. Data were synthesised using principles from critical interpretive synthesis. Engagement with DBCIs is conceptualised in terms of both experiential and behavioural aspects. A conceptual framework is proposed in which engagement with a DBCI is influenced by the DBCI itself (content and delivery), the context (the setting in which the DBCI is used and the population using it) and the behaviour that the DBCI is targeting. The context and "mechanisms of action" may moderate the influence of the DBCI on engagement. Engagement, in turn, moderates the influence of the DBCI on those mechanisms of action. In the research literature, engagement with DBCIs has been conceptualised in terms of both experience and behaviour and sits within a complex system involving the DBCI, the context of use, the mechanisms of action of the DBCI and the target behaviour.

  7. Crosswords to computers: a critical review of popular approaches to cognitive enhancement. (United States)

    Jak, Amy J; Seelye, Adriana M; Jurick, Sarah M


    Cognitive enhancement strategies have gained recent popularity and have the potential to benefit clinical and non-clinical populations. As technology advances and the number of cognitively healthy adults seeking methods of improving or preserving cognitive functioning grows, the role of electronic (e.g., computer and video game based) cognitive training becomes more relevant and warrants greater scientific scrutiny. This paper serves as a critical review of empirical evaluations of publically available electronic cognitive training programs. Many studies have found that electronic training approaches result in significant improvements in trained cognitive tasks. Fewer studies have demonstrated improvements in untrained tasks within the trained cognitive domain, non-trained cognitive domains, or on measures of everyday function. Successful cognitive training programs will elicit effects that generalize to untrained, practical tasks for extended periods of time. Unfortunately, many studies of electronic cognitive training programs are hindered by methodological limitations such as lack of an adequate control group, long-term follow-up and ecologically valid outcome measures. Despite these limitations, evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training has the potential to positively impact one's sense of social connectivity and self-efficacy.

  8. The use of erythromycin as a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent in adult critical care: benefits versus risks. (United States)

    Hawkyard, Catherine V; Koerner, Roland J


    Erythromycin A, the first macrolide, was introduced in the 1950s and after years of clinical experience it still remains a commonly relied upon antibiotic. In the past, pharmacodynamic characteristics of macrolides beyond antimicrobial action such as anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties have been of scientific and clinical interest. The function of erythromycin as a prokinetic agent has also been investigated for a range of gastrointestinal motility disorders and more recently within the context of critically ill patients. Prokinetic agents are drugs that increase contractile force and accelerate intraluminal transit. Whilst the anti-inflammatory action may be a desirable side effect to its antibiotic action, using erythromycin A merely for its prokinetic effect alone raises the concern about promoting emergence of macrolide resistance. The objectives of this review article are: (i) to briefly summarize the modes and epidemiology of macrolide resistance, particularly in respect to that found in the Streptococcus species (a potential reservoir for the dissemination of macrolide resistance on the critical care unit); (ii) to discuss in this context the evidence for conditions promoting bacterial resistance against macrolides; and (iii) to assess the potential clinical benefit of using erythromycin A as a prokinetic versus the risks of promoting emergence of macrolide resistance in the clinical setting. We conclude, that in view of the growing weight of evidence demonstrating the potential epidemiological impact of the increased use of macrolides upon the spread of resistance, versus a lack of sufficient and convincing evidence that erythromycin A is a superior prokinetic agent to potential alternatives in the critically ill patient population, at this stage we do not advocate the use of erythromycin A as a prokinetic agent in critically ill patients unless they have failed all other treatment for impaired gastrointestinal dysmotility and are intolerant

  9. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa (United States)

    Gadio, Moussa


    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult…

  10. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)


    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  11. The myth of individualism-collectivism: a critical review. (United States)

    Voronov, Maxim; Singer, Jefferson A


    The authors critically assess the dimension of individualism-collectivism (I-C) and its various uses in cross-cultural psychology. They argue that I-C research is characterized largely by insufficient conceptual clarity and a lack of systematic data. As a result, they call into question the utility of I-C as an explanatory tool for cultural variation in behavior, suggest alternative dimensions for cross-cultural research, and interpret the weaknesses of research on I-C as illustrative of a general trend in social psychology.

  12. Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Cifra, Michal; Nerudová, Michaela; Kučera, Ondřej


    Biological samples continuously emit ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, or "biophotons") which stems from electronic excited states generated chemically during oxidative metabolism and stress. Thus, UPE can potentially serve as a method for non-invasive diagnostics of oxidative processes or, if discovered, also of other processes capable of electron excitation. While the fundamental generating mechanisms of UPE are fairly elucidated together with their approximate ranges of intensities and spectra, statistical properties of UPE is still a highly challenging topic. Here we review claims about nontrivial statistical properties of UPE, such as coherence and squeezed states of light. After introduction to the necessary theory, we categorize the experimental works of all authors to those with solid, conventional interpretation and those with unconventional and even speculative interpretation. The conclusion of our review is twofold; while the phenomenon of UPE from biological systems can be considered experimentally...

  13. Critical Components of Successful Inclusion of Students with Severe Disabilities: Literature Review (United States)

    Alquraini, Turki; Gut, Dianne


    This paper examines the critical components of successful inclusion for students with severe disabilities. This review sets out to provide an overview of literature regarding effective practices for inclusion with a focus on critical components of successful inclusion that assist in preparing the stakeholders worldwide to work and engage…

  14. Knowledge Management: Review of the Critical Success Factors and Development of a Conceptual Classification Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Zand, F.


    Knowledge management is a critical issue in today's business world. Knowledge is considered as one of the most strategic resources of the firm and sources of competitive advantage. This research provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) and identifies e

  15. Future Materials for Wind Turbine Blades - A Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran


    Wind turbine industry is continuously evaluating material systems to replace the current thermoset composite technologies. Since turbine blades are the key component in the wind turbines and the size of the blade is increasing in today’s wind design, the material selection has become crucial...... higher performance under severe environmental conditions. The current article reviews various material alternatives and demonstrates the advantageous and disadvantageous for future wind turbine blade developments....

  16. A Critical Review of Future Materials for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran


    Wind turbine industry is continuously evaluating materials systems to replace the current thermoset composite technologies. Since turbine blades are the key component in the wind turbines and the size of the blade is increasing in todays wind design, the materials selection has become crucial...... higher performance under severe environmental conditions. The current article reviews various materials alternatives and demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages for future wind turbine blade developments....

  17. Critical review of problem solving processes traditional theoretical models


    Botía Sanabria, María Lucero; Universidad Antonio Nariño, Bogotá, Colombia; Orozco Pulido, Luis Humberto; Universidad Antonio Nariño, Bogotá, Colombia


    This paper presents a brief analysis of most known problem solving theoretical models realized using epistemological categories such as observer position, object of study, methods and procedures, and descriptive or explicative scope. The review showed linear and cyclical models, the need to recognize method's limitations to generalizing, the relevance of expliciting observer position, and a diffuse delimitation of the object problem solving as a cognitive process. An integrative and molar the...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-yuXu; Ji-yuanMu; CuiHu; Hong-gangWang


    Photoperiodic sensitivity for diapause induction of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder) was examined at 22℃. The adult diapause of C. sinica was induced by short-day photoperiods, and the critical photoperiod for its induction was between 12.5L-11.5D and 13L-11D.Adults developed without diapause under long-day conditions, and entered diapause under short-day conditions. The adult stage was the uppermost sensitive stage for adult diapause induction, adults could go into diapause only when the emerging adults were under diapause-inducing short-day photoperiods. The short-day photoperiodic experience by transferring between 15L: 9D and 9L: 15D at preimaginal stages did not result in adult diapause under 15L: 9D photo regime, although some treatments extended the pre-oviposition period in adult stage. The results showed that the 3rd instar larvae and pre-pupae were more sensitive to the photoperiodic change from 15L: 9D to 9L: 15D photo regime than the other preimaginal stages.

  19. Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifra, Michal, E-mail: [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Brouder, Christian [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, CNRS UMR7590, Paris (France); Nerudová, Michaela [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Circuit Theory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Kučera, Ondřej [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)


    Biological samples continuously emit ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, or “biophotons”) which stems from electronic excited states generated chemically during oxidative metabolism and stress. Thus, UPE can potentially serve as a method for non-invasive diagnostics of oxidative processes or, if discovered, also of other processes capable of electron excitation. While the fundamental generating mechanisms of UPE are fairly elucidated together with their approximate ranges of intensities and spectra, the statistical properties of UPE are still a highly challenging topic. Here, we review claims about nontrivial statistical properties of UPE, such as coherence and squeezed states of light. After the introduction to the necessary theory, we categorize the experimental works of all authors to those with solid, conventional interpretation and those with unconventional and even speculative interpretation. The conclusion of our review is twofold; while the phenomenon of UPE from biological systems can be considered experimentally well established, no reliable evidence for the coherence or nonclassicality of UPE has actually been achieved up to now. Furthermore, we propose perspective avenues for the research of statistical properties of biological UPE. - Highlights: • We review statistical properties of biological ultra-weak photon emission. • Claims of coherence and squeezed states are assessed. • Perspective work in statistical properties of biological photon emission is sketched.

  20. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Risk in Older Adults: a Scoping Review. (United States)

    Hajduk, Alexandra M; Chaudhry, Sarwat I


    Sedentary behavior is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may be particularly relevant to the cardiovascular health of older adults. This scoping review describes the existing literature examining the prevalence of sedentary time in older adults with CVD and the association of sedentary behavior with cardiovascular risk in older adults. We found that older adults with CVD spend >75 % of their waking day sedentary, and that sedentary time is higher among older adults with CVD than among older adults without CVD. High sedentary behavior is consistently associated with worse cardiac lipid profiles and increased cardiac risk scores in older adults; the associations of sedentary behavior with blood pressure, CVD incidence, and CVD-related mortality among older adults are less clear. Future research with larger sample sizes using validated methods to measure sedentary behavior are needed to clarify the association between sedentary behavior and cardiovascular outcomes in older adults.

  1. A critical review of lexical analysis and Big Five model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Richaud de Minzi


    Full Text Available In the last years the idea has resurfaced that traits can be measured in a reliable and valid and this can be useful inthe prediction of human behavior. The five-factor model appears to represent a conceptual and empirical advances in the field of personality theory. Necessary orthogonal factors (Goldberg, 1992, p. 26 to show the relationships between the descriptors of the features in English is five, and its nature can be summarized through the broad concepts of Surgency, Agreeableness, Responsibility, Emotional Stability versus neuroticism and openness to experience (John, 1990, p96 Furthermore, despite the criticisms that have been given to the model, represents a breakthrough in the field of personality assessment. This approach means a contribution to the study of personality, without being the integrative model of personality.

  2. Shock Acceleration of Cosmic Rays - a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, J G


    Motivated by recent unsuccessful efforts to detect the predicted flux of TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants, we present a critical examination of the theory on which these predictions are based. Three crucial problems are identified: injection, maximum achievable particle energy and spectral index. In each case significant new advances in understanding have been achieved, which cast doubt on prevailing paradigms such as Bohm diffusion and single-fluid MHD. This indicates that more realistic analytical models, backed by more sophisticated numerical techniques should be employed to obtain reliable predictions. Preliminary work on incorporating the effects of anomalous transport suggest that the resulting spectrum should be significantly softer than that predicted by conventional theory.

  3. Hypnosis for Acute Procedural Pain: A Critical Review. (United States)

    Kendrick, Cassie; Sliwinski, Jim; Yu, Yimin; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William; Kekecs, Zoltán; Elkins, Gary


    Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of acute procedural pain was critically evaluated based on reports from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Results from the 29 RCTs meeting inclusion criteria suggest that hypnosis decreases pain compared to standard care and attention control groups and that it is at least as effective as comparable adjunct psychological or behavioral therapies. In addition, applying hypnosis in multiple sessions prior to the day of the procedure produced the highest percentage of significant results. Hypnosis was most effective in minor surgical procedures. However, interpretations are limited by considerable risk of bias. Further studies using minimally effective control conditions and systematic control of intervention dose and timing are required to strengthen conclusions.

  4. Biomedical Engineering curriculum at UAM-I: a critical review. (United States)

    Martinez Licona, Fabiola; Azpiroz-Leehan, Joaquin; Urbina Medal, E Gerardo; Cadena Mendez, Miguel


    The Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM) has undergone at least four major transformations since the founding of the BME undergraduate program in 1974. This work is a critical assessment of the curriculum from the point of view of its results as derived from an analysis of, among other resources, institutional databases on students, graduates and their academic performance. The results of the evaluation can help us define admission policies as well as reasonable limits on the maximum duration of undergraduate studies. Other results linked to the faculty composition and the social environment can be used to define a methodology for the evaluation of teaching and the implementation of mentoring and tutoring programs. Changes resulting from this evaluation may be the only way to assure and maintain leadership and recognition from the BME community.

  5. Defining Small and Medium Enterprises: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentrit Berisha


    Full Text Available The OECD estimates that small and medium enterprises account for 90% of firms and employ 63% of the workforce in the world (Munro: 2013. Small and medium enterprises account for that amount of businesses thatit is senseless the arbitrariness with which they are defined. Language mainly used for definition is numbers, but it is difficult to find two institutions, statistical agencies or countries who speak the same language in terms of small and medium enterprises. Academics, authors, policy makers apply SMEdefinitions in terms of dichotomy between universality and standardization of a unique definition and relativity and sectored specialization. Although qualitative criteria-characteristics of SMEs easily distinguish them from large businesses, quantitative criteria are mainlyused for their dimensional classification. This paper deals with a critical approachto the definition of small and medium enterprises, inconsistencies in criteria and various proposed approaches to the definition towards universal acceptance.

  6. Severe imported falciparum malaria: a cohort study in 400 critically ill adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Bruneel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large studies on severe imported malaria in non-endemic industrialized countries are lacking. We sought to describe the clinical spectrum of severe imported malaria in French adults and to identify risk factors for mortality at admission to the intensive care unit. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective review of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes according to the 2000 World Health Organization definition and requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Data were collected from medical charts using standardised case-report forms, in 45 French intensive care units in 2000-2006. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Data from 400 adults admitted to the intensive care unit were analysed, representing the largest series of severe imported malaria to date. Median age was 45 years; 60% of patients were white, 96% acquired the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and 65% had not taken antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Curative quinine treatment was used in 97% of patients. Intensive care unit mortality was 10.5% (42 deaths. By multivariate analysis, three variables at intensive care unit admission were independently associated with hospital death: older age (per 10-year increment, odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.28-2.32; P = 0.0004, Glasgow Coma Scale score (per 1-point decrease, OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.20-1.45; P<0.0001, and higher parasitemia (per 5% increment, OR, 1.41; 95%CI, 1.22-1.62; P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In a large population of adults treated in a non-endemic industrialized country, severe malaria still carried a high mortality rate. Our data, including predictors of death, can probably be generalized to other non-endemic countries where high-quality healthcare is available.

  7. A critical review of nanotechnologies for composite aerospace structures (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Vassilis; Masouras, Athanasios; Baltopoulos, Athanasios; Vavouliotis, Antonios; Sotiriadis, George; Pambaguian, Laurent


    The past decade extensive efforts have been invested in understanding the nano-scale and revealing the capabilities offered by nanotechnology products to structural materials. Integration of nano-particles into fiber composites concludes to multi-scale reinforced composites and has opened a new wide range of multi-functional materials in industry. In this direction, a variety of carbon based nano-fillers has been proposed and employed, individually or in combination in hybrid forms, to approach the desired performance. Nevertheless, a major issue faced lately more seriously due to the interest of industry is on how to incorporate these nano-species into the final composite structure through existing manufacturing processes and infrastructure. This interest originates from several industrial applications needs that request the development of new multi-functional materials which combine enhanced mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, an attempt is performed to review the most representative processes and related performances reported in literature and the experience obtained on nano-enabling technologies of fiber composite materials. This review focuses on the two main composite manufacturing technologies used by the aerospace industry; Prepreg/Autoclave and Resin Transfer technologies. It addresses several approaches for nano-enabling of composites for these two routes and reports latest achieved results focusing on performance of nano-enabled fiber reinforced composites extracted from literature. Finally, this review work identifies the gap between available nano-technology integration routes and the established industrial composite manufacturing techniques and the challenges to increase the Technology Readiness Level to reach the demands for aerospace industry applications.

  8. Critical Review of Dual Diagnosis Training for Mental Health Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinderup, Pernille; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten


    To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training...... level showed mixed results. Training mental health professionals in dual diagnosis treatment may have a positive effect on professional competencies and clinical practice. Any conclusion regarding the overall training effect is premature due to limitations in study designs. Future studies on the effects...

  9. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review. (United States)

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús


    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries.

  10. Intraurethral lubricants: a critical literature review and recommendations. (United States)

    Tzortzis, Vassilios; Gravas, Stavros; Melekos, Michel M; de la Rosette, Jean J


    In current clinical practice, lidocaine gel is widely used as a local anesthetic lubricant before various forms of transurethral instrumentation. Over the past few years, the value of local anesthesia during urethral catheterization and flexible or rigid cystoscopy has been questioned. Strong data are lacking, and the results from the different studies are contradictory. As a result, the correct use of the intraurethral gels is, for the most part, left to individual preference. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the characteristics of the intraurethral gels, to assess the effectiveness, and to define evidence-based indications for their use.

  11. Reviewing METI: A Critical Analysis of the Arguments

    CERN Document Server

    Gertz, John


    There is an ongoing debate pertaining to the question of whether Earth should initiate intentional and powerful radio transmissions to putative extra-terrestrial (ET) civilizations in the hope of attracting ET's attention. This practice is known as METI (Messaging to ET Intelligence) or Active SETI. The debate has recently taken on a sense of urgency, as additional proponents have announced their intention to commence de novo transmissions as soon as they become funded and acquire the needed time on a powerful transmitter such as Arecibo. Arguments in favor of METI are reviewed. It is concluded that METI is unwise, unscientific, potentially catastrophic, and unethical.

  12. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management for community-living older adults. (United States)

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; McKey, Colleen; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori


    It is acknowledged internationally that chronic disease management (CDM) for community-living older adults (CLOA) is an increasingly complex process. CDM for older adults, who are often living with multiple chronic conditions, requires coordination of various health and social services. Coordination is enabled through interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among individual providers, community organizations, and health sectors. Measuring IPC is complicated given there are multiple conceptualisations and measures of IPC. A literature review of several healthcare, psychological, and social science electronic databases was conducted to locate instruments that measure IPC at the team level and have published evidence of their reliability and validity. Five instruments met the criteria and were critically reviewed to determine their strengths and limitations as they relate to CDM for CLOA. A comparison of the characteristics, psychometric properties, and overall concordance of each instrument with salient attributes of IPC found the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool to be the most appropriate instrument for measuring IPC for CDM in CLOA.

  13. Ketamine in adult cardiac surgery and the cardiac surgery Intensive Care Unit: An evidence-based clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazzeffi


    Full Text Available Ketamine is a unique anesthetic drug that provides analgesia, hypnosis, and amnesia with minimal respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Because of its sympathomimetic properties it would seem to be an excellent choice for patients with depressed ventricular function in cardiac surgery. However, its use has not gained widespread acceptance in adult cardiac surgery patients, perhaps due to its perceived negative psychotropic effects. Despite this limitation, it is receiving renewed interest in the United States as a sedative and analgesic drug for critically ill-patients. In this manuscript, the authors provide an evidence-based clinical review of ketamine use in cardiac surgery patients for intensive care physicians, cardio-thoracic anesthesiologists, and cardio-thoracic surgeons. All MEDLINE indexed clinical trials performed during the last 20 years in adult cardiac surgery patients were included in the review.

  14. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review. (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M


    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  15. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Smith-Osborne


    Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.

  16. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review. (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G


    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption.

  17. Chemiluminescence microarrays in analytical chemistry: a critical review. (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard


    Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review.

  18. Effectiveness of tai chi for Parkinson's disease: a critical review. (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lam, Paul; Ernst, Edzard


    The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of tai chi as a treatment option for Parkinson's disease (PD). We have searched the literature using 21 databases from their inceptions to January 2008, without language restrictions. We included all types of clinical studies regardless of their design. Their methodological quality was assessed using the modified Jadad score. Of the seven studies included, one randomised clinical trial (RCT) found tai chi to be superior to conventional exercise in terms of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) and prevention of falls. Another RCT found no effects of tai chi on locomotor ability compared with qigong. The third RCT failed to show effects of tai chi on the UPDRS and the PD Questionnaires compared with wait list control. The remaining studies were either non-randomised (n=1) or uncontrolled clinical trials (n=3). Collectively these data show that RCTs of the tai chi for PD are feasible but scarce. Most investigations suffer from methodological flaws such as inadequate study design, poor reporting of results, small sample size, and publication without appropriate peer review process. In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to suggest tai chi is an effective intervention for PD. Further research is required to investigate whether there are specific benefits of tai chi for people with PD, such as its potential effect on balance and on the frequency of falls.

  19. Superhydrophobic drag reduction in laminar flows: a critical review (United States)

    Lee, Choongyeop; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Jin


    A gas in between micro- or nanostructures on a submerged superhydrophobic (SHPo) surface allows the liquid on the structures to flow with an effective slip. If large enough, this slippage may entail a drag reduction appreciable for many flow systems. However, the large discrepancies among the slippage levels reported in the literature have led to a widespread misunderstanding on the drag-reducing ability of SHPo surfaces. Today we know that the amount of slip, generally quantified with a slip length, is mainly determined by the structural features of SHPo surfaces, such as the pitch, solid fraction, and pattern type, and further affected by secondary factors, such as the state of the liquid-gas interface. Reviewing the experimental data of laminar flows in the literature comprehensively and comparing them with the theoretical predictions, we provide a global picture of the liquid slip on structured surfaces to assist in rational design of SHPo surfaces for drag reduction. Because the trapped gas, called plastron, vanishes along with its slippage effect in most application conditions, lastly we discuss the recent efforts to prevent its loss. This review is limited to laminar flows, for which the SHPo drag reduction is reasonably well understood.

  20. Use of recycled plastics in concrete: A critical review. (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay


    Plastics have become an essential part of our modern lifestyle, and the global plastic production has increased immensely during the past 50years. This has contributed greatly to the production of plastic-related waste. Reuse of waste and recycled plastic materials in concrete mix as an environmental friendly construction material has drawn attention of researchers in recent times, and a large number of studies reporting the behavior of concrete containing waste and recycled plastic materials have been published. This paper summarizes the current published literature until 2015, discussing the material properties and recycling methods of plastic and the influence of plastic materials on the properties of concrete. To provide a comprehensive review, a total of 84 studies were considered, and they were classified into sub categories based on whether they dealt with concrete containing plastic aggregates or plastic fibers. Furthermore, the morphology of concrete containing plastic materials is described in this paper to explain the influence of plastic aggregates and plastic fibers on the properties of concrete. The properties of concretes containing virgin plastic materials were also reviewed to establish their similarities and differences with concrete containing recycled plastics.

  1. Bioethical considerations about water fluoridation: a critical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Quinteros


    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the oral pathologies with greater burden of disease in the Chilean population. Fluoridation of drinking water has been used as a caries prevention strategy. However, its application as a public policy has been questioned since its implementation. The aim of this article is to analyze whether fluoridation of drinking water is a justified measure in reducing the incidence and prevalence of caries from the perspective of bioethics, taking into account the current evidence on its effectiveness. The arguments reviewed are based on the belief that water fluoridation is effective and, in general terms, ethically acceptable. A recent systematic review concludes that there is not enough evidence to support fluoridation as a public policy. There is a gap of knowledge that ought to be closed so that public health authorities can assess the significance of the intervention and make a democratic decision on its continuation or suspension based on scientific evidence. This decision should be informed and disseminated within the community.

  2. Nanofluidic technology for biomolecule applications: a critical review. (United States)

    Napoli, M; Eijkel, J C T; Pennathur, S


    In this review, we present nanofluidic phenomena, particularly as they relate to applications involving analysis of biomolecules within nanofabricated devices. The relevant length scales and physical phenomena that govern biomolecule transport and manipulation within nanofabricated nanofluidic devices are reviewed, the advantages of nanofabricated devices are presented, and relevant applications are cited. Characteristic length scales include the Debye length, the Van der Waals radius, the action distance of hydrogen bonding, the slip length, and macromolecular dimensions. On the basis of the characteristic lengths and related nanofluidic phenomena, a nanofluidic toolbox will be assembled. Nanofluidic phenomena that affect biomolecule behavior within such devices can include ion depletion and enrichment, modified velocity and mobility, permselectivity, steric hindrance, entropy, adsorption, and hydrodynamic interaction. The complex interactions and coupled physics of such phenomena allow for many applications, including biomolecule separation, concentration, reaction/hybridization, sequencing (in the case of DNA) and detection. Examples of devices for such applications will be presented, followed by a discussion of near-term challenges and future thoughts for the field.

  3. Errorless learning in cognitive rehabilitation: a critical review. (United States)

    Middleton, Erica L; Schwartz, Myrna F


    Cognitive rehabilitation research is increasingly exploring errorless learning interventions, which prioritise the avoidance of errors during treatment. The errorless learning approach was originally developed for patients with severe anterograde amnesia, who were deemed to be at particular risk for error learning. Errorless learning has since been investigated in other memory-impaired populations (e.g., Alzheimer's disease) and acquired aphasia. In typical errorless training, target information is presented to the participant for study or immediate reproduction, a method that prevents participants from attempting to retrieve target information from long-term memory (i.e., retrieval practice). However, assuring error elimination by preventing difficult (and error-permitting) retrieval practice is a potential major drawback of the errorless approach. This review begins with discussion of research in the psychology of learning and memory that demonstrates the importance of difficult (and potentially errorful) retrieval practice for robust learning and prolonged performance gains. We then review treatment research comparing errorless and errorful methods in amnesia and aphasia, where only the latter provides (difficult) retrieval practice opportunities. In each clinical domain we find the advantage of the errorless approach is limited and may be offset by the therapeutic potential of retrieval practice. Gaps in current knowledge are identified that preclude strong conclusions regarding a preference for errorless treatments over methods that prioritise difficult retrieval practice. We offer recommendations for future research aimed at a strong test of errorless learning treatments, which involves direct comparison with methods where retrieval practice effects are maximised for long-term gains.

  4. Using Dyes for Evaluating Photocatalytic Properties: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malka Rochkind


    Full Text Available This brief review aims at analyzing the use of dyestuffs for evaluating the photocatalytic properties of novel photocatalysts. It is shown that the use of dyes as predictors for photocatalytic activity has its roots in the pre visible-light activity era, when the aim was to treat effluents streams containing hazardous dyes. The main conclusion of this review is that, in general, dyes are inappropriate as model compounds for the evaluation of photocatalytic activity of novel photocatalysts claimed to operate under visible light. Their main advantage, the ability to use UV-Vis spectroscopy, is severely limited by a variety of factors, most of which are related to the presence of other species. The presence of a second mechanism, sensitization, diminishes the generality required from a model contaminant used for testing a novel photocatalyst. While it is recommended not to use dyes for general testing of novel photocatalysts, it is still understandable that a model system consisting of a dye and a semiconductor can be of large importance if the degradation of a specific dye is the main aim of the research, or, alternatively, if the abilities of a specific dye to induce the degradation of a different type of contaminant are under study.

  5. Critical Discourse Analysis in Education: A Review of the Literature, 2004 to 2012 (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda; Schott, Christopher; O'Brien, Kathryn; Trigos-Carrillo, Lina; Starkey, Kim; Chasteen, Cynthia Carter


    This article reviews critical discourse analysis scholarship in education research from 2004 to 2012. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases. Second, we completed an analytic review template for each article and encoded these data into a digital spreadsheet to assess macro-trends in the field.…

  6. Tablet Use in Schools: A Critical Review of the Evidence for Learning Outcomes (United States)

    Haßler, B.; Major, L.; Hennessy, S.


    The increased popularity of tablets in general has led to uptake in education. We critically review the literature reporting use of tablets by primary and secondary school children across the curriculum, with a particular emphasis on learning outcomes. The systematic review methodology was used, and our literature search resulted in 33 relevant…

  7. 78 FR 73202 - Review and Revision of the National Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience (NCISR... (United States)


    ... Infrastructure Security and Resilience. As part of a comprehensive national review process, DHS solicits public... infrastructure. Input is welcome from stakeholder groups, private and public entities, and individuals on content... SECURITY Review and Revision of the National Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience...

  8. Critical Contextual Reviews and Development of Interpretive Materials with Teachers in Kenya (United States)

    Atiti, Abel Barasa


    This paper shares findings from a recent study that engaged a group of Kenyan teachers in a review and development of interpretive materials through a participatory action research framework. It focuses on critical contextual reviews of interpretive materials in non-formal organisations and development of similar materials in schools with…

  9. Interdisciplinary Care Planning and the Written Care Plan in Nursing Homes: A Critical Review (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen


    Purpose: This article is a critical review of the history, research evidence, and state-of-the-art technology in interdisciplinary care planning and the written plan of care in American nursing homes. Design and Methods: We reviewed educational and empirical literature. Results: Interdisciplinary care planning and the written care plan are…

  10. Peer-to-Peer Teaching in Higher Education: A Critical Literature Review (United States)

    Stigmar, Martin


    The aim of my critical literature review is to identify studies where students are engaged as partners in teaching in higher education and to analyze how tutors and tutees benefit from peer teaching. Thirty studies were included for review. Thirteen countries are represented and two thirds of the studies conducted in the United States of America…

  11. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.


    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  12. School Uniforms: A Critical Review of the Literature. From Inquiry to Practice. (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    The debate surrounding the effectiveness of school-uniform policies, as well as discussions concerning when and how to implement them, is rooted in anecdote. This review summarizes anecdotal literature on which the current debate is based and critically reviews the empirical literature, including theoretical underpinnings, findings, and…

  13. Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review. (United States)

    Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues


    The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence.

  14. Beethoven recordings reviewed: a systematic method for mapping the content of music performance criticism. (United States)

    Alessandri, Elena; Williamson, Victoria J; Eiholzer, Hubert; Williamon, Aaron


    Critical reviews offer rich data that can be used to investigate how musical experiences are conceptualized by expert listeners. However, these data also present significant challenges in terms of organization, analysis, and interpretation. This study presents a new systematic method for examining written responses to music, tested on a substantial corpus of music criticism. One hundred critical reviews of Beethoven's piano sonata recordings, published in the Gramophone between August 1934 and July 2010, were selected using in-depth data reduction (qualitative/quantitative approach). The texts were then examined using thematic analysis in order to generate a visual descriptive model of expert critical review. This model reveals how the concept of evaluation permeates critical review. It also distinguishes between two types of descriptors. The first characterizes the performance in terms of specific actions or features of the musical sound (musical parameters, technique, and energy); the second appeals to higher-order properties (artistic style, character and emotion, musical structure, communicativeness) or assumed performer qualities (understanding, intentionality, spontaneity, sensibility, control, and care). The new model provides a methodological guide and conceptual basis for future studies of critical review in any genre.

  15. Usability and acceptability of balance exergames in older adults: A scoping review. (United States)

    Nawaz, Ather; Skjæret, Nina; Helbostad, Jorunn Lægdheim; Vereijken, Beatrix; Boulton, Elisabeth; Svanaes, Dag


    Serious games (exergames) have the potential to be effective for postural balance and increasing muscle strength. Several games have been developed to increase physical fitness and balance among older adults. However, it is unclear to which degree usability and acceptability of exergames for older adults have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to summarize usability evaluation and acceptability of studies in older adults. We conducted a scoping review on studies focusing on usability of exergames for older adults. The result shows that older adults consider usability and acceptability of exercise video games good. The review shows that longitudinal studies mainly use off-the-shelf exergame and evaluated game effectiveness and acceptability, whereas cross-sectional studies focus on interactional experience. Studies varied in their approaches to measure usability and acceptability of exergames for older adults. There is a need for a systematic developmental approach to involve older adults in development of exergames for longitudinal studies.

  16. Physical activity and older adults: a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.H.; Cable, N.T.; Faulkner, G.; Hillsdon, M.; Narici, M.; Bij, A.K. van der


    The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical

  17. Physical activity and older adults : a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, AH; Cable, NT; Faulkner, G; Hillsdon, M; Narici, M


    The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical

  18. A critical review on sustainability assessment of recycled water schemes. (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan


    Recycled water provides a viable opportunity to supplement water supplies as well as alleviate environmental loads. To further expand current schemes and explore new recycled water end uses, this study reviews several environmental assessment tools, including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA) and Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) in terms of their types, characteristics and weaknesses in evaluating the sustainability of recycled water schemes. Due to the limitations in individual models, the integrated approaches are recommended in most cases, of which the outputs could be further combined with additional economic and social assessments in multi-criteria decision making framework. The study also proposes several management strategies in improving the environmental scores. The discussion and suggestions could help decision makers in making a sound judgement as well as recognising the challenges and tasks in the future.

  19. Economic evaluations of childhood influenza vaccination: a critical review. (United States)

    Newall, Anthony T; Jit, Mark; Beutels, Philippe


    The potential benefits of influenza vaccination programmes targeted at children have gained increasing attention in recent years. We conducted a literature search of economic evaluations of influenza vaccination in those aged ≤18 years. The search revealed 20 relevant articles, which were reviewed. The studies differed widely in terms of the costs and benefits that were included. The conclusions were generally favourable for vaccination, but often applied a wider perspective (i.e. including productivity losses) than the reference case for economic evaluations used in many countries. Several evaluations estimated outcomes from a single-year epidemiological study, which may limit their validity given the year-to-year variation in influenza transmissibility, virulence, vaccine match and prior immunity. Only one study used a dynamic transmission model able to fully incorporate the indirect herd protection to the wider community. The use of dynamic models offers great scope to capture the population-wide implications of seasonal vaccination efforts, particularly those targeted at children.

  20. A Critical Review on Superchilling Preservation Technology in Aquatic Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chun-hua; YUan Chun-hong; YE Xing-qian; HU Ya-qin; CHEn Shi-guo; and LiU Dong-hong


    aquatic product, known as one of the good resources for white meat, has been widely accepted by the consumers due to its high protein, low fat, especially low cholesterol. With the fast development of living standards around the world, the consumer demands for high quality, nutrition, safety and freshness of ifshery food are increasing. Thus, high efifcient preservation technologies for aquatic products become particularly important. Superchilling is one of the controlled-temperature preservation technologies for seafood. Aquatic products can be kept in better quality under superchilling conditions. This review introduced the principle and development of superchilling process, mainly focusing on research progresses and technical dififculties of superchilling. The growth mechanism of ice crystals and the feasibility of application of computational lfuid dynamics in analyzing the temperatures variation and ice crystals during superchilling progress were also discussed, which will provide theoretical foundation for its improvement and application.

  1. Assessing proprioception:A critical review of methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Han; Gordon Waddington; Roger Adams; Judith Anson; Yu Liu


    To control movement, the brain has to integrate proprioceptive information from a variety of mechanoreceptors. The role of proprioception in daily activities, exercise,and sports has been extensively investigated, using different techniques, yet the proprioceptive mechanisms underlying human movement control are still unclear. In the current work we have reviewed understanding of proprioception and the three testing methods: threshold to detection of passive motion, joint position reproduction, and active movement extent discrimination, all of which have been used for assessing proprioception. The origin of the methods, the different testing apparatus, and the procedures and protocols used in each approach are compared and discussed. Recommendations are made for choosing an appropriate technique when assessing proprioceptive mechanisms in different contexts.

  2. Language abilities in Williams syndrome: a critical review. (United States)

    Brock, Jon


    Williams syndrome is a rare genetic disorder in which, it is claimed, language abilities are relatively strong despite mild to moderate mental retardation. Such claims have, in turn, been interpreted as evidence either for modular preservation of language or for atypical constraints on cognitive development. However, this review demonstrates that there is, in fact, little evidence that syntax, morphology, phonology, or pragmatics are any better than predicted by nonverbal ability, although performance on receptive vocabulary tests is relatively good. Similarly, claims of an imbalance between good phonology and impaired or atypical lexical semantics are without strong support. There is, nevertheless, consistent evidence for specific deficits in spatial language that mirror difficulties in nonverbal spatial cognition, as well as some tentative evidence that early language acquisition proceeds atypically. Implications for modular and neuroconstructivist accounts of language development are discussed.

  3. A critical review of physiological bubble formation in hyperbaric decompression. (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Eckersley, Robert J; Balestra, Costantino; Karapantsios, Thodoris D; Tang, Meng-Xing


    Bubbles are known to form in the body after scuba dives, even those done well within the decompression model limits. These can sometimes trigger decompression sickness and the dive protocols should therefore aim to limit bubble formation and growth from hyperbaric decompression. Understanding these processes physiologically has been a challenge for decades and there are a number of questions still unanswered. The physics and historical background of this field of study is presented and the latest studies and current developments reviewed. Heterogeneous nucleation is shown to remain the prime candidate for bubble formation in this context. The two main theories to account for micronuclei stability are then to consider hydrophobicity of surfaces or tissue elasticity, both of which could also explain some physiological observations. Finally the modeling relevance of the bubble formation process is discussed, together with that of bubble growth as well as multiple bubble behavior.

  4. China's Total Emission Control Policy: a Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Chazhong; Chen Ji; Wang Jinnan; Long Feng


    As part of a comprehensive environmental management system, many countries establish emission control targets for mass emissions of a pollutant.Such targets are often the key objective of an environmental policy, such as an emission trading program.In China, however, it is more than just an objective of one particular policy; it has become a concept that has influenced many national environmental policies and activities.The objective of this article is to review the implementation of the total emission control policy in the past 10 years and explore emerging issues in its implementa-tion.The article has three sections: a summary of the implementa-tion experience, issues with the design and implementation of the policy, and policy recommendations.

  5. Black Phosphorus: Critical Review and Potential for Water Splitting Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Lee


    Full Text Available A century after its first synthesis in 1914, black phosphorus has been attracting significant attention as a promising two-dimensional material in recent years due to its unique properties. Nowadays, with the development of its exfoliation method, there are extensive applications of black phosphorus in transistors, batteries and optoelectronics. Though, because of its hardship in mass production and stability problems, the potential of the black phosphorus in various fields is left unexplored. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of crystal structure, electronic, optical properties and synthesis of black phosphorus. Recent research works about the applications of black phosphorus is summarized. Among them, the possibility of black phosphorous as a solar water splitting photocatalyst is mainly discussed and the feasible novel structure of photocatalysts based on black phosphorous is proposed.

  6. [Schema therapy for personality disorders. A critical review]. (United States)

    Roediger, E; Zarbock, G


    In the 10 years since schema therapy was first recognized in Germany it has become widespread among practitioners and has taken a place among the so-called third wave therapies. The overall goal of schema therapy is conceptualizing and treating personality disorders or traits reinforcing axis I disorders. Early maladaptive schemas result from a child's unmet emotional core needs. In a limited reparenting therapy relationship these interpersonal situations are re-experienced and rescripted under the therapist's control. Schema therapy integrates elements of existing models and techniques into a consistent case conceptualization as the bedrock for understanding and changing maladaptive coping behavior. This review article gives a comprehensive overview about the model, the therapy relationship and the application of the experiential techniques in relation to already developed approaches (including the current evidence). The strengths and weaknesses are briefly discussed.

  7. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review. (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li


    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process.

  8. Are the dental health needs of adults with illegal drug dependence being met by current service provision in the United Kingdom?: a literature review. (United States)

    Hewson, Victoria; Wray, Jane


    This literature review outlines the current issues and debates relating to the dental health of adults with drug dependence. The dental health of adults with illegal drug dependence (IDD) continues to be under debate throughout dental practice, and the most appropriate model of care suitable to meet the high complex needs of this client group remains uncertain. The study aims to review and critically analyze available research relating to the oral health effects of illegal drug misuse and the dental health needs and status of adults with drug dependence. Second, it aims to identify and critically evaluate current models of dental service/care delivery, including relevant best practice guidance and potential barriers to dental access for adults with IDD. The available literature pertaining to dental health and adults with drug dependence are systematically reviewed and critically analyzed and evaluated in order to execute a rigorous investigation. The oral effects along with general medical complications associated with IDD are increasingly being recognized. There are substantive negative effects of IDD on oral health, particularly for those with opioid dependence; therefore, these clients have high complex dental needs and low use of dental services. Adults with drug dependence comprise a group with special dental needs and therefore need greater access to dental care than most people due to their high level of need. A high awareness of the implications for oral health care for adults with drug dependence is essential. Dental professionals have a key role in supporting the rehabilitation of these patients from potentially severe or fatal addictions. There is a distinct lack of national policy and guidance relating specifically to adults with drug dependence, and therefore, problems persist. Key findings and recommendations are presented to enhance the development of dental services for adults with IDD.

  9. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity. (United States)

    Sheets, Larry P; Li, Abby A; Minnema, Daniel J; Collier, Richard H; Creek, Moire R; Peffer, Richard C


    A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood-brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of action and potential exposure with agricultural and residential uses. This review identified in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiology studies in the literature and studies performed in rats in accordance with GLP standards and EPA guidelines with imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, which are all the neonicotinoids currently registered in major markets. For the guideline-based studies, treatment was administered via the diet or gavage to primiparous female rats at three dose levels, plus a vehicle control (≥20/dose level), from gestation day 0 or 6 to lactation day 21. F1 males and females were evaluated using measures of motor activity, acoustic startle response, cognition, brain morphometry, and neuropathology. The principal effects in F1 animals were associated with decreased body weight (delayed sexual maturation, decreased brain weight, and morphometric measurements) and acute toxicity (decreased activity during exposure) at high doses, without neuropathology or impaired cognition. No common effects were identified among the neonicotinoids that were consistent with DNT or the neurodevelopmental effects associated with nicotine. Findings at high doses were associated with evidence of systemic toxicity, which indicates that these insecticides do not selectively affect the developing nervous system.

  10. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: A critical review. (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart


    In this report we review the range of teaching resources and strategies used in anatomy education with the aim of coming up with suggestions about the best teaching practices in this area. There is much debate about suitable methods of delivering anatomical knowledge. Competent clinicians, particularly surgeons, need a deep understanding of anatomy for safe clinical procedures. However, because students have had very limited exposure to anatomy during clinical training, there is a concern that medical students are ill-prepared in anatomy when entering clerkships and residency programs. Therefore, developing effective modalities for teaching anatomy is essential to safe medical practice. Cadaver-based instruction has survived as the main instructional tool for hundreds of years, however, there are differing views on whether full cadaver dissection is still appropriate for a modern undergraduate training. The limitations on curricular time, trained anatomy faculty and resources for gross anatomy courses in integrated or/and system-based curricula, have led many medical schools to abandon costly and time-consuming dissection-based instruction in favour of alternative methods of instruction including prosection, medical imaging, living anatomy and multimedia resources. To date, no single teaching tool has been found to meet curriculum requirements. The best way to teach modern anatomy is by combining multiple pedagogical resources to complement one another, students appear to learn more effectively when multimodal and system-based approaches are integrated. Our review suggests that certain professions would have more benefit from certain educational methods or strategies than others. Full body dissection would be best reserved for medical students, especially those with surgical career intentions, while teaching based on prosections and plastination is more suitable for dental, pharmacy and allied health science students. There is a need to direct future research

  11. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction in food analysis. A critical review. (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; López-García, Ignacio; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel


    An extensive critical evaluation of the application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with chromatographic and atomic-spectroscopic methods for the determination of organic and inorganic compounds is presented. The review emphasizes the procedures used for the prior treatment of food samples, which are very different from the DLLME procedures generally proposed for water samples. The main contribution of this work in the field of DLLME reviews is its critical review of the abundant literature showing the increasing interest and practical advantages of using DLLME and closely related microextraction techniques for food analysis.

  12. A critical review of PASBio's argument structures for biomedical verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen K Bretonnel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propositional representations of biomedical knowledge are a critical component of most aspects of semantic mining in biomedicine. However, the proper set of propositions has yet to be determined. Recently, the PASBio project proposed a set of propositions and argument structures for biomedical verbs. This initial set of representations presents an opportunity for evaluating the suitability of predicate-argument structures as a scheme for representing verbal semantics in the biomedical domain. Here, we quantitatively evaluate several dimensions of the initial PASBio propositional structure repository. Results We propose a number of metrics and heuristics related to arity, role labelling, argument realization, and corpus coverage for evaluating large-scale predicate-argument structure proposals. We evaluate the metrics and heuristics by applying them to PASBio 1.0. Conclusion PASBio demonstrates the suitability of predicate-argument structures for representing aspects of the semantics of biomedical verbs. Metrics related to theta-criterion violations and to the distribution of arguments are able to detect flaws in semantic representations, given a set of predicate-argument structures and a relatively small corpus annotated with them.

  13. Thermochemical energy storage : critical review and recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji Abedin, A.; Rosen, M.A. [University of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science


    The global increase in energy demand and environmental concerns are promoting the use of more efficient and cleaner energy technologies. Examples include advanced systems for waste energy recovery and energy integration. Thermochemical thermal energy storage (TES) is an emerging method with the potential for high energy density storage. It is not yet commercial and research and development is needed to better understand and design the technology and to resolve other practical aspects before commercial implementation can occur. TES is an advanced technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. This paper presented the principles of thermochemical TES and recent advances. Thermochemical TES was also critically assessed and compared with other TES types. The advantages and disadvantages of thermochemical TES were also considered as they relate to other TES types. It was concluded that thermochemical TES has the highest potential to achieve the required compact thermal energy storage where space is limited. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. The Critically Ill Kidney Transplant Recipient: A Narrative Review. (United States)

    Canet, Emmanuel; Zafrani, Lara; Azoulay, Élie


    Kidney transplantation is the most common solid organ transplantation performed worldwide. Up to 6% of kidney transplant recipients experience a life-threatening complication that requires ICU admission, chiefly in the late posttransplantation period (≥ 6 months). Acute respiratory failure and septic shock are the main reasons for ICU admission. Cardiac pulmonary edema, bacterial pneumonia, acute graft pyelonephritis, and bloodstream infections account for the vast majority of diagnoses in the ICU. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is the most common opportunistic infection, and one-half of the patients so infected require mechanical ventilation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus visceral infections in the era of preemptive therapy has dramatically decreased. Drug-related neutropenia, sirolimus-related pneumonitis, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome are among the most common immunosuppression-associated toxic effects. Importantly, the impact of critical illness on graft function is worrisome. Throughout the ICU stay, acute kidney injury is common, and about 40% of the recipients require renal replacement therapy. One-half of the patients are discharged alive and free from dialysis. Hospital mortality can reach 30% and correlates with acute illness severity and reason for ICU admission. Transplant characteristics are not predictors of short-term survival. Graft survival depends on pre-ICU graft function, disease severity, and renal toxicity of ICU investigations and treatments.

  15. Systematic review: The relation between nutrition and nosocomial pneumonia: randomized trials in critically ill patients


    Cook, Deborah; De Jonghe, Bernard; Heyland, Daren


    Objective To review the effect of enteral nutrition on nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients as summarized in randomized clinical trials. Study identification and selection Studies were identified through MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, bibliographies of primary and review articles, and personal files. Through duplicate independent review, we selected randomized trials evaluating approaches to nutrition and their relation to nosocomial pneumonia. Data abstraction I...

  16. Adult T-cell leukemia: a review of epidemiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako eIwanaga


    Full Text Available Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1 infection and often occurs in HTLV-1-endemic areas, such as southwestern Japan, the Caribbean islands, Central and South America, Intertropical Africa, and Middle East. To date, many epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence of ATL among general population or HTLV-1 carriers and to identify a variety of laboratory, molecular, and host-specific markers to be possible predictive factors for developing ATL because HTLV-1 infection alone is not sufficient to develop ATL. This literature review focuses on the epidemiology of ATL and the risk factors for the development of ATL from HTLV-1 carriers, while keeping information on the epidemiology of HTLV-1 to a minimum. The main lines of epidemiological evidence are: (1 ATL occurs mostly in adults, at least 20–30 years after the HTLV-1 infection, (2 age at onset differs across geographic areas: the average age in the Central and South America (around 40 years old is younger than that in Japan (around 60 years old, (3 ATL occurs in those infected in childhood, but seldom occurs in those infected in adulthood, (4 male carriers have about a 3–5 fold higher risk of developing ATL than female, (5 the estimated life-time risk of developing ATL in HTLV-1 carriers is 6–7% for men and 2–3% for women in Japan, (6 a low anti-Tax reactivity, a high soluble interleukin-2 receptor level, a high anti-HTLV-1 titer, and high levels of circulating abnormal lymphocytes and white blood cell count are accepted risk factors for the development of ATL, and (7 a higher proviral load (more than 4 copies/100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells is an independent risk factor for progression of ATL. Nevertheless, the current epidemiological evidence is insufficient to fully understand the relationship between HTLV-1 infection and ATL. Further well-designed epidemiological studies

  17. Judicial Performance Review in Arizona: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca White Berch


    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluations are a relatively new tool for assessing judges and providing information to voters to help them determine whether to retain judges in contested or retention elections. Arizona implemented its judicial evaluation program about 20 years ago, and since that time, the state has continually strived to improve its process. The result is that today Arizona has one of the most progressive and comprehensive judicial performance evaluation programs in the United States. This article takes a critical look at the strengths and weaknesses of Arizona’s program, keeping in mind two key values that the system seeks to protect: judicial accountability and judicial independence. Las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial son una herramienta relativamente nueva para evaluar a los jueces y ofrecer información a los votantes, que les ayude a decidir si quieren reelegir a los jueces en las elecciones. Arizona implementó su programa de evaluación judicial hace unos 20 años, y desde ese momento, el Estado se ha esforzado continuamente en mejorar el proceso. El resultado es que hoy en día, Arizona tiene uno de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial más progresistas e integrales de los Estados Unidos. Este artículo ofrece una mirada crítica a las fortalezas y debilidades del programa de Arizona, teniendo en cuenta dos valores clave que el sistema trata de proteger: la responsabilidad judicial y la independencia judicial. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN:

  18. Comparison of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium in critically ill patients: a protocol for a systematic review incorporating network meta-analyses


    Burry, L.D.; Hutton, B.; Guenette, M.; Williamson, D; Mehta, S; Egerod, I.; Kanji, S; N.K. Adhikari; Moher, D.; C.M. Martin; Rose, L


    Background Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adverse consequences for both patients and the healthcare system; however, at this time, no effective treatment exists. The identification of effective prevention strategies is therefore a clinical and research imperative. An important limitation of previous reviews of delirium pr...

  19. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches. (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B


    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation.

  20. Progress in chemical luminescence-based biosensors: A critical review. (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Di Fusco, Massimo; Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Roda, Barbara; Simoni, Patrizia


    Biosensors are a very active research field. They have the potential to lead to low-cost, rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and miniaturized bioanalytical devices, which exploit the high binding avidity and selectivity of biospecific binding molecules together with highly sensitive detection principles. Of the optical biosensors, those based on chemical luminescence detection (including chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, electrogenerated chemiluminescence, and thermochemiluminescence) are particularly attractive, due to their high-to-signal ratio and the simplicity of the required measurement equipment. Several biosensors based on chemical luminescence have been described for quantitative, and in some cases multiplex, analysis of organic molecules (such as hormones, drugs, pollutants), proteins, and nucleic acids. These exploit a variety of miniaturized analytical formats, such as microfluidics, microarrays, paper-based analytical devices, and whole-cell biosensors. Nevertheless, despite the high analytical performances described in the literature, the field of chemical luminescence biosensors has yet to demonstrate commercial success. This review presents the main recent advances in the field and discusses the approaches, challenges, and open issues, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing chemical luminescence biosensors and improving their commercial exploitation.

  1. Biomedical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes: A Critical Review. (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K


    The convergence of nano and biotechnology is enabling scientific and technical knowledge for improving human well being. Carbon nanotubes have become most fascinating material to be studied and unveil new avenues in the field of nanobiotechnology. The nanometer size and high aspect ratio of the CNTs are the two distinct features, which have contributed to diverse biomedical applications. They have captured the attention as nanoscale materials due to their nanometric structure and remarkable list of superlative and extravagant properties that encouraged their exploitation for promising applications. Significant progress has been made in order to overcome some of the major hurdles towards biomedical application of nanomaterials, especially on issues regarding the aqueous solubility/dispersion and safety of CNTs. Functionalized CNTs have been used in drug targeting, imaging, and in the efficient delivery of gene and nucleic acids. CNTs have also demonstrated great potential in diverse biomedical uses like drug targeting, imaging, cancer treatment, tissue regeneration, diagnostics, biosensing, genetic engineering and so forth. The present review highlights the possible potential of CNTs in diagnostics, imaging and targeted delivery of bioactives and also outlines the future opportunities for biomedical applications.

  2. Anthropogenic cycles of the elements: a critical review. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Graedel, T E


    A cycle is the quantitative characterization of the flows of a specific material into, within, and from a given system. An anthropogenic elemental cycle can be static (for a point in time) or dynamic (over a time interval). The about 350 publications collected for this review contain a total of 1074 individual cycle determinations, 989 static and 85 dynamic, for 59 elements; more than 90% of the publications have appeared since 2000. The cycles are of varying quality and completeness, with about 80% at country- or territory-level, addressing 45 elements, and 5% at global-level, addressing 30 elements. Despite their limitations, cycles have often been successful in revealing otherwise unknown information. Most of the elements for which no cycles exist are radioactively unstable or are used rarely and in small amounts. For a variety of reasons, the anthropogenic cycles of only perhaps a dozen elements are well characterized. For all the others, with cycles limited or nonexistent, our knowledge of types of uses, lifetimes in those uses, international trade, losses to the environment, and rates of recycling is quite limited, thereby making attempts to evaluate resource sustainability particularly problematic.

  3. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok


    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  4. Strategic learning and information and communication technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Monerero Font


    Full Text Available 0 0 1 93 514 USAL 4 1 606 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This article presents an outline of a learning strategy redefinition, based on recent contributions from learning technologies. This new definition addresses the question of how technological affordances of the software, of the technological tools, or an educational environment, allow a learner or a group of learners develop a new ways to perform a strategic learning action. We review how different characteristics of learning strategy definition have been transformed because of introduction of ICT into education. Finally, the article points toward conceptual challenges and future research questions.

  5. Synaesthesia and learning: A critical review and novel theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Robert Watson


    Full Text Available Learning and synaesthesia are profoundly interconnected. On the one hand, the development of synaesthesia is clearly influenced by learning. Synaesthetic inducers—the stimuli that evoke these unusual experiences—often involve the perception of complex properties learned in early childhood, e.g. letters, musical notes, numbers, months of the year and even swimming strokes. Further, recent research has shown that the associations individual synaesthetes make with these learned inducers are not arbitrary, but are strongly influenced by the structure of the learnt do- main. For instance, the synaesthetic colours of letters are partially determined by letter frequency and the relative positions of letters in the alphabet. On the other hand, there is also a small, but growing, body of literature which shows that synaesthesia can influence or be helpful in learning. For instance, synaesthetes appear to be able to use their unusual experiences as mnemonic de- vices and can even exploit them while learning novel abstract categories. Here we review these two directions of influence and argue that they are interconnected. We propose that synaesthesia arises, at least in part, because of the cognitive demands of learning in childhood, and that it is used to aid perception and understanding of a variety of learned categories. Our thesis is that the structural similarities between synaesthetic triggering stimuli and synaesthetic experiences are the remnants, the fossilized traces, of past learning challenges for which synasethesia was helpful.

  6. Decolorization of mixture of dyes: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Gupta


    Full Text Available Water plays a vital and essential role in our ecosystem. This natural resource is becoming scarce, making its availability a major social and economic concern. Use of a large variety of synthetic dyes in textile industries has raised an hazardous environmental alert. About 17 - 20% of freshwater pollution is caused by textile effluents. These effluents are recalcitrant to biodegradation and cause acute toxicity to the receiving water bodies, as these comprised of various types of toxic dyes, which are difficult to remove. Decolorisation of textile wastewater is therefore important before releasing it into the nearby local waterways. It therefore becomes essential to degrade the toxic chemicals of textile wastewater, so as to avoid the hazardous environmental effects. Several treatment methods have been employed to embark upon the problem of dye removal but degradation becomes further more difficult for effluents containing dye matrix.  The review study has been an attempt to present the different diversified attempts used for decolorisation of a mixture of dyes.

  7. Oklo. A review and critical evaluation of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterstroem, Lena [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden). Lab. for Isotope Geology


    The Oklo natural fossil fission reactors in Gabon, Equatorial Africa, have been studied as a natural analogue for spent nuclear fuel in a geological environment. For these studies, it is important to know what has happened to these reactors since they formed. This review is focussed on existing geological and geochronological information concerning the Oklo reactors and the surrounding ore. A sequence of geological and geochemical events in the Oklo area, as described in the literature, is given. The data and the studies behind this established geochronology are discussed and evaluated. Of the regional geology, special attention is given to the dating of the Francevillian sediments, and the intrusion of a dolerite dyke swarm. The processes that led to the mineralisation at Oklo, the subsequent formation of the nuclear reactors and later migration of fission products are described. Further discussion concerns the studies of the dolerite dyke swarm, since this appears to be one of the most important events related to fission product migration. A close look at the data related to this event shows that further study of the age of the dolerite dykes, and their effect on the uraninite in the Oklo reactors, is needed.

  8. Geoepidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis: a critical review. (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Takikawa, Hajime


    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown origin, characterized by progressive destruction of bile ducts caused by diffuse inflammation and fibrosis. Previous epidemiological studies in Northern Europe and North America demonstrated that incidence and prevalence rates are ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 and from 3.85 to 16.2 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, respectively. It is of note that the incidence of PSC appears to be gradually increasing. We have extensively reviewed the geoepidemiology of PSC and attempted to place it in context with the incidence in Japan. In 2012, the clinical diagnostic criteria of IgG4-SC were established and published by the Japan Biliary Association, rendering it possible for physicians to clinically differentiate PSC from IgG4-SC. We conducted a new nationwide survey for PSC as well as IgG4-SC, and have identified 197 patients with PSC and 43 patients with IgG4-SC without pancreatic involvement. In this survey we estimated prevalence rate of PSC in Japan as 0.95, lower than those in North America and European countries. Also we identified other unique features of Japanese PSC patients, including 2 peaks in age distribution at diagnosis and fewer presences of comorbid inflammatory bowel diseases, occurring in only 34% of PSC. This data is placed in the perspective of the international experience on PSC.

  9. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna B. Lovati


    Full Text Available Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution.

  10. A Critical Review of Chinese Ethnic Law Studies in 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunwu; Wang Jie; Liao Yanping


    I. Basic Theory of Ethnic Law Studies As a mature discipline,research on the basic theory of ethnic law studies is no longer the focus of research. Nonetheless,this does not deny that it is a research of reflection and transcendence. In 2014,there were also important achievements with regard to this aspect. Concerning theory within the discipline of ethnic law studies,Wu Zongjin made a review on the development process of this disci ̄pline,and stated that the in-depth implementation of ethnic regional autonomy, the design of ethnic law institutions,the guarantee of ethnic rights legis ̄lation,and legal administration on ethnic work,etc. are still the responsibility of this discipline. Con ̄cerning the theory of the rule of law in ethnic are ̄as,it seems that a breakthrough was difficult. In 2014,Li Chao and Wang Huaju proposed a thor ̄ough evaluation of the rule of law in ethnic areas, but stated that this evaluation is facing problems due to the lack of local knowledge and lack of an efficient evaluation methodology and scientific su ̄pervision system. Hence,a concept for a scientific evaluation should be constructed, and local ethnic law resources should be found,and members of the various ethnic groups should participate.

  11. Dietary transition difficulties in preterm infants: critical literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lucchi Pagliaro


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the scientific literature on dietary changes in preterm children during the first years of life. DATA SOURCE: The PubMed database was used for article selection. The texts were analyzed according to their objectives, research design, and research group characteristics. The following were selected to comprise the criteria: (1 publications in the period from 1996 to 2014; (2 participation of infants and children from birth to 10 years of age; (3 development of oral motor skills necessary for feeding; (4 development of the feeding process; and (5 feeding difficulties during childhood. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There were 282 studies identified, of which 17 were used in the review, and five more articles were identified through the reference list of selected articles, totaling 22 references. CONCLUSION: Very low birth weight preterm newborns are more likely to have feeding problems in early postnatal stages and during childhood when compared with full-term infants. Monitoring the feeding of these infants after hospital discharge is strictly recommended in an early intervention program aiming at better development of feeding skills.

  12. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna B.; Bottagisio, Marta; Moretti, Matteo


    Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution. PMID:26880985

  13. A critical review on lithium-air battery electrolytes. (United States)

    Balaish, Moran; Kraytsberg, Alexander; Ein-Eli, Yair


    Metal-air batteries, utilizing the reduction of ambient oxygen, have the highest energy density because most of the cell volume is occupied by the anode while the cathode active material is not stored in the battery. Lithium metal is a tempting anode material for any battery because of its outstanding specific capacity (3842 mA h g(-1) for Li vs. 815 mA h g(-1) for Zn). Combining the high energy density of Li with ambient oxygen seems to be a promising option. Specifically, in all classes of electrolytes, the transformation from Li-O2 to Li-air is still a major challenge as the presence of moisture and CO2 reduces significantly the cell performance due to their strong reaction with Li metal. Thus, the quest for electrolyte systems capable of providing a solution to the imposed challenges due to the use of metallic Li, exposure to the environment and handling the formation of reactive discharged product is still on. This extended Review provides an expanded insight into electrolytes being suggested and researched and also a future vision on challenges and their possible solutions.

  14. [Recommendations for physical exercise practice during pregnancy: a critical review]. (United States)

    do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, João Luiz


    Physical exercise is recommended for all healthy pregnant women. Regular practice of exercises during pregnancy can provide many physical and psychological benefits, with no evidence of adverse outcomes for the fetus or the newborn when exercise is performed at mild to moderate intensity. However, few pregnant women engage in this practice and many still have fears and doubts about the safety of exercise. The objective of the present study was to inform the professionals who provide care for Brazilian pregnant women about the current recommendations regarding physical exercise during pregnancy based on the best scientific evidence available. In view of the perception that few systematic models are available about this topic and after performing several studies in this specific area, we assembled practical information of interest to both the professionals and the pregnant women. We also provide recommendations about the indications, contraindications, modalities (aerobics, resistance training, stretching and pelvic floor training), frequency, intensity and duration indicated for each gestational trimester. The review addresses physical exercise recommendation both for low risk pregnant women and for special populations, such as athletes and obese, hypertensive and diabetic subjects. The advantages of an active and healthy lifestyle should be always reinforced during and after gestation since pregnancy is an appropriate period to introduce new habits because pregnant women are usually more motivated to adhere to recommendations. Thus, routine exams, frequent returns and supervision are recommended in order to provide new guidelines that will have long-term beneficial effects for both mother and child.

  15. Life cycle approaches to sustainable consumption: a critical review. (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G


    The 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg called for a comprehensive set of programs focusing on sustainable consumption and production. According to world leaders, these programs should rely on life cycle assessment (LCA) to promote sustainable patterns of production and consumption. Cleaner production is a well-established activity, and it uses LCA. UNEP, the European Union, and a number of national organizations have now begun to work on sustainable consumption. In developing sustainable consumption policies and activities, the use of LCA presents interesting opportunities that are not yet well understood by policy makers. This paper reviews how life cycle approaches, primarily based on input-output analysis, have been used in the area of sustainable consumption: to inform policy making, select areas of action, identify which lifestyles are more sustainable, advise consumers, and evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable consumption measures. Information on consumption patterns usually comes from consumer expenditure surveys. Different study designs and a better integration with consumer research can provide further interesting insights. Life-cycle approaches still need to be developed and tested. Current research is mostly descriptive; policy makers, however, require more strategic analysis addressing their decision options, including scenario analysis and backcasting.

  16. Wearable Electronics and Smart Textiles: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Stoppa


    Full Text Available Electronic Textiles (e-textiles are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible of becoming tangled or snagged by surrounding objects. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to fast changes in the computational and sensing requirements of any specific application, this one representing a useful feature for power management and context awareness. The vision behind wearable computing foresees future electronic systems to be an integral part of our everyday outfits. Such electronic devices have to meet special requirements concerning wearability. Wearable systems will be characterized by their ability to automatically recognize the activity and the behavioral status of their own user as well as of the situation around her/him, and to use this information to adjust the systems’ configuration and functionality. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of Smart Textiles and pays particular attention to the materials and their manufacturing process. Each technique shows advantages and disadvantages and our aim is to highlight a possible trade-off between flexibility, ergonomics, low power consumption, integration and eventually autonomy.

  17. Wearable electronics and smart textiles: a critical review. (United States)

    Stoppa, Matteo; Chiolerio, Alessandro


    Electronic Textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible of becoming tangled or snagged by surrounding objects. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to fast changes in the computational and sensing requirements of any specific application, this one representing a useful feature for power management and context awareness. The vision behind wearable computing foresees future electronic systems to be an integral part of our everyday outfits. Such electronic devices have to meet special requirements concerning wearability. Wearable systems will be characterized by their ability to automatically recognize the activity and the behavioral status of their own user as well as of the situation around her/him, and to use this information to adjust the systems' configuration and functionality. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of Smart Textiles and pays particular attention to the materials and their manufacturing process. Each technique shows advantages and disadvantages and our aim is to highlight a possible trade-off between flexibility, ergonomics, low power consumption, integration and eventually autonomy.

  18. Time discounting and time preference in animals: A critical review. (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y


    Animals are an important model for studies of impulsivity and self-control. Many studies have made use of the intertemporal choice task, which pits small rewards available sooner against larger rewards available later (typically several seconds), repeated over many trials. Preference for the sooner reward is often taken to indicate impulsivity and/or a failure of self-control. This review shows that very little evidence supports this assumption; on the contrary, ostensible discounting behavior may reflect a boundedly rational but not necessarily impulsive reward-maximizing strategy. Specifically, animals may discount weakly, or even adopt a long-term rate-maximizing strategy, but fail to fully incorporate postreward delays into their choices. This failure may reflect learning biases. Consequently, tasks that measure animal discounting may greatly overestimate the true discounting and may be confounded by processes unrelated to time preferences. If so, animals may be much more patient than is widely believed; human and animal intertemporal choices may reflect unrelated mental operations; and the shared hyperbolic shape of the human and animal discount curves, which is used to justify cross-species comparisons, may be coincidental. The discussion concludes with a consideration of alternative ways to measure self-control in animals.

  19. Critical review and perspective of macromolecularly imprinted polymers. (United States)

    Kryscio, David R; Peppas, Nicholas A


    Molecular recognition is a fundamental and ubiquitous process that is the driving force behind life. Natural recognition elements - including antibodies, enzymes, nucleic acids, and cells - exploit non-covalent interactions to bind to their targets with exceptionally strong affinities. Due to this unparalleled proficiency, scientists have long sought to mimic natural recognition pathways. One promising approach is molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), which are fully synthetic systems formed via the crosslinking of organic polymers in the presence of a template molecule, which results in stereo-specific binding sites for this analyte of interest. Macromolecularly imprinted polymers, those synthesized in the presence of macromolecule templates (>1500 Da), are of particular importance because they open up the field for a whole new set of robust diagnostic tools. Although the specific recognition of small-molecular-weight analytes is now considered routine, extension of these efficacious procedures to the protein regime has, thus far, proved challenging. This paper reviews the main approaches employed, highlights studies of interest with an emphasis on recent work, and offers suggestions for future success in the field of macromolecularly imprinted polymers.

  20. Attention and syntax in sentence production: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Scheepers


    Full Text Available People often speak about visually perceived events that unfold in real time. In doing so speakers regularly translate the details of the visual world they describe onto the grammatical properties of the sentences about it. For example, the speaker needs to map her constantly changing attentional state onto the syntactic plan of the produced sentences. The present paper briefly discusses what attention is, explores methods for the co-activation of attentional and syntactic operations during the production of visually-mediated sentences in languages with different syntactic properties, and reviews the evidence for a regular link between the speaker’s choice of sentential structure and the distribution of the speaker’s attention to the event’s referents. Also, it discusses evidence for interactive properties of attentional and other types of priming on the speaker’s syntactic choice. Based on reviewed literature, we conclude that attention plays a crucial role in directing lexical and grammatical choices in human discourse. At the same time, the organization of the language’s grammar reciprocates this influence by constraining the extent to which the distribution of attention can affect the real-time syntactic choices. Finally, we discuss how attentional priming engages in complex interactions with other priming effects: it interacts with lexical priming but not with syntactic priming, supporting an encapsulated view of sentence formulation.On parle souvent des événements alors qu’on est en train de les percevoir visuellement. Les locuteurs doivent alors projeter les détails du monde visuel qu'ils sont en train de décrire sur les propriétés grammaticales des phrases qui le décrivent. . Ainsi, le locuteur doit répercuter les changements constants de son état attentionnel sur la structure syntaxique des phrases qu’il produit. Le présent article discute brièvement de ce qu’est l'attention, puis présente les méthodes pour

  1. The cutting of cocaine and heroin: A critical review. (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre


    The illicit drug cutting represents a complex problem that requires the sharing of knowledge from addiction studies, toxicology, criminology and criminalistics. Therefore, cutting is not well known by the forensic community. Thus, this review aims at deciphering the different aspects of cutting, by gathering information mainly from criminology and criminalistics. It tackles essentially specificities of cocaine and heroin cutting. The article presents the detected cutting agents (adulterants and diluents), their evolution in time and space and the analytical methodology implemented by forensic laboratories. Furthermore, it discusses when, in the history of the illicit drug, cutting may take place. Moreover, researches studying how much cutting occurs in the country of destination are analysed. Lastly, the reasons for cutting are addressed. According to the literature, adulterants are added during production of the illicit drug or at a relatively high level of its distribution chain (e.g. before the product arrives in the country of destination or just after its importation in the latter). Their addition seems hardly justified by the only desire to increase profits or to harm consumers' health. Instead, adulteration would be performed to enhance or to mimic the illicit drug effects or to facilitate administration of the drug. Nowadays, caffeine, diltiazem, hydroxyzine, levamisole, lidocaïne and phenacetin are frequently detected in cocaine specimens, while paracetamol and caffeine are almost exclusively identified in heroin specimens. This may reveal differences in the respective structures of production and/or distribution of cocaine and heroin. As the relevant information about cutting is spread across different scientific fields, a close collaboration should be set up to collect essential and unified data to improve knowledge and provide information for monitoring, control and harm reduction purposes. More research, on several areas of investigation, should be

  2. A critical review on toxicological safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Soo-Jeong; Jin, Young-Bae; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Gang-Sung; Marchioni, Eric


    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are known as unique radiolytic products generated from the major fatty acids and triglycerides in food through only irradiation. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively with synthetic compounds. Mutagenicity tests of 2-ACBs on the microorganisms reviewed in this study clearly indicate that no evidence was observed, while several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs through cell death. Moreover, the genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested as DNA strand breaks were observed. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because genotoxicity may result from cytotoxicity, which causes DNA damage or from cell membrane destruction and indirect oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of genotoxic effects is needed. With regards to the suggestion of Raul et al. (2002) who showed the promoting effect of colon cancer by the administration of 2-ACBs, further studies are needed to correct some experimental design errors. Moreover, an in-vivo experiment that evaluated the metabolism of 2-ACBs has revealed that 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted through fecal discharge. In conclusion, it is considered that the ingestion of 2-ACBs through irradiated foods is unlikely to affect the human health. However, more specific studies are required to identify the fate of 2-ACBs in body and the LD50 values. The determination of chronic toxicity by long-term exposure to low concentrations of 2-ACBs has to be evaluated more clearly to determine if these compounds are safe to human.

  3. Molecular mechanisms in autoimmune type 1 diabetes: a critical review. (United States)

    Xie, Zhiguo; Chang, Christopher; Zhou, Zhiguang


    Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is characterized by selective destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas of genetically susceptible individuals. The mechanisms underlying the development of type 1 diabetes are not fully understood. However, a widely accepted point is that type 1 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although most type 1 diabetes patients do not have a family history, genetic susceptibility does play a vital role in beta cell autoimmunity and destruction. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions are the strongest genetic determinants, which can contribute 40-50 % of the genetic risk to type 1 diabetes. Other genes, including INS also contribute to disease risk. The mechanisms of the susceptible genes in type 1 diabetes may relate to their respective roles in antigen presentation, beta cell autoimmunity, immune tolerance, and autoreactive T cell response. Environmental susceptibility factors also contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. From an epigenetic standpoint, the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of type 1 diabetes may include DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA, and molecular mimicry. These mechanisms may act through regulating of gene expression, thereby affecting the immune system response toward islet beta cells. One of the characteristics of type 1 diabetes is the recognition of islet autoantigens by autoreactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and autoantibodies. Autoantibodies against islet autoantigens are involved in autoantigen processing and presentation by HLA molecules. This review will mainly focus on the molecular mechanism by which genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contribute to the risk of type 1 diabetes.

  4. Event-related potential studies of post-traumatic stress disorder: a critical review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javanbakht Arash


    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the sparseness of the currently available data, there is accumulating evidence of information processing impairment in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Studies of event-related potentials (ERPs are the main tool in real time examination of information processing. In this paper, we sought to critically review the ERP evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD. We also examined the evidence supporting the existence of a relationship between ERP abnormalities and symptom profiles or severity in PTSD patients. An extensive Medline search was performed. Keywords included PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder, electrophysiology or EEG, electrophysiology, P50, P100, N100, P2, P200, P3, P300, sensory gating, CNV (contingent negative variation and MMN (mismatch negativity. We limited the review to ERP adult human studies with control groups which were reported in the English language. After applying our inclusion-exclusion review criteria, 36 studies were included. Subjects exposed to wide ranges of military and civilian traumas were studied in these reports. Presented stimuli were both auditory and visual. The most widely studied components included P300, P50 gating, N100 and P200. Most of the studies reported increased P300 response to trauma-related stimuli in PTSD patients. A smaller group of studies reported dampening of responses or no change in responses to trauma-related and/or unrelated stimuli. P50 studies were strongly suggestive of impaired gating in patients with PTSD. In conclusion, the majority of reports support evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD diagnosis. The predominance of evidence suggests presence of mid-latency and late ERP components differences in PTSD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Heterogeneity of assessment methods used contributes to difficulties in reaching firm conclusions regarding the nature of these differences. We suggest

  5. Extraction and Purification of Collagenase Enzymes: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said M. Daboor


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Enzymes have vital roles in several industrial processes (foods, cosmetics, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals due to their highly selective nature and high activity at very low concentrations. Recent efforts to identify new sources of useful enzymes have been concentrated on the marine environment because of the potential to make use of processing wastes. About 35-50% of the mass of the fish caught is a waste that is disposed off at sea or in landfills. The extraction of enzymes from fish processing waste can reduce environment problems and improve the economics of the fish industry. Collagenases are a group of enzymes that can be extracted from fish waste. Approach: Comprehensive reviews of the literature on the extraction, purification, characterization and use of collagenases was carried out. Results: Collagenases have different molecular weights based on their types and sources. They have the ability to break down the peptide bonds in collagen at physiological pH. They are classified into two types: serine and metallocollagenase. Collagenolytic activities have been shown at a wide range of temperatures (20-40°C and pH (6-8. Many activators can be used to achive collagenase activity including 4-Aminophenylmercuric Acetate (APMA, trypsin, potassium or sodium thiocyanate, iodoacetamide and potassium iodide. Dithiothreitol (DTT, mercaptoethanol, ethylendiaminetetracetic acid, o-phenanthroline and cysteine inactivate the enzyme. Collagenases enzymes can be extracted with a variety of techniques using different buffering systems (tris-HCl, sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride and cacodylate. All techniques involve the use of ammonium sulphate fractionation and centrifugation to precipitate the enzyme. Collagenases are normally purified using chromatographic techniques such as gel-filtration, ion-exchange and affinity column chromatography. Collagenase can be assayed with a number of methods, including: colorimetric absorbance

  6. Meat Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dave


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Extremely perishable meat provides favorable growth condition for various microorganisms. Meat is also very much susceptible to spoilage due to chemical and enzymatic activities. The breakdown of fat, protein and carbohydrates of meat results in the development of off-odors, off-flavor and slim formation which make the meat objectionable for human consumption. It is, therefore, necessary to control meat spoilage in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. Approach: A comprehensive literature review was performed on the spoliage mechanisms of meat and meat products and preservation techniques. Results: Historical data reveals that salting, drying, smoking, fermentation and canning were the traditional methods used to prevent meat spoilage and extend its shelf life. However, in order to prevent wholesomeness, appearance, composition, tenderness, flavor, juiciness and nutritive value, new methods were developed. These included: cooling, freezing and chemical preservation. Wide range of physical and chemical reactions and actions of microorganisms or enzymes are responsible for the meat spoilage. Microbial growth, oxidation and enzymatic autolysis are three basic mechanisms responsible for spoilage of meat. Microbial growth and metabolism depends on various factors including: pre-slaughter husbandry practices, age of the animal at the time of slaughtering, handling during slaughtering, evisceration and processing, temperature controls during slaughtering, processing and distribution, preservation methods, type of packaging and handling and storage by consumer. Microbial spoilage causes pH change, slime formation, structural components degradation, off odors and appearance change. Autoxidation of lipids and the production of free radicals are natural processes which affect fatty acids and lead to oxidative deterioration of meat and off-flavour development. Lipid hydrolysis can take

  7. Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander


    Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is depleted in bromine by about 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that these depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. However, currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many chem{Br}-containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans, excluding the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of  Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br-containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight to produce atomic Br and Cl. Subsequent transformations can destroy

  8. Gifted Adults: A Systematic Review and Analysis of the Literature (United States)

    Rinn, Anne N.; Bishop, James


    What happens when a gifted child grows up? Despite a slew of provocative book titles regarding gifted adults in the mainstream media, and the inclusion of the notion of giftedness among adults in the definition of giftedness proposed by Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, and Worrell, there is a limited amount of research that has examined the gifted…

  9. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon


    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  10. Tidal torques: a critical review of some techniques (United States)

    Efroimsky, Michael; Williams, James G.


    We review some techniques employed in the studies of torques due to bodily tides, and explain why the MacDonald formula for the tidal torque is valid only in the zeroth order of the eccentricity divided by the quality factor, while its time-average is valid in the first order. As a result, the formula cannot be used for analysis in higher orders of e/ Q. This necessitates some corrections in the current theory of tidal despinning and libration damping (though the qualitative conclusions of that theory may largely remain correct). We demonstrate that in the case when the inclinations are small and the phase lags of the tidal harmonics are proportional to the frequency, the Darwin-Kaula expansion is equivalent to a corrected version of the MacDonald method. The latter method rests on the assumption of existence of one total double bulge. The necessary correction to MacDonald’s approach would be to assert (following Singer, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 15: 205-226, 1968) that the phase lag of this integral bulge is not constant, but is proportional to the instantaneous synodal frequency (which is twice the difference between the evolution rates of the true anomaly and the sidereal angle). This equivalence of two descriptions becomes violated by a nonlinear dependence of the phase lag upon the tidal frequency. It remains unclear whether it is violated at higher inclinations. Another goal of our paper is to compare two derivations of a popular formula for the tidal despinning rate, and emphasise that both are strongly limited to the case of a vanishing inclination and a certain (sadly, unrealistic) law of frequency-dependence of the quality factor Q—the law that follows from the phase lag being proportional to frequency. One of the said derivations is based on the MacDonald torque, the other on the Darwin torque. Fortunately, the second approach is general enough to accommodate both a finite inclination and the actual rheology. We also address the rheological models

  11. The Role and Impact of Critical Review as Perceived by an Implementer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thegerstroem, Claes; Laarouchi Engstroem, Saida; Olsson, Olle [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The quality and success of a nuclear waste management programme is based on the amalgamation of the interests of a wide number of stakeholders, integration of many different scientific disciplines, and merging of scientific, technical, ethical and social issues. In this process, a broad and structured review of all aspects of the program is necessary and we find the process with submission and review by stakeholders, regulators and government every third year very useful. High-quality critical review of is always a real benefit to the implementer - as it gives the implementer the possibility to see where improvements can be made. However, a close dialogue and a dynamic reviewing process, where questions are raised throughout the process, are essential in order to optimize the quality of the final applications. Naturally, critical review should not be used for pushing specific general research interests or issues that belong to the political arena rather than nuclear waste management itself. Moreover, critical review provides additional insight and promotes confidence by the general public. However, sometimes the public might be confused and have difficulties in judging the importance and relevance of critical comments. The implementer and regulatory authorities have a special duty to provide an overall perspective of safety-related issues. Even if critical review is valuable, the implementer can not only rely on this. The implementers' own internal quality assurance practise, internal review process as well as its overall safety culture is all crucial. Indeed, a successful management of radio-active waste, including operational aspects as well as siting process, starts with the implementers' own wish to perform state-of-the art-work both in terms of technology and overall approach.

  12. A Critical Review of Biosimilars in IBD: The Confluence of Biologic Drug Development, Regulatory Requirements, Clinical Outcomes, and Big Business. (United States)

    Ha, Christina Y; Kornbluth, Asher


    On February 9, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration Arthritis Advisory Committee recommended by a vote of 21 to 3, that the biosimilar to infliximab, CT-P13, be approved for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis and, by extrapolation, for all the indications for which infliximab is currently approved, including adult and pediatric ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. On April 5, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration concurred with this recommendation and approved CT-P13 (Inflectra; Pfizer Inc.) for all diseases for which infliximab had previously been approved, including adult and pediatric moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and pediatric and adult moderate to severe and fistulizing Crohn's disease. This was despite the absence of any randomized controlled trials studying the infliximab biosimilar in any inflammatory bowel disease. This highly controversial approach has been criticized by various rheumatology and gastroenterology professional societies around the world. This review will cover the stepwise approach to biosimilar development, issues of extrapolation and interchangeability, and conclude with a discussion of the regulatory, intellectual property issues, and financial implications, which will all intersect in the decision and ability to prescribe a biosimilar or reference anti-tumor necrosis factor drug.

  13. Epistemological Approaches to Dialogic Teaching in a Conventional Setting - Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermine Abd Elkader


    Full Text Available Book review for Dialogic Pedagogy Journal: This is a review of the book 'Inspiring dialogue: Talking to learn in the English classroom' by Juzwik et al. (2013, New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 162 pages, $ 32 (paper. The review looks critically at the theoretical framework of the book and compares it to the ontological tradition of Baktinian dialogue. The review aims to find the strengths of the book and meanwhile exposes its weaknesses in light of the interpretation of the Bakhtin's circle and modern Bakhtinian scholars of dialogic pedagogy.

  14. Yu Hua’s Brothers in and out of China:A Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article offers a critical review of the existing evaluation of Brothers,both the Chinese and English texts,focused on reviews of the English translation,through which the reception of the novel is examined.It is found that unlike the heated controversy over the novel in China,Brothers received warm critical reception in the English-speaking world,though also with criticism.However,there are still insufficient reviews of the English version,concerning its translation quality and style.Thus,"translator’s invisibility"is still a common phenomenon.It is therefore concluded that a sociological analysis of its production,circulation and reception in the target culture is both significant and worthwhile to shed new light on the mechanism by which Chinese literature can be successfully exported.

  15. Yu Hua’s Brothers in and out of China:A Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article offers a critical review of the existing evaluation of Brothers,both the Chinese and English texts,focused on reviews of the English translation,through which the reception of the novel is examined.It is found that unlike the heated controversy over the novel in China,Brothers received warm critical reception in the English-speaking world,though also with criticism.However,there are still insufficient reviews of the English version,concerning its translation quality and style.Thus,“translator’s invisibility” is still a common phenomenon.It is therefore concluded that a sociological analysis of its production,circulation and reception in the target culture is both significant and worthwhile to shed new light on the mechanism by which Chinese literature can be successfully exported.

  16. Filed and granted Indian Patents in dentistry from 2005-2009: A critical analysis and review


    Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle; Shankargouda Patil


    Background: Patent policies have proved to be extremely important for several countries to develop. India has achieved its global status since 2005; a critical analysis of the patents at IPO will help us to identify the potential, available for patents with Indian Dental Fraternity. Aim: The aim of this study is to critically analyze and review Indian Patents in the field of Dentistry from 2005-2009 for evaluation of status of Indian Patents in Dentistry. Materials and Methods: A tota...

  17. Adult neural stem cells from the subventricular zone: a review of the neurosphere assay. (United States)

    Gil-Perotín, Sara; Duran-Moreno, María; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Ramírez, Mónica; García-Belda, Paula; García-Verdugo, José Manuel


    The possibility of obtaining large numbers of cells with potential to become functional neurons implies a great advance in regenerative medicine. A source of cells for therapy is the subventricular zone (SVZ) where adult neural stem cells (NSCs) retain the ability to proliferate, self-renew, and differentiate into several mature cell types. The neurosphere assay, a method to isolate, maintain, and expand these cells has been extensively utilized by research groups to analyze the biological properties of aNSCs and to graft into injured brains from animal models. In this review we briefly describe the neurosphere assay and its limitations, the methods to optimize culture conditions, the identity and the morphology of aNSC-derived neurospheres (including new ultrastructural data). The controversy regarding the identity and "stemness" of cells within the neurosphere is revised. The fine morphology of neurospheres, described thoroughly, allows for phenotypical characterization of cells in the neurospheres and may reveal slight changes that indirectly inform about cell integrity, cell damage, or oncogenic transformation. Along this review we largely highlight the critical points that researchers have to keep in mind before extrapolating results or translating experimental transplantation of neurosphere-derived cells to the clinical setting.

  18. Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.J.; Verlaan, S.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Luiking, Y.C.


    Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy an

  19. Global divergence in critical income for adult and childhood survival: analyses of mortality using Michaelis-Menten. (United States)

    Hum, Ryan J; Jha, Prabhat; McGahan, Anita M; Cheng, Yu-Ling


    Life expectancy has risen sharply in the last 50 years. We applied the classic Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics to demonstrate a novel mathematical relationship of income to childhood (aged 0-5 years) and adult (aged 15-60 years) survival. We treat income as a substrate that is catalyzed to increase survival (from technologies that income buys) for 180 countries from 1970 and 2007. Michaelis-Menten kinetics permit estimates of maximal survival and, uniquely, the critical income needed to achieve half of the period-specific maximum. Maximum child and adult survival rose by about 1% per year. Critical incomes fell by half for children, but doubled for men. HIV infection and smoking account for some, but not all, of the rising critical incomes for adult survival. Altering the future cost curve for adult survival will require more widespread use of current interventions, most notably tobacco control, but also research to identify practicable low-cost drugs, diagnostics, and strategies.DOI:

  20. A Critical Review on The Good Earth and its Chinese Version

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article offers a critical review of the existing evaluation of The Good Earth, both its English original and the Chinese translation, through which the reception of the novel is examined. It is found that, due to its uniqueness in themes and description in details, the worldwide correlational research in literature has gone through three periods: the chaos in the early period, the negative criticism in the middle period and the relative prosperity in the nowadays. However, there are still insufficient reviews of the Chinese version, concerning the translation quality, translation style as well as the specific cultural factors.

  1. Retiree health benefits in the United States: a strategic critical management review. (United States)

    Asubonteng, P; Bumpus, M; Munchus, G


    This article provides a critical review of studies associated with retiree health benefits in the United States. An attempt is made to determine if logical conclusions or trends could be identified regarding this issue of health care policy debate. The forms of retiree health benefits are covered, as is a discussion of Medigap policies and insurance coverage for the elderly. Employer-sponsored retiree benefits and the effects of supplemental coverage on the use of services are also reviewed. Lastly, a discussion and conclusion regarding this research agenda is presented with a critical analysis of the health care policy management debate for the future.

  2. Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Children and Young Adults. (United States)

    Kaddourah, Ahmad; Basu, Rajit K; Bagshaw, Sean M; Goldstein, Stuart L


    mortality, among critically ill children and young adults. (Funded by the Pediatric Nephrology Center of Excellence at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and others; AWARE number, NCT01987921 .).

  3. Flexibility Training and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Systematic Review


    Liza Stathokostas; Little, Robert M. D.; A. A. Vandervoort; Paterson, Donald H.


    Background. As indicated in a recent systematic review relating to Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults, exercise interventions in older adults can maintain or improve functional abilities. Less is known about the role of flexibility in the maintenance or improvement of functional abilities, and there currently does not exist a synthesis of the literature supporting a consensus on flexibility training prescription. Purpose. To systematically review the effects of flexibility...

  4. Metabolic syndrome and its associated risk factors in Iranian adults: A systematic review


    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah


    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex clustering cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dylipedemia. It has been a growing health problem in Iranian adults in recent decade. The objective of this article was to review the prevalence of MetS and the corresponding risk factors among Iranian adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to extract the published articles regarding metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among Iranian adu...

  5. A Decade of Critical Information Literacy: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon Tewell


    Full Text Available As information literacy continues in its centrality to many academic libraries’ missions, a line of inquiry has developed in response to ACRL’s charge to develop information literate citizens. The literature of critical information literacy questions widely held assumptions about information literacy and considers in what ways librarians may encourage students to engage with and act upon information’s complex and inherently political nature. This review explores the research into critical information literacy, including critical pedagogy and critiques of information literacy, in order to provide an entry point for this emerging and challenging approach to information literacy.

  6. Stimulating Critical Thinking in a Virtual Learning Community with Instructor Moderations and Peer Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacip Toker


    Full Text Available This mixed methods study investigated the dynamic impacts of instructor moderations and peer reviews on critical thinking (CT in a virtual learning community. Multiple data sets were collected from online discourses, participants’ written reflections, and learning artifacts, and analyzed and triangulated with both quantitative and qualitative methods. Both instructor moderations and peer reviews had great impacts on learner’s CT in multiple ways, and stimulated CT development throughout the semester. As learners grew with more CT skills, the needs for instructor moderations decreased; yet peer reviews peaked in terms of quantity, length, and depth of discussions. Peer reviews in this study also demonstrated effective questioning patterns, which were positively accepted by students being questioned or criticized, and resulted in changes and improvements in the final learning artifacts. Practical implications for online teaching and learning and community building are discussed, together with suggestions for future research.



    Foram Dhebar


    Elderly is defined as being 65 years of age or older. Geriatrics or geriatric medicine is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people. The number of persons above the age of 60 years is fast growing, especially in India. Falls are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury, fractures & the leading cause of emergency department visits by older adults. Low balance confidence is a major health problem among older adults restricting their participation in daily life. Objective of t...

  8. A new prescription for empirical ethics research in pharmacy: a critical review of the literature


    Cooper, R. J.; Bissell, P.; Wingfield, J


    Empirical ethics research is increasingly valued in bioethics and healthcare more generally, but there remain as yet under-researched areas such as pharmacy, despite the increasingly visible attempts by the profession to embrace additional roles beyond the supply of medicines. A descriptive and critical review of the extant empirical pharmacy ethics literature is provided here. A chronological change from quantitative to qualitative approaches is highlighted in this review, as well as differi...

  9. A systematic review on pharmacokinetic changes in critically ill patients: role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation


    Mousavi, S.; Levcovich, B; M Mojtahedzadeh


    Objective Several factors including disease condition and different procedures could alter pharmacokinetic profile of drugs in critically ill patients. For optimizing patient's outcome, changing in dosing regimen is necessary. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is one of the procedures which could change pharmacokinetic parameters.The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of ECMO support on pharmacokinetic parameters and subsequently pharmacotherapy. Method A systematic review...

  10. Behavioral treatments for children and adults who stutter: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomgren M


    Full Text Available Michael Blomgren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent training and differ primarily in their focus on reducing demands on the child (multifactorial or in their use of response contingent stimulation (operant conditioning. Speech restructuring and anxiolytic approaches are used with adults who stutter. Speech restructuring approaches focus on the mechanics of speech production, and anxiolytic treatments tend to focus on the symptoms and social and vocational challenges of stuttering. The evidence base for these different approaches is outlined. Response contingent therapy (for children and speech restructuring therapy (for adults have the most robust empirical evidence base. Multifactorial treatments for children and stuttering management approaches for adults are popular but are based on theoretical models of stuttering; the evidence base is not robust and tends to be inferred from work in areas such as cognitive behavior therapy and desensitization. Comprehensive, or holistic, approaches to treating stuttering are also discussed. Comprehensive approaches for treating stuttering in adults address both improved speech fluency and stuttering management. Keywords: stuttering, treatment, stuttering management, speech restructuring, cognitive restructuring

  11. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults. (United States)

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie


    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk.

  12. A Critical Review of International Students' Adjustment Research from a Deleuzian Perspective (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Gene


    The author in this paper critically reviews recent literature on international student language and adjustment to Western Anglophone universities. Two streams of research are discussed: the problem-solving approach guided largely by positivist epistemologies and quantitative methodologies contrasted to the post-structuralist language and identity…

  13. How Do Virtual World Experiences Bring about Learning? A Critical Review of Theories (United States)

    Loke, Swee-Kin


    While students do learn real-world knowledge and skills in virtual worlds, educators have yet to adequately theorise how students' virtual world experiences bring about this learning. This paper critically reviewed theories currently used to underpin empirical work in virtual worlds for education. In particular, it evaluated how applicable these…

  14. Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Higher Education: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Niu, Lian


    The authors reviewed 42 empirical studies of teaching of critical thinking skills in postsecondary education published between 1994 and 2009. The instructional intervention, test measure, and research design of the studies were analyzed. Study results suggest that: (1) the same instructional interventions can lead to different results, depending…

  15. Effectiveness of Critical Thinking Instruction in Higher Education: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies (United States)

    Tiruneh, Dawit T.; Verburgh, An; Elen, Jan


    Promoting students' critical thinking (CT) has been an essential goal of higher education. However, despite the various attempts to make CT a primary focus of higher education, there is little agreement regarding the conditions under which instruction could result in greater CT outcomes. In this review, we systematically examined current empirical…

  16. The Measurement of Scholarly Work in Academic Institutions: A Critical Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Fiedler, Fred E.

    This critical review of the literature is concerned with the measurement of scholarly work done by the faculties of universities and colleges. Such measures of output as individual and departmental ratings by scholars, the amount of recognition awarded, the number of publications written, and the number of citations to published work, are…

  17. Anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy for generalized and localized vulvodynia : a critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Symen K.; Borg, Charmaine; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar


    Anticonvulsant therapy has occasionally been recommended to treat vulvodynia. However, convincing evidence to support this therapeutic option is lacking. The goal of this study was to critically review studies published on the effectiveness of anticonvulsants for the treatment of vulvodynia. Evaluat

  18. Comparative Studies of Teacher and Peer feedback in L2 Writing:A Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀峰; 张亚敏


    7 studies on the effectiveness of peer and teacher feedback have been critically reviewed in this paper, some problems being perceived either in the research design or their research findings. Based on the detected problems, I put forward some sug⁃gestions for the future study and then draw some pedagogical implications.

  19. A critical review of cost-effectiveness analyses of vaccinating males against human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yiling; Gauthier, Aline; Postma, Maarten J.; Ribassin-Majed, Laureen; Largeron, Nathalie; Bresse, Xavier


    A critical review of cost-effectiveness analyses of HPV vaccination in males was conducted and nine studies were identified in different countries. Due to the heterogeneity among these studies in terms of modeling approach, vaccination strategies, health outcomes considered, assumptions and paramete

  20. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review (United States)

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.


    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  1. Contending Claims to Causality: A Critical Review of Mediation Research in HRD (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajashi; Jacobson, Seth


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical review of the mediation studies published in the field of Human Resource Development (HRD) to discern if the study designs, the nature of data collection and the choice of statistical methods justify the causal claims made in those studies. Design/methodology/approach: This paper conducts…

  2. The Evaluation of Physical Learning Environments: A Critical Review of the Literature (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Fisher, Kenn


    This article critically reviews the methodologies and methods that have been used for the evaluation of physical learning environments. To contextualize discussion about the evaluation of learning spaces, we initially chart the development of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) for non-domestic buildings. We then discuss the recent evolution of POE…

  3. A critical review of "internet addiction" criteria with suggestions for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Rooij (Antonius); N. Prause (Nicole)


    textabstractAims: In the last 5 years a deluge of articles on the topic of Internet addiction (IA) has proposed many candidate symptoms as evidence of this proposed disease. We critically reviewed the current approach to the measurement and identification of this new excessive behavior syndrome. Met

  4. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel


    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  5. Psychoanalysis and Humanism: A Review and Critical Examination of Integrationist Efforts with Some Proposed Resolutions. (United States)

    Hansen, James T.


    Critically reviews efforts at theoretical integration of psychoanalysis and humanism along the lines of F. Pine's (1990) four psychologies of psychoanalysis. Concludes that psychoanalysis and humanism have certain compatible features, but that they generally represent opposing vantage points in the study of subjectivity. Provides recommendations…

  6. Metaphor and Metonymy in ASD Children: A Critical Review from a Developmental Perspective (United States)

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel


    The aim of the present article is to critically review the experimental research in the domain of metaphor and metonymy competencies in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) children. After providing some basic definitions of metaphor and metonymy, we consider some major points emerging from studies on metaphorical and metonymical competencies in…

  7. Comments on "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions" (United States)

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr


    The author begins her comments on "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions" by commending the authors for taking on this rather massive project. The project required not only locating and reading the many lengthy reports that exist on adolescent literacy but also sifting through the numerous claims, ideas, and…

  8. Treating postmenopausal osteoporosis in women at increased risk of fracture - critical appraisal of bazedoxifene: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Súsanna v.; Vestergaard, Peter


    for gastrointestinal side effects, and especially in women in whom osteoporosis is frequent, several options for treatment are needed. The objectives of this review were to critically appraise the effects of bazedoxifene on risk of fractures especially in women at high risk of fractures. A systematic literature search...

  9. A Cross-Industry Review of B2B Critical Success Factors. (United States)

    Eid, Riyad; Trueman, Myfanwy; Ahmed, Abdel Moneim


    Presents a comprehensive review of B2B (business-to- business) international Internet marketing and identifies 21 critical success factors in five categories: marketing strategy, including management support, strategic goals, and collaboration; Web site factors, including Web site design; global factors, including multilanguage sites and cultural…

  10. Adult Wilms' tumour: a case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda KM Srinivasa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wilms' tumor is the commonest primary malignant renal tumor in childhood. Rarely, it may present in the adult age group. Case presentation We report a 48-year-old male presenting with flank pain and haematuria. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a right renal mass measuring 11 × 10 cms, and a clinical diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma was made. Nephrectomy was performed, and a final diagnosis of adult Wilms' tumor was made based on the criteria proposed by Kilton et al. Conclusion The possibility of an adult Wilms' tumor should be considered when a patient presents with pain in the flank and a renal mass. Rarity of the tumor favors documentation in literature.

  11. Oogenesis in adult mammals, including humans: a review. (United States)

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Wimalasena, Jay; Ayala, Maria E; Dominguez, Roberto


    The origin of oocytes and primary follicles in ovaries of adult mammalian females has been a matter of dispute for over 100 yr. The prevailing belief that all oocytes in adult mammalian females must persist from the fetal period of life seems to be a uniquely retrogressive reproductive mechanism requiring humans to preserve their gametes from the fetal period for several decades. The utilization of modern techniques during last 10 yr clearly demonstrates that mammalian primordial germ cells originate from somatic cell precursors. This indicates that if somatic cells are precursors of germ cells, then somatic mutations can be passed on to progeny. Mitotically active germline stem cells have been described earlier in ovaries of adult prosimian primates and recently have been reported to also be present in the ovaries of adult mice. We have earlier shown that in adult human females, mesenchymal cells in the ovarian tunica albuginea undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial transition into ovarian surface epithelium cells, which differentiate sequentially into primitive granulosa and germ cells. Recently, we have reported that these structures assemble in the deeper ovarian cortex and form new follicles to replace earlier primary follicles undergoing atresia (follicular renewal). Our current observations also indicate that follicular renewal exists in rat ovaries, and human oocytes can differentiate from ovarian surface epithelium in fetal ovaries in vivo and from adult ovaries in vitro. These reports challenge the established dogma regarding the fetal origin of eggs and primary follicles in adult mammalian ovaries. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. Yet, the follicular renewal may cease at a certain age, and this may predetermine the onset of the natural menopause or premature ovarian failure. A lack of follicular renewal in aging ovaries

  12. Delayed coupling to feedback inhibition during a critical period for the integration of adult-born granule cells


    Temprana, Silvio G.; Mongiat, Lucas A.; Yang, Sung M.; Trinchero, Mariela F.; Alvarez, Diego D.; Kropff, Emilio; Giacomini, Damiana; Beltramone, Natalia; Lanuza, Guillermo M.; Schinder, Alejandro F.


    Developing granule cells (GCs) of the adult dentate gyrus undergo a critical period of enhanced activity and synaptic plasticity before becoming mature. The impact of developing GCs on the activity of preexisting dentate circuits remains unknown. Here we combine optogenetics, acute slice electrophysiology, and in vivo chemogenetics to activate GCs at different stages of maturation to study the recruitment of local target networks. We show that immature (four-week-old) GCs can efficiently driv...

  13. Priorities for young adults when accessing UK primary care: literature review. (United States)

    Davey, Antoinette; Carter, Mary; Campbell, John L


    This literature review focuses on what matters to young adults when they access primary care services in the United Kingdom. Patients' access to and experience of primary care services differs across age groups. Existing research has largely focused on the needs and experiences of children, adolescents, and adults. There is some evidence to suggest the views of young adults (aged 18-25 years) that may differ from the views of other age groups, and research has not previously reported specifically on the views of this group of the population. The literature was reviewed to identify the views and priorities of young UK adults regarding primary healthcare provision, and furthermore, to identify those related topics that would benefit from further research. Relevant academic publications and grey literature published from 2000 onwards was reviewed and synthesised. We identified and reported emerging themes that were of importance to young adults in respect of the UK primary care provision. A total of 19 papers met our inclusion criteria. Young adults access primary care services less frequently than other age groups; this may be because of their experience of primary care throughout childhood and adolescence. Five aspects of primary care provision emerged as being of importance to young adults--the accessibility and availability of services, the confidentiality of health-related information, issues relating to communication with healthcare professionals, continuity of care, and behaviours and attitudes expressed towards young adults by healthcare professionals. There is a lack of focus of current research on the expectations, needs, and primary healthcare experiences of young adults. Young adults may hold views that are distinct from other age groups. Further research is needed to better understand the needs of a young adult population as their needs may impact the future use of services.

  14. Epidemiology of bruxism in adults: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Paesani, D.; Lobbezoo, F.


    AIMS: To perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the prevalence of bruxism in adult populations. METHODS: A systematic search of the medical literature was performed to identify all peer-reviewed English-language papers dealing with the prevalence assessment of either awake or sle

  15. Management of sleep bruxism in adults: a qualitative systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Winocur, E.; Lobbezoo, F.


    This paper updates the bruxism management review published by Lobbezoo et al. in 2008 (J Oral Rehabil 2008; 35: 509-23). The review focuses on the most recent literature on management of sleep bruxism (SB) in adults, as diagnosed with polysomnography (PSG) with audio-video (AV) recordings, or with a

  16. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults (United States)

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit


    We review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in and promise of work on distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the…

  17. Cognitive Functioning in Middle and Old Age Adults. A Review of Research Based on Piaget's Theory (United States)

    Papalia, D. E.; Bielby, D. Del Vento


    A review of literature on Piagetian cognitive functioning generally noted lower levels of functioning for elderly subjects than for comparison groups of adults. Several possible interpretations for these age differences were offered. The effects of certain demographic variables on performance were also reviewed and inconsistent results were noted.…

  18. Social Marketing Interventions Aiming to Increase Physical Activity among Adults: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Kubacki, Krzysztof; Ronti, Rimante; Lahtinen, Ville; Pang, Bo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn


    Purpose: A significant proportion of the world's adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity is social marketing. The purpose of this paper are twofold: first, this review seeks to provide a contemporary review of social marketing's effectiveness in changing…

  19. Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education (United States)

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.


    This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

  20. Executive Functioning in Adult ADHD: A Meta-Analytic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boonstra (Marije); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); J.A. Sergeant (Joseph); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)


    textabstractBackground: Several theoretical explanations of ADHD in children have focused on executive functioning as the main explanatory neuropsychological domain for the disorder. In order to establish if these theoretical accounts are supported by research data for adults with ADHD, we compared

  1. Executive functioning in adult ADHD: a meta-analytic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.


    BACKGROUND: Several theoretical explanations of ADHD in children have focused on executive functioning as the main explanatory neuropsychological domain for the disorder. In order to establish if these theoretical accounts are supported by research data for adults with ADHD, we compared neuropsychol

  2. Early treatment of candidemia in adults: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Kullberg, B.J.; Bow, E.J.; Hadley, S.; Leon, C.; Nucci, M.; Patterson, T.F.; Perfect, J.R.


    Invasive candidiasis is associated with high mortality, particularly in adults. Retrospective studies show that shorter times to treatment are correlated with a lower risk of death. A number of factors can be used to predict which patients would benefit from antifungal prophylaxis or early (pre-empt

  3. Endotracheal suction in intubated critically ill adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation: a systematic review Aspiración endotraqueal en pacientes adultos con veía aérea artificial: revisión sistemática Aspiração endotraqueal em pacientes adultos com via aérea artificial: revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Oliveira Favretto


    Full Text Available AIM: identify and analyze in the literature the evidence of randomized controlled trials on care related to the suctioning of endotracheal secretions in intubated, critically ill adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. METHOD: the search was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL and LILACS databases. From the 631 citations found, 17 studies were selected. RESULTS: Evidence was identified for six categories of intervention related to endotracheal suctioning, which were analyzed according to outcomes related to hemodynamic and blood gas alterations, microbial colonization, nosocomial infection, and others. CONCLUSIONS: although the evidence obtained is relevant to the practice of endotracheal aspiration, the risks of bias found in the studies selected compromise the evidence's reliability.OBJETIVO: identificar y analizar evidencias oriundas de ensayos clínicos controlados y hechos aleatorios sobre las atenciones relacionados a la aspiración de secreciones endotraqueales en pacientes adultos, en estado crítico, intubados y bajo ventilación mecánica. MÉTODO: la busca fue realizada en las bases de datos PUBMED, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL y LILACS. De las 631 referencias encontradas, 17 estudios fueron seleccionados. RESULTADOS: se identificaron evidencias en cuanto a seis categorías de intervenciones relacionadas a la aspiración endotraqueal, las cuales fueron analizadas según los resultados referentes a alteraciones hemodinámicas y de los gases sanguíneos, colonización microbiana, infección nosocomial, entre otros. RESULTADOS: las evidencias logradas son relevantes para la práctica de la aspiración endotraqueal, mientras, los riesgos de bies de los estudios seleccionados comprometen su confiabilidad.OBJETIVO: identificar e analisar evidências oriundas de ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados sobre os cuidados relacionados à aspiração de secreções endotraqueais em pacientes adultos, em estado cr

  4. Review: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012 Buchbesprechung: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Faye Tran


    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 Seiten

  5. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables. (United States)

    Madden, A M; Smith, S


    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely.

  6. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein


    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  7. Physical activity and cognitive function among older adults in China:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojiao Lü; Weijie Fu; Yu Liu


    Background: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to benefit cognitive function in older adults. However, the cognitive benefits of exercising for older Chinese adults have not been systematically documented. This study was to conduct a systematic review on evidence that PA is beneficial for cognitive functioning in older Chinese adults. Methods: Major databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WanFang, CNKI, and VIP, were searched for studies published in English or Chinese between January 2000 and December 2015. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-RCTs), cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies that evaluated PA and cognitive function among older Chinese adults were included in this review. Results: Of 53 studies included and reviewed, 33 were observational (22 cross-sectional, 7 case-control, and 4 cohort) and 20 were experimental (15 RCTs, 5 non-RCTs). Observational studies showed an association of reduced risk of cognitive-related diseases (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia) through PA, whereas experimental studies reported exercise-induced improvement in multiple domains of cognitive function (i.e., global cognitive function, memory, executive function, attention, language, and processing recourse). Conclusion: This systematic review provides initial evidence that PA may benefit cognition in older Chinese adults. Further studies of individuals with cognitive impairments and prospective and RCT studies having high scientific rigor are needed to corroborate the findings reported in this review.

  8. Adult attachment, dependence, self-criticism, and depressive symptoms: a test of a mediational model. (United States)

    Cantazaro, Amy; Wei, Meifen


    Attachment anxiety is expected to be positively associated with dependence and self-criticism. However, attachment avoidance is expected to be negatively associated with dependence but positively associated with self-criticism. Both dependence and self-criticism are expected to be related to depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed from 424 undergraduate participants at a large Midwestern university, using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the relation between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by dependence and self-criticism, whereas the relation between attachment avoidance and depressive symptoms was partially mediated by dependence and self-criticism. Moreover, through a multiple-group comparison analysis, the results indicated that men with high levels of attachment avoidance are more likely than women to be self-critical.

  9. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals. (United States)

    Fullmer, Susan; Benson-Davies, Sue; Earthman, Carrie P; Frankenfield, David C; Gradwell, Erica; Lee, Peggy S P; Piemonte, Tami; Trabulsi, Jillian


    When measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Evidence Analysis process described by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was followed. The Ovid database was searched for papers published between 2003 and 2012 using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered (1980 to 2003), and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group. Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music. RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than 140 minutes and 240 minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown. Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II. One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the

  10. Impact of Tai Chi Chu'an practice on balance and mobility in older adults: an integrative review of 20 years of research. (United States)

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Wolf, Steven L


    Falls in older adults, which often result from decreased balance and mobility, are an important public health issue. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends multidimensional balance and mobility training to prevent falls. In the past 20 years, Tai Chi Chu'an (tai chi) has been found to be effective in improving balance, reducing falls and fear of falling for older adults. Efficient use of time devoted to exercise is critical; therefore, more research is needed into the underlying mechanisms of balance and mobility improvements in older adults as a result of tai chi practice, so that these interventions can be most targeted and efficient. The purpose of this integrative review is twofold. First, evidence is presented to show that balance and mobility have been improved by tai chi in older adults. Second, potential mechanisms of balance improvement from research conducted in longtime tai chi practitioners, and from clinical research conducted in older adults, are offered. A PubMed search with the terms "tai chi" and "balance" entered simultaneously was conducted. Articles were included if they were systematic reviews, pilot or clinical trials, related to both balance and tai chi, and/or specifically related to determining the mechanisms potentially underlying tai chi's effects. The systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that aspects of tai chi research findings remain equivocal. In spite of the inconclusiveness of these review findings, many researchers have considered tai chi worthy of further investigation. Furthermore, practitioners in the clinic and those who deliver exercise in the community have evidently embraced tai chi as an appropriate exercise for older adults. This review, spanning 2 decades, suggests that tai chi has impacted the health and health behaviors of many older adults. Going forward, informing novel balance and mobility rehabilitation by uncovering mechanisms of tai chi's effects definitively may be the most important area of

  11. External validity of randomized controlled trials in older adults, a systematic review (United States)

    van Deudekom, Floor J.; Postmus, Iris; van der Ham, Danielle J.; Pothof, Alexander B.; Broekhuizen, Karen; Blauw, Gerard J.; Mooijaart, Simon P.


    Background To critically assess the external validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) it is important to know what older adults have been enrolled in the trials. The aim of this systematic review is to study what proportion of trials specifically designed for older patients report on somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty in the patient characteristics. Methods PubMed was searched for articles published in 2012 and only RCTs were included. Articles were further excluded if not conducted with humans or only secondary analyses were reported. A random sample of 10% was drawn. The current review analyzed this random sample and further selected trials when the reported mean age was ≥ 60 years. We extracted geriatric assessments from the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria. Results In total 1396 trials were analyzed and 300 trials included. The median of the reported mean age was 66 (IQR 63–70) and the median percentage of men in the trials was 60 (IQR 45–72). In 34% of the RCTs specifically designed for older patients somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment or frailty were reported in the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria. Physical and mental functioning was reported most frequently (22% and 14%). When selecting RCTs on a mean age of 70 or 80 years the report of geriatric assessments in the patient characteristics was 46% and 85% respectively but represent only 5% and 1% of the trials. Conclusion Somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty are underreported even in RCTs specifically designed for older patients published in 2012. Therefore, it is unclear for clinicians to which older patients the results can be applied. We recommend systematic to transparently report these relevant characteristics of older participants included in RCTs. PMID:28346503

  12. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women


    Katherine M. McLeod; Johnson, C. Shanthi


    Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES) evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and heal...

  13. Undifferentiated liver embryonal sarcoma in adults: A report of four cases and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: To evaluate the undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of liver (UESL) in adults in order to improve its diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Four primary and one recurrent cases of UESL were clinicopathologically evaluated and immunohistochemically investigated with a panel of antibodies using the EnVision+ system. Relevant literature about UESL in adults was reviewed. RESULTS: Three males and one female were enrolled in this study. Their chief complaints were abdominal pain, weight loss, or fever. Laborator...

  14. English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing student success: a critical review of the literature. (United States)

    Olson, Mary Angela


    Many English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students struggle in nursing school for a multitude of reasons. The purpose of this critical review of the literature is to identify barriers and discover bridges to ESL nursing student success. Twenty-five articles were identified for the review. Language barriers were identified as the single most significant obstacle facing the ESL nursing student. Bridges to ESL nursing student success include enhancing language development and acculturation into the American mainstream culture. A broad range of strategies to promote student success are outlined and the role of the nurse educator in ESL nursing student success is also addressed.

  15. Water decontamination of chemical skin/eye splashes: a critical review. (United States)

    Hall, Alan H; Maibach, Howard I


    Skin/eye chemical splashes are a significant workplace problem. Initial water decontamination is usually recommended, but there are few well-conducted experimental animal and human studies of efficacy. An extensive review of the literature and other available information sources was performed to define the scope of the problem and critically review the evidence for water decontamination efficacy. Although water decontamination can decrease the severity of chemical skin/eye burns, it cannot completely prevent them. An ideal replacement decontamination solution would be sterile, nontoxic, chelating, polyvalent, amphoteric, and slightly hypertonic to retard skin or corneal penetration of the chemical.

  16. Effectiveness of neural mobilization in patients with spinal radiculopathy: a critical review. (United States)

    Efstathiou, Michalis A; Stefanakis, Manos; Savva, Christos; Giakas, Giannis


    Spinal radiculopathy (SR) is a multifactorial nerve root injury that can result in significant pain, psychological stress and disability. It can occur at any level of the spinal column with the highest percentage in the lumbar spine. Amongst the various interventions that have been suggested, neural mobilization (NM) has been advocated as an effective treatment option. The purpose of this review is to (1) examine pathophysiological aspects of spinal roots and peripheral nerves, (2) analyze the proposed mechanisms of NM as treatment of injured nerve tissues and (3) critically review the existing research evidence for the efficacy of NM in patients with lumbar or cervical radiculopathy.

  17. A Review on Learning Styles and Critically Thinking Disposition of Pre-Service Science Teachers in Terms of Miscellaneous Variables (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun


    The present study was carried out in order to review learning styles and critical thinking disposition of pre-service science teachers in terms of sex, grade and age, and to address the relationship between their learning styles and critical thinking disposition. It used Kolb's Inventory of Learning Styles and California Scale of Critical Thinking…

  18. Motivating and Assisting Adult, Online Chemistry Students: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Bannier, Betsy J.


    While comprehensive texts, articles, and literature reviews presenting research in the singular arenas of motivation, help-seeking, and online science learning are relatively easy to find, syntheses and interactions between these constructs are lacking. Part I of this review addresses this knowledge gap by drawing together key research from the domains of educational psychology and adult education, addressing the constructs of motivation, self-efficacy, adult learning, and help-seeking. Part II of this review extends and applies the motivation and help-seeking discussion to the emerging and exciting field of online chemistry education. The result is a comprehensive synthesis of the strengths and limitations of the currently existing body of knowledge related to the motivation and help-seeking behaviors of adult, online chemistry students.

  19. A Review of the Effectiveness of HIV Sexual Risk Prevention Interventions in Adult Prison Inmates. (United States)

    Senkowski, Valerie; Norris, Katherine; McGaughey, Anthony; Branscum, Paul


    This article reviews the effectiveness of HIV sexual risk prevention programs among adult prison inmates. A database search was performed to identify studies that used HIV sexual risk prevention programs with incarcerated adults. Of the 234 articles identified, 9 met the inclusion criteria. In addition, 5 articles were found containing supporting information for the 9 studies reviewed, increasing the number of articles reviewed to 14. All studies reported a significant increase in knowledge or a decrease in high-risk behaviors among the inmates at the conclusion of the interventions. Common limitations included a lack of a theoretical framework used in developing the interventions, a lack of process evaluations to measure program fidelity, and a lack of validity and reliability reporting for the study surveys. However, programs and interventions targeting HIV and sexual risk reduction appear to improve the knowledge of HIV prevention and reduce risk in the adult prison inmate population.

  20. Adult pancreatoblastoma - Case report and review of literature (United States)

    Vilaverde, Filipa; Reis, Alcinda; Rodrigues, Pedro; Carvalho, Ana; Scigliano, Horácio


    Most cases of pancreatoblastoma, a rare malignant epithelial tumor of the pancreas, are seen in the pediatric population. The rarity of pancreatoblastoma, the similar radiologic findings to those seen in other pancreatic lesions, and its histopathologic heterogeneity, make its preoperative diagnosis in adults a real challenge. We report ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging correlative findings of a histologically proven pancreatoblastoma in a 37-year-old woman. Pancreatoblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pancreatic mass presenting uncommon imaging features. PMID:27761191

  1. The Reasons Requirement in International Investment Arbitration: Critical Case Studies (book review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin


    3. In the article, the Researcher reviews the work of Professors Guillermo A. Alvarez and W. Michael Reisman from Yale Law School, regarding the mechanisms of international investment arbitration and their importance for developing countries. The article provides a critical perspective on the aut......3. In the article, the Researcher reviews the work of Professors Guillermo A. Alvarez and W. Michael Reisman from Yale Law School, regarding the mechanisms of international investment arbitration and their importance for developing countries. The article provides a critical perspective...... on the authors’ argument that arbitrators in investment disputes do not follow any standards of reasoning in their decisions. It particularly points out how the authors seem to overlook the inherently sui generis nature of investment arbitration mechanisms, given that private investors and sovereign states...

  2. Phrasal Verb Combinations in Corpus-Based Studies: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolvahed Zarifi


    Full Text Available This study presents a critique of some of the corpus-based studies on phrasal verbs carried out in different types of corpora. Not only is it an attempt to provide the reader with some of the revealing findings these works have to offer but it also tends to critically discuss some of the methodological issues associated with them. It starts off discussing the works done on phrasal verbs in general corpora, then goes on to review the studies dealt with the combinations in learner corpora and ends up with looking into the research focused on the presentation of the phrasal verbs in ELT materials. It is hoped that the methodological issues addressed in the study would be taken into account by the interested researchers in their future research attempts.    Keywords: Corpus Linguistics, Phrasal Verbs, Corpora, Critical Review

  3. The Costs and Benefits of Employing an Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jacob

    Full Text Available Despite an ambition from adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD to be employed, there are limited opportunities for competitive employment for this group. Employment is not only an entitlement enjoyed by others in society, but employing adults with ASD also has economic benefits by decreasing lost productivity and resource costs for this group. Few studies have explored the cost-benefit ratio for employing adults with ASD and even fewer have taken the viewpoint of the employer, particularly applying this situation to ASD. Until such study occurs, employers may continue to be reluctant to employ adults from this group.This review aimed to examine the costs, benefits and the cost-benefit ratio of employing adults with ASD, from a societal perspective and from the perspective of employers.Eight databases were searched for scientific studies within defined inclusion criteria. These databases included CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Emerald, Ovid Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science.Enhancing the opportunities for adults with ASD to join the workforce is beneficial from a societal perspective, not only from an inclusiveness viewpoint, but also from a strict economic standpoint. Providing supported employment services for adults with ASD does not only cut the cost compared with providing standard care, it also results in better outcomes for adults with ASD. Despite the fact that ASD was the most expensive group to provide vocational rehabilitation services for, adults with ASD have a strong chance of becoming employed once appropriate measures are in place. Hence, rehabilitation services could be considered as a worthwhile investment. The current systematic review uncovered the fact that very few studies have examined the benefits, the costs and the cost-benefit ratio of employing an adult with ASD from the perspective of employers indicating a need for this topic to be further explored.

  4. School effectiveness research: a review of criticisms and some proposals to address them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sandoval-Hernandez


    Full Text Available Based on Lakato’s notion of research programmes, the paper analyses the structure of the School Effectiveness Research (SER programme and reviews the main criticisms that have arisen, stressing those regarding its objectivity and theoretical limitations. Then, some proposals are made to address these criticisms, namely: to adopt a critical realist approach to the study of SE and an Abductive Theory of Scientific Method that lead to the development of sound theory in the field. Based on this analysis the paper concludes that, in terms of Lakatos, a movement towards a new research programme is needed in order to ensure that the main objectives originally set for SER can be eventually reached.

  5. A critical review of recent progress in mid-range wireless power transfer



    Starting from Tesla’s principles of wireless power transfer a century ago, this critical review outlines recent magneto-inductive research activities on wireless power transfer with the transmission distance greater than the transmitter coil dimension. It summarizes the operating principles of a range of wireless power research into (i) the maximum power transfer and (ii) the maximum energy efficiency principles. The differences and the implications of these two approaches are explained in te...

  6. Scenarios of Socioeconomic Development for Studies of Global Environmental Change: A Critical Review


    Toth, F.L.; Hizsnyik, E.; Clark, W.C.


    This study (1) critically reviews existing studies of global trends in population, agriculture, and energy with a view toward showing which studies are most useful for which sorts of studies of global environmental change and sustainable development. (2) Synthesizes a single, internally consistent scenario of global changes in population, agriculture, and energy over the next century for use as a "conventional wisdom" reference case for such studies. (3) Creates a number of "surprise-rich" sc...

  7. A critical review and meta-analysis of the association between overt hyperthyroidism and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Green, Anders; Hegedüs, Laszlo


    Overt hyperthyroidism has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias, hypercoagulopathy, stroke, and pulmonary embolism, all of which may increase mortality. Some, but not all, studies show an increased mortality in patients with hyperthyroidism. This inconsistency may be due to differences in study...... design, characteristics of participants, or confounders. In order to test whether hyperthyroidism influences mortality, we performed a critical review and statistical meta-analysis....

  8. A critical review of “Internet addiction” criteria with suggestions for the future



    Aims: In the last 5 years a deluge of articles on the topic of Internet addiction (IA) has proposed many candidate symptoms as evidence of this proposed disease. We critically reviewed the current approach to the measurement and identification of this new excessive behavior syndrome. Methods: Three popular models of IA were discussed: Griffith’s components model; Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT); and the criteria by Tao et al. (2010). We selected these models because they are widely cite...

  9. Intussusception of the bowel in adults: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athanasios Marinis; Anneza Yiallourou; Lazaros Samanides; Nikolaos Dafnios; Georgios Anastasopoulos; Ioannis Vassiliou; Theodosios Theodosopoulos


    Intussusception of the bowel is defined as the telescoping of a proximal segment of the gastrointestinal tract within the lumen of the adjacent segment. This condition is frequent in children and presents with the classic triad of cramping abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and a palpable tender mass. However, bowel intussusception in adults is considered a rare condition, accounting for 5% of all cases of intussusceptions and almost 1%-5% of bowel obstruction. Eight to twenty percent of cases are idiopathic, without a lead point lesion. Secondary intussusceptionis caused by organic lesions, such as inflammatory bowel disease,postoperative adhesions,Meckel's diverticulum, benign and malignant lesions, metastatic neoplasms or even iatrogenically, due to the presence of intestinal tubes, jejunostomy feeding tubes or after gastricsurgery. Computed tomography is the most sensitive diagnostic modality and can distinguish between intussusceptions with and without a lead point. Surgery is the definitive treatment of adult intussusceptions. Formal bowel resection with oncological principles is followed for every case where a malignancy is suspected. Reduction of the intussuscepted bowel is considered safe for benign lesions in order to limit the extent of resection or to avoid the short bowel syndrome in certain circumstances.

  10. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness. (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E


    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  11. Tuberculous Meningitis in Adults: A Review of 160 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Pehlivanoglu


    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging features of 160 adult patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM according to “Thwaites’ diagnostic index.” Methods. The subjects of this retrospective study are the patients with TBM who were followed up between years 1998 and 2009 in a tertiary referral hospital. Diagnosis of TBM was based on clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging signs and Thwaites’ diagnostic index. Results. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from CSF in 59 of 148 patients. Seventeen percent of the patients died, 71% recovered completely, and 13% recovered with neurological sequel at the end of the sixth month. Conclusions. Despite new developments in laboratory or neuroimaging techniques, the diagnosis of TBM is still based on clinical features with the help of laboratory. Early diagnosis by suspecting TBM may prevent therapy delay and may result in decrease in the mortality and morbidity.

  12. Early treatment of candidemia in adults: a review. (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Bow, Eric J; Hadley, Susan; León, Cristóbal; Nucci, Marcio; Patterson, Thomas F; Perfect, John R


    Invasive candidiasis is associated with high mortality, particularly in adults. Retrospective studies show that shorter times to treatment are correlated with a lower risk of death. A number of factors can be used to predict which patients would benefit from antifungal prophylaxis or early (pre-emptive or empirical) therapy. Detection of the fungal cell wall component (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BDG) shows promise as an early biomarker of invasive fungal infection and may be useful in identifying patients who would benefit from early antifungal treatment. To date, no consistent early treatment strategy has evolved. Proof-of-concept studies are needed to assess the role of pre-emptive and empirical therapy in ICU patients and the relevance of BDG as an early marker of infection.

  13. Consensus Statement on Continuous EEG in Critically Ill Adults and Children, Part I: Indications


    Herman, ST; Abend, NS; Bleck, TP; Chapman, KE; Drislane, FW; Emerson, RG; Gerard, EE; Hahn, CD; Husain, AM; Kaplan, PW; LaRoche, SM; Nuwer, MR; Quigg, M; Riviello, JJ; Schmitt, SE


    © 2015 by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Introduction: Critical Care Continuous EEG (CCEEG) is a common procedure to monitor brain function in patients with altered mental status in intensive care units. There is significant variability in patient populations undergoing CCEEG and in technical specifications for CCEEG performance. Methods: The Critical Care Continuous EEG Task Force of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society developed expert consensus recommendations on t...

  14. A critical review of ERP and fMRI evidence on L2 syntactic processing. (United States)

    Kotz, Sonja A


    The current review focuses on recent event-related brain potential (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in L2 syntactic processing data. To this end, critical factors influencing both the dynamics of neural mechanisms (ERPs) and critical functional brain correlates (fMRI) are discussed. These entail the critical period hypothesis, levels of proficiency, cross-linguistic syntactic similarities and dissimilarities as well as brain bases that may or may not be shared during syntactic processing in a first (L1) and a second (L2) language. The data to date reveal that (i) the critical period hypothesis plays less of a significant role than initially discussed, (ii) L2 proficiency is a driving factor influencing peak and extent of activation in brain correlates and in neurophysiological mechanisms as a function of learning, and (iii) language transfer effects (i.e., positive transfer effects when L1 and L2 are structurally similar or negative transfer effects when L1 and L2 are structurally dissimilar) primarily from the L1 to the L2 and potentially vice versa need to be critically considered in future research.

  15. A Critical Ear: Analysis of Value Judgments in Reviews of Beethoven's Piano Sonata Recordings. (United States)

    Alessandri, Elena; Williamson, Victoria J; Eiholzer, Hubert; Williamon, Aaron


    What sets a great music performance apart? In this study, we addressed this question through an examination of value judgments in written criticism of recorded performance. One hundred reviews of recordings of Beethoven's piano sonatas, published in the Gramophone between 1934 and 2010, were analyzed through a three-step qualitative analysis that identified the valence (positive/negative) expressed by critics' statements and the evaluation criteria that underpinned their judgments. The outcome is a model of the main evaluation criteria used by professional critics: aesthetic properties, including intensity, coherence, and complexity, and achievement-related properties, including sureness, comprehension, and endeavor. The model also emphasizes how critics consider the suitability and balance of these properties across the musical and cultural context of the performance. The findings relate directly to current discourses on the role of evaluation in music criticism and the generalizability of aesthetic principles. In particular, the perceived achievement of the performer stands out as a factor that drives appreciation of a recording.

  16. The policy challenges of tradable credits: A critical review of eight markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)


    This article offers a critical review of eight tradable permit markets: water permits at Fox River, Wisconsin; the U.S. leaded gasoline phase-out; sulfur dioxide credits under the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) for controlling ozone and acid rain in Southern California; renewable energy credit trading at the regional level in the United States; individual transferrable quotas for fisheries at the national level in New Zealand; carbon credits traded under the European Union-Emissions Trading Scheme; and carbon offsets permitted under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. By 'critical' the article does not fully weigh the costs and benefits of each tradable credit scheme and instead identifies key challenges and problems. By 'review' the author relied exclusively on secondary data from an interdisciplinary review of the academic literature. Rather than performing as economic theory suggests, the article shows that in many cases credit markets are prone to compromises in program design, transaction costs, price volatility, leakage, and environmental degradation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these problems for those seeking to design more equitable and effective public policies addressing environmental degradation and climate change. - Research Highlights: {yields}This study reviews eight tradable credit markets. {yields}It finds that markets are prone to common problems. {yields}It concludes that tradable permit markets are political instruments as much as they are economic ones.

  17. Redefining Normal: A Critical Analysis of (Dis)ability in Young Adult Literature (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott


    This literary analysis examines constructions of normalcy and disability within contemporary young adult literature, including "Jerk," "California" (Friesen, 2008), "Marcelo in the Real World" (Stork, 2009), and "Five Flavors of Dumb" (John, 2010). As recent winners of the Schneider Family Book Award from the American Library Association, these…

  18. Reducing underage and young adult drinking: how to address critical drinking problems during this developmental period. (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A


    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health.

  19. Participation in Adult Education for Community Development: A Critical Discourse Analysis of "Training for Transformation" (United States)

    Krupar, Allyson M.; Prins, Esther


    Participation has become so central to adult education for community development that even the World Bank supports participatory programming. This article analyses how participation is conceptualised in "Training for Transformation" (TfT), a Freirean-inspired curriculum used in international community development settings. TfT seeks to…

  20. Pathways of Knowing: Integrating Citizen Science and Critical Thinking in the Adult ELL Classroom (United States)

    Basham, Melody


    This action research study examines what common perceptions and constructs currently exist in educating adult immigrants in Arizona and considers how might the integration of citizen science with the current English curriculum promote higher order thinking and educational equity in this population. A citizen science project called the Mastodon…

  1. Do Psychosocial Interventions Improve Quality of Life and Wellbeing in Adults with Neuromuscular Disorders? A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis. (United States)

    Walklet, Elaine; Muse, Kate; Meyrick, Jane; Moss, Tim


    Quality of life and well-being are frequently restricted in adults with neuromuscular disorders. As such, identification of appropriate interventions is imperative. The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically appraise quantitative studies (RCTs, controlled trials and cohort studies) of psychosocial interventions designed to improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders. A systematic review of the published and unpublished literature was conducted. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were appraised using a validated quality assessment tool and results presented in a narrative synthesis. Out of 3,136 studies identified, ten studies met criteria for inclusion within the review. Included studies comprised a range of interventions including: cognitive behavioural therapy, dignity therapy, hypnosis, expressive disclosure, gratitude lists, group psychoeducation and psychologically informed rehabilitation. Five of the interventions were for patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The remainder were for patients with post-polio syndrome, muscular dystrophies and mixed disorders, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, myasthenia gravis and myotonic dystrophy. Across varied interventions and neuromuscular disorders, seven studies reported a short-term beneficial effect of intervention on quality of life and well-being. Whilst such findings are encouraging, widespread issues with the methodological quality of these studies significantly compromised the results. There is no strong evidence that psychosocial interventions improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders, due to a paucity of high quality research in this field. Multi-site, randomised controlled trials with active controls, standardised outcome measurement and longer term follow-ups are urgently required.

  2. Temporomandibular joint disfunction syndrome and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome: a critical review. (United States)

    Moss, R A; Garrett, J C


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction syndrome and myofascial pain dysfunction (MPD) syndrome have been primarily viewed as dental problems and have only recently received close attention by psychologists. The literature reviewed in the present paper reveals that a substantial portion of the population is affected by these disorders. There is, however, a great deal of confusion that exists in relation to the aetiology and treatment of these syndromes. In an attempt to clarify the current understanding of these disorders, the present review first presents a discussion of the symptoms which comprise each of these syndromes and the proposed physiological mechanisms associated with each symptom. Next, the aetiological theories for each of these syndromes are reviewed and critically evaluated. Treatments which have been derived from the theoretical models are then discussed. Finally, methodological considerations involving classification, assessment and treatment issues are presented and future research needs are outlined.

  3. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature. (United States)

    Nadhim, Evan A; Hon, Carol; Xia, Bo; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Dongping


    Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods.

  4. Definitions, measurement and prevalence of sedentary behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities - A systematic review. (United States)

    Melville, Craig A; Oppewal, Alyt; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte; Freiberger, Ellen; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Einarsson, Ingi; Izquierdo-Gómez, Rocio H; Sansano-Nadal, Oriol; Rintala, Pauli; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Giné-Garriga, Maria


    Supporting positive change in lifestyle behaviours is a priority in tackling the health inequalities experienced by adults with intellectual disabilities. In this systematic review, we examine the evidence on the definition, measurement and epidemiology of sedentary behaviour of adults with intellectual disabilities. A systematic literature search of PUBMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Google Scholar was performed to identify studies published from 1990 up to October 2015. Nineteen papers met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. Many researchers do not distinguish between insufficient physical activity and sedentary behaviour. None of the studies reported the reliability and validity of the methods used to measure sedentary behaviour. Sedentary time, assessed objectively, ranged from 522 to 643min/day: higher than in adults without intellectual disabilities. This first-ever review of sedentary behaviour and intellectual disabilities found that at present the evidence base is weak. Studies calibrating accelerometer data with criterion measures for sedentary behaviour are needed to determine specific cut-off points to measure sedentary behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities. Researchers should also examine the reliability and validity of using proxy-report questionnaires to measure sedentary behaviour in this group. A better understanding of sedentary behaviour will inform the design of novel interventions to change lifestyle behaviours of adults with intellectual disabilities.

  5. Perceived barriers to the regionalization of adult critical care in the United States: a qualitative preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenfeld Gordon D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regionalization of adult critical care services may improve outcomes for critically ill patients. We sought to develop a framework for understanding clinician attitudes toward regionalization and potential barriers to developing a tiered, regionalized system of care in the United States. Methods We performed a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of critical care stakeholders in the United States, including physicians, nurses and hospital administrators. Stakeholders were identified from a stratified-random sample of United States general medical and surgical hospitals. Key barriers and potential solutions were identified by performing content analysis of the interview transcriptions. Results We interviewed 30 stakeholders from 24 different hospitals, representing a broad range of hospital locations and sizes. Key barriers to regionalization included personal and economic strain on families, loss of autonomy on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, loss of revenue on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, the potential to worsen outcomes at small hospitals by limiting services, and the potential to overwhelm large hospitals. Improving communication between destination and source hospitals, provider education, instituting voluntary objective criteria to become a designated referral center, and mechanisms to feed back patients and revenue to source hospitals were identified as potential solutions to some of these barriers. Conclusion Regionalization efforts will be met with significant conceptual and structural barriers. These data provide a foundation for future research and can be used to inform policy decisions regarding the design and implementation of a regionalized system of critical care.

  6. Sleep and executive functions in older adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Wilson Nogueira Holanda Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A recent increase in studies suggests a role of age-related sleep changes in executive functions (EF. However, this relationship remains unclear and mixed results have emerged. Objective: To investigate how age-related sleep changes may play an important role in the extent to which healthy older adults exhibit decline in EF. Methods: A systematic strategy was employed to identify the available literature on age-related sleep changes and EF. Results: Of the 465 studies identified, 26 were included. Results suggest that multiple sleep parameters differ in the way they benefit or impair EF. Parameters such as greater wake after sleep onset and lower sleep efficiency, in addition to circadian fragmentation of sleep, showed more consistent results and are potentially correlated with worsening in EF measures. However, other results seem inconclusive. Conclusion: These findings were discussed based on the prefrontal circuitry vulnerability model, in which sleep has been identified as a beneficial factor for prefrontal cortex functioning and hence for EF, which relies mostly on this brain area and its related networks.

  7. Enteral nutrition in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in adult critical care patients. (United States)

    Cox, Jill; Rasmussen, Louisa


    Prevention and healing of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients can be especially challenging because of the patients' burden of illness and degree of physiological compromise. Providing adequate nutrition may help halt the development or worsening of pressure ulcers. Optimization of nutrition can be considered an essential ingredient in prevention and healing of pressure ulcers. Understanding malnutrition in critical care patients, the effect of nutrition on wound healing, and the application of evidence-based nutritional guidelines are important aspects for patients at high risk for pressure ulcers. Appropriate screenings for nutritional status and risk for pressure ulcers, early collaboration with a registered dietician, and administration of appropriate feeding formulations and micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation to promote wound healing are practical solutions to improve the nutritional status of critical care patients. Use of nutritional management and enteral feeding protocols may provide vital elements to augment nutrition and ultimately result in improved clinical outcomes.

  8. Emerging issues in smoking among adolescent and adult cancer survivors: a comprehensive review. (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Tyc, Vida L; Garces-Webb, Danette M; Buscemi, Joanna; Klesges, Robert C; Hudson, Melissa M


    The number of cancer survivors is significantly increasing, thereby prioritizing the importance of identifying and preventing adverse health outcomes within this high-risk population. Cigarette smoking is of particular salience as it places both adolescents and adults with a cancer history at risk for various health problems, including second malignancies. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the smoking literature as it relates to adolescents and adults on-treatment and surviving cancer. In particular, the article reviews the prevalence, risk factors, and health outcomes associated with smoking, in addition to the prevention and smoking cessation interventions available to adolescent and adult oncology patients. Furthermore, efficacious cessation strategies have recently emerged from the smoking literature in healthy populations, and their application to oncology populations is discussed.

  9. Tailoring systematic reviews to meet critical priorities in maternal health in the intrapartum period. (United States)

    Viswanathan, Meera


    Health care practitioners and researchers commonly call for greater reliance on evidence as a means to achieve improvement in quality of care. Systematic reviews provide a means to accelerate the use of evidence-based clinical interventions and public health practices. The extent to which these time- and resource-intensive systematic reviews currently address critical maternal health priorities in the intrapartum period is unclear. This analysis summarises key maternal health and research priorities, maps these priorities to existing reviews, identifies gaps in the literature that can be addressed with systematic reviews, and highlights key methodological concerns in conducting systematic reviews. The analysis draws on published data on maternal morbidities and an overview of 108 systematic reviews in Medline in the past 5 years using the MeSH terms 'Delivery, Obstetric,' to draw the links between health priorities, research priorities, existing evidence and missing evidence. Key causes of morbidity during labour and delivery in the United States include haemorrhage, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, obstetric trauma and infection. Analyses of maternal morbidity and mortality suggest that key concerns include racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes and the prevention of adverse events. Systematic reviews, however, generally tend to focus on the reduction of harms associated with interventions, are frequently limited to randomised designs, and do not address issues of health disparities. The results suggest that advances in evidence-based care in maternal health require that systematic reviews address issues of prevention of adverse events, include a larger variety of study designs when necessary and pay closer attention to health disparities.

  10. Imaging of adult ocular and orbital pathology--a pictorial review. (United States)

    Grech, Reuben; Cornish, Kurt Spiteri; Galvin, Patrick Leo; Grech, Stephan; Looby, Seamus; O'Hare, Alan; Mizzi, Adrian; Thornton, John; Brennan, Paul


    Orbital pathology often presents a diagnostic challenge to the reporting radiologist. The aetiology is protean, and clinical input is therefore often necessary to narrow the differential diagnosis. With this manuscript, we provide a pictorial review of adult ocular and orbital pathology.

  11. Starting Young? Links between Childhood and Adult Participation in Culture and Science: A Literature Review


    Elsley, Susan; McMellon, Christina


    This literature review considers the links between childhood and adult participation in cultural activities, including participation in science events. This includes attendance as members of an audience and participation in arts and cultural activities and as visitors at science attractions such as museums and science centres.

  12. Systematic review of the prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Linda J; Cassidy, John David; Cancelliere, Carol;


    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence on objective outcomes after adult mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) for studies related to MTBI. Inclusion criteria included published, peer-reviewed articles in English and ...

  13. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review (United States)

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin


    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  14. Promoting Engagement with Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles in Adult ESL Programs (United States)

    Abbott, Marilyn L.; Rossiter, Marian J.; Hatami, Sarvenaz


    Engagement with current research is essential for the implementation of evidence-informed instructional practices in adult English as a second language classrooms. We explored Canadian administrators' and instructors' engagement with peer-reviewed research articles, perceptions of their impact, and ways in which stakeholders could enhance…

  15. Instruments Assessing Anxiety in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Hermans, Heidi; van der Pas, Femke H.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.


    Background: In the last decades several instruments measuring anxiety in adults with intellectual disabilities have been developed. Aim: To give an overview of the characteristics and psychometric properties of self-report and informant-report instruments measuring anxiety in this group. Method: Systematic review of the literature. Results:…

  16. Nursing Support of the Spiritual Needs of Older Adults Living With Dementia: A Narrative Literature Review. (United States)

    Toivonen, Kristiina; Stolt, Minna; Suhonen, Riitta


    Across this literature review (n = 10), supporting spirituality in the nursing care of older adults with dementia is concerned with supporting religious activity, enabling connections, nurses' reflections on their own spirituality, and nonverbal communication. The benefits from the support of spirituality were seen to be reciprocal and to occur in everyday nursing.

  17. Lost in translation - the role of family in interventions among adults with diabetes; a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torenholt, Rikke; Schwennesen, Nete; Willaing, Ingrid


    . Methods The literature search was carried out in four databases (Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ERIC). Two reviewers independently screened the search results. Only English-language articles about interventions on education, care and/or support of adult individuals with diabetes involving the participation...

  18. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review. (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L


    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight.

  19. Interventions to Reduce Distress in Adult Victims of Rape and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Alaggia, Ramona; Dennis, Jane; Pitts, Annabel; Saini, Michael


    Objectives: This article presents a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing distress in adult victims of rape and sexual violence. Method: Studies were eligible for the review if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Results:…

  20. Prevalence, Associated Factors and Treatment of Sleep Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review (United States)

    van de Wouw, E.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.


    In people with intellectual disability (ID), impaired sleep is common. Life expectancy has increased in this group, and it is known that in general population sleep deteriorates with aging. Therefore the aims of this systematic review were to examine how sleep problems are defined in research among adults and older people with ID, and to collect…

  1. Utility of Acculturation in Physical Activity Research in Latina Adults: An Integrative Review of Literature (United States)

    Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen


    Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…

  2. Assessing Adolescent and Adult Attachment: A Review of Current Self-Report Measures. (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.; And Others


    Notes that interest in attachment theory among counselors and researchers has led to development of measures of attachment-related constructs. Presents overview of theoretical foundations of attachment theory as conceptualized by Ainsworth (1989) and Bowlby (1988). Reviews four self-report measures of adolescent and adult attachment. Discusses…

  3. Problem-Solving Therapy for Depression in Adults: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Gellis, Zvi D.; Kenaley, Bonnie


    Objectives: This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on problem-solving therapy (PST) for depressive disorders in noninstitutionalized adults. Method: Intervention studies using randomized controlled designs are included and methodological quality is assessed using a standard set of criteria from the Cochrane Collaborative Review…

  4. Systematic review of factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Sagna, Atami; Gallo, Joseph J; Pontone, Gregory M


    Depression and anxiety disorders have a substantial impact on the quality of life, the functioning and mortality of older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the factors associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among individuals with PD aged 60 years and older. Following a literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE, 5 articles met the inclusion criteria (adults aged 60 years and older, individuals with PD, and with depression and anxiety disorders, and English-language peer reviewed articles) and were included in this review. These studies were conducted in the U.S (n = 3), in Italy (n = 1) and the U.K (n = 1). Findings indicated that autonomic symptoms, motor fluctuations, severity and frequency of symptoms, staging of the disease, and PD onset and duration were associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults suffering from PD. Despite the limited number of studies included in the review, depression and anxiety disorders are often unrecognized and untreated and the comorbidity greatly exacerbates PD symptoms. The identification of factors associated with the development of depression and anxiety disorders could help in designing preventive interventions that would decrease the risk and burden of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with PD.

  5. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review (United States)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  6. The Sexual Functioning of Adult Women Molested as Children: A Review of Empirical Studies. (United States)

    Clarke, Julie Lynn

    This paper reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1991 that addresses long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult women's sexual functioning. Frequently reported long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are noted, including both sexual dissatisfaction and sexual dysfunction. In terms of sexual dysfunction, it is noted that adult…

  7. A critical period for experience-dependent remodeling of adult-born neuron connectivity. (United States)

    Bergami, Matteo; Masserdotti, Giacomo; Temprana, Silvio G; Motori, Elisa; Eriksson, Therese M; Göbel, Jana; Yang, Sung Min; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Schinder, Alejandro F; Götz, Magdalena; Berninger, Benedikt


    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus is a process regulated by experience. To understand whether experience also modifies the connectivity of new neurons, we systematically investigated changes in their innervation following environmental enrichment (EE). We found that EE exposure between 2-6 weeks following neuron birth, rather than merely increasing the number of new neurons, profoundly affected their pattern of monosynaptic inputs. Both local innervation by interneurons and to even greater degree long-distance innervation by cortical neurons were markedly enhanced. Furthermore, following EE, new neurons received inputs from CA3 and CA1 inhibitory neurons that were rarely observed under control conditions. While EE-induced changes in inhibitory innervation were largely transient, cortical innervation remained increased after returning animals to control conditions. Our findings demonstrate an unprecedented experience-dependent reorganization of connections impinging onto adult-born neurons, which is likely to have important impact on their contribution to hippocampal information processing.

  8. Human Resource Management in Sports: A Critical Review of its Importance and Pertaining Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerakoon Ranjan Kumara


    Full Text Available This paper will illustrate the meaning and importance of human resource management (HRM, human resource planning, and strategic human resource management, which are critically important for an organization’s effectiveness and must be effectively managed (Doherty, 1998. This study used the literature review method to acquire its final results. The relevant HRM literature review was done according to the purpose of the study. It used the purposive random sample method for selecting relevant literature. This study shows the current economic environment in the sports industry; the second part of the study critically analyzes the value of the strategic management of employees for the effective and efficient operation of sports organizations. It also critically evaluates human resource planning and other pertinent issues in terms of legislation, recruitment, selection, training, induction, and reward management from different international examples in sports management. Over the past few decades, increasing competition, globalization, and continuous changes in the market and in technology have emphasized the need to rethink the management of the organization and of human resources for the sake of overcoming significant challenges (Taylor et al., 2006. Therefore, managers should use strategic human resource management to overcome significant issues and to form well-planned strategies so that the organization may succeed.

  9. Critical Programmatic Success Factors of Select Arts Programs for Older Adults



    The purpose of this study is to identify the pivotal factors contributing to programmatic success of arts programs for people, age sixty-five and older, in the United States. This study examines select programs within five arts disciplines: Elders Share the Arts (theatre), Museum One (visual art), Liz Lerman Dance Exchange (dance), New Horizons Music (music), and Arts for the Aging (writing/literature). The selected programs serve a heterogeneous population of older adults and exist indepen...

  10. A review of the relationship between leg power and selected chronic disease in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strollo, S. E.; Caserotti, Paolo; Ward, R. E.


    OBJECTIVE: This review investigates the relationship between leg muscle power and the chronic conditions of osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease among older adults. Current literature assessing the impact of chronic disease on leg power has not yet been comprehensively......), diabetes mellitus (n=5), and cardiovascular disease (n=6). Studies generally supported associations of lower leg power among older adults with chronic disease, although small sample sizes, cross-sectional data, homogenous populations, varied disease definitions, and inconsistent leg power methods limited...... measurements of leg power. Future larger studies of more diverse older adults with well-defined chronic disease using standard measures of leg power and interventions to improve leg power in these older adults with chronic disease are needed....

  11. A systematic review of education for the prevention of HIV/AIDS among older adults. (United States)

    Milaszewski, Dorota; Greto, Elise; Klochkov, Tanya; Fuller-Thomson, Esme


    Through a comprehensive literature search, the authors of this systematic review identified 21 articles focused on primary prevention of HIV/AIDS for adults aged 50 and over. Three major challenges to providing HIV/AIDS education for older adults include health professionals' ageism, older adults' reluctance to discuss sexuality, and their misconception of their HIV risk. Clinical guidelines for social workers, nurses, and physicians identified the importance of sharing information and assessing risk, considering cultural diversity, and devising creative delivery strategies. Three models of HIV/AIDS education include group education programs delivered by social workers or other health professionals, peer education models, and one-on-one early intervention models including HIV/AIDS testing. Additional outreach and research on HIV/AIDS prevention among older adults is needed.

  12. The clinical implication of drug dependency in children and adults with inflammatory bowel disease: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duricova, Dana; Pedersen, Natalia; Lenicek, Martin


    cessation or dose decrease. However, a quick restoration of remission and sustained response is achieved when the therapy is re-introduced or dose increased. Population-based studies have demonstrated that 22-36% of adults and 14-50% of children become corticosteroid dependent. Approximately 1......Drug dependency in adult and paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is described and the significance of this response pattern in clinical practice discussed in this review. Dependent patients maintain remission while on the treatment, but they relapse shortly after drug...... corticosteroid dependency. Infliximab dependency was described in 42-66% of children and 29% of adults with Crohn's disease. The risk of surgery 50 and 40 months after treatment start was 10% and 23% in infliximab dependent children and adults, respectively. Maintenance of infliximab in dependent patients...

  13. Motivational interviewing for older adults in primary care: a systematic review. (United States)

    Purath, Janet; Keck, Annmarie; Fitzgerald, Cynthia E


    Chronic disease is now the leading cause of death and disability in United States. Many chronic illnesses experienced by older adults can be prevented or managed through behavior change, making patient counseling an essential component of disease prevention and management. Motivational Interviewing (MI), a type of conversational method, has been effective in eliciting health behavior changes in people in a variety of settings and may also be a useful tool to help older adults change. This review of the literature analyzes current research and describes potential biases of MI interventions that have been conducted in primary care settings with older adults. MI shows promise as a technique to elicit health behavior change among older adults. However, further study with this population is needed to evaluate efficacy of MI interventions in primary care settings.

  14. A pictorial review of hypovolaemic shock in adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, A M


    Hypovolaemic shock is an infrequently encountered entity found on CT of victims of severe trauma. Early abdominal and pelvic CT can show diffuse abnormalities owing to hypovolaemia that may alert radiologists to the presence of hypovolaemic shock. In this pictorial review, we present the imaging findings of hypovolaemic shock, as seen on CT of the abdomen. A spectrum of vascular and visceral CT signs is described. Vascular signs include diminished inferior vena cava diameter, diminished aortic diameter and abnormal vascular enhancement. Hollow visceral abnormalities include diffuse increased mucosal enhancement of both the small and large bowel, diffuse thickening of the small bowel wall, and small bowel dilatation. Solid visceral abnormalities include both decreased and increased end organ enhancement. This report should increase radiologists\\' awareness of the CT manifestations of hypovolaemic shock.

  15. Making space for belonging: critical reflections on the implementation of personalised adult social care under the veil of meaningful inclusion. (United States)

    Power, Andrew


    This paper critically reflects on the way in which recent adult social care reform has been evolving beneath the alleged policy goal of prioritising the cultivation of meaningful inclusion and 'belonging' in the community. With this goal, there has been a focus away from 'services' for persons with intellectual disabilities, to supporting natural connections within the community. This paper draws on a grounded theory study of the perspectives of those responsible for overseeing community living arrangements for persons with disabilities, drawing on interviews and focus groups with service providers and relevant government officials. It examines the socio-spatial implications of the gradual shift towards 'belonging' as a disability policy goal, as it has evolved in two discrete settings - British Columbia, Canada and Ireland. The findings identify the complexities involved in facilitating active community connection for persons with intellectual disabilities and reveal important cautionary lessons for other jurisdictions where community living policy has arguably been moving away from communal services towards self-managed supports in 'real' communities through personal budgets in an effort to remove barriers to participation. The paper thus critically reflects on the rapid pursuit for transformation in personalised adult social care in government policy, arguing that the process of fostering meaningful community inclusion will and should take time.

  16. A Profile of Injuries Sustained by Law Enforcement Officers: A Critical Review (United States)

    Lyons, Kate; Radburn, Cameron; Orr, Robin; Pope, Rodney


    Due to the unpredictable, varied and often physical nature of law enforcement duties, police officers are at a high risk of work-related physical injury. The aim of this critical narrative review was to identify and synthesize key findings of studies that have investigated musculoskeletal injuries sustained by law enforcement officers during occupational tasks. A systematic search of four databases using key search terms was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies, which were assessed against key inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine studies to be included in the review. Included studies were critically appraised and the level of evidence determined. Relevant data were extracted, tabulated and synthesized. The 16 identified studies ranged in percentage quality scores from 25.00% to 65.00%, with a mean score of 41.25% and high interrater agreement in scores reflected in a Cohen’s Kappa coefficient, κ = 0.977. The most common body site of injury was the upper extremity, the most common injury types were soft-tissue sprains and strains and the most common cause of injury was a non-compliant offender, often involving assault. However, there was limited peer reviewed research in this area and the published research had a narrow focus and was of low to fair methodological quality. PMID:28165373

  17. Identifying Critical Success Factors for TQM and Employee Performance in Malaysian Automotive Industry: A Literature Review (United States)

    Nadia Dedy, Aimie; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Chin, Thoo Ai; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad


    TQM is a management philosophy embracing all activities through which the needs and expectations of the customer and the community and the goals of the companies are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective way by maximizing the potential of all workers in a continuing drive for total quality improvement. TQM is very important to the company especially in automotive industry in order for them to survive in the competitive global market. The main objective of this study is to review a relationship between TQM and employee performance. Authors review updated literature on TQM study with two main targets: (a) evolution of TQM considering as a set of practice, (b) and its impacts to employee performance. Therefore, two research questions are proposed in order to review TQM constructs and employee performance measure: (a) Is the set of critical success factors associated with TQM valid as a whole? (b) What is the critical success factors should be considered to measure employee performance in automotive industry?

  18. The policy challenges of tradable credits. A critical review of eight markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)


    This article offers a critical review of eight tradable permit markets: water permits at Fox River, Wisconsin; the U.S. leaded gasoline phase-out; sulfur dioxide credits under the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) for controlling ozone and acid rain in Southern California; renewable energy credit trading at the regional level in the United States; individual transferrable quotas for fisheries at the national level in New Zealand; carbon credits traded under the European Union-Emissions Trading Scheme; and carbon offsets permitted under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. By 'critical' the article does not fully weigh the costs and benefits of each tradable credit scheme and instead identifies key challenges and problems. By 'review' the author relied exclusively on secondary data from an interdisciplinary review of the academic literature. Rather than performing as economic theory suggests, the article shows that in many cases credit markets are prone to compromises in program design, transaction costs, price volatility, leakage, and environmental degradation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these problems for those seeking to design more equitable and effective public policies addressing environmental degradation and climate change. (author)

  19. A systematic Review on Pharmacokinetic Changes in Critically ill Patients Role of Extracorporeal, Membrane Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mojtahedzadeh


    Full Text Available Objective: Several factors including disease condition and different procedures could alter pharmacokinetic profile of drugs in critically ill patients. For optimizing patients outcome, changing in dosing regimen is necessary. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO is one of the procedures which could change pharmacokinetic parameters.The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of ECMO support on pharmacokinetic parameters and subsequently pharmacotherapy. Method: A systematic review was conducted by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO, pharmacokinetic and pharmacotherapy in bibliography database. Results: Different drug classes have been studied; mostly antibiotics. Almost all of the studies have been performed in neonates (as a case series. ECMO support is associated with altered pharmacokinetic parameters that may result in acute changes in plasma concentrations with potentially unpredictable pharmacological effect. Altreation in volume of distribution, protein binding, renal or hepatic clearance and sequestration of drugs by ECMO circuit may result in higher or lower doses requirement during ECMO. As yet, definite dosing guideline is not available. ECMO is extensively used recently for therapy and as a procedure affects pharmacokinetics profile along with other factors in critically ill patients. For optimizing the pharmacodynamic response and outcome of patients, drug regimen should be individualized through therapeutic drug monitoring whenever possible.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad


    This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

  1. A critical ear: Analysis of value judgements in reviews of Beethoven’s piano sonata recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eAlessandri


    Full Text Available What sets a great music performance apart? In this study we addressed this question through an examination of value judgements in written criticism of recorded performance. One hundred reviews of recordings of Beethoven’s piano sonatas, published in the Gramophone between 1934 and 2010, were analyzed through a three-step qualitative analysis that identified the valence (positive/negative expressed by critics’ statements and the evaluation criteria that underpinned their judgements. The outcome is a model of the main evaluation criteria used by professional critics: aesthetic properties, including intensity, coherence, and complexity, and achievement-related properties, including sureness, comprehension, and endeavor. The model also emphasizes how critics consider the suitability and balance of these properties across the musical and cultural context of the performance. The findings relate directly to current discourses on the role of evaluation in music criticism and the generalizability of aesthetic principles. In particular, the perceived achievement of the performer stands out as a factor that drives appreciation of a recording.

  2. A critical appraisal of the methodology and quality of evidence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of traditional Chinese medical nursing interventions: a systematic review of reviews (United States)

    Jin, Ying-Hui; Wang, Guo-Hao; Sun, Yi-Rong; Li, Qi; Zhao, Chen; Li, Ge; Si, Jin-Hua; Li, Yan; Lu, Cui; Shang, Hong-Cai


    Objective To assess the methodology and quality of evidence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of traditional Chinese medical nursing (TCMN) interventions in Chinese journals. These interventions include acupressure, massage, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, electroacupuncture and use of Chinese herbal medicines—for example, in enemas, foot massage and compressing the umbilicus. Design A systematic literature search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of TCMN interventions was performed. Review characteristics were extracted. The methodological quality and the quality of the evidence were evaluated using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches. Result We included 20 systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and a total of 11 TCMN interventions were assessed in the 20 reviews. The compliance with AMSTAR checklist items ranged from 4.5 to 8 and systematic reviews/meta-analyses were, on average, of medium methodological quality. The quality of the evidence we assessed ranged from very low to moderate; no high-quality evidence was found. The top two causes for downrating confidence in effect estimates among the 31 bodies of evidence assessed were the risk of bias and inconsistency. Conclusions There is room for improvement in the methodological quality of systematic reviews/meta-analyses of TCMN interventions published in Chinese journals. Greater efforts should be devoted to ensuring a more comprehensive search strategy, clearer specification of the interventions of interest in the eligibility criteria and identification of meaningful outcomes for clinicians and patients (consumers). The overall quality of evidence among reviews remains suboptimal, which raise concerns about their roles in influencing clinical practice. Thus, the conclusions in reviews we assessed must be treated with caution and their roles in influencing clinical practice should be limited. A critical

  3. The Importance of Critical Reflection in College Teaching: Two Reviews of Stephen Brookfield's Book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. (United States)

    King, Rosalyn M.; Hibbison, Eric P.


    Discusses Stephen Brookfield's book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. Presents three categories of assumptions he believes teachers must make about their teaching: paradigmatic, prescriptive, and causal. States that Brookfield encourages engaging in critical conversation with peers in order to improve teaching methods. Provides strategies…

  4. Review of the influence of nanoparticles on thermal conductivity, nucleate pool boiling and critical heat flux (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Jagdeep M.; Shrivastava, Ramakant


    Nanofluids, the fluid suspensions of nonmaterials, have shown many interesting properties and the unique features offer unprecedented potential for many applications. Research on nanofluids has progressed rapidly since its enhanced thermal conductivity was first noted, about a decade ago, though much debate and inconsistency have been reported. Insufficient understanding of the formulation, mechanism of nanofluids further limits their applications [1-34]. Inconsistent data have been presented in the literature on the effect that nanofluids have on the boiling heat-transfer coefficient; however, almost all researchers [35-43] have noted an enhancement in the critical heat flux during nanofluid boiling. Some researchers have observed nanoparticle deposition at the heater surface, which they have related back to the critical heat flux augmentation. In the review, the future developments of these technologies are discussed. In order to be able to put the nanofluid heat transfer technologies into practice, fundamental of these studies are greatly needed to comprehend the physical mechanisms.

  5. Detection of critical congenital heart defects: Review of contributions from prenatal and newborn screening. (United States)

    Olney, Richard S; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Sontag, Marci K


    In 2011, statewide newborn screening programs for critical congenital heart defects began in the United States, and subsequently screening has been implemented widely. In this review, we focus on data reports and collection efforts related to both prenatal diagnosis and newborn screening. Defect-specific, maternal, and geographic factors are associated with variations in prenatal detection, so newborn screening provides a population-wide safety net for early diagnosis. A new web-based repository is collecting information on newborn screening program policies, quality indicators related to screening programs, and specific case-level data on infants with these defects. Birth defects surveillance programs also collect data about critical congenital heart defects, particularly related to diagnostic timing, mortality, and services. Individuals from state programs, federal agencies, and national organizations will be interested in these data to further refine algorithms for screening in normal newborn nurseries, neonatal intensive care settings, and other special populations; and ultimately to evaluate the impact of screening on outcomes.

  6. Critical success factors in the implementation of six sigma program: a systematic review of quantitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Santana Lambert Marzagão


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the literature on Six Sigma, identifying critical success factors. For this, the authors developed a theoretical framework to assist the statistical analysis. We searched articles in ISI Web of Knowledge, using the words "Six Sigma" and "Quality" in the period between 1988 and 2010. Of the 270 jobs generated in the search, type a search addressed 11 Survey with similarity of issues. A meta-analysis was performed in 6 of these 11 articles, which were available at no cost. The results showed that very few quantitative studies were performed. From a statistical viewpoint, the main limitations were the sample size and choice of appropriate tools. The four critical success factors that could be compared were: quality culture, employee involvement, project selection and training and learning. A difference found between Six Sigma and other quality initiatives is the integration with the Portfolio Management.

  7. Incidence of Stroke in Young Adults: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Marini


    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke in the young may have a dramatic impact on the quality of life in survivors. This study was aimed to evaluate incidence of first-ever stroke in the young by means of a systematic review. Materials and Methods. All papers on incidence of stroke in the young published after 1980, were identified by electronic search of Medline and manual search of reference lists. Only studies recruiting subjects under 44 years of age and with a lower age limit not higher than 20 years were included. Incidence rates were standardized to the 2000 European population according to the direct method. Poisson regression analysis was used to compare studies. Results. 29 studies including 3548 participants were identified. Incidence rates, after excluding a few outliers, ranged between 8.63 and 19.12 for crude rates and between 8.70 and 21.02 for standardized rates. Heterogeneity among studies was statistically significant but improved after excluding 4 studies. Few studies reported the proportions of stroke subtypes. Conclusions. Stroke in subjects under 45 years of age is not such a rare disease and requires specific preventive programs.

  8. Systematic Review of the Impact of Suicides and Other Critical Incidents on Railway Personnel. (United States)

    Bardon, Cécile; Mishara, Brian L


    The review summarizes current scientific knowledge on the effects of railway critical incidents on railway workers and the associated risk and protective factors. Diagnosable traumatic reactions sometimes occur after a serious incident. However, the most frequent effects are long-term impairments that do not meet diagnostic criteria but can still profoundly affect people's lives. Risk factors that can increase the negative effects of incidents include characteristics of the employee, coping mechanisms, the type of incident, and the support and care received. Prevention and intervention programs should consider the diversity of reactions to develop relevant support programs.

  9. Malignant Catatonia Warrants Early Psychiatric-Critical Care Collaborative Management: Two Cases and Literature Review (United States)

    Tan, Josh; Krzeminski, Sylvia; Hazeghazam, Maryam; Bandlamuri, Meghana; Carlson, Richard W.


    Malignant catatonia (MC) is a life-threatening manifestation which can occur in the setting of an underlying neuropsychiatric syndrome or general medical illness and shares clinical and pathophysiological features and medical comorbidities with the Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). The subsequent diagnosis and definitive therapy of MC are typically delayed, which increases morbidity and mortality. We present two cases of MC and review recent literature of MC and NMS, illustrating factors which delay diagnosis and management. When clinical features suggest MC or NMS, we propose early critical care consultation and stabilization with collaborative psychiatric management. PMID:28250995

  10. Malignant Catatonia Warrants Early Psychiatric-Critical Care Collaborative Management: Two Cases and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Park


    Full Text Available Malignant catatonia (MC is a life-threatening manifestation which can occur in the setting of an underlying neuropsychiatric syndrome or general medical illness and shares clinical and pathophysiological features and medical comorbidities with the Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS. The subsequent diagnosis and definitive therapy of MC are typically delayed, which increases morbidity and mortality. We present two cases of MC and review recent literature of MC and NMS, illustrating factors which delay diagnosis and management. When clinical features suggest MC or NMS, we propose early critical care consultation and stabilization with collaborative psychiatric management.

  11. Malignant Catatonia Warrants Early Psychiatric-Critical Care Collaborative Management: Two Cases and Literature Review. (United States)

    Park, Julia; Tan, Josh; Krzeminski, Sylvia; Hazeghazam, Maryam; Bandlamuri, Meghana; Carlson, Richard W


    Malignant catatonia (MC) is a life-threatening manifestation which can occur in the setting of an underlying neuropsychiatric syndrome or general medical illness and shares clinical and pathophysiological features and medical comorbidities with the Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). The subsequent diagnosis and definitive therapy of MC are typically delayed, which increases morbidity and mortality. We present two cases of MC and review recent literature of MC and NMS, illustrating factors which delay diagnosis and management. When clinical features suggest MC or NMS, we propose early critical care consultation and stabilization with collaborative psychiatric management.

  12. Treating postmenopausal osteoporosis in women at increased risk of fracture - critical appraisal of bazedoxifene: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Thomsen, Iva Susanna vio Streym


    Several categories of drugs to treat osteoporosis exist in the form of bisphosphonates, strontium, parathyroid hormone, and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM). Advantages and disadvantages exist for each category as some patients may, for example, not tolerate bisphosphonates...... for gastrointestinal side effects, and especially in women in whom osteoporosis is frequent, several options for treatment are needed. The objectives of this review were to critically appraise the effects of bazedoxifene on risk of fractures especially in women at high risk of fractures. A systematic literature search...... indicate that bazedoxifene may be effective in preventing vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis....

  13. Herbal Medicine in Mexico: A Cause of Hepatotoxicity. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Valdivia-Correa


    Full Text Available In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products.

  14. Rethinking project management: A structured literature review with a critical look at the brave new world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Andersen, Peter


    This paper presents the results of a structured review of the rethinking project management (RPM) literature based on the classification and analysis of 74 contributions and in addition takes a critical look at this brave new world. Through the analysis, a total of 6 overarching categories emerged......: contextualization, social and political aspects, rethinking practice, complexity and uncertainty, actuality of projects and broader conceptualization. These categories cover a broad range of different contributions with diverse and alternative perspectives on project management. The early RPM literature dates back...

  15. Critical review of LEED system for rating sustainability of architecture of commercial interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Sanja


    Full Text Available The LEED rating system for sustainability of architecture has gained large marketing potential in USA and became one of main ways American builders are attacking ecological challenges. In this paper the LEED rating system for commercial interiors is critically reviewed, pointing out its positive - focus on integrated design process - and negative impacts - low thresholds for highest ratings and tendency to gain LEED rating with projects that hardly pass the thresholds, largely neglecting the principles of energy efficiency. Based on a few prominent LEED platinum examples, the beginnings of a LEED style of designing interiors in historical landmark buildings are pointed out as well.

  16. Radiation-Induced Cataractogenesis: A Critical Literature Review for the Interventional Radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Kevin F., E-mail:; Lee, Edward W., E-mail: [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center (United States); Cagnon, Christopher H., E-mail: [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Radiology (United States); Al-Hakim, Ramsey A., E-mail:; Kee, Stephen T., E-mail: [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center (United States)


    Extensive research supports an association between radiation exposure and cataractogenesis. New data suggests that radiation-induced cataracts may form stochastically, without a threshold and at low radiation doses. We first review data linking cataractogenesis with interventional work. We then analyze the lens dose typical of various procedures, factors modulating dose, and predicted annual dosages. We conclude by critically evaluating the literature describing techniques for lens protection, finding that leaded eyeglasses may offer inadequate protection and exploring the available data on alternative strategies for cataract prevention.

  17. Biodegradation of Secondary Phase Particles in Magnesium Alloys: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby [James Cook University, Townsville (Australia)


    Magnesium alloys have been extensively studied in recent years for potential biodegradable implant applications. A great deal of work has been done on the evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys under in vitro and in vivo conditions. However, magnesium alloys, in general, contain secondary phase particles distributed in the matrix and/or along the grain boundaries. Owing to their difference in chemistry in comparison with magnesium matrix, these particles may exhibit different corrosion behaviour. It is essential to understand the corrosion behaviour of secondary phase particles in magnesium alloys in physiological conditions for implant applications. This paper critically reviews the biodegradation behaviour of secondary phase particles in magnesium alloys.

  18. Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Emily; Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi


    Bulk power system reliability is of critical importance to the electricity sector. Complete and accurate information on events affecting the bulk power system is essential for assessing trends and efforts to maintain or improve reliability. Yet, current sources of this information were not designed with these uses in mind. They were designed, instead, to support real-time emergency notification to industry and government first-responders. This paper reviews information currently collected by both industry and government sources for this purpose and assesses factors that might affect their usefulness in supporting the academic literature that has relied upon them to draw conclusions about the reliability of the US electric power system.

  19. Outcomes associated with prescribed medications in older adults with multimorbidity: protocol for a scoping review (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Vyas, Manav; Kohli, Kapil; Soin, Sarthak; Abaeian, Mitra; Watt, Stephanie; Straus, Sharon E


    Introduction Multimorbidity becomes increasingly prevalent with ageing. Polypharmacy is often associated with multimorbidity because patients accrue medications to treat each individual disease; however, there is uncertainty around the generalisability of disease-specific guidelines. Namely, the extrapolation of results from studies conducted in younger patients to older adults with multimorbidity. The main objective of this scoping review is to explore our current knowledge of the outcomes that older adults with multimorbidity experience from taking prescribed medications. Methods and analysis A scoping review will be conducted to explore what is known about the outcomes experienced by older adults with multimorbidity who are taking guideline-recommended medications and to identify areas for future research. In addition to searching the grey literature, the following databases will be searched from 1990 onward: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental studies consisting of patients ≥65 years old who have two or more comorbid conditions (explicitly grouped together for the purpose of analysis) and who are being prescribed a guideline-recommended prescription medication for a chronic condition will be considered for inclusion in our scoping review. We will describe patient (eg, mortality, morbidity, quality of life) and health system (eg, number of emergency department visits or hospitalisations, cost to third-party payer) outcomes associated with the prescription of medications for older adults who have two or more chronic comorbid conditions. Two reviewers will complete all screening and data abstraction independently. Data will be synthesised with descriptive statistics. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required because this is a scoping review of published literature. Results will be disseminated through conference presentations and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID

  20. Examining the relationship between specific cognitive processes and falls risk in older adults: a systematic review. (United States)

    Hsu, C L; Nagamatsu, L S; Davis, J C; Liu-Ambrose, T


    This systematic review aims to establish which cognitive domains are associated with falls or falls risk. Recent evidence suggests that impaired cognition increases seniors' risk of falling. The purpose of this review was to identify the cognitive domains that are significantly associated with falls or falls risk in older adults. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles published from 1948 to present, focusing on studies investigating different domains of cognitive function and their association with falls or falls risk in adults aged 60 years or older. In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we completed a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases to identify studies examining the association between cognitive function and falls or falls risk. With an expert in the field, we developed a quality assessment questionnaire to rate the quality of the studies included in this systematic review. Twenty-five studies were included in the review. We categorized studies based on two related but distinct cognitive domains: (1) executive functions or (2) dual-task ability. Twelve studies reported a significant association between executive functions and falls risk. Thirteen studies reported that dual-task performance is a predictor of falls or falls risk in older adults. Three studies did not report an association between cognition and falls risk. Consistent evidence demonstrated that executive functions and dual-task performance were highly associated with falls or falls risk. The results from this review will aid healthcare professionals and researchers in developing innovative screening and treatment strategies for mitigating falls risk by targeting specific cognitive domains.