WorldWideScience

Sample records for adults critical review

  1. Outcome measures for adult critical care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J A; Black, N A; Jenkinson, C; Young, J D; Rowan, K M; Daly, K; Ridley, S

    2000-01-01

    1. To identify generic and disease specific measures of impairment, functional status and health-related quality of life that have been used in adult critical care (intensive and high-dependency care) survivors. 2. To review the validity, reliability and responsiveness of the measures in adult critical care survivors. 3. To consider the implications for future policy and to make recommendations for further methodological research. 4. To review what is currently known of the outcome of adult critical care. Searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, The Cochrane Library and SIGLE) from 1970 to August 1998. Manual searches of five journals (1985-98) not indexed in electronic databases and relevant conference proceedings (1993-98). Reference lists of six existing reviews, plus snowballing from reference lists of all relevant articles identified. Randomised trials, non-randomised trials (cohort studies) and case series that included data on outcomes after discharge from adult (16 years and over) critical care. If reported, the following data were extracted from each paper: patient characteristics (age, gender, severity of illness, diagnostic category) number of patients eligible for study, follow-up period, number of deaths before follow-up, number and proportion of survivors included in follow-up method of presentation of outcome data - proportion normal as defined by reference values, or aggregate value (e.g. mean or median), or aggregate values plus an indication of variance (e.g. standard deviation or inter-quartile range). Evidence for three measurement properties was sought for each outcome measure that had been used in at least two studies - their validity, reliability and responsiveness in adult critical care. If the authors did not report these aspects explicitly, an attempt was made to use the data provided to provide these measurement properties. For measures that were used in at least ten studies, information on actual reported

  2. Antisocial Personality Disorder in Older Adults: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Katherine J; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) has enormous negative impacts on the affected individuals, their loved ones, and society. This burden is intensified by the social and functional changes related to age. The lower prevalence of ASPD in older adults compared to younger adults is well-documented. This discrepancy, often attributed solely to antisocial "burnout," contributes to the lack of attention given to this disorder in older adults and may signify difficulty measuring ASPD in this population. These measurement issues likely stem from problems with the validity of the diagnostic criteria for older adults which may not effectively capture changes that occur with age. This review focuses on the current literature surrounding the validity of ASPD criteria with older adults and relevant concepts, including the connection between criminality and ASPD. Issues with screening tools and the measurement of ASPD caused by problems with the criteria are also discussed. Finally, recommendations for improvement, including use of dimensional models of personality disorders, a potential geriatric subclassification of criteria, and modification of the existing criteria are presented with clinical implications and suggestions for future research.

  3. Marketing in Adult Education. A Critical Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rita L.

    In the literature on marketing in adult education there is much debate on the ethics of marketing educational programs; although many individuals have written about the potential negative impacts of big business and high-pressure advertising in education, others have viewed marketing as an acceptable process that attempts to establish mutually…

  4. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...... supports the robustness of an LCA and increases trust in its results and conclusions. The focus of this chapter is on understanding what a critical review is, how the international standards define it, what its main elements are, and what reviewer qualifications are required. It is not the objective...... of this chapter to learn how to conduct a critical review, neither from a reviewer nor from a practitioner perspective. The foundation of this chapter and the basis for any critical review of LCA studies are the International Standards ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006 and ISO TS 14071:2014....

  5. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Shenouda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health and wellbeing, powerlifting and heavy weight training should be avoided, as lifting maximal weights through various ranges of motion as fast as possible can lead to serious limb injuries. In order to determine the risks and benefits of resistance training in children and adolescents, it is important to review the literature to find a clear consensus. Further prospective research should be completed to determine the long-term sequelae of resistance training in children in comparison to the general population.

  6. Enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients; critical review and algorithm creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Junqueira, L; De-Souza, Daurea A

    2012-01-01

    Undernutrition directly affects critically ill patient's clinical outcome and mortality rates. Interdisciplinar algorithm creation aiming to optimize the enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients. Pubmed, SciELO, Scholar Google, Web of Science, Scopus, with research of these key words: protocols, enteral nutrition, nutritional support, critical care, undernutrition, fasting. Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Uberlándia, MG, Brazil. Were established in the algorithm a following sequential steps: After a clinical-surgical diagnosis, including the assessment of hemodynamic stability, were requested passage of a feeding tube in post-pyloric position and a drainage tube in gastric position. After hemodynamic stability it should be done the nutritional status diagnosis, calculated nutritional requirements, as well as chosen formulation of enteral feeding. Unless contraindicated, aiming to increase tolerance was started infusion with small volumes (15 ml/h) of a semi-elemental diet, normocaloric, hypolipidic (also hyperproteic, with addition of glutamine). To ensure infusion of the diet, as well as the progressive increase of infusion rates, the patient was monitored for moderate or severe intestinal intolerance. The schedule and infusion rates were respected and diet was not routinely suspended for procedures and diagnostic tests, unless indicated by the medical team. For nutrition therapy success it is essential routine monitoring and extensive interaction between the professionals involved. Nutritional conducts should be reevaluated and improved, seeking complete and specialized care to the critically ill patients. Adherence to new practices is challenging, though instruments such as protocols and algorithms help making information more accessible and comprehensible.

  7. Residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eCorral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with any certainty in light of the considerable methodological problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided.

  8. Epidemiological studies of leukaemia in children and young adults around nuclear facilities: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study published in late 2007 described an increased risk of leukaemia in children under 5 living within 5 kilometres of German nuclear power plants. A great deal of research has been carried out on this subject since the early 1980's. The aim of this report was to provide a synthesis and critical analysis of results related to the risk of leukaemia in children and young adults aged under 25 living close to nuclear facilities. The report is structured in three sections: - a reminder of the main characteristics of childhood leukaemia and a description of the methods used to conduct epidemiological studies; - the most exhaustive review possible of epidemiological studies published in the international literature describing the frequency of leukaemia close to nuclear facilities in different countries around the world. A critical analysis is made of the published results. Some results from studies not focused on nuclear facilities are also presented. The methodological limitations associated with descriptive studies are explained and discussed; - the last section discusses the possible causes of childhood leukaemia and the main hypotheses explored to explain certain clusters of cases observed locally close to some nuclear sites. Appendices at the end of the document provide additional explanations of the concepts and methods used in epidemiology and statistics, and of the classification of malignant hemopathies. (authors)

  9. Functional disability and suicidal behavior in middle-aged and older adults: A systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Fiske, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Middle-aged and older adults have elevated rates of suicide around the globe, but there is a paucity of knowledge about risk factors for suicide in these age groups. One possible risk factor may be functional disability, which is more common at later ages. The current systematic critical review examined findings regarding the associations between functional disability and suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide) in middle-aged and older adults (i.e. age 50 and older). Forty-five studies were found that examined these associations. The majority of studies supported a significant association between functional disability and suicidal ideation. In addition, findings to date strongly suggest that depression serves as a mediator of the association between functional disability and suicidal ideation, though most studies did not directly test for mediation. Firm conclusions regarding suicide attempts and death by suicide, as well as mediation, cannot be drawn due to a relative lack of research in these areas. The association between functional disability and suicidal behavior suggests an important area for prevention and intervention among middle-aged and older adults, but additional research is necessary to clarify the specifics of these associations and examine appropriate intervention strategies. Important future directions for research in this area include the direct comparison of associations of risk factors with different types of suicidal behavior, greater use of longitudinal data with multiple time points, and further examination of potential mediators and moderators of the association between functional disability and suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Home Delivered Meals to Older Adults: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Marie C; Donley, Amy M; Wright, James D; Vega, Sara Strickhouser

    The United States is witnessing a growing aging population stemming in part from medical advancements allowing people to live decades longer than previous generations. Simultaneously, food insecurity among older adults has increased, and is projected to get worse as the Baby Boomer generation ages. This review focuses on an assistance program for older adults: home-delivered meals. Specifically, we focus on the effects of Meals on Wheels (MOW) on the physical and emotional well-being of older adults, and the wide variety of procedural and operational issues that various MOW programs around the country experience. Findings from the literature highlight the positive outcomes these programs have on their clients. Although there have been recent budget cut threats from the federal government, evidence suggests that more funding should be allocated so these programs can provide services to everyone in need, and even expand what they are able to offer to older adults.

  11. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients with critical illness across the continuum of recovery: an overview of systematic reviews protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Bronwen; O'Neill, Brenda; Salisbury, Lisa; McDowell, Kathryn; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2015-09-29

    Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with critical illness often experience significant physical impairments, which typically persist for many years following resolution of the original illness. Physical rehabilitation interventions that enhance restoration of physical function have been evaluated across the continuum of recovery following critical illness including within the intensive care unit, following discharge to the ward and beyond hospital discharge. Multiple systematic reviews have been published appraising the expanding evidence investigating these physical rehabilitation interventions, although there appears to be variability in review methodology and quality. We aim to conduct an overview of existing systematic reviews of physical rehabilitation interventions for adult intensive care patients across the continuum of recovery. This protocol has been developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) guidelines. We will search the Cochrane Systematic Review Database, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. We will include systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of adult patients, admitted to the intensive care unit and who have received physical rehabilitation interventions at any time point during their recovery. Data extraction will include systematic review aims and rationale, study types, populations, interventions, comparators, outcomes and quality appraisal method. Primary outcomes of interest will focus on findings reflecting recovery of physical function. Quality of reporting and methodological quality will be appraised using the PRISMA checklist and the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews tool. We anticipate the findings from this novel overview of systematic reviews will contribute to the

  12. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients during critical illness: an overview of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Bronwen; O'Neill, Brenda; Salisbury, Lisa; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical rehabilitation interventions aim to ameliorate the effects of critical illness-associated muscle dysfunction in survivors. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews (SR) evaluating the effect of these interventions across the continuum of recovery. Methods Six electronic databases (Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, DARE, Medline, Embase, and Cinahl) were searched. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility and conducted data extraction and quality appraisal. Reporting quality was assessed and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach applied to summarise overall quality of evidence. Results Five eligible SR were included in this overview, of which three included meta-analyses. Reporting quality of the reviews was judged as medium to high. Two reviews reported moderate-to-high quality evidence of the beneficial effects of physical therapy commencing during intensive care unit (ICU) admission in improving critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy, quality of life, mortality and healthcare utilisation. These interventions included early mobilisation, cycle ergometry and electrical muscle stimulation. Two reviews reported very low to low quality evidence of the beneficial effects of electrical muscle stimulation delivered in the ICU for improving muscle strength, muscle structure and critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy. One review reported that due to a lack of good quality randomised controlled trials and inconsistency in measuring outcomes, there was insufficient evidence to support beneficial effects from physical rehabilitation delivered post-ICU discharge. Conclusions Patients derive short-term benefits from physical rehabilitation delivered during ICU admission. Further robust trials of electrical muscle stimulation in the ICU and rehabilitation delivered following ICU discharge are needed to determine the long-term impact on patient care. This overview provides recommendations for

  13. A critical review: early life nutrition and prenatal programming for adult disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia

    2015-12-01

    To present the evidence in relation to early life nutrition and foetal programming for adult disease. Epigenetics is a new and growing area of study investigating the impact of the intrauterine environment on the lifelong health of individuals. Discursive paper. Searches were conducted in a range of electronic health databases. Hand searches located additional articles for review. Maternal search terms included: pregnancy; nutrition; diet; obesity; over nutrition; under nutrition. Offspring related search terms included: macrosomia; intrauterine growth restriction; epigenetics; foetal programming; childhood obesity; adolescent obesity; adolescent type 2 diabetes. Results indicate that foetal programming for adult disease occurs in response to particular insults during vulnerable developmental periods. Four main areas of foetal exposure were identified in this review: (1) under nutrition; (2) over nutrition; (3) gestational diabetes mellitus; and (4) infant catch-up growth. Numerous studies also described the trans-generational nature of foetal programming. Overall, foetal exposure to excess or insufficient nutrition during vulnerable developmental periods appears to result in a lifelong predisposition to obesity and adult disease, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiac disease. For the infant who has been undernourished during early life, a predisposition to renal disease also occurs. Pregnancy is a time when women are engaged in health systems and are receptive to health messages. These factors suggest that pregnancy may be an optimal time for dietary education and intervention. There is a particular need for education on healthy diet and for interventions which aim to limit over consumption of calories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A critical review of hearing-aid single-microphone noise-reduction studies in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Foong Yen; Jenstad, Lorienne M

    2017-10-26

    Single-microphone noise reduction (SMNR) is implemented in hearing aids to suppress background noise. The purpose of this article was to provide a critical review of peer-reviewed studies in adults and children with sensorineural hearing loss who were fitted with hearing aids incorporating SMNR. Articles published between 2000 and 2016 were searched in PUBMED and EBSCO databases. Thirty-two articles were included in the final review. Most studies with adult participants showed that SMNR has no effect on speech intelligibility. Positive results were reported for acceptance of background noise, preference, and listening effort. Studies of school-aged children were consistent with the findings of adult studies. No study with infants or young children of under 5 years old was found. Recent studies on noise-reduction systems not yet available in wearable hearing aids have documented benefits of noise reduction on memory for speech processing for older adults. This evidence supports the use of SMNR for adults and school-aged children when the aim is to improve listening comfort or reduce listening effort. Future research should test SMNR with infants and children who are younger than 5 years of age. Further development, testing, and clinical trials should be carried out on algorithms not yet available in wearable hearing aids. Testing higher cognitive level for speech processing and learning of novel sounds or words could show benefits of advanced signal processing features. These approaches should be expanded to other populations such as children and younger adults. Implications for rehabilitation The review provides a quick reference for students and clinicians regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of SMNR in wearable hearing aids. This information is useful during counseling session to build a realistic expectation among hearing aid users. Most studies in the adult population suggest that SMNR may provide some benefits to adult listeners in terms of listening

  15. Sedentary time in older adults: a critical review of measurement, associations with health, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Jennifer L; Ashe, Maureen C; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Brown, Wendy J; Buman, Matthew P; Chastin, Sebastien; Gardiner, Paul A; Inoue, Shigeru; Jefferis, Barbara J; Oka, Koichiro; Owen, Neville; Sardinha, Luís B; Skelton, Dawn A; Sugiyama, Takemi; Dogra, Shilpa

    2017-11-01

    Sedentary time (ST) is an important risk factor for a variety of health outcomes in older adults. Consensus is needed on future research directions so that collaborative and timely efforts can be made globally to address this modifiable risk factor. In this review, we examined current literature to identify gaps and inform future research priorities on ST and healthy ageing. We reviewed three primary topics:(1) the validity/reliability of self-report measurement tools, (2) the consequences of prolonged ST on geriatric-relevant health outcomes (physical function, cognitive function, mental health, incontinence and quality of life) and(3) the effectiveness of interventions to reduce ST in older adults. A trained librarian created a search strategy that was peer reviewed for completeness. Self-report assessment of the context and type of ST is important but the tools tend to underestimate total ST. There appears to be an association between ST and geriatric-relevant health outcomes, although there is insufficient longitudinal evidence to determine a dose-response relationship or a threshold for clinically relevant risk. The type of ST may also affect health; some cognitively engaging sedentary behaviours appear to benefit health, while time spent in more passive activities may be detrimental. Short-term feasibility studies of individual-level ST interventions have been conducted; however, few studies have appropriately assessed the impact of these interventions on geriatric-relevant health outcomes, nor have they addressed organisation or environment level changes. Research is specifically needed to inform evidence-based interventions that help maintain functional autonomy among older adults.This consensus statement has been endorsed by the following societies: Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy, Exercise & Sports Science Australia, Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging, Society of Behavioral Medicine, and the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine.

  16. The epidemiological studies of leukemia around nuclear facilities for children and young adults: critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This objective of this report is to make a review of studies relative to the risk of leukemia among children and young adults less than twenty five years old near the nuclear facilities. the nuclear facilities considered in this report are nuclear power plants (electric power generation), the nuclear research centers, the fuel or weapons fabrication plants, reprocessing plants. This report does not describe the risk analysis near the sites of nuclear weapons test, the consequences of accidents on nuclear facilities such Chernobylsk or the the population near the military and industrial site of Mayak (Ural). The same is for the mining sites and the facilities of uranium extraction that are out of this report. (N.C.)

  17. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  18. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M

    2016-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. Milrinone for cardiac dysfunction in critically ill adult patients : a systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Geert; Bekema, Hanneke J.; Wetterslev, Jorn; Gluud, Christian; Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.

    Milrinone is an inotrope widely used for treatment of cardiac failure. Because previous meta-analyses had methodological flaws, we decided to conduct a systematic review of the effect of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction. This systematic review was performed

  20. Endogenous IgG hypogammaglobulinaemia in critically ill adults with sepsis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar-Hari, Manu; Culshaw, Nicholas; Post, Benjamin; Tamayo, Eduardo; Andaluz-Ojeda, David; Bermejo-Martín, Jesús F; Dietz, Sebastian; Werdan, Karl; Beale, Richard; Spencer, Jo; Singer, Mervyn

    2015-08-01

    Plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are acutely altered in critically ill patients with sepsis. However, the association between immunoglobulin levels on the day of sepsis diagnosis and subsequent mortality is inconsistent. Systematic review of studies that report immunoglobulin measurements and mortality among adults with sepsis managed in a critical care setting. Fixed and random effect meta-analyses were conducted using low IgG levels as primary exposure and acute mortality as the primary outcome. Both variables were used as defined in individual studies. The prevalence of a low immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration on the day of sepsis diagnosis was variable [58.3% (IQR 38.4-65.5%)]. Three cut-off points (6.1, 6.5 and 8.7 g/L) were used to define the lower limit of IgG concentrations in the included studies. A subnormal IgG level on the day of sepsis diagnosis was not associated with an increased risk of death in adult patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock by both fixed and random effect meta-analysis (OR [95% CI] 1.32 [0.93-1.87] and 1.48 [0.78-2.81], respectively). This systematic review identifies studies of limited quality reporting heterogeneous sepsis cohorts with varying lower limits of normal for IgG. Although our data suggest that a subnormal IgG measurement on the day of sepsis diagnosis does not identify a subgroup of patients with a higher risk of death, further studies are needed to confirm or refute this finding, and whether optimal cut-offs and time windows can be defined for IgG measurement. This would determine whether patients receiving intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for sepsis could be stratified using IgG levels.

  1. Adult echocardiographic nomograms: overview, critical review and creation of a software for automatic, fast and easy calculation of normal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Giordano, Raffaele; Paterni, Marco; Saura, Daniel; Scalese, Marco; Franchi, Eliana; Assanta, Nadia; Koestenberg, Martin; Dulgheru, Raluca; Sugimoto, Tadafumi; Bernard, Anne; Caballero, Luis; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2017-12-01

    There is a crescent interest on normal adult echocardiographic values and the introduction of new deformation imaging and 3D parameters pose the issue of normative data. A multitude of nomograms has been recently published, however data are often fragmentary, difficult to find, and their strengths/limitations have been never evaluated. (I) to provide a review of current echocardiographic nomograms; (II) to generate a tool for easy and fast access to these data. A literature search was conducted accessing the National Library of Medicine using the keywords: 2D/3D echocardiography, strain, left/right ventricle, atrial, mitral/tricuspid valve, aorta, reference values/nomograms/normal values. Adding the following keywords, the results were further refined: range/intervals, myocardial velocity, strain rate and speckle tracking. Forty one published studies were included. Our study reveals that for several of 2D/3D parameters sufficient normative data exist, however, a few limitations still persist. For some basic parameters (i.e., mitral/tricuspid/pulmonary valves, great vessels) and for 3D valves data are scarce. There is a lack of studies evaluating ethnic differences. Data have been generally expressed as mean values normalised for gender and age instead of computing models incorporating different variables (age/gender/body sizes) to calculate z scores. To summarize results a software ( Echocardio-Normal Values ) who automatically calculate range of normality for a broad range of echocardiographic measurements according to age/gender/weight/height, has been generated. We provide an up-to-date and critical review of strengths/limitation of current adult echocardiographic nomograms. Furthermore we generated a software for automatic, easy and fast access to multiple echocardiographic normative data.

  2. Non-traumatic acute abdomen in the adult: a critical review of imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Boos, S.; Heinemann, F.; Wenz, W.

    1992-01-01

    Two different series collected at the University Hospital of Freiburg are presented as a basis for the critical appraisal of available imaging tests and their correlation with anatomic pain sites. The first series comprises 284 patients of non-traumatic acute abdomen admitted to the emergency department during 1990. The radiological approach revealed an increased use of immediate ultrasound (58%) followed by plain film radiography (53%), contrast studies (15%), and computed tomography (9.8%). Five groups of entities were identified according to the diagnostic imaging procedure prior to surgery. In a second series, the clinical presentation, the distribution and the efficacy of imaging studies for the confirmation of acute mesenteric ischemia were evaluated in 55 patients over a period of 14 years. A reduced mortality rate emphasizes the value of early and agressive diagnosis and angiographic management. (orig.)

  3. The epidemiological studies of leukemia around nuclear installations for children and young adults: synthesis of the critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study published at the end of 2007 described an increased risk of leukemia among children less than five years leaving at less than 5 kilometers from German nuclear power plants. The objective of this report was to make a synthesis and a critical analysis of the results relative to the risk of leukemia among the children and young adults of less than twenty five years leaving near these nuclear installations. (N.C.)

  4. A mixed-methods systematic review protocol to examine the use of physical restraint with critically ill adults and strategies for minimizing their use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rose

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critically ill patients frequently experience severe agitation placing them at risk of harm. Physical restraint is common in intensive care units (ICUs for clinician concerns about safety. However, physical restraint may not prevent medical device removal and has been associated with negative physical and psychological consequences. While professional society guidelines, legislation, and accreditation standards recommend physical restraint minimization, guidelines for critically ill patients are over a decade old, with recommendations that are non-specific. Our systematic review will synthesize evidence on physical restraint in critically ill adults with the primary objective of identifying effective minimization strategies. Methods Two authors will independently search from inception to July 2016 the following: Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO, Joanna Briggs Institute, grey literature, professional society websites, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We will include quantitative and qualitative study designs, clinical practice guidelines, policy documents, and professional society recommendations relevant to physical restraint of critically ill adults. Authors will independently perform data extraction in duplicate and complete risk of bias and quality assessment using recommended tools. We will assess evidence quality for quantitative studies using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach and for qualitative studies using the Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research (CERQual guidelines. Outcomes of interest include (1 efficacy/effectiveness of physical restraint minimization strategies; (2 adverse events (unintentional device removal, psychological impact, physical injury and associated benefits including harm prevention; (3 ICU outcomes (ventilation duration, length of stay, and mortality; (4

  5. What Makes Critical Thinking Critical for Adult ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miekley, Joshua P.

    2014-01-01

    Critical-thinking skills help to prepare adult education students for a successful transition to college degree programs and for job advancement. Yet fostering critical thinking poses a challenge to ESL instructors. Brookfield (2012) provides a way forward for adult educators when he explains that the crux of critical thinking is to discover one's…

  6. A mixed-methods systematic review protocol to examine the use of physical restraint with critically ill adults and strategies for minimizing their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Dale, Craig; Smith, Orla M; Burry, Lisa; Enright, Glenn; Fergusson, Dean; Sinha, Samir; Wiesenfeld, Lesley; Sinuff, Tasnim; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2016-11-21

    Critically ill patients frequently experience severe agitation placing them at risk of harm. Physical restraint is common in intensive care units (ICUs) for clinician concerns about safety. However, physical restraint may not prevent medical device removal and has been associated with negative physical and psychological consequences. While professional society guidelines, legislation, and accreditation standards recommend physical restraint minimization, guidelines for critically ill patients are over a decade old, with recommendations that are non-specific. Our systematic review will synthesize evidence on physical restraint in critically ill adults with the primary objective of identifying effective minimization strategies. Two authors will independently search from inception to July 2016 the following: Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO, Joanna Briggs Institute, grey literature, professional society websites, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We will include quantitative and qualitative study designs, clinical practice guidelines, policy documents, and professional society recommendations relevant to physical restraint of critically ill adults. Authors will independently perform data extraction in duplicate and complete risk of bias and quality assessment using recommended tools. We will assess evidence quality for quantitative studies using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach and for qualitative studies using the Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research (CERQual) guidelines. Outcomes of interest include (1) efficacy/effectiveness of physical restraint minimization strategies; (2) adverse events (unintentional device removal, psychological impact, physical injury) and associated benefits including harm prevention; (3) ICU outcomes (ventilation duration, length of stay, and mortality); (4) prevalence, incidence, patterns of use

  7. Adherence to prescribed oral medication in adult patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: A critical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid H

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Poor adherence to complex multimodal therapies is a widely recognized problem in the daily care of dialysis patients, contributing to excess morbidity and mortality of this population. While a few studies have been devoted to understanding patient nonadherence, their results were somewhat controversial. The goals of this review are to quantify nonadherence to certain oral medications, to raise awareness of factors that may cause problems in a patient's adherence to this treatment, and to describe strategies that may be used to improve adherence to prescribed pharmacotherapy. Methods A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE and PubMed database (1971-2008 was performed. Quantitative studies, which accurately indicated the total percentages of nonadherence to oral medication in adult patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, were identified. Results A total of 19 studies fulfilled the search criteria. Rates of nonadherence to the oral medication ranged from 3 - 80%. More than half of the included studies reported nonadherence rates of ≥ 50% (mean 67%. The use of phosphate binding therapy was the prevalent surveyed oral medication. Self reports, structured interviews, and predialysis serum phosphate levels were the most frequent assessment tools used to record adherence rates. Limitations of the reviewed studies included small patient cohorts, inconsistent definitions of adherence, and a lack of standardized methods for measuring nonadherence. Conclusions Nonadherence to oral medication in hemodialysis patients is still an underestimated, but life-threatening behaviour.

  8. Photodesorption: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, D.; Shapira, Y.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of the literature in the field of photodesorption is presented. Material is covered through December 1975. Although it is impossible to include every paper ever published which is in some way related to photodesorption, it is felt that the material covered is sufficiently complete to permit reasonable conclusions to be reached. The literature naturally falls into two basic categories, namely, papers involved with metal substrates and those involved with semiconductor substrates. Since the effects on these two kinds of surfaces are very different, they are each considered in separate sections. Photodesorption from metals seems to be an extremely inefficient process if it occurs at all. That is, cross sections are equal to or less than 10 -23 cm 2 . The reason for this extremely low cross section is not yet well understood. Photodesorption from semiconductors seems to be a very efficient process with cross sections as high as 10 -17 cm 2 . On most substrates studied, e.g. ZnO, TiO 2 , CdS, the chrome oxide surface of stainless steel, etc., impurity carbon atoms play a very significant role. On all these materials, the single or dominant process involves chemisorption of molecular oxygen onto the impurity carbon surface atoms. Electrons are captured from the conduction band to produce a chemisorbed CO 2 - complex. The application of band gap and higher energy radiation produces electron-hole pairs. Some of the photogenerated holes migrate to the surface where they combine with the negative ion complex. The resulting physisorbed CO 2 is then thermally desorbed

  9. Milrinone for cardiac dysfunction in critically ill adult patients: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Geert; Bekema, Hanneke J; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian; Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C C

    2016-09-01

    Milrinone is an inotrope widely used for treatment of cardiac failure. Because previous meta-analyses had methodological flaws, we decided to conduct a systematic review of the effect of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction. This systematic review was performed according to The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Searches were conducted until November 2015. Patients with cardiac dysfunction were included. The primary outcome was serious adverse events (SAE) including mortality at maximum follow-up. The risk of bias was evaluated and trial sequential analyses were conducted. The quality of evidence was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. A total of 31 randomised clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which 16 provided data for our analyses. All trials were at high risk of bias, and none reported the primary composite outcome SAE. Fourteen trials with 1611 randomised patients reported mortality data at maximum follow-up (RR 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.21). Milrinone did not significantly affect other patient-centred outcomes. All analyses displayed statistical and/or clinical heterogeneity of patients, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and/or settings and all featured missing data. The current evidence on the use of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction suffers from considerable risks of both bias and random error and demonstrates no benefits. The use of milrinone for the treatment of critically ill patients with cardiac dysfunction can be neither recommended nor refuted. Future randomised clinical trials need to be sufficiently large and designed to have low risk of bias.

  10. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace mineral essential to health and has an important role in immunity, defence against tissue damage and thyroid function. Improving selenium status could help protect against overwhelming tissue damage and infection in critically ill adults. This Cochrane review...... was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...... supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...

  11. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.

  12. Spondylolysis: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, C; Herring, S

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To provide an understanding of the current concepts in the natural history, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis based on the available medical literature. Methods—Articles were selected for review by the following methods: (a) MEDLINE searches with review of abstracts to select relevant articles; (b) review of multiple textbooks considered likely to contain information on spondylolysis; (c) review of references in articles identified by (a) and (b). Over 125 articles were ultimately reviewed fully. Publications were selected for inclusion in this article on the basis of perceived scientific and historical merit, particularly as thought to be relevant to achieving the stated purpose of this review. As no controlled clinical trials were identified, this could not be used as an inclusion criterion. Conclusions—Isthmic spondylolysis is considered to represent a fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis of the neural arch. There is a relatively high incidence of radiographically identified spondylolysis in the general population, but the vast majority of these lesions probably occur without associated symptoms. Symptomatic pars lesions appear to be particularly a clinical problem in adolescents, especially adolescent athletes. The optimal diagnostic and treatment algorithms are not well identified in the current literature. Multiple imaging studies may have a role in the diagnosis of a pars lesion, and treatment seems likely to require at least relative rest and physical rehabilitation with consideration of bracing or, rarely, surgical intervention depending on the clinical context. Key Words: spondylolysis; spondylolisthesis; spine; back; neural arch; pars interarticularis PMID:11131228

  13. Acoustics Critical Readiness Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the acoustic equipment from the medical operations perspective. Included is information about the acoustic dosimeters, sound level meter, and headphones that are planned for use while on orbit. Finally there is information about on-orbit hearing assessments.

  14. Understanding and Reducing Disability in Older Adults Following Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, N.E.; Balas, M.C.; Morandi, A.; Ferrante, L.E.; Gill, T.M.; Ely, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. Data Sources Review of the literature describing post-critical illness disability in older adults and expert opinion. Results We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients age 65 years and older. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less-severe cognitive impairment was also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, intensive care unit practices such as heavy sedation, physical restraints and immobility as well as aging physiology and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Conclusion Older adults who survive critical illness suffer physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, non-critically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs. PMID:25756418

  15. Financial Literacy: A Critical Adult Education Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Leona M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter critically examines financial literacy education, asking what its assumptions are and what adult educators need to ask of its curriculum, its bases, and the people being taught to be financially literate.

  16. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  17. Critical review of behaviour change techniques applied in intervention studies to improve cooking skills and food skills among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollywood, Lynsey; Surgenor, Dawn; Reicks, Marla; McGowan, Laura; Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira

    2017-08-21

    Cooking and food skills interventions have grown in popularity; however, there is a lack of transparency as to how these interventions were designed, highlighting a need to identify and understand the mechanisms of behavior change so that effective components may be introduced in future work. This study critiques cooking and food skills interventions in relation to their design, behavior change techniques (BCTs), theoretical underpinnings, and outcomes. A 40-item CALO-RE taxonomy was used to examine the components of 59 cooking and food skills interventions identified by two systematic reviews. Studies were coded by three independent coders. The three most frequently occurring BCTs identified were #1 Provide information on consequences of behavior in general; #21 Provide instruction on how to perform the behavior; and #26 Prompt Practice. Fifty-six interventions reported positive short-term outcomes. Only 14 interventions reported long-term outcomes containing BCTs relating to information provision. This study reviewed cooking and food skills interventions highlighting the most commonly used BCTs, and those associated with long-term positive outcomes for cooking skills and diet. This study indicates the potential for using the BCT CALO-RE taxonomy to inform the design, planning, delivery and evaluation of future interventions.

  18. Predictors of agitation in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Ruth S; Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Schubert, Christine M; Sessler, Curtis N

    2014-09-01

    Agitation in critically ill adults is a frequent complication of hospitalization and results in multiple adverse outcomes. Potential causes of agitation are numerous; however, data on factors predictive of agitation are limited. To identify predictors of agitation by examining demographic and clinical characteristics of critically ill patients. A medical record review was performed. Documentation of agitation was indicated by scores on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale or the use of an agitation keyword. Records of 200 patients from 1 medical and 1 surgical intensive care unit were used for the study. Risk factors were determined for 2 points in time: admission to the intensive care unit and within 24 hours before the first episode of agitation. Data on baseline demographics, preadmission risk factors, and clinical data were collected and were evaluated by using logistic multivariable regression to determine predictors of agitation. Predictors of agitation on admission to intensive care were history of use of illicit substances, height, respiratory and central nervous system subscores on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and use of restraints. Predictors of agitation within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were history of psychiatric diagnosis, height, score on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 200, serum pH, percentage of hours with restraints, percentage of hours of mechanical ventilation, pain, and presence of genitourinary catheters. Predictors of agitation on admission and within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were primarily clinical variables. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. The optimal blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoning; Ross, Paul; Tori, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Glycaemic control is recognized as one of the important aspects in managing critically ill patients. Both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia independently increase the risk of patient mortality. Hence, the identification of optimal glycaemic control is of paramount importance in the management of critically ill patients. The aim of this literature review is to examine the current status of glycaemic control in critically ill adult patients. This literature review will focus on randomized controlled trials comparing intensive insulin therapy to conventional insulin therapy, with an objective to identify optimal blood glucose level targets for critically ill adult patients. A literature review was conducted to identify large randomized controlled trials for the optimal targeted blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients published since 2000. A total of eight studies fulfilled the selection criteria of this review. With current human and technology resources, the results of the studies support commencing glycaemic control once the blood glucose level of critically ill patients reaches 10 mmol/L and maintaining this level between 8 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L. This literature review provides a recommendation for targeting the optimal blood glucose level for critically ill patients within moderate blood glucose level target range (8-10 mmol/L). The need for uniformed glucometrics for unbiased reporting and further research for optimal blood glucose target is required, especially in light of new technological advancements in closed-loop insulin delivery and monitoring devices. This literature review has revealed a need to call for consensus in the measurement and reporting of glycaemic control using standardized glucometrics. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  20. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    lateral positioning in critically ill adults. We included manual or automated turns but limited eligibility to studies that included duration of body position of 10 minutes or longer. We examined each lateral position versus at least one comparator (opposite lateral position and/or another body position) for single therapy effects, and the lateral positioning schedule (repeated lateral turning) versus other positioning schedules for repetitive therapy effects. We pre-specified methods to be used for data collection, risk of bias assessment and analysis. Two independent review authors carried out each stage of selection and data extraction and settled differences in opinion by consensus, or by third party adjudication when disagreements remained unresolved. We planned analysis of pair-wise comparisons under composite time intervals with the aim of considering recommendations based on meta-analyses of studies with low risk of bias. We included 24 studies of critically ill adults. No study reported mortality as an outcome of interest. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examined lateral positioning for pulmonary morbidity outcomes but provided insufficient information for meta-analysis. A total of 22 randomized trials examined effects of lateral positioning (four parallel-group and 18 cross-over designs) by measuring various continuous data outcomes commonly used to detect adverse cardiopulmonary events within critical care areas. However, parallel-group studies were not comparable, and cross-over studies provided limited data as the result of unit of analysis errors. Eight studies provided some data; most of these were single studies with small effects that were imprecise. We pooled partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) as a measure to detect hypoxaemia from two small studies of participants with unilateral lung disease (n = 19). The mean difference (MD) between lateral positions (bad lung down versus good lung down) was approximately 50 mmHg (MD -49.26 mmHg, 95

  1. A review of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, W.R.; Smith, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Critical lnterpretatlon of quality ln adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Berlogar

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical approach has undoubtedly fo­ und its place in the sociology of adult education, too. The author uses it to interpret the quality in adult education as something far from being absolute and reached ance for ever. Most important - it does not depend on the teachers, educators only. Whatever it really is, the quality in adult education is determined and defined by the power and interests of the »customer«, the stakeholder in educational process- by its participants, enterprises and economy, by the state and by the internal processes in educational organisations, too. The latter themselves usually do not have some real influence on the quality of the process they organise and carry out. The process determined and defined by power and interests of others has nothing in common with quality and is far from educational excellence. In adult education as a political process educational organisations stili have to fight their positions out. Their task therefore is to actively, through negotiations, but aggressively enough, participate in defining the principles of quality first. They will know how to activate them in educational processes later. With all respect to the market (from which adult education cannot run away, but the autonomy in defining educational principles is crucial for the survival of adult education organisations.

  3. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard.

  4. Milrinone for cardiac dysfunction in critically ill adult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, Geert; Bekema, Hanneke J; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Milrinone is an inotrope widely used for treatment of cardiac failure. Because previous meta-analyses had methodological flaws, we decided to conduct a systematic review of the effect of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: This systematic...... trials were at high risk of bias, and none reported the primary composite outcome SAE. Fourteen trials with 1611 randomised patients reported mortality data at maximum follow-up (RR 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.21). Milrinone did not significantly affect other patient-centred outcomes. All...... analyses displayed statistical and/or clinical heterogeneity of patients, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and/or settings and all featured missing data. DISCUSSION: The current evidence on the use of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction suffers from considerable risks...

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in adult civilian, military, and sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): a systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asken, Breton Michael; DeKosky, Steven T; Clugston, James R; Jaffee, Michael S; Bauer, Russell M

    2018-04-01

    This review seeks to summarize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies that have evaluated structural changes attributed to the mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adult civilian, military, and athlete populations. Articles from 2002 to 2016 were retrieved from PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar, using a Boolean search string containing the following terms: "diffusion tensor imaging", "diffusion imaging", "DTI", "white matter", "concussion", "mild traumatic brain injury", "mTBI", "traumatic brain injury", and "TBI". We added studies not identified by this method that were found via manually-searched reference lists. We identified 86 eligible studies from English-language journals using, adult, human samples. Studies were evaluated based on duration between injury and DTI assessment, categorized as acute, subacute/chronic, remote mTBI, and repetitive brain trauma considerations. Since changes in brain structure after mTBI can also be affected by other co-occurring medical and demographic factors, we also briefly review DTI studies that have addressed socioeconomic status factors (SES), major depressive disorder (MDD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The review describes population-specific risks and the complications of clinical versus pathophysiological outcomes of mTBI. We had anticipated that the distinct population groups (civilian, military, and athlete) would require separate consideration, and various aspects of the study characteristics supported this. In general, study results suggested widespread but inconsistent differences in white matter diffusion metrics (primarily fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], radial diffusivity [RD], and axial diffusivity [AD]) following mTBI/concussion. Inspection of study designs and results revealed potential explanations for discrepant DTI findings, such as control group variability, analytic techniques, the manner in which regional differences were reported, and

  6. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  7. Critical review of Compton imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardi, R.; Licitra, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic aspects, problems, and applications of Compton imaging including those related to nonmedical applications. The physics and technology at the base of this specific methodology are analyzed and the relative differences and merits with respect to other imaging techniques, using ionizing radiations, are reviewed. The basic Compton imaging approaches, i.e., point-by-point, line-by-line, and plane-by-plane, are analyzed. Specifically, physical design and technological aspects are reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, the most important clinical applications of the different methods are presented and discussed. Finally, possibilities and applications of the Compton imaging method to other nonmedical fields, as in the case of the important area of object defects recognition, are analyzed and reviewed. 56 references

  8. Korsakoff's syndrome: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, N.J.M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we present a survey on Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), a residual syndrome in patients who suffered from a Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) that is predominantly characterized by global amnesia, and in more severe cases also by cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. We describe the history of

  9. Structured triglycerides versus physical mixtures of medium- and long-chain triglycerides for parenteral nutrition in surgical or critically ill adult patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo Hao; Zaniolo, Orietta; Schuster, Heidi; Schlotzer, Ewald; Pradelli, Lorenzo

    2017-02-01

    New generations of parenteral lipid emulsions combine Long Chain Triglycerides (LCTs) with Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) either by physically mixing MCT- and LCT-containing oils or by using synthetically structured triglycerides (STGs). In order to clarify some open issues relating to their comparative effect, in particular in terms of clinical outcomes, pertinent evidence was systematically identified, reviewed and meta-analyzed. PubMed, Scopus, Wanfang Data, China Hospital Knowledge Database and Google Scholar were searched for published clinical trials comparing STGs vs. MCTs/LCTs PN regimens administered over 5-7 days in surgical and/or critically ill patients. Two independent investigators performed screening and data extraction using a predefined list of parameters. Data were pooled using RevMan ® 5.2. Quality of evidence was assessed according to Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Pre-specified high quality (HQ), incremental analyses and a post hoc subgroup analysis were performed. 21 studies were included. The meta-analysis revealed a significantly better cumulative nitrogen balance (Std. mean difference [95% CI]) (1.34 [0.98-1.7], p triglycerides were significantly lower (-0.28 mmol/L [-0.41 to -0.15], p triglyceride elimination. With regard to clinical outcomes a strong trend towards reduced LOS was observed for STG patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical review on biofilm methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Joana; F. Azevedo, Nuno; Briandet, Romain

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research in...... and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms....

  11. A critical review of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Turok, N G

    2002-01-01

    The theory of cosmic inflation offers an attractive resolution of some of the great paradoxes in cosmology: why the universe is so large, flat and uniform on large scales, and how density variations arose. Inflation has rightly dominated cosmological thinking for the past two decades, helping stimulate the development of high-precision observational programmes. The survival of simple inflationary models in the face of an impressive observational onslaught has been interpreted as convincing evidence of the correctness of the basic idea. In this paper, I review inflation, but highlight its weaknesses, explaining my reasons for believing that a more complete theory may supersede inflation without necessarily incorporating it.

  12. A critical review of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turok, Neil

    2002-01-01

    The theory of cosmic inflation offers an attractive resolution of some of the great paradoxes in cosmology: why the universe is so large, flat and uniform on large scales, and how density variations arose. Inflation has rightly dominated cosmological thinking for the past two decades, helping stimulate the development of high-precision observational programmes. The survival of simple inflationary models in the face of an impressive observational onslaught has been interpreted as convincing evidence of the correctness of the basic idea. In this paper, I review inflation, but highlight its weaknesses, explaining my reasons for believing that a more complete theory may supersede inflation without necessarily incorporating it

  13. Factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes among adults in a Canadian province: a critical review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Thibault

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes has increased since the last decade in New Brunswick. Identifying factors contributing to the increase in diabetes prevalence will help inform an action plan to manage the condition. The objective was to describe factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick since 2001. Methods A critical literature review was conducted to identify factors potentially responsible for an increase in prevalence of diabetes. Data from various sources were obtained to draw a repeated cross-sectional (2001–2014 description of these factors concurrently with changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick. Linear regressions, Poisson regressions and Cochran Armitage analysis were used to describe relationships between these factors and time. Results Factors identified in the review were summarized in five categories: individual-level risk factors, environmental risk factors, evolution of the disease, detection effect and global changes. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased by 120% between 2001 and 2014. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, prediabetes, alcohol consumption, immigration and urbanization increased during the study period and the consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased which could represent potential factors of the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity, smoking, socioeconomic status and education did not present trends that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. During the study period, the mortality rate and the conversion rate from prediabetes to diabetes decreased and the incidence rate increased. Suggestion of a detection effect was also present as the number of people tested increased while the HbA1c and the age at detection decreased. Period and birth cohort effect were also noted through a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes across all age groups, but greater increases were

  14. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijkx, Piet J.; Besselink, Marc G.; Witteman, Ben J.; Schepers, Nicolien J.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Bakker, Olaf J.

    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition

  15. Systems pathology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The technological advances of the last twenty years together with the dramatic increase in computational power have injected new life into systems-level thinking in Medicine. This review emphasizes the close relationship of Systems Pathology to Systems Biology and delineates the differences between Systems Pathology and Clinical Systems Pathology. It also suggests an algorithm to support the application of systems-level thinking to clinical research, proposes applying systems-level thinking to the health care systems and forecasts an acceleration of preventive medicine as a result of the coupling of personal genomics with systems pathology. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Music in Peacebuilding: A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The critical literature review summarizes and appraises studies that have been pursued by music scholars examining the contributions of music to peacebuilding as well as the role of music in violence. These two bodies of literature are rarely brought into dialogue, but I juxtapose them in order to confront the idea of music's exceptionalism as…

  17. USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for uses other than taste and odor control is poorly documented, the purpose of this article is to critically review uses that have been reported (i.e., pesticides and herbicides, synthetic organic chemicals, and trihalom...

  18. A critical review of clarifier modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek; Nopens, Ingmar; Rieger, Leiv

    This outline paper aims to provide a critical review of secondary settling tank (SST) modelling approaches used in current wastewater engineering and develop tools not yet applied in practice. We address the development of different tier models and experimental techniques in the field...

  19. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jie, E-mail: jasmine@plan.aau.dk; Christensen, Per; Kornov, Lone

    2013-01-15

    The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice. The

  20. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice. The

  1. Reassessing Subjectivity, Criticality, and Inclusivity: Marcuse's Challenge to Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Although Herbert Marcuse did not write as an adult educator, his analysis of subjectivity, criticality, and inclusivity has implications for adult education. He demonstrated how apparently humanistic tolerance for diversity can be manipulated to reinforce dominant ideology, and he made a case for aesthetic education as a site for critical…

  2. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  3. Adult and Community Education in Complex Societies: Reconsidering Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, I explore how critical pedagogical perspectives can inspire adult and community education practices. The central argument is that today, in contrast with the heydays of emancipatory practices and theories, the classical critical approaches need reconsideration. The paper explores how these approaches sometimes have a…

  4. English language learning materials a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Tomlinson

    2010-01-01

    This research collection presents a critical review of the materials used for learning English around the world. The first section includes a discussion of materials for specific learners and purposes, such as young learners, self-study, academic writing and general proficiency. The second section presents a detailed study of the materials used in Europe, Asia, North America, South America, Africa and Australia, and critically evaluates their effectiveness in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. Taking both the teacher's and the learner's needs into consideration, the book m

  5. EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question

  6. Plant safety review from mass criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    The review has been done to understand the resent status of the plant in facing postulated mass criticality accident. From the design concept of the plant all the components in the system including functional groups have been designed based on favorable mass/geometry safety principle. The criticality safety for each component is guaranteed because all the dimensions relevant to criticality of the components are smaller than dimensions of 'favorable mass/geometry'. The procedures covering all aspects affecting quality including the safety related are developed and adhered to at all times. Staff are indoctrinated periodically in short training session to warn the important of the safety in process of production. The plant is fully equipped with 6 (six) criticality detectors in strategic places to alert employees whenever the postulated mass criticality accident occur. In the event of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness, PT BATAN TEKNOLOGI has also proposed the organization structure how promptly to report the crisis to Nuclear Energy Control Board (BAPETEN) Indonesia. (author)

  7. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, Matthew J.I.; Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  8. An investigation into the use of recorded music as a surgical intervention: A systematic, critical review of methodologies used in recent adult controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Courtney; Hine, Trevor

    2018-04-01

    While music is being increasingly used as a surgical intervention, the types of music used and the reasons underlying their selection remain inconsistent. Empirical research into the efficacy of such musical interventions is therefore problematic. To provide clear guidelines for musical selection and employment in surgical interventions, created through a synthesis of the literature. The aim is to examine how music is implemented in surgical situations, and to provide guidance for the selection and composition of music for future interventions. English language quantitative surgical intervention studies from Science Direct, ProQuest, and Sage Journals Online, all published within the last 10 years and featuring recorded music, were systematically reviewed. Variables investigated included: the time the intervention was performed, the intervention length, the outcomes targeted, music description (general and specific), theoretical frameworks underlying the selection of the music, whether or not a musical expert was involved, participant music history, and the participants' feedback on the chosen music. Several aspects contribute to the lack of scientific rigour regarding music selection in this field, including the lack of a theoretical framework or frameworks, no involvement of musical experts, failure to list the music tracks used, and the use of vague and subjective terms in general music descriptions. Patients are frequently allowed to select music (risking both choosing music that has an adverse effect and making study replication difficult), and patient music history and listening habits are rarely considered. Crucially, five primary theoretical frameworks underlying the effectiveness of music arose in the literature (distraction, relaxation, emotional shift, entrainment, and endogenous analgesia), however music was rarely selected to enhance any of these mechanisms. Further research needs to be conducted to ensure that music is selected according to a

  9. Use of Intravenous Fat Emulsions in Adult Critically Ill Patients: Does ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-09

    Aug 9, 2017 ... estimated to range from 20% to 60%, with approximately ... This literature review focuses on the administration of different lipid emulsions, ... including the ideal method of assessing energy and protein ... published guidelines for lipid intake in critically ill patients ..... In adults, fat accumulation more often ...

  10. Developing Students' Critical Literacy: Exploring Identity Construction in Young Adult Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas W.; Moni, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Notes that adolescent readers view characters in young adult novels as living and wrestling with real problems close to their own life experiences as teens. Reviews recent studies related to teaching literature and adolescent identity construction. Offers a framework teachers can use to initiate discussions based on critical literacy in their own…

  11. Development of critical digital review procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huiwen; Liao Benching; Tseng Maosheng; Chung Hsianghan; Cheng Tsungchieh; Chen Minghuei

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the critical digital review (CDR) procedure, which was developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), and sponsored by Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A preliminary CDR application experience which was performed by INER, is also described in this paper. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The 'CDR Review Items' chapter proposes optional review items, including the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SV and V), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/Component, Seismic Evaluation, HFE Evaluation, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. Since CDR has become a TPC policy, Chin Shan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) performed the CDR practice of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) digital I and C replacement, even though the project had been on the half way. The major review items of this CDR were: the comparison of the design change, SV and V, FMEA, Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/ Component, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. The experience of the CDR showed the importance of preparation of the documents by the vendor. This means the communication with the vendors for the bid preparation is crucial. (author)

  12. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  13. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  14. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Blood parasites are considered some of the most significant pathogens for the conservation of penguins, due to the considerable morbidity and mortality they have been shown to produce in captive and wild populations of these birds. Parasites known to occur in the blood of penguins include haemosporidian protozoans (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus), piroplamid protozoans (Babesia), kinetoplastid protozoans (Trypanosoma), spirochete bacteria (Borrelia) and nematode microfilariae. This review provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on these parasites, providing an overview of their biology, host and geographic distribution, epidemiology, pathology and implications for public health and conservation.

  15. Critical Review of Membrane Bioreactor Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naessens, W.; Maere, T.; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can heavily benefit from mathematical...... modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on hydrodynamic and integrated modelling in MBR is critically reviewed. Hydrodynamic models are used at different scales and focus mainly on fouling and only little on system design/optimisation. Integrated models also focus on fouling although the ones...

  16. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  17. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.J.I.; Gamage, K.A.A.; Taylor, G.C.

    2013-06-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  18. Consumer sleep tracking devices: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Consumer sleep tracking devices are widely advertised as effective means to monitor and manage sleep quality and to provide positive effects on overall heath. However objective evidence supporting these claims is not always readily available. The goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of available information on six representative sleep tracking devices: BodyMedia FIT, Fitbit Flex, Jawbone UP, Basis Band, Innovative Sleep Solutions SleepTracker, and Zeo Sleep Manager Pro. The review was conducted along the following dimensions: output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified a critical lack of basic information about the devices: five out of six devices provided no supporting information on their sensor accuracy and four out of six devices provided no information on their output metrics accuracy. Only three devices were found to have related peer-reviewed articles. However in these articles wake detection accuracy was revealed to be quite low and to vary widely (BodyMedia, 49.9±3.6%; Fitbit, 19.8%; Zeo, 78.9% to 83.5%). No supporting evidence on how well tracking devices can help mitigate sleep loss and manage sleep disturbances in practical life was provided.

  19. Critical Review of NOAA's Observation Requirements Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, M.; Yapur, M.; Vo, T.; Templeton, A.; Bludis, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Observing Systems Council (NOSC) maintains a comprehensive database of user observation requirements. The requirements collection process engages NOAA subject matter experts to document and effectively communicate the specific environmental observation measurements (parameters and attributes) needed to produce operational products and pursue research objectives. User observation requirements documented using a structured and standardized manner and framework enables NOAA to assess its needs across organizational lines in an impartial, objective, and transparent manner. This structure provides the foundation for: selecting, designing, developing, acquiring observing technologies, systems and architectures; budget and contract formulation and decision-making; and assessing in a repeatable fashion the productivity, efficiency and optimization of NOAA's observing system enterprise. User observation requirements are captured independently from observing technologies. Therefore, they can be addressed by a variety of current or expected observing capabilities and allow flexibility to be remapped to new and evolving technologies. NOAA's current inventory of user observation requirements were collected over a ten-year period, and there have been many changes in policies, mission priorities, and funding levels during this time. In light of these changes, the NOSC initiated a critical, in-depth review to examine all aspects of user observation requirements and associated processes during 2017. This presentation provides background on the NOAA requirements process, major milestones and outcomes of the critical review, and plans for evolving and connecting observing requirements processes in the next year.

  20. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Critical opalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, L. A.; Romanov, Vadim P.

    1988-04-01

    Studies of critical opalescence near phase transitions in different systems are reviewed. The fundamentals of the modern approach to the description of the propagation and scattering of light in media with large nonuniformities are presented. The experimental data on the coefficient of extinction and integrated intensity of the scattered light are analyzed and different models for the correlation function are discussed. Different methods for studying multiple scattering of light and methods for eliminating it from the measured intensity are examined. The kinetic properties of systems in the critical region are examined. Attention is devoted primarily to the experimental data obtained by the methods of correlation spectroscopy and to the comparison of these data with the predictions of different theoretical models. Significant attention is devoted to the study of phase transitions in liquids by the methods of light scattering as well as the problem of propagation and scattering of light in the nematic phase, where fluctuations of the director exhibit the same behavior as at the critical point. In conclusion, phase transformations in micellar solutions, to which a great deal of attention has been devoted in recent years, are studied.

  1. Liberation From Mechanical Ventilation in Critically Ill Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gregory A; Girard, Timothy D; Kress, John P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). METHODS: A ...

  2. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  3. Critical review: medical students' motivation after failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Chris

    2016-08-01

    About 10 % of students in each years' entrants to medical school will encounter academic failure at some stage in their programme. The usual approach to supporting these students is to offer them short term remedial study programmes that often enhance approaches to study that are orientated towards avoiding failure. In this critical review I will summarise the current theories about student motivation that are most relevant to this group of students and describe how they are enhanced or not by various contextual factors that medical students experience during their programme. I will conclude by suggesting ways in which support programmes for students who have encountered academic failure might be better designed and researched in the future.

  4. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Thomas P.; Monahan, Shean P.; Pruvost, Norman L.; Frolov, Vladimir V.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Sviridov, Victor I.

    2000-01-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report

  5. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i dyes; (ii heavy metals; (iii phenols; (iv pesticides and (v pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods; (ii agricultural residues and wastes; (iii low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources. These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc., but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful topics such as: (i adsorption capacity; (ii kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes and (iii critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents.

  6. Bruxism and prosthetic treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders; Omar, Ridwaan; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2011-07-01

    Based on the findings from available research on bruxism and prosthetic treatment published in the dental literature, an attempt was made to draw conclusions about the existence of a possible relationship between the two, and its clinical relevance. MEDLINE/PubMed searches were conducted using the terms 'bruxism' and 'prosthetic treatment', as well as combinations of these and related terms. The few studies judged to be relevant were critically reviewed, in addition to papers found during an additional manual search of reference lists within selected articles. Bruxism is a common parafunctional habit, occurring both during sleep and wakefulness. Usually it causes few serious effects, but can do so in some patients. The etiology is multifactorial. There is no known treatment to stop bruxism, including prosthetic treatment. The role of bruxism in the process of tooth wear is unclear, but it is not considered a major cause. As informed by the present critical review, the relationship between bruxism and prosthetic treatment is one that relates mainly to the effect of the former on the latter. Bruxism may be included among the risk factors, and is associated with increased mechanical and/or technical complications in prosthodontic rehabilitation, although it seems not to affect implant survival. When prosthetic intervention is indicated in a patient with bruxism, efforts should be made to reduce the effects of likely heavy occlusal loading on all the components that contribute to prosthetic structural integrity. Failure to do so may indicate earlier failure than is the norm. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzas, George Z.; Kostoglou, Margaritis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i) dyes; (ii) heavy metals; (iii) phenols; (iv) pesticides and (v) pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i) agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods); (ii) agricultural residues and wastes; (iii) low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources). These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity) to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc.), but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful) topics such as: (i) adsorption capacity; (ii) kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes) and (iii) critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry) with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents. PMID:28788460

  8. Rationing in health systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.

  9. Radiopharmaceuticals drug interactions: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Smith, Sheila W.; Carneiro-Leao, Ana Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals play a critical role in modern medicine primarily for diagnostic purposes, but also for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. These interactions which have an impact on image by competing with the radiopharmaceutical for binding sites for example can lead to false negative results. Drugs that accelerate the metabolism of the radiopharmaceutical can have a positive impact (i.e. speeding its clearance) or, if repeating image is needed, a negative impact. In some cases, for example in cardiac image among patients taking doxirubacin, these interactions may have a therapeutic benefit. The incidence of drug-radiopharmaceuticals adverse reactions is unknown, since they may not be reported or even recognized. Here, we compiled the medical literature, using the criteria of a systematic review established by the Cochrane Collaboration, on pharmaceutical-drug interactions to provide a summary of documented interactions by organ system and radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose is to provide a reference on drug interactions that could inform the nuclear medicine staff in their daily routine. Efforts to increase adverse event reporting, and ideally consolidate reports worldwide, can provide a critically needed resource for prevention of drug-radiopharmaceuticals interactions. (author)

  10. A critical review on tablet disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tablet disintegration is an important factor for drug release and can be modified with excipients called tablet disintegrants. Tablet disintegrants act via different mechanisms and the efficacy of these excipients is influenced by various factors. In this review, the existing literature on tablet disintegration is critically reviewed. Potential disintegration mechanisms, as well as impact factors on the disintegration process will be discussed based on experimental evidence. Search terms for Scopus and Web of Science included "tablet disintegration", "mechanism tablet disintegration", "superdisintegrants", "disintegrants", "swelling force", "disintegration force", "disintegration mechanisms", as well as brand names of commonly applied superdisintegrants. References of identified papers were screened as well. Experimental data supports swelling and shape recovery as main mechanisms of action of disintegrants. Other tablet excipients and different manufacturing techniques greatly influence the disintegration process. The use of different excipients, experimental setups and manufacturing techniques, as well as the demand for original research led to a distinct patchwork of knowledge. Broader, more systematic approaches are necessary not only to structure the past but also future findings.

  11. A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battefeld, Diana, E-mail: dbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Institut for Astrophysics, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 (Germany); Peter, Patrick, E-mail: peter@iap.fr [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2015-04-01

    Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be fine-tuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large non-Gaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research.

  12. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  13. A Critical Review of the Critical Period Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovel, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how perspectives on the critical period hypothesis (CPH) have shifted over the last 20-20 years, because of the work of applied linguistics and other disciplines. Advises caution into translating CPH research into personal practice or public policy. (Author/VWL)

  14. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Erin S.; Suh, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation to >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.

  15. Cities and Energy Consumption: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cities and energy consumption has been of great interest for the scientific community for over twenty years. Most of the energy consumption, indeed, occurs in cities because of the high concentration of human activities. Thus, cities are responsible for a big share of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2. However, the debate on this topic is still open, mainly because of the heterogeneity of published studies in the selection, definition and measurement of the urban features influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as in the choice of the energy sectors to be considered, in the territorial scale of analysis, and in the geographical distribution of the sample. Therefore, the goal of this research is to systematize and compare the approach, methodology and results of the relevant literature on the relationship between cities and energy consumption over the last twenty years. Furthermore, this critical review identifies the knowledge gap between what is known and what is still under debate and, based on that, it proposes a conceptual framework that will help to outline a new direction for future research and support local policy makers in the definition of strategies and actions that can effectively reduce urban energy use and CO2 emissions.

  16. Critical Criminological Understandings of Adult Pornography and Woman Abuse: New Progressive Directions in Research and Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter DeKeseredy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a small, but growing, social scientific literature on the racist and violent nature of contemporary adult pornography. However, considerably more empirical and theoretical work needs to be done to advance a critical criminological understanding of how such hurtful sexual media contribute to various forms of woman abuse in intimate relationships. The main objective of this article is to briefly review the relevant literature and to suggest a few new progressive empirical and theoretical directions.

  17. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  18. Iatrogenic Opioid Withdrawal in Critically Ill Patients: A Review of Assessment Tools and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ada W; Contreras, Sofia; Mehta, Sangeeta; Korman, Jennifer; Perreault, Marc M; Williamson, David R; Burry, Lisa D

    2017-12-01

    To (1) provide an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and risk factors of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients and (2) conduct a literature review of assessment and management of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients. We searched MEDLINE (1946-June 2017), EMBASE (1974-June 2017), and CINAHL (1982-June 2017) with the terms opioid withdrawal, opioid, opiate, critical care, critically ill, assessment tool, scale, taper, weaning, and management. Reference list of identified literature was searched for additional references as well as www.clinicaltrials.gov . We restricted articles to those in English and dealing with humans. We identified 2 validated pediatric critically ill opioid withdrawal assessment tools: (1) Withdrawal Assessment Tool-Version 1 (WAT-1) and (2) Sophia Observation Withdrawal Symptoms Scale (SOS). Neither tool differentiated between opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal. WAT-1 was evaluated in critically ill adults but not found to be valid. No other adult tool was identified. For management, we identified 5 randomized controlled trials, 2 prospective studies, and 2 systematic reviews. Most studies were small and only 2 studies utilized a validated assessment tool. Enteral methadone, α-2 agonists, and protocolized weaning were studied. We identified 2 validated assessment tools for pediatric intensive care unit patients; no valid tool for adults. Management strategies tested in small trials included methadone, α-2 agonists, and protocolized sedation/weaning. We challenge researchers to create validated tools assessing specifically for opioid withdrawal in critically ill children and adults to direct management.

  19. Radiopharmaceuticals drug interactions: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals play a critical role in modern medicine primarily for diagnostic purposes, but also for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. These interactions which have an impact on image by competing with the radiopharmaceutical for binding sites for example can lead to false negative results. Drugs that accelerate the metabolism of the radiopharmaceutical can have a positive impact (i.e. speeding its clearance or, if repeating image is needed, a negative impact. In some cases, for example in cardiac image among patients taking doxirubacin, these interactions may have a therapeutic benefit. The incidence of drug-radiopharmaceuticals adverse reactions is unknown, since they may not be reported or even recognized. Here,we compiled the medical literature, using the criteria of a systematic review established by the Cochrane Collaboration, on pharmaceutical-drug interactions to provide a summary of documented interactions by organ system and radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose is to provide a reference on drug interactions that could inform the nuclear medicine staff in their daily routine. Efforts to increase adverse event reporting, and ideally consolidate reports worldwide, can provide a critically needed resource for prevention of drug-radiopharmaceuticals interactions.Os radiofármacos desempenham função crítica na medicina moderna, primariamente para fins diagnósticos, mas também no monitoramento da progressão de doenças assim como na avaliação de respostas ao tratamento. O uso da tecnologia por imagem tem crescido e conseqüentemente as prescrições de medicamentos (radiofármacos em especial com esse propósito. Este fato, aumenta o risco de interações entre medicamentos e radiofármacos. Interações que podem ter um impacto na

  20. Year in review 2010: Critical Care - infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagani, Leonardo; Afshari, Arash; Harbarth, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    established approaches to the optimal management of infections in the intensive care unit. Rapid infection diagnosis, antibiotic dosing and optimization through pharmacologic indices, progress in the implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs, and management of fungal...... infections are some of the most relevant issues in this special patient population. During the last 18 months, Critical Care and other journals have provided a wide array of descriptive and interventional clinical studies and scientific reports helping clinical investigators and critical care physicians...

  1. Polypharmacy and Delirium in Critically Ill Older Adults: Recognition and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garpestad, Erik; Devlin, John W

    2017-05-01

    Among older adults, polypharmacy is a sequelae of admission to the intensive care unit and is associated with increased medication-associated adverse events, drug interactions, and health care costs. Delirium is prevalent in critically ill geriatric patients and medications remain an underappreciated modifiable risk for delirium in this setting. This article reviews the literature on polypharmacy and delirium, with a focus on highlighting the relationships between polypharmacy and delirium in critically ill, older adults. Discussed are clinician strategies on how to recognize and reduce medication-associated delirium and recommendations that help prevent polypharmacy when interventions to reduce the burden of delirium in this vulnerable population are being formulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A systematic review of critical thinking in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-03-01

    This review aimed to explore how critical thinking is perceived in previous studies of nursing education, and analyse the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking mentioned in these studies. Systematic review. This review was based on the following five databases: The British Nursing Index, Ovid Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus. After the screening process and evaluation through using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, 17 studies were identified that met the inclusion and quality criteria. The studies were read through several times and analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of three themes were developed. The first theme, components for critical thinkers, suggests the abilities and attitudes that critical thinkers should have. The other two themes, influential factors of critical thinking in nursing education, and strategies to promote critical thinking, describe the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking. The 17 studies illustrated that the definition and concept of critical thinking may change from time to time, and hence there is a need to clarify educators' perspective towards critical thinking. There is also a need to evaluate the efficacy of the new strategies mentioned in several selected studies, such as art-based, questioning, cross-cultural nursing experience, and preceptorship. With a better understanding of critical thinking in nursing education, educators and nursing faculty are able to develop better strategies in enhancing critical thinking development in nursing students, in turn preparing them for future clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Papers, Please as Critical Making: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Lohmeyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Lucas Pope’s independent game Papers, Please as an instantiation of critical making within the discipline of the digital humanities. By confronting the player with moral decisions in their capacity as an immigration officer allowing or denying entry to immigrants within a totalitarian state, the game introduces an expressive form of game design in which conceptual practices are used to examine political and social realities. This type of critical media practice introduces a political ethic to the digital humanities that is arguably scarce within the discipline.

  4. Do consumer critics write differently from professional critics? A genre analysis of online film reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, I.K.E.; Burgers, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers often base their choices to purchase experience goods like movies on online reviews. These reviews can be written by professional critics or by other consumers. However, little is known on the issue how the texts written by these two groups of reviewers differ. To answer this question, we

  5. Reproducibility of clinical research in critical care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Daniel J; McCormick, T Jared; Straus, Sharon E; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Jeffs, Lianne; Barnes, Tavish R M; Stelfox, Henry T

    2018-02-21

    The ability to reproduce experiments is a defining principle of science. Reproducibility of clinical research has received relatively little scientific attention. However, it is important as it may inform clinical practice, research agendas, and the design of future studies. We used scoping review methods to examine reproducibility within a cohort of randomized trials examining clinical critical care research and published in the top general medical and critical care journals. To identify relevant clinical practices, we searched the New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, and JAMA for randomized trials published up to April 2016. To identify a comprehensive set of studies for these practices, included articles informed secondary searches within other high-impact medical and specialty journals. We included late-phase randomized controlled trials examining therapeutic clinical practices in adults admitted to general medical-surgical or specialty intensive care units (ICUs). Included articles were classified using a reproducibility framework. An original study was the first to evaluate a clinical practice. A reproduction attempt re-evaluated that practice in a new set of participants. Overall, 158 practices were examined in 275 included articles. A reproduction attempt was identified for 66 practices (42%, 95% CI 33-50%). Original studies reported larger effects than reproduction attempts (primary endpoint, risk difference 16.0%, 95% CI 11.6-20.5% vs. 8.4%, 95% CI 6.0-10.8%, P = 0.003). More than half of clinical practices with a reproduction attempt demonstrated effects that were inconsistent with the original study (56%, 95% CI 42-68%), among which a large number were reported to be efficacious in the original study and to lack efficacy in the reproduction attempt (34%, 95% CI 19-52%). Two practices reported to be efficacious in the original study were found to be harmful in the reproduction attempt. A minority of critical care practices with research published

  6. Skeletal Muscle Ultrasonography in Nutrition and Functional Outcome Assessment of Critically Ill Children: Experience and Insights From Pediatric Disease and Adult Critical Care Studies [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chengsi; Lee, Jan Hau; Leow, Melvin K S; Puthucheary, Zudin A

    2017-09-01

    Evidence suggests that critically ill children develop muscle wasting, which could affect outcomes. Muscle ultrasound has been used to track muscle wasting and association with outcomes in critically ill adults but not children. This review aims to summarize methodological considerations of muscle ultrasound, structural findings, and possibilities for its application in the assessment of nutrition and functional outcomes in critically ill children. Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched up until April 2016. Articles describing skeletal muscle ultrasound in children and critically ill adults were analyzed qualitatively for details on techniques and findings. Thickness and cross-sectional area of various upper and lower body muscles have been studied to quantify muscle mass and detect muscle changes. The quadriceps femoris muscle is one of the most commonly measured muscles due to its relation to mobility and is sensitive to changes over time. However, the margin of error for quadriceps thickness is too wide to reliably detect muscle changes in critically ill children. Muscle size and its correlation with strength and function also have not yet been studied in critically ill children. Echogenicity, used to detect compromised muscle structure in neuromuscular disease, may be another property worth studying in critically ill children. Muscle ultrasound may be useful in detecting muscle wasting in critically ill children but has not been shown to be sufficiently reliable in this population. Further study of the reliability and correlation with functional outcomes and nutrition intake is required before muscle ultrasound is routinely employed in critically ill children.

  7. Narrative research in psychotherapy: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdi, Evrinomy; Georgaca, Eugenie

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a review of studies which utilise the notion of narrative to analyse psychotherapy. Its purpose is to systematically present this diverse field of research, to highlight common themes and divergences between different strands and to further the development and integration of narrative research in psychotherapy. The paper reviews studies which employ an applied textual analysis of narratives produced in the context of psychotherapy. Criteria for inclusion of studies are, firstly, the analysis of therapeutic and therapy-related texts and, secondly, the adoption of a narrative psychological perspective. The studies were examined on the basis of the notion of narrative they employ and the aspects of client narratives they focus on, and were grouped accordingly in the review. The majority of the studies reviewed assume a constructivist approach to narrative, adopt a representational view of language, focus primarily on client micro-narratives and relate to cognitive-constructivist and process-experiential psychotherapeutic approaches. A smaller group of studies assume a social constructionist approach to narrative and a functional view of language, focus on micro-narratives, highlight the interactional and wider social aspects of narrative and relate to postmodern trends in psychotherapy. The range of conceptualisations of narrative in the studies reviewed, from a representational psychological view to a constructionist social view, reflects tensions within narrative psychology itself. Moreover, two trends can be discerned in the field reviewed, narrative analysis of therapy, which draws from narrative theory and utilises the analytic approaches of narrative research to study psychotherapy, and analyses of narrative in therapy, which study client narratives using non-narrative qualitative methods. Finally, the paper highlights the need for integration of this diverse field of research and urges for the development of narrative studies of psychotherapy

  8. Physical Activity Benefits and Needs in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlo, Pamela; Klein, Penelope J.

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity is vital for adult individuals with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to assess critically the evidence on effectiveness of physical activity interventions for adults with intellectual disability. An electronic database search was conducted. Research was then assessed for methodological rigor, and…

  9. Evaluation of Adult Literacy Education in the United States: A Review of Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Tsang, Mun C.

    2008-01-01

    This is a critical review of methodological issues in the evaluation of adult literacy education programs in the United States. It addresses the key research questions: What are the appropriate methods for evaluating these programs under given circumstances. It identifies 15 evaluation studies that are representative of a range of adult literacy…

  10. Intersectionality and Educational Leadership: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Vonzell; Roland, Ericka

    2018-01-01

    In this review of research, we explore intersectionality in the literature on K-12 educational leadership. We seek to understand how researchers have used intersectionality and what their findings or arguments reveal about the work of leading to reduce inequities in education. We ask, What traditions and trends associated with intersectionality…

  11. Korsakoff’s syndrome: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Nicolaas JM; Walvoort, Serge JW; Kessels, Roy PC

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we present a survey on Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS), a residual syndrome in patients who suffered from a Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) that is predominantly characterized by global amnesia, and in more severe cases also by cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. We describe the history of KS and its definition, its epidemiology, and the lack of consensus criteria for its diagnosis. The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of KS, which include anterograde and retrograde amnesia, executive dysfunction, confabulation, apathy, as well as affective and social-cognitive impairments, are discussed. Moreover, recent insights into the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these symptoms are presented. In addition, the evidence so far on the etiology of KS is examined, highlighting the role of thiamine and alcohol and discussing the continuity hypothesis. Furthermore, the neuropathology of KS is reviewed, focusing on abnormalities in the diencephalon, including the mammillary bodies and thalamic nuclei. Pharmacological treatment options and nonpharmacological interventions, such as those based on cognitive rehabilitation, are discussed. Our review shows that thiamine deficiency (TD) is a crucial factor in the etiology of KS. Although alcohol abuse is by far the most important context in which TD occurs, there is no convincing evidence for an essential contribution of ethanol neurotoxicity (EN) to the development of WE or to the progression of WE to KS. Future research on the postmortem histopathological analysis of brain tissues of KS patients is crucial for the advancement of our knowledge of KS, especially for associating its symptoms with lesions in various thalamic nuclei. A necessary requirement for the advancement of studies on KS is the broad acceptance of a comprehensive definition and definite diagnostic criteria. Therefore, in this review, we propose such a definition of KS and draft outlines for prospective diagnostic criteria. PMID:29225466

  12. Short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Fiona; Rattray, Janice

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review undertaken to identify the short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives. Patients in intensive care can experience physical and psychological consequences, and their relatives may also experience such effects. Although it is recognized that relatives have specific needs, it is not clear whether these needs are always met and whether further support is required, particularly after intensive care. The following databases were searched for the period 1950-2007: Medline, British Nursing Index and Archive, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMB Reviews--Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials. Search terms focused on adult relatives of critically ill adult patients during and after intensive care. Recurrent topics were categorized to structure the review, i.e. 'relatives needs', 'meeting relatives' needs', 'interventions', 'satisfaction', 'psychological outcomes' and 'coping'. Studies have mainly identified relatives' immediate needs using the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. There are few studies of interventions to meet relatives' needs and the short- and long-term effects of critical illness on relatives. Despite widespread use of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory, factors such as local or cultural differences may influence relatives' needs. Relatives may also have unidentified needs, and these needs should be explored. Limited research has been carried out into interventions to meet relatives' needs and the effects of critical illness on their well-being, yet some relatives may experience negative psychological consequences far beyond the acute phase of the illness.

  13. Parental verbal abuse and the mediating role of self-criticism in adult internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Verona, Edelyn; Joiner, Thomas; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2006-07-01

    Researchers (e.g., [Gibb, B.E., 2002. Childhood maltreatment and negative cognitive styles. A quantitative and qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22 (2), 223-246]; [Rose, D.T., Abramson, L.Y., 1992. Developmental predictors of depressive cognitive styles: developmental perspectives on depression. In Cicchetti, D., Toth, S.L. (Eds.), Developmental Perspectives on Depression. Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology, vol. 4, pp. 323-349]) have proposed that when childhood abuse is verbal (rather than sexual or physical), the child is more likely to develop a negative self-schema because the negative self-cognitions are directly supplied to the child by the abuser (e.g., "you are stupid"). In a test of this theory in adult participants, and drawing on the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) (N=5877), we investigate the mediating role of current levels of self-criticism on the relationship between retrospective reports of parental verbal abuse, as well as sexual and physical abuse, and adult internalizing symptoms. We found self-criticism, but not dependency traits, to fully mediate the relationship between childhood verbal abuse perpetrated by parents and internalizing (depression, anxiety) symptoms. On the other hand, self-criticism was only a partial mediator of the relationship between the other types of abuse and internalizing symptoms. The NCS data is cross-sectional, which limits any firm conclusions regarding causality. While these results are suggestive that self-criticism is a mediator of the relationship between abuse and internalizing symptoms, longitudinal data are necessary to help rule out alternative explanations. Results of this study suggest that childhood abuse experiences, and in particular verbal abuse, may confer risk for internalizing disorders in part because verbal abuse influences the development of a self-critical style.

  14. Korsakoff’s syndrome: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arts NJM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicolaas JM Arts,1,2 Serge JW Walvoort,1 Roy PC Kessels1,3,4 1Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, 2Neuropsychiatry Center Thalamus, Institution for Integrated Mental Health Care Pro Persona, Wolfheze, 3Department of Neuropsychology and Rehabilitation Psychology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 4Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: In this review, we present a survey on Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS, a residual syndrome in patients who suffered from a Wernicke encephalopathy (WE that is predominantly characterized by global amnesia, and in more severe cases also by cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. We describe the history of KS and its definition, its epidemiology, and the lack of consensus criteria for its diagnosis. The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of KS, which include anterograde and retrograde amnesia, executive dysfunction, confabulation, apathy, as well as affective and social-cognitive impairments, are discussed. Moreover, recent insights into the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these symptoms are presented. In addition, the evidence so far on the etiology of KS is examined, highlighting the role of thiamine and alcohol and discussing the continuity hypothesis. Furthermore, the neuropathology of KS is reviewed, focusing on abnormalities in the diencephalon, including the mammillary bodies and thalamic nuclei. Pharmacological treatment options and nonpharmacological interventions, such as those based on cognitive rehabilitation, are discussed. Our review shows that thiamine deficiency (TD is a crucial factor in the etiology of KS. Although alcohol abuse is by far the most important context in which TD occurs, there is no convincing evidence for an essential contribution of ethanol neurotoxicity (EN to the development of WE or to

  15. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  16. Fibromyalgia: A Critical and Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea T; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-10-01

    Fibromyalgia is a disorder that is part of a spectrum of syndromes that lack precise classification. It is often considered as part of the global overview of functional somatic syndromes that are otherwise medically unexplained or part of a somatization disorder. Patients with fibromyalgia share symptoms with other functional somatic problems, including issues of myalgias, arthralgias, fatigue and sleep disturbances. Indeed, there is often diagnostic and classification overlap for the case definitions of a variety of somatization disorders. Fibromyalgia, however, is a critically important syndrome for physicians and scientists to be aware of. Patients should be taken very seriously and provided optimal care. Although inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune disorders have all been ascribed to be etiological events in the development of fibromyalgia, there is very little data to support such a thesis. Many of these disorders are associated with depression and anxiety and may even be part of what has been sometimes called affected spectrum disorders. There is no evidence that physical trauma, i.e., automobile accidents, is associated with the development or exacerbation of fibromyalgia. Treatment should be placed on education, patient support, physical therapy, nutrition, and exercise, including the use of drugs that are approved for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Treatment should not include opiates and patients should not become poly pharmacies in which the treatment itself can lead to significant morbidities. Patients with fibromyalgia are living and not dying of this disorder and positive outlooks and family support are key elements in the management of patients.

  17. SPI Project Criticality Task Force initial review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.B.; Cannon, J.W.; Marsden, R.S.; Worle, H.A.

    1980-03-01

    The Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator (SPI) Facility is being developed to process transuranic waste stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) into a chemically inert, physically stable, basalt-like residue acceptable for a Federal Repository. A task force was established by the SPI Project Division to review and assess all aspects of criticality safety for the SPI Facility. This document presents the initial review, evaluations, and recommendations of the task force and includes the following: background information on waste characterization, and criticality control approaches and philosophies, a description of the SPI Facility Waste Processing Building, a review and assessment of potentially relevant codes and regulations; a review and assessment of the present state of criticality and assaying/monitoring studies, and recommendations for changes in and additions to these studies. The review and assessment of potentially relevant codes and regulations indicate that ERDAM 0530, Nuclear Criticality Safety should be the controlling document for criticality safety for the SPI Project. In general, the criticality control approaches and philosophies for the SPI Project comply with this document

  18. Economics of Malignant Gliomas: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizer, Jeffrey J; Fitzner, Karen A; Jacobs, Daniel I; Bennett, Charles L; Liebling, Dustin B; Luu, Thanh Ha; Trifilio, Steven M; Grimm, Sean A; Fisher, Matthew J; Haleem, Meraaj S; Ray, Paul S; McKoy, Judith M; DeBoer, Rebecca; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E; Deeb, Mohammed; McKoy, June M

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 18,500 persons are diagnosed with malignant glioma in the United States annually. Few studies have investigated the comprehensive economic costs. We reviewed the literature to examine costs to patients with malignant glioma and their families, payers, and society. A total of 18 fully extracted studies were included. Data were collected on direct and indirect costs, and cost estimates were converted to US dollars using the conversion rate calculated from the study's publication date, and updated to 2011 values after adjustment for inflation. A standardized data abstraction form was used. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Before approval of effective chemotherapeutic agents for malignant gliomas, estimated total direct medical costs in the United States for surgery and radiation therapy per patient ranged from $50,600 to $92,700. The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) and bevacizumab to glioblastoma treatment regimens has resulted in increased overall costs for glioma care. Although health care costs are now less front-loaded, they have increased over the course of illness. Analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year suggests that the benefits of TMZ fall on the edge of acceptable therapies. Furthermore, indirect medical costs, such as productivity losses, are not trivial. With increased chemotherapy use for malignant glioma, the paradigm for treatment and associated out-of-pocket and total medical costs continue to evolve. Larger out-of-pocket costs may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, the economic implications of which should be evaluated prospectively. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Unmasked adult-onset urea cycle disorders in the critical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summar, Marshall L; Barr, Frederick; Dawling, Sheila; Smith, Wendy; Lee, Brendan; Singh, Rani H; Rhead, William J; Sniderman King, Lisa; Christman, Brian W

    2005-10-01

    Most often, urea cycle disorders have been described as acute onset hyperammonemia in the newborn period; however, there is a growing awareness that urea cycle disorders can present at almost any age, frequently in the critical care setting. This article presents three cases of adult-onset hyperammonemia caused by inherited defects in nitrogen processing in the urea cycle, and reviews the diagnosis, management, and pathophysiology of adult-onset urea cycle disorders. Individuals who have milder molecular urea cycle defects can lead a relatively normal life until a severe environmental stress triggers a hyperammonemic crisis. Comorbid conditions such as physical trauma often delay the diagnosis of the urea cycle defect. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential in determining the outcome of these patients.

  20. Radioiodine Remnant Ablation: A Critical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Padhy, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) is considered a safe and effective method for eliminating residual thyroid tissue, as well as microscopic disease if at all present in thyroid bed following thyroidectomy. The rationale of RRA is that in the absence of thyroid tissue, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement can be used as an excellent tumor marker. Other considerations are like the presence of significant remnant thyroid tissue makes detection and treatment of nodal or distant metastases difficult. Rarely, microscopic disease in the thyroid bed if not ablated, in the future, could be a source of anaplastic transformation. On the other hand, microscopic tumor emboli in distant sites could be the cause of distant metastasis too. The ablation of remnant tissue would in all probability eliminate these theoretical risks. It may be noted that all these are unproven contentious issues except postablation serum Tg estimation that could be a good tumor marker for detecting early biochemical recurrence in long-term follow-up strategy. Radioactive iodine is administered as a form of “adjuvant therapy” for remnant ablation. There have been several reports with regard to the administered dose for remnant ablation. The first report of a prospective randomized clinical trial was published from India by a prospective randomized study conducted at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi in the year 1996. The study reported that increasing the empirical 131 I initial dose to more than 50 mCi results in plateauing of the dose-response curve and thus, conventional high-dose remnant ablation needs critical evaluation. Recently, two important studies were published: One from French group and the other from UK on a similar line. Interestingly, all three studies conducted in three different geographical regions of the world showed exactly similar conclusion. The new era of low-dose remnant ablation has taken a firm scientific footing across the continents

  1. Drugs and bruxism: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Ephraim; Gavish, Anat; Voikovitch, Michal; Emodi-Perlman, Alona; Eli, Ilana

    2003-01-01

    Bruxism associated with drugs can be destructive, resulting in severe consequences to health that include destruction of tooth structure, irreversible harm to the temporomandibular joint, severe myofascial pain, and muscle contraction headache. However, reports concerning a possible association between bruxism and various pharmacologic drugs are scarce and mostly anecdotal. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature concerning the exacerbating or ameliorating effect of drugs on bruxism in humans. A search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsicINFO databases from 1982 to 2001 was conducted, and the term bruxism and one of the following terms were used: drugs, medicine(s), pharmaceutical, movement disorders, akathisia, dyskinesia, dystonia, central or autonomic nervous system, dopamine, serotonin, and GABA. Furthermore, a search using the term bruxism was carried out on the weekly journal Reactions, which deals with side effects of drugs. Several chemical terms were searched separately (e.g., caffeine, nicotine). Relevant information was also derived from reference lists of the retrieved publications. The search yielded complex information referring to the association between bruxism and dopamine-related drugs, antidepressant drugs, sedative and anxiolytic drugs, and drugs of abuse. There is insufficient evidence-based data to draw definite conclusions concerning the effects of various drugs on bruxism. Although certain substances related to the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic systems suppress or exacerbate bruxist activity in humans and animals, the literature is still controversial, and based mostly on anecdotal case reports. More controlled, evidence-based research on this under-explored subject is needed.

  2. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries.

  3. A critical review of Electric Earthquake Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vallianatos

    2001-06-01

    and can guarantee reliable electric field measurements, although improvements are still possible with new generation electrodes and smart measurement schemes facilitating noise suppression. It is increasingly apparent that simultaneous electric and magnetic measurements are indispensable and conducted in most new experiments. There is also an emerging trend towards multi-parametric, broadband observations that should provide far better data and constraints on the source processes. The physics of electrification mechanisms are beginning to clarify, as also is the potential of solid state effects: charge and current densities under controlled conditions are such, that if scaled up to the size of seismogenic zones, they would yield observable EEP. However, there are still many unknowns, requiring careful experimentation and theoretical development. Research is also directed towards decoding the physics of stress/strain changes that cause electrification, exploiting properties such as are the fractal nature of faulting and Self-Organised Criticality (SOC. The first evidence of possible electromagnetic precursors due to a SOC system has been published recently. Modelling of the source processes from first principles is stepping up and certain classes of observed signals can now be predicted by theory, providing new and more rigorous means of data authentication; such models have also established the feasibility of long range EEP signals. Although progress is apparent, the knowledge is still grossly incomplete and EEP data are not indisputable, if tested with the full rigour of scientific verification methods. The new research philosophy requires time and vigilance before it begins to pay off, but it appears to have taken a more promising course.

  4. A critical review of electric earthquake precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzanis, A. [Athens Univ., Athens (Italy). Dept. of Geophysics and Geothermy; Valliantos, F. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Chania (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    reliable electric field measurements, although improvements are still possible with new generation and smart measurement schemes facilitating noise suppression. It is increasingly apparent that simultaneous electric and magnetic measurements are indispensable and conducted in most new experiments. There is also an emerging trend towards multi-parametric, broadband observations that should provide far better data and constraints on the source processes. The physics of electrification mechanisms are beginning to clarify, as also is the potential of solid state effects: charge and current densities under controlled conditions are such, that if scaled up to the size of seismogenic zones, they would yield observable EEP. However, there are still many unknowns, requiring careful experimentation and theoretical development. Research is also directed towards decoding the physics of stress/strain changes that cause electrification, exploiting properties such as are the fractal nature of faulting and Self-Organised Critically (SOC). The first evidence of possible electromagnetic precursors due to a SOC system has been published recently. Modelling of the source processes from first principles is stepping up and certain classes of observed signals can now be predicted by theory, providing new and more rigorous means of data authentication; such models have also established the feasibility of long range EEP signals. Although progress is apparent, the knowledge is still grossly incomplete and EEP data are not indisputable, if tested with the full rigour of scientific verification methods. The new research philosophy requires time and vigilance before it begins to pay off, but it appears to have taken a more promising course.

  5. SRTC criticality safety technical review of SRT-CMA-930039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of SRT-CMA-930039, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE): DWPF Melter-Batch 1,'' December 1, 1993, has been performed by the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment of the Melt Cell in the DWPF. Additionally, this pertains only to Batch 1 operation, which differs from batches to follow. Plans for subsequent batch operations call for fissile material in the Salt Cell feed-stream, which necessitates a separate criticality evaluation in the future. The NCSE under review concludes that the process is safe from criticality events, even in the event that all lithium and boron neutron poisons are lost, provided uranium enrichments are less than 40%. Furthermore, if all the lithium and as much as 98% of the boron would be lost, uranium enrichments of 100% would be allowable. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion. This technical review consisted of: an independent check of the methods and models employed, independent calculations application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual( 2 ) procedures

  6. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  7. Organ donation in adults: a critical care perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Cypel, Marcelo; Dobb, Geoff J; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Frontera, Jennifer A; Greer, David M; Manara, Alex R; Shemie, Sam D; Smith, Martin; Valenza, Franco; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-03-01

    The shortage of organs for transplantation is an important medical and societal problem because transplantation is often the best therapeutic option for end-stage organ failure. We review the potential deceased organ donation pathways in adult ICU practice, i.e. donation after brain death (DBD) and controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD), which follows the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments (WLST) and subsequent confirmation of death using cardiorespiratory criteria. Strategies in the ICU to increase the number of organs available for transplantation are discussed. These include timely identification of the potential organ donor, optimization of the brain-dead donor by aggressive management of the physiological consequence of brain death, implementation of cDCD protocols, and the potential for ex vivo perfusion techniques. Organ donation should be offered as a routine component of the end-of-life care plan of every patient dying in the ICU where appropriate, and intensivists are the key professional in this process.

  8. The Three-Part Harmony of Adult Learning, Critical Thinking, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making are fields that receive attention individually, although they are interspersed with elements of each other's theories and philosophies. In addressing adult learning precepts, it is essential to include critical thinking and decision-making. One without the other creates weakness; all must be…

  9. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRADY RAAP, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999

  10. Added value of FM – a critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a state of the art of how the topic “Added value of FM” has been treated recently in research and practice. The paper is based on research papers from EFMC 2013 and 2014. The paper provides an overview and a critical review of this research. A main focus...... is to examine to which degree there is a cumulative knowledge building in this field. The paper also summarises findings about value adding management in practice and reflects on implications for research and practice. The critical review shows that some of the papers have a strong foundation in former research...

  11. Subclinical hypothyroidism, mood, and cognition in older adults: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Russell T; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Hennessey, James V; Ryan, Joseph J; Stern, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    To perform a critical review of the literature on the mood and cognitive changes associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), with an emphasis on older adults. To evaluate these data against the Consensus Statement on the management of SCH from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Thyroid Association, and The Endocrine Society. A comprehensive literature review. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with an increased risk of mood and cognitive dysfunction, although the strength of this association and the efficacy of replacement hormone therapy require further investigation. It remains unclear whether SCH leads to significant mood and cognitive impairments in most older patients. More research is required to determine the nature and extent of this association and whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy is appropriate and effective in treating SCH-associated neurobehavioral impairments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsi...

  13. Evaluation of Altered Drug Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Adults Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Sieg, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-support modality used in patients with refractory cardiac and/or respiratory failure. A significant resurgence in the use ECMO has been seen in recent years as a result of substantial improvements in technology and survival benefit. With expanding ECMO use, a better understanding of how ECMO affects drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is necessary. The vast majority of PK studies in patients receiving ECMO have been conducted within neonatal or pediatric populations or within a controlled environment (e.g., in vitro or ex vivo). Because of significant differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, it may be inappropriate to extrapolate these PK data to adults. Thus, the aims of this review are to evaluate the changes in drug PK during ECMO and to summarize the available PK data for common drugs used in the adult critically ill patients during ECMO support. A search of the PubMed (1965-July 2016), EMBASE (1965-July 2016), and Cochrane Controlled Trial Register databases was performed. All relevant studies describing PK alterations during ECMO in ex vivo experiments and in adults were included. Evaluation of the data indicated that drug PK in adults receiving ECMO support may be significantly altered. Factors influencing these alterations are numerous and have intricate relationships with each other but can generally be classified as ECMO circuit factors, drug factors, and patient factors. Commonly used drugs in these patients include antimicrobials, sedatives, and analgesics. PK data for most of these drugs are generally lacking; however, recent research efforts in this patient population have provided some limited guidance in drug dosing. With an improved understanding of altered drug PK secondary to ECMO therapy, optimization of pharmacotherapy within this critically ill population continues to move forward. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, R; Bott, J; Johnson, M; Dean, E; Nava, S; Norrenberg, M; Schönhofer, B; Stiller, K; van de Leur, H; Vincent, J L

    2008-07-01

    The Task Force reviewed and discussed the available literature on the effectiveness of physiotherapy for acute and chronic critically ill adult patients. Evidence from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses was limited and most of the recommendations were level C (evidence from uncontrolled or nonrandomized trials, or from observational studies) and D (expert opinion). However, the following evidence-based targets for physiotherapy were identified: deconditioning, impaired airway clearance, atelectasis, intubation avoidance, and weaning failure. Discrepancies and lack of data on the efficacy of physiotherapy in clinical trials support the need to identify guidelines for physiotherapy assessments, in particular to identify patient characteristics that enable treatments to be prescribed and modified on an individual basis. There is a need to standardize pathways for clinical decision-making and education, to define the professional profile of physiotherapists, and increase the awareness of the benefits of prevention and treatment of immobility and deconditioning for critically ill adult patients.

  15. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, close quotes was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  16. Review of teaching methods and critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Critical information is needed to inform radiation science educators regarding successful critical thinking educational strategies. From an evidence-based research perspective, systematic reviews are identified as the most current and highest level of evidence. Analysis at this high level is crucial in analyzing those teaching methods most appropriate to the development of critical thinking skills. To conduct a systematic literature review to identify teaching methods that demonstrate a positive effect on the development of students' critical thinking skills and to identify how these teaching strategies can best translate to radiologic science educational programs. A comprehensive literature search was conducted resulting in an assessment of 59 full reports. Nineteen of the 59 reports met inclusion criteria and were reviewed based on the level of evidence presented. Inclusion criteria included studies conducted in the past 10 years on sample sizes of 20 or more individuals demonstrating use of specific teaching interventions for 5 to 36 months in postsecondary health-related educational programs. The majority of the research focused on problem-based learning (PBL) requiring standardized small-group activities. Six of the 19 studies focused on PBL and demonstrated significant differences in student critical thinking scores. PBL, as described in the nursing literature, is an effective teaching method that should be used in radiation science education. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  17. A Critical Review of the Literature on Electronic Records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides a critical review of existing articles addressing the management of electronic records in the Eastern and Southern African Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ESARBICA) region. The article argues that while the literature in developed countries has come up with practical solutions ...

  18. "Theorizing Teacher Mobility": A Critical Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Robert; Pivovarova, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    In this critical review of literature, we summarize the major theoretical frameworks that have been used to study teacher mobility. In total we identified 40 teacher mobility studies that met our inclusion criteria. We conclude that relatively few theoretical frameworks have been used to study teacher mobility and those that have been used are…

  19. Automatic Generation and Ranking of Questions for Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Calvo, Rafael A.; Rus, Vasile

    2014-01-01

    Critical review skill is one important aspect of academic writing. Generic trigger questions have been widely used to support this activity. When students have a concrete topic in mind, trigger questions are less effective if they are too general. This article presents a learning-to-rank based system which automatically generates specific trigger…

  20. Critical factors for EIA implementation: literature review and research options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-15

    After decades of development, the gap between expectations of Environment Impact Assessments (EIA) and their practical performance remains significant. Research has been done to identify the critical factors for an effective implementation of EIA. However, this research, to a large extent, has not been cumulated and analysed comprehensively according to the stages of the EIA process. This paper contributes to the critical review of the literature on EIA implementation and effectiveness by cumulating mainly empirical findings in an implementation theoretical perspective. It focuses on the links between different critical factors and how they relate to different stages in the EIA and thus influence the decision making process. After reviewing 33 refereed journal articles published between 1999 and 2011, we identified 203 notions of critical factors. Of these, 102 related to different stages defined in our comprehensive EIA implementation model, and 101 were identified as general factors related to the whole EIA system. The number of notions of stage factors and general factors is thus about equal. An overlap between stage factors and general factors was found, which demonstrates that critical factors function differently in different cases. The function of the critical factors is complex and it is difficult to determine contingencies and causations. In the sources we examined, there is evidently an imbalance between in-depth empirical research and general knowledge, and the paper offers some suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of chronotherapy on delirium in critical care - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Roseanne; McLeod, Anne

    2017-05-15

    Delirium is highly prevalent within critical care and is linked to adverse clinical outcomes, increased mortality and impaired quality of life. Development of delirium is thought to be caused by multiple risk factors, including disruption of the circadian rhythm. Chronotherapeutic interventions, such as light therapy, music and use of eye shades, have been suggested as an option to improve circadian rhythm within intensive care units. This review aims to answer the question: Can chronotherapy reduce the prevalence of delirium in adult patients in critical care? This study is a systematic review of quantitative studies. Six major electronic databases were searched, and a hand search was undertaken using selected key search terms. Research quality was assessed using the critical appraisal skills programme tools. The studies were critically appraised by both authors independently, and data were extracted. Four themes addressing the research question were identified and critically evaluated. Six primary research articles that investigated different methods of chronotherapy were identified, and the results suggest that multi-component non-pharmacological interventions are the most effective for reducing the prevalence of delirium in critical care. The melatonergic agonist Ramelteon demonstrated statistically significant reductions in delirium; however, the reliability of the results in answering the review question was limited by the research design. The use of bright light therapy (BLT) and dynamic light application had mixed results, with issues with the research design and outcomes measured limiting the validity of the findings. Multi-component non-pharmacological interventions, such as noise and light control, can reduce delirium in critical care, whereas other interventions, such as BLT, have mixed outcomes. Melatonin, as a drug, may be a useful alternative to sedative-hypnotics. Chronotherapy can reduce the incidence of delirium within critical care, although

  2. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE MODEL MINORITY STEREOTYPE SHIBBOLETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daniel Hartlep

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted a thematic review of the literature on the model minority stereotype  (MMS.  MMS  writings  (n  =  246  included  peer-reviewed  and  non-peer-reviewed materials spanning from the 1960s to present. Writings were reviewed if their title included “model minority.”  The purpose  was to review the MMS critically.  Six major themes were found to recurrently appear in the MMS literature. Those themes were the following: (1 critiquing colorblindness, (2 countering meritocracy, (3 demystifying Asian  American  exceptionalism,  (4  uncovering  divide  and  conquer  stratagem,  (5 problematizing Asian American homogenization, and (6 unmasking the “yellow peril” stereotype. Implications for the education of Asian students in America and abroad are shared.

  3. Transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions: A realist review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Helen; Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor; O'Halloran, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Improvements in care and treatment have led to more young adults with life-limiting conditions living beyond childhood, which means they must make the transition from children's to adult services. This has proved a challenging process for both young adults and service providers, with complex transition interventions interacting in unpredictable ways with local contexts. To explain how intervention processes interact with contextual factors to help transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions. Systematic realist review of the literature. Literature was sourced from four electronic databases: Embase, MEDLINE, Science Direct and Cochrane Library from January 1995 to April 2016. This was supplemented with a search in Google Scholar and articles sourced from reference lists of included papers. Data were extracted using an adapted standardised data extraction tool which included identifying information related to interventions, mechanisms, contextual influences and outcomes. Two reviewers assessed the relevance of papers based on the inclusion criteria. Methodological rigor was assessed using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. 78 articles were included in the review. Six interventions were identified related to an effective transition to adult services. Contextual factors include the need for children's service providers to collaborate with adult service providers to prepare an environment with knowledgeable staff and adequate resources. Mechanisms triggered by the interventions include a sense of empowerment and agency amongst all stakeholders. Early planning, collaboration between children's and adult service providers, and a focus on increasing the young adults' confidence in decision-making and engaging with adult services, are vital to a successful transition. Interventions should be tailored to their context and focused not only on organisational procedures but on equipping young adults, parents

  4. Radically Reducing the Costs of Panel Critical Reviews According to ISO 14040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Christiansen, Kim; Wernet, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a procedure that radically reduces the critical review costs without compromising their thoroughness and overall quality. This procedure has 3 elements: A fixed panel for all reviews, an already critically reviewed background database, and a software-supported review procedure. The pre....... The presentation discusses these elements in the light of the upcoming ISO 14071 on critical review....

  5. Fission, critical mass and safety-a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggitt, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of fission, the notion of a chain reaction in a critical mass releasing massive amounts of energy has haunted physicists. The possibility of a bomb or a reactor prompted much of the early work on determining a critical mass, but the need to avoid an accidental critical excursion during processing or transport of fissile material drove much that took place subsequently. Because of the variety of possible situations that might arise, it took some time to develop adequate theoretical tools for criticality safety and the early assessments were based on direct experiment. Some extension of these experiments to closely similar situations proved possible, but it was not until the 1960s that theoretical methods (and computers to run them) developed enough for them to become reliable assessment tools. Validating such theoretical methods remained a concern, but by the end of the century they formed the backbone of criticality safety assessment. This paper traces the evolution of these methods, principally in the UK and USA, and summarises some related work concerned with the nature of criticality accidents and their radiological consequences. It also indicates how the results have been communicated and used in ensuring nuclear safety. (review)

  6. Online counseling: a narrative and critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek; Viganó, Noemi

    2013-09-01

    This article aimed to critically review the literature on online counseling. Database and hand-searches were made using search terms and eligibility criteria, yielding a total of 123 studies. The review begins with what characterizes online counseling. Outcome and process research in online counseling is reviewed. Features and cyberbehaviors of online counseling such as anonymity and disinhibition, convenience, time-delay, the loss of social signaling, and writing behavior in cyberspace are discussed. Ethical behavior, professional training, client suitability, and clients' and therapists' attitudes and experiences of online counseling are reviewed. A growing body of knowledge to date is positive in showing that online counseling can have a similar impact and is capable of replicating the facilitative conditions as face-to-face encounters. A need remains for stronger empirical evidence to establish efficacy and effectiveness and to understand better the unique mediating and facilitative variables. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Cochrane Collaboration withdraws a review on methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Kim; Saiz, Luis Carlos; Erviti, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A Cochrane systematic review on immediate-release methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was withdrawn from the Cochrane Library on 26 May 2016 after substantial criticism of its methods and flawed conclusions. Retraction of scientific papers on this basis...

  8. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  9. A critical review of regional economic integration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang RUI

    2015-01-01

    Under the circumstances of economic globalization, regional economic integration has become the mainstream of current economic development for each country, so China has to pay more attention to it. The critical review on regional economic integration in China can lay a certain foundation and provide experience for the in-depth research. Main contents of regional economic integration are refined according to the previous studies and realities, including the integration of regional economic re...

  10. Critical Review of rate constants for reacitons of hydrated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, G.V.; Greenstock, C.L.; Phillips Helman, W.; Ross, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Kinetic data for the radicals Hx and xOH in aqueous solution,and the corresponding radical anions, xO - and e/sub =/, have been critically reviewed. Reactions of the radicals in aqueous solution have been studied by pulse radiolysis, flash photolysis and other methods. Rate constants for over 3500 reaction are tabulated, including reaction with molecules, ions and other radicals derived from inorganic and organic solutes

  11. Pediatric Critical Care Telemedicine Program: A Single Institution Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria; Hojman, Nayla; Sadorra, Candace; Dharmar, Madan; Nesbitt, Thomas S; Litman, Rebecca; Marcin, James P

    2016-01-01

    Rural and community emergency departments (EDs) often receive and treat critically ill children despite limited access to pediatric expertise. Increasingly, pediatric critical care programs at children's hospitals are using telemedicine to provide consultations to these EDs with the goal of increasing the quality of care. We conducted a retrospective review of a pediatric critical care telemedicine program at a single university children's hospital. Between the years 2000 and 2014, we reviewed all telemedicine consultations provided to children in rural and community EDs, classified the visits using a comprehensive evidence-based set of chief complaints, and reported the consultations' impact on patient disposition. We also reviewed the total number of pediatric ED visits to calculate the relative frequency with which telemedicine consultations were provided. During the study period, there were 308 consultations provided to acutely ill and/or injured children for a variety of chief complaints, most commonly for respiratory illnesses, acute injury, and neurological conditions. Since inception, the number of consultations has been increasing, as has the number of participating EDs (n = 18). Telemedicine consultations were conducted on 8.6% of seriously ill children, the majority of which resulted in admission to the receiving hospital (n = 150, 49%), with a minority of patients requiring transport to the university children's hospital (n = 103, 33%). This single institutional, university children's hospital-based review demonstrates that a pediatric critical care telemedicine program used to provide consultations to seriously ill children in rural and community EDs is feasible, sustainable, and used relatively infrequently, most typically for the sickest pediatric patients.

  12. TWTF project criticality task force final review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.B.; Cannon, J.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Worle, H.A.

    1980-11-01

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) is being developed to process transuranic waste, stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, into a chemically inert, physically stable basalt-like residue acceptable at a federal repository. A task force was assembled by the TWTF Project Division to review and assess all aspects of criticality safety for the TWTF. This document presents the final review, assessments, and recommendations of this task force. The following conclusions were made: Additional criticality studies are needed for the entire envelope of feed compositions and temperature effects. Safe operating k/sub eff/'s need to be determined for process components. Criticality analyses validation experiments may also be required. SRP neutron interrogation should be replaced by DDT neutron interrogation. Accuracy studies need to be performed for the proposed assaying techniques. Time-correlated neutron monitoring needs to be mocked up for process components to prove feasibility and determine accuracy. The criticality control techniques developed for the TWTF conceptual design are in compliance with ERDAM 0530, including the Double Contingency Rule. Detailed procedures and controls need to be developed

  13. Nutritional risk assessment in critically ill cancer patients: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Loss, Sérgio Henrique; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Steemburgo, Thais; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the main methods for nutritional risk assessment used in critically ill cancer patients and present the methods that better assess risks and predict relevant clinical outcomes in this group of patients, as well as to discuss the pros and cons of these methods according to the current literature. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases by searching for the key words “nutritional risk assessment”, “critically ill” and “cancer”. Results Only 6 (17.7%) of 34 initially retrieved papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The main outcomes of these studies were that resting energy expenditure was associated with undernourishment and overfeeding. The high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly associated with low food intake, weight loss and malnutrition. In terms of biochemical markers, higher levels of creatinine, albumin and urea were significantly associated with lower mortality. The worst survival was found for patients with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, high Glasgow Prognostic Score, low albumin, high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and high alkaline phosphatase levels. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index values < 87 were significantly associated with mortality. A high Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index score was associated with abnormal nutritional status in critically ill cancer patients. Among the reviewed studies that examined weight and body mass index alone, no significant clinical outcome was found. Conclusion None of the methods reviewed helped to define risk among these patients. Therefore, assessment by a combination of weight loss and serum measurements, preferably in combination with other methods using scores such as Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, Glasgow Prognostic

  14. Critical thermal limits affected differently by developmental and adult thermal fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salachan, Paul Vinu; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2017-01-01

    the developmental and adult life stages. For developmental acclimation, we found mildly detrimental effects of high amplitude fluctuations for critical thermal minima, while the critical thermal maxima showed a beneficial response to higher amplitude fluctuations. For adult acclimation involving shifts between...... fluctuating and constant regimes, cold tolerance was shown to be dictated by developmental temperature conditions irrespective of the adult treatments, while the acquired heat tolerance was readily lost when flies developed at fluctuating temperature were shifted to a constant regime as adults. Interestingly......, we also found that effect of fluctuations at any life stage was gradually lost with prolonged adult maintenance suggesting a more prominent effect of fluctuations during developmental compared to adult acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster....

  15. Critical thinking in nursing: Scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriguel Pérez, Esperanza; Lluch Canut, Maria Teresa; Falcó Pegueroles, Anna; Puig Llobet, Montserrat; Moreno Arroyo, Carmen; Roldán Merino, Juan

    2015-12-01

    This article seeks to analyse the current state of scientific knowledge concerning critical thinking in nursing. The methodology used consisted of a scoping review of the main scientific databases using an applied search strategy. A total of 1518 studies published from January 1999 to June 2013 were identified, of which 90 met the inclusion criteria. The main conclusion drawn is that critical thinking in nursing is experiencing a growing interest in the study of both its concepts and its dimensions, as well as in the development of training strategies to further its development among both students and professionals. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that critical thinking has been investigated principally in the university setting, independent of conceptual models, with a variety of instruments used for its measurement. We recommend (i) the investigation of critical thinking among working professionals, (ii) the designing of evaluative instruments linked to conceptual models and (iii) the identification of strategies to promote critical thinking in the context of providing nursing care. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Adult-acquired hidden penis in obese patients: a critical survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavayero, Chase T; Cooper, Meghan A; Harlin, Stephen L

    2015-03-01

    Hidden penis is anatomically defined by a lack of firm attachments of the skin and dartos fascia to the underlying Buck fascia. To critically appraise the research evidence that could support the most effective surgical techniques for adult-acquired hidden penis in obese patients. Studies investigating patients with a diagnosis of hidden penis were identified. Of these studies, only those with adult patients classified as overweight or obese (body mass index >25) were included in the review. Three reviewers examined the abstracts of the studies identified in the initial Medline search, and abstracts considered potentially relevant underwent full-text review. Studies that included patients with congenital, iatrogenic (eg, circumcision issues or aesthetic genital surgery), or traumatic causes of hidden penis were excluded. Studies that did not define the diagnostic criteria for hidden penis were excluded to minimize the risk of definition bias. The quality of evidence for each study was determined after considering the following sources of bias: method of allocation to study groups, data analysis, presence of baseline differences between groups, objectivity of outcome, and completeness of follow-up. Using these criteria, studies were then graded as high, moderate, or low in quality. Seven studies with a total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. All but 1 of the studies were nonrandomized. One study provided a clear presentation of results and appropriate statistical analysis. Six studies accounted for individual-based differences, and 1 study failed to account for baseline differences altogether. Four studies addressed follow-up. One study was of high quality, 2 were of moderate quality, and 4 were of low quality. Building a clinical practice guideline for the surgical management of hidden penis has proven difficult because of a lack of high-quality, statistically significant data in the research synthesis. The authors elucidate the challenges and epitomize

  17. Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high…

  18. Critical Adult Education and the Art Gallery Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.

    2018-01-01

    Although burdened by legacies of elitism, exclusion and paternalism, some public museums are attempting to respond to the socio-environmental problems currently facing our planet by developing critical non-formal educational activities to foster consciousness and change. This article explores one such response; a six-week non-formal course…

  19. Radio-frequency glow discharge spectrometry: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, Michael R.; Payling, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of analytical radio frequency glow discharge spectrometry (rf-GDS). The historical foundations of rf-GDS are described, and current knowledge of the fundamental physics of analytical rf glow discharges is discussed. Additionally, instrumentation, methodologies, and applications of rf glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (rf-GDOES) and mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) are reviewed. Although other rf-GDS techniques have appeared [e.g. rf glow discharge atomic absorption spectrophotometry (rf-GDAAS)], the emphasis is placed upon rf-GDOES and rf-GDMS, because they have received by far the most interest from analytical chemical metrologists. This review also provides explanations of some developments that are needed for further progress in the field of analytical rf-GDS

  20. Standardizing communication from acute care providers to primary care providers on critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kerri A; Connolly, Ann; Hosseinnezhad, Alireza; Lilly, Craig M

    2015-11-01

    To increase the frequency of communication of patient information between acute and primary care providers. A secondary objective was to determine whether higher rates of communication were associated with lower rates of hospital readmission 30 days after discharge. A validated instrument was used for telephone surveys before and after an intervention designed to increase the frequency of communication among acute care and primary care providers. The communication intervention was implemented in 3 adult intensive care units from 2 campuses of an academic medical center. The frequency of communication among acute care and primary care providers, the perceived usefulness of the intervention, and its association with 30-day readmission rates were assessed for 202 adult intensive care episodes before and 100 episodes after a communication intervention. The frequency of documented communication increased significantly (5/202 or 2% before to 72/100 or 72% after the intervention; P communication was considered useful by every participating primary care provider. Rates of rehospitalization at 30 days were lower for the intervention group than the preintervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant (41/202 or 23% vs 16/88 or 18% of discharged patients; P = .45; power 0.112 at P = .05). The frequency of communication episodes that provide value can be increased through standardized processes. The key aspects of this effective intervention were setting the expectation that communication should occur, documenting when communication has occurred, and reviewing that documentation during multiprofessional rounds. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure systems (CISs) to provide essential services that support economic prosperity, governance, and quality of life. These systems are not alone but interdependent at multiple levels to enhance their overall performance. However, recent worldwide events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack, Gulf Coast hurricanes, the Chile and Japanese earthquakes, and even heat waves have highlighted that interdependencies among CISs increase the potential for cascading failures and amplify the impact of both large and small scale initial failures into events of catastrophic proportions. To better understand CISs to support planning, maintenance and emergency decision making, modeling and simulation of interdependencies across CISs has recently become a key field of study. This paper reviews the studies in the field and broadly groups the existing modeling and simulation approaches into six types: empirical approaches, agent based approaches, system dynamics based approaches, economic theory based approaches, network based approaches, and others. Different studies for each type of the approaches are categorized and reviewed in terms of fundamental principles, such as research focus, modeling rationale, and the analysis method, while different types of approaches are further compared according to several criteria, such as the notion of resilience. Finally, this paper offers future research directions and identifies critical challenges in the field. - Highlights: • Modeling approaches on interdependent critical infrastructure systems are reviewed. • I mainly review empirical, agent-based, system-dynamics, economic, network approaches. • Studies by each approach are sorted out in terms of fundamental principles. • Different approaches are further compared with resilience as the main criterion

  2. A systematic review on critical thinking in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2016-04-18

    Critical thinking is the ability to raise discriminating questions in an attempt to search for better ideas, a deeper understanding and better solutions relating to a given issue. This systematic review provides a summary of efforts that have been made to enhance and assess critical thinking in medical education. Nine databases [Ovid MEDLINE(R), AMED, Academic Search Premier, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science, JSTOR, SCOPUS and PsycINFO] were searched to identify journal articles published from the start of each database to October 2012. A total of 41 articles published from 1981 to 2012 were categorised into two main themes: (i) evaluation of current education on critical thinking and (ii) development of new strategies about critical thinking. Under each theme, the teaching strategies, assessment tools, uses of multimedia and stakeholders were analysed. While a majority of studies developed teaching strategies and multimedia tools, a further examination of their quality and variety could yield some insights. The articles on assessment placed a greater focus on learning outcomes than on learning processes. It is expected that more research will be conducted on teacher development and students' voices.

  3. BIOCHAR: PYROGENIC CARBON FOR AGRICULTURAL USE - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvino Henrique Novotny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (carbonized biomass for agricultural use has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for Brazil, since its "inspiration" is from the historical Terra Preta de Índios(Amazon Dark Earth, and also because Brazil is the world's largest charcoal producer, generating enormous residue quantities in form of fine charcoal and due to the availability of different residual biomasses, mainly from agroindustry (e.g., sugar-cane bagasse; wood and paper-mill wastes; residues from biofuel industries; sewage sludge etc, that can be used for biochar production, making Brazil a key actor in the international scenario in terms of biochar research and utilization. In the last decade, numerous studies on biochar have been carried out and now a vast literature, and excellent reviews, are available. The objective of this paper is therefore to deliver a critical review with some highlights on biochar research, rather than an exhaustive bibliographic review. To this end, some key points considered critical and relevant were selected and the pertinent literature "condensed", with a view to guide future research, rather than analyze trends of the past.

  4. Entropy in the Critical Zone: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quijano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic entropy was initially proposed by Clausius in 1865. Since then it has been implemented in the analysis of different systems, and is seen as a promising concept to understand the evolution of open systems in non-equilibrium conditions. Information entropy was proposed by Shannon in 1948, and has become an important concept to measure information in different systems. Both thermodynamic entropy and information entropy have been extensively applied in different fields related to the Critical Zone, such as hydrology, ecology, pedology, and geomorphology. In this study, we review the most important applications of these concepts in those fields, including how they are calculated, and how they have been utilized to analyze different processes. We then synthesize the link between thermodynamic and information entropies in the light of energy dissipation and organizational patterns, and discuss how this link may be used to enhance the understanding of the Critical Zone.

  5. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,'' was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  6. What is bizarre in bizarre delusions? A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermolacce, Michel René Joseph; Jensen, Lars Meldgaard Sass; Parnas, J

    2010-01-01

    or incomprehensible. Then, we provide a critical review of contemporary studies on the reliability of BD and their methodological and conceptual limitations. Current approaches have focused intensely on BD's reliability and have defined BD strictly in terms of delusional content--mainly in terms of the physical...... to delusional contents alone and requires taking into account the subjective side of BD (how altered experience manifests itself) as well as the conditions of intersubjective encounter (how BD are expressed to and experienced by the clinician). The notion of "bizarreness" in schizophrenia is not purely...

  7. Developments in solar still desalination systems: A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2012-10-01

    Solar still desalination uses a sustainable and pollution-free source to produce high-quality water. The main limitation is low productivity and this has been the focus of intensive research. A major concern while increasing productivity is to maintain economic feasibility and simplicity. The authors present a critical review of the research work conducted on solar stills development. Studies addressing each parameter of concern are grouped together and results compared. Novelty in design and newly introduced features are presented. Modeling efforts of flow circulation within the still and methods to estimate internal heat transfer coefficients are discussed and future research needs are outlined. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  8. Computerized tomography and schizophrenia: critical review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakauer Huebner, C.V.; Gattaz, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A critical review of the literature regarding structural brain abnormalities in Schizophrenia is presented. It is reported that the prevalence and the localization of the abnormalities vary widely among studies. These differences might stem from samples heterogeneity, from the choice of the computer tomographic (CT) parameter to be investigated and from the use of different criteria for defining abnormalities. It seems established that at least one subgroup of Schizophrenia patients shows mild or moderate brain atrophy, in spite of some contradictory findings. (M.A.C.)

  9. A review of costing methodologies in critical care studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Jesse M; Fager, Samuel S; Milzman, David P

    2002-09-01

    Clinical decision making in critical care has traditionally been based on clinical outcome measures such as mortality and morbidity. Over the past few decades, however, increasing competition in the health care marketplace has made it necessary to consider costs when making clinical and managerial decisions in critical care. Sophisticated costing methodologies have been developed to aid this decision-making process. We performed a narrative review of published costing studies in critical care during the past 6 years. A total of 282 articles were found, of which 68 met our search criteria. They involved a mean of 508 patients (range, 20-13,907). A total of 92.6% of the studies (63 of 68) used traditional cost analysis, whereas the remaining 7.4% (5 of 68) used cost-effectiveness analysis. None (0 of 68) used cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis. A total of 36.7% (25 of 68) used hospital charges as a surrogate for actual costs. Of the 43 articles that actually counted costs, 37.2% (16 of 43) counted physician costs, 27.9% (12 of 43) counted facility costs, 34.9% (15 of 43) counted nursing costs, 9.3% (4 of 43) counted societal costs, and 90.7% (39 of 43) counted laboratory, equipment, and pharmacy costs. Our conclusion is that despite considerable progress in costing methodologies, critical care studies have not adequately implemented these techniques. Given the importance of financial implications in medicine, it would be prudent for critical care studies to use these more advanced techniques. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  10. A review of the economics of adult congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckeler, Michael D; Thomas, Ian D; Andrews, Jennifer; Joiner, Keith; Klewer, Scott E

    2016-01-01

    Adults living with congenital heart disease (CHD) now outnumber children with the disease. Thanks to medical advances over the past 75 years, many of these fatal childhood heart problems have changed to chronic medical conditions. As the population of adults with CHD increases, they will require increasingly complex medical, surgical and catheter-based therapies. In addition, social burdens including education, employment and insurability, which increase the societal costs of adult CHD, are now being recognized for adults living with CHD. This review summarizes the available literature on the economics of adult CHD.

  11. A critical review of the neuroimaging literature on synesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel eHupé

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia refers to additional sensations experienced by some people for specific stimulations, such as the systematic arbitrary association of colors to letters for the most studied type. Here we review all the studies (based mostly on functional and structural MRI that have searched for the neural correlates of this subjective experience, as well as structural differences related to synesthesia. Most differences claimed for synesthetes are unsupported, due mainly to low statistical power, statistical errors and methodological limitations. Our critical review therefore casts some doubts on whether any neural correlate of the synesthetic experience has been established yet. Rather than being a neurological condition (i.e., a structural or functional brain anomaly, synesthesia could be reconsidered as a special kind of childhood memory, whose signature in the brain may be out of reach with present brain imaging techniques.

  12. A Critical Review of Low Back Pain Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Laran

    2017-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) remains one of the most common and challenging musculoskeletal conditions encountered by health care professionals and is a leading cause of absenteeism. Clinical guidelines are often considered best evidence in health care. The aim of this critical review was to assess the quality and recommendations of LBP guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument. Electronic databases were used to identify LBP guidelines published between 2000 and 2015. Nine guidelines were selected for review from a total of 17. Only five guidelines effectively addressed the AGREE scoring. On the basis of the appraisal and domain scores, only four guidelines were strongly recommended. Improved translation of research evidence from guidelines to clinical practice is needed.

  13. A Critical Review of Recent Literature on Populism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Abromeit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a review article of the following five recent studies on populism: 1 Ruth Wodak’s The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean (Sage, 2015; 2 Benjamin Moffitt’s The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style and Representation (Stanford University Press, 2016; 3 Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser’s Populism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2017; 4 Jan-Werner Müller’s What is Populism? (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016; and 5 John B. Judis’ The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics (Columbia Global Reports, 2016. The review argues for a return to early Frankfurt School Critical Theory to address some of the shortcomings of these studies.

  14. A Review of the Literature on LGBTQ Adults Who Experience Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, John; Aubry, Tim; Sylvestre, John

    2017-12-05

    Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) adults who experience homelessness. The current review critically analyzes the scant literature on LGBTQ adults who experience homelessness, with a particular focus on: (1) pathways into homelessness; (2) support needs; (3) targeted programming; and (4) exits out of homelessness. A total of 143 articles were identified, and 16 articles met the criteria of appropriate age range, article quality, and relevance of topic. Results from this review demonstrate that homeless LGBTQ adults have unique physical and mental health challenges, largely concerning HIV and substance use. Transgender and gender non-conforming adults who experience homelessness encounter several challenges in the homelessness system, particularly in regard to safety and gender-affirming supports. Recommendations focus on practical implications for support and suggestions for future research.

  15. A critical review of objective personality inventories with sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen M; Archer, Robert P

    2010-12-01

    This review provides a critical analysis of the ability of multiscale inventories to distinguish between sex offender and nonoffender control groups, as well as to discriminate sex offenders from other types of offenders. In addition to expanding upon previous reviews that examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with this population (e.g., Levin & Stava, 1987), the current review included studies that utilized other multiscale inventories commonly used in forensic practice (i.e., MMPI-2, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III [MCMI-III], Personality Assessment Inventory) and, when possible, provides effect sizes to evaluate group differences. Based on the review, the various forms of the MMPI and MCMI are clearly the most widely used instruments in sex offender populations. The MMPI Pd scale has shown moderate to large effect sizes when distinguishing between sex offender and nonsex offender groups, but this relationship may be reflective of antisocial behavior in general rather than traits specific to sex offenders. Recommendations to standardize future research classification strategies and more effectively utilize these instruments when assessing sex offenders are also provided. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  17. A critical review of the nursing shortage in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, T; Namasivayam, P; Narudin, D A A

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes and critically reviews steps taken to address the nursing workforce shortage in Malaysia. To address the shortage and to build health care capacity, Malaysia has more than doubled its nursing workforce over the past decade, primarily through an increase in the domestic supply of new graduates. Government reports, policy documents and ministerial statements were sourced from the Ministry of Health Malaysia website and reviewed and analysed in the context of the scholarly literature published about the health care workforce in Malaysia and more generally about the global nursing shortage. An escalation in student numbers and the unprecedented number of new graduates entering the workforce has been associated with other impacts that have been responded to symptomatically rather than through workplace reform. Whilst growing the domestic supply of nurses is a critical key strategy to address workforce shortages, steps should also be taken to address structural and other problems of the workplace to support both new graduates and the retention of more experienced staff. Nursing shortages should not be tackled by increasing the supply of new graduates alone. The creation of a safe and supportive work environment is important to the long-term success of current measures taken to grow the workforce and retain nurses within the Malaysian health care system.

  18. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  19. Dental Students' Use of AMSTAR to Critically Appraise Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Sorin T; Heima, Masahiro; Lang, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The idea of basing clinical procedures upon evidence gathered by observation is less than 200 years old, with the first set of evidence-based position papers dating back only to the early 1970s. The relationship between evidence-based education and health outcomes is difficult to test and may be indirect, but teaching critical appraisal skills may be beneficial in developing knowledge. Systematic reviews have a central role in the process of clinical decision making in practice and therefore should be of high quality, following a rigorous protocol that can be evaluated with validated tools. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students utilized the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) appraisal tool to evaluate systematic reviews in the context of a treatment planning course. During the in-class final exam, students were required to appraise the quality of a systematic review and to justify their answers. Of the 74 third-year students who took the exam, 100% answered all questions on the AMSTAR form. The mean number of correct answers was nine (SD=1.047, Min=6, Max=10), with no student providing all 11 correct answers. The fact that nearly 90% of the students provided eight or more correct answers suggests that AMSTAR can be used by students to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews. It also was evident that although the AMSTAR tool requires less than 15 minutes to complete an evaluation, using it requires extensive training and repetition to achieve consistent and reliable results.

  20. Relevance of collagen piezoelectricity to "Wolff's Law": a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Andrew C; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2009-09-01

    According to "Wolff's Law", bone is deposited and reinforced at areas of greatest stress. From a clinical perspective, this "law" is supported by the strong association between bone density and physical activity. From a mechanistic standpoint, however, the law presents a challenge to scientists seeking to understand how osteocytes and osteoblasts sense the mechanical load. In the 1960s, collagen piezoelectricity was invoked as a potential mechanism by which osteocytes could detect areas of greater stress but piezoelectricity diminished in importance as more compelling mechanisms, such as streaming potential, were identified. In addition, accumulating evidence for the role of fluid-related shear stress in osteocyte's mechanosensory function has made piezoelectricity seemingly more obsolete in bone physiology. This review critically evaluates the role of collagen piezoelectricity (if any) in Wolff's Law--specifically, the evidence regarding its involvement in strain-generated potentials, existing alternate mechanisms, the present understanding of bone mechanosensation, and whether piezoelectricity serves an influential role within the context of this newly proposed mechanism. In addition to reviewing the literature, this review generates several hypotheses and proposes future research to fully address the relevance of piezoelectricity in bone physiology.

  1. Antidiabetic plant-derived nutraceuticals: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Jayapal; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major health problems in the world, especially amongst the urban population. Chemically synthesized drugs used to decrease the ill effects of DM and its secondary complications cause adverse side effects, viz., weight gain, gastrointestinal disturbances, and heart failure. Currently, various other approaches, viz., diet control, physical exercise and use of antidiabetic plant-derived molecules/foods are advocated to manage DM, as they are economical with fewer or no side effects. This review mainly focuses on antidiabetic plants, chemically characterized plant molecules and plant-based foods in the treatment of DM. Very little science-based evidence is available on the mechanism of action of plant-derived food molecules on the DM targets. Critical DM targets include α-amylase, α-glucosidase, DPP-IV, aldose reductase, PPAR-γ, AMP kinase and GLUT4. In-depth studies carried out on a few of those targets with specific mechanisms of action are addressed in this review. This review may help future researchers in identifying a right plant molecule to treat DM or to develop food formulations for DM management.

  2. Physical Exercise for Treatment of Mood Disorders: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing, CM; Chang, WC; Szuhany, KL; Deckersbach, T; Nierenberg, AA; Sylvia, LG

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review The purpose of this review is to critically assess the evidence for exercise as an adjunct intervention for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, chronic conditions characterized by frequent comorbid conditions as well as interepisodic symptoms with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Individuals with these mood disorders are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death in part because of increased rates of obesity, inactivity, and diabetes mellitus compared to the general population. Exercise may not only mitigate the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but could also potentially improve the long term outcomes of mood disorders. Recent findings We conducted a literature review on the impact of exercise on mood disorders and associated comorbid conditions as well as possible biological mechanisms. We found that exercise impacts both the physical health parameters of mood disorders as well as mental health outcomes. Exercise also positively impacts conditions frequently comorbid with mood disorders (i.e. anxiety, pain, and insomnia). There are multiple candidate biomarkers for exercise, with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress as two main promising components of exercise’s anti-depressant effect. Summary Exercise appears to be a promising adjunct treatment for mood disorders. We conclude with recommendations for future research of exercise as an adjunct intervention for mood disorders. PMID:28503402

  3. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  4. Review of the Latest Percutaneous Devices in Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Leila; Altin, Sophia Elissa; Attaran, Robert R; Mena-Hurtado, Carlos; Regan, Christopher J

    2018-04-14

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease that, in the absence of intervention, may lead to lower extremity amputation or death. Endovascular interventions have become a first-line approach to the management of CLI and have advanced considerably within the past decade. This review summarizes the types of percutaneous devices and the techniques that are available for the management of CLI and the data supporting their use. These include devices that establish and maintain vessel patency, including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, drug-coated balloons, bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, and atherectomy; devices that provide protection from embolization; and, cell-based therapies. Additionally, ongoing trials with important implications for the field are discussed.

  5. Review of the Latest Percutaneous Devices in Critical Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Haghighat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is a terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease that, in the absence of intervention, may lead to lower extremity amputation or death. Endovascular interventions have become a first-line approach to the management of CLI and have advanced considerably within the past decade. This review summarizes the types of percutaneous devices and the techniques that are available for the management of CLI and the data supporting their use. These include devices that establish and maintain vessel patency, including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, drug-coated balloons, bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, and atherectomy; devices that provide protection from embolization; and, cell-based therapies. Additionally, ongoing trials with important implications for the field are discussed.

  6. The critical incident technique in dental research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Santha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a scientific quest to find answers to certain questions. It makes us think with curiosity and wonderment about how to make something better. Research contributes in a major way to the development and maintenance of health and health care systems. Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomena and includes subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions, and behavior. It is especially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior. The critical incident technique (CIT is a well-established qualitative research tool used in many areas of health sciences including nursing, medicine, dentistry, and their respective education systems. This technique is described as consisting of “a set of procedures for collecting direct observations of human behavior in such a way as to facilitate their potential usefulness in solving practical problems.” This review gives a gist of CIT and its application in different aspects of dental research.

  7. A review of critical care nursing and disease outbreak preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makamure, Miranda; Makamure, Muriel; Mendiola, Williane; Renteria, Daisy; Repp, Melissa; Willden, Azshwee

    2013-01-01

    The impact of disease outbreaks continues to increase globally. As frontline staff, critical care nurses (CCNs) are more likely to be confronted with the need to care for affected patients. With different pathological diseases emerging, CCNs play an integral role in disease outbreaks. The advanced skill set of CCNs is pivotal in the management and care of patients during an outbreak. Lack of planning and preparation before disease outbreaks leads to detrimental patient outcomes. Panic, chaos, and fear for personal safety cause stress and anxiety for unprepared nurses. However, this problem can be resolved. Comprehensive planning, training, and education can better prepare intensive care unit nurses for disease outbreaks. This article reviews some of the current literature on intensive care unit nurse preparedness for disease outbreaks in the United States. This article also offers strategies that may be used to better prepare CCNs for disease outbreaks.

  8. SERVICE MARKETING MIX OF INDIAN HOSPITALS: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh, MOTWANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sreenivas, Srinivasarao and Srinivasa (2013 said that “The health care market has become consumer centered and expecting high quality care at a reasonable price. The mushroomed development of corporate hospitals in India, competition is also bringing massive changes in industry structure. In this context, hospital services’ marketing is slowly and surely coming of age and is being woven into the fabric of hospitals planning and public relations programmes.” The essence of any marketing activity is marketing mix, and the central theme of the present paper revolves around the contemporary service marketing mix offered by Indian hospitals. In this paper author has critically reviewed 51 papers to describe elements of hospital service marketing mix; product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence.

  9. What is bizarre in bizarre delusions? A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermolacce, Michel René Joseph; Jensen, Lars Meldgaard Sass; Parnas, J

    2010-01-01

    . These studies provide highly heterogenous results because they are based on different experimental paradigms, in terms of definition, clinical sample, and number of raters. Here, we first discuss the psychopathological sources of the concept of BD, which were initially described as either nonsensical...... or incomprehensible. Then, we provide a critical review of contemporary studies on the reliability of BD and their methodological and conceptual limitations. Current approaches have focused intensely on BD's reliability and have defined BD strictly in terms of delusional content--mainly in terms of the physical...... impossibility or the cultural or historical incomprehensibility of the delusional claims. These approaches have neglected formal features of experience that underlie BD and the crucial issue of the nature and validity of BD. In the discussion, we argue that clinical diagnosis of BD cannot be limited...

  10. Stable isotope analysis in primatology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Paul A; Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in ecology over the last 25 years. A wealth of ecological information is stored in animal tissues in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of several elements, particularly carbon and nitrogen, because these isotopes navigate through ecological processes in predictable ways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been measured in most primate taxonomic groups and have yielded information about dietary content, dietary variability, and habitat use. Stable isotopes have recently proven useful for addressing more fine-grained questions about niche dynamics and anthropogenic effects on feeding ecology. Here, we discuss stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics and critically review the published stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data for modern primates with a focus on the problems and prospects for future stable isotope applications in primatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Critical Review of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳晓娟

    2009-01-01

    As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.

  12. Electron beam processing of fresh produce - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D.; Shayanfar, Shima

    2018-02-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for fresh produce, robust processing methods that ensures both the safety and quality of fresh produce are needed. Since fresh produce cannot withstand thermal processing conditions, most of common safety interventions used in other foods are ineffective. Electron beam (eBeam) is a non-thermal technology that can be used to extend the shelf life and ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce. There have been studies documenting the application of eBeam to ensure both safety and quality in fresh produce, however, there are still unexplored areas that still need further research. This is a critical review on the current literature on the application of eBeam technology for fresh produce.

  13. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  14. Potentially inappropriate prescribing and the risk of adverse drug reactions in critically ill older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli TB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM use in the elderly is associated with increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs, but there is limited information regarding PIM use in the intensive care unit (ICU setting. Objective: The aim of the study is to describe the prevalence and factors associated with the use of PIM and the occurrence of PIM-related adverse reactions in the critically ill elderly. Methods: This study enrolled all critically ill older adults (60 years or more admitted to medical or cardiovascular ICUs between January and December 2013, in a large tertiary teaching hospital. For all patients, clinical pharmacists listed the medications given during the ICU stay and data on drugs were analyzed using 2012 Beers Criteria, to identify the prevalence of PIM. For each identified PIM the medical records were analyzed to evaluate factors associated with its use. The frequency of ADRs and, the causal relationship between PIM and the ADRs identified were also evaluated through review of medical records. Results: According to 2012 Beers Criteria, 98.2% of elderly patients used at least one PIM (n=599, of which 24.8% were newly started in the ICUs. In 29.6% of PIMs, there was a clinical circumstance that justified their prescription. The number of PIMs was associated with ICU length of stay and total number of medications. There was at least one ADR identified in 17.8% of patients; more than 40% were attributed to PIM, but there was no statistical association. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of PIM used in acutely ill older people, but they do not seem to be the major cause of adverse drug reactions in this population. Although many PIMs had a clinical circumstance that led to their prescription during the course of ICU hospitalization, many were still present upon hospital discharge. Therefore, prescription of PIMs should be minimized to improve the safety of elderly patients.

  15. A Critical Review on the Concept of Social Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Leibetseder

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—A critical analysis of the term social technology from a social science point of view.Design/Methodology/Approach—Review of the term “social technology” from a social science point of perspective in connection to the study of governmentality and power in a Foucauldian way.Findings—The article covers the perspective that social technology provides social science knowledge for a purpose. Such a notion allows an in depth debate about the meaning of social order in modern societies. Establishing distinctive techniques now forms the basis of the modern state and governance. Social technology forms the basis of governmental decisions; it allows for a use of social theories and methods for a purpose in politics and introduces a specific conception of power between the individual and public powers. Therefore, it alters government in three ways: It provides expert power to define solutions for social problems based on social science knowledge. It transforms government. Social technology exemplifies a support system for an ordered method of the way of government, it allows for the conduct of others and self based on scientific expertise. It can define new areas of problems in need of a change of government.Research limitations/implications—Consequently, social technology requests a critical analysis using a governmental approach. Such an approach focuses on problems on the governed subject and how governing works and why it has evolved in that way towards the subject and what kind of ideas and thinking lies within the discourse.Research type—general review.

  16. We’re All YA Now: A Review of Graphic Novels for Children and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Skallerup Bessette

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Graphic Novels for Children and Young Adults: A Collection of Critical Essays', edited by Michelle Ann Abate and Gwen Athene Tarbox, University Press of Mississippi, 352 pages, 2017, ISBN 978-1-4968-1167-7   This article is a review of 'Graphic Novels for Children and Young Adults: A Collection of Critical Essays', edited by Michelle Ann Abate and Gwen Athene Tarbox (University Press of Mississippi, 2017. Filling a significant gap in current scholarly research in comic studies, the collection will appeal to a wide range of scholars and educators. The review argues that reading this collection is less of a chore and more of a joyful journey of discovery.

  17. A critical review on the scaling theory of dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Alraune; Mai, Juliane; Attinger, Sabine; Dietrich, Peter; Teutsch, Georg; Fiori, Aldo; Rubin, Yoram

    2014-05-01

    The phenomenon of dispersive mixing of solutes in aquifers is subject of research since decades. The characterization of dispersivity at a particular field site is a prerequisite to predict the movement and spreading of a contaminant plume. Experimental investigations have shown, that field-scale dispersivities vary over orders of magnitude, which apparently depends on the scale of measurement. Gelhar et al. [1992] and Schulze-Makuch [2005] have reviewed a large number of transport experiments reported in the literature. Based on that data Schulze-Makuch [2005] performed a trend analysis of longitudinal dispersivity, fostering the empirical relationship of a power law between dispersivities and the scale of measurement without an upper bound. The goal of our study is to critically revisit not only the data used for the trend analysis but the power-law scale dependence of longitudinal dispersivity (e.g. Neuman [1990], Xu and Eckstein [1995]). Our particular focus is on the reported dispersivities of large amount (larger than 100m) and large measurement scales (in the order of kilometers). We aim to evaluate current theories of transport against a critical "mass" of field experiments and to bracket the conditions of their applicability. We further aim to evaluate the adequacy of the field sampling techniques that were employed from the perspective of more than 30 years development in modeling and field characterization. Given the tremendous progress in field data acquisition techniques and new insights gained, it is reasonable to expect that interpretations of past experiments may be flawed due to the limitations or inadequacy of field sampling techniques. Gelhar, L.W., C. Welty, and K.R. Rehfeldt, 1992, A critical review of data on field-scale dispersion in aquifers, Water Resources Research 28, No. 7: 1955-1974. Schulze-Makuch, D., 2005, Longitudinal dispersivity data and implications for scaling behavior, Ground Water, Vol. 43, No. 3, 443-456. Neuman, S.P., 1990

  18. Exosomes in HIV infection: A review and critical look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwanger, Joel Henrique; Veit, Tiago Degani; Chies, José Artur Bogo

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released into the extracellular medium by different cell types. These vesicles carry a variety of protein and RNA cargos, and have a central role in cellular signaling and regulation. A PubMed search using the term "exosomes" finds 67 articles published in 2006. Ten years later, the same search returns approximately 1200 results for 2016 alone. The growing interest in exosomes within the scientific community reflects the different roles exerted by extracellular vesicles in biological systems and diseases. However, the increase in academic production addressing the biological function of exosomes causes much confusion, especially where the focus is on the role of exosomes in pathological situations. In this review, we critically interpret the current state of the research on exosomes and HIV infection. It is plausible to assume that exosomes influence the pathogenesis of HIV infection through their biological cargo (primarily membrane proteins and microRNAs). On the other hand, evidence for a usurpation of the exosomal budding and trafficking machinery by HIV during infection is limited, although such a mechanism cannot be ruled out. This review also discusses several biological aspects of exosomal function in the immune system. Finally, the limitations of current exosome research are pointed out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Xerostomia related to HIV infection /AIDS: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Fuzer Grael TINÓS

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of oral manifestations in HIV positive individuals is quite common. Xerostomia appears as one of the most frequent problems and may lead to a reduction in the quality of life of this population. Objective: This study was a critical review of the relationship between xerostomia and HIV infection, to attract the attention of dentists on the importance of dental care to these patients. Material and method: We included articles published between 2000 and 2009, indexed in PUBMED database. The descriptors used were "HIV" and "xerostomia", the exclusion criteria adopted were: the absence of these descriptors associated, non-location of the full-text, articles based on case studies or case series and the absence of the abstract in the database. Result: Based on studies in the review, it can be said that the xerostomia is a common manifestation of HIV infection, predisposing the patient to several other oral problems. Among the risk factors for its occurrence it was reported: low counts of CD4+ T cells, high plasma viral load, the use of some medications and antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS can change the salivary glands, and were considered important risk factors for the occurrence of xerostomia the presence of didanosine and the drug class which corresponds to protease inhibitors in antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Nanostructured delivery systems with improved leishmanicidal activity: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Natascia; Stella, Barbara; Giraudo, Leonardo; Della Pepa, Carlo; Gastaldi, Daniela; Dosio, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania , which are responsible for numerous clinical manifestations, such as cutaneous, visceral, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, depending on the site of infection for particular species. These complexities threaten 350 million people in 98 countries worldwide. Amastigotes living within macrophage phagolysosomes are the principal target of antileishmanial treatment, but these are not an easy target as drugs must overcome major structural barriers. Furthermore, limitations on current therapy are related to efficacy, toxicity, and cost, as well as the length of treatment, which can increase parasitic resistance. Nanotechnology has emerged as an attractive alternative as conventional drugs delivered by nanosized carriers have improved bioavailability and reduced toxicity, together with other characteristics that help to relieve the burden of this disease. The significance of using colloidal carriers loaded with active agents derives from the physiological uptake route of intravenous administered nanosystems (the phagocyte system). Nanosystems are thus able to promote a high drug concentration in intracellular mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS)-infected cells. Moreover, the versatility of nanometric drug delivery systems for the deliberate transport of a range of molecules plays a pivotal role in the design of therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis. This review discusses studies on nanocarriers that have greatly contributed to improving the efficacy of antileishmaniasis drugs, presenting a critical review and some suggestions for improving drug delivery.

  1. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ubeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Odours generated in livestock buildings constitute one of the most relevant air quality issues of intensive livestock production. Reducing nuisance episodes related to odour exposure is therefore essential for a sustainable livestock production. In this study, the state-of-the-art on odour mitigation techniques in livestock housing is critically reviewed. Scientific advances in the last decade are revised and research needs are also identified. The complex nature of livestock odours is firstly reviewed and examined. Then, the most relevant odour control strategies are analyzed in terms of present knowledge and future needs. The strategies considered are: nutritional strategies, manure additives, building design, air filtration, manure covers, manure treatment systems and windbreaks. Finally, future research needs and priorities when establishing mitigation techniques are identified. Despite important recent advances, there are still some challenges for scientists, producers and regulators, particularly related to field evaluation of odours. Therefore, to control livestock odours effectively, using standardized field assessment techniques will be required. Also, investigating measurement and model errors may be useful to better understand the limitations of the current methods, as well as to identify research priorities.

  2. Selenium speciation from food source to metabolites: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Emmie; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelis, Rita [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    Especially in the last decade, a vast number of papers on Se and its role in health issues have been published. This review gives a brief, critical overview of the main analytical findings reported in these papers. Of particular interest is the Se content in different food sources worldwide and the extent to which their consumption is reflected in the Se content of human tissues and body fluids. Several food sources, both natural (Brazil nuts, garlic, Brassica juncea) and Se-enriched (yeast-based supplements), are discussed as to origin, characteristics, Se metabolism and impact of their consumption on the human body. The continuous development of new and improvement of existing analytical techniques has provided different powerful tools to unravel the Se species and their function. An up-to-date literature study on Se speciation analysis is given, illustrating how analytical chemistry in its different facets aids in the identification of Se compounds and provides insight into the complete metabolic pathway of Se throughout the human body. This review includes a detailed image of the current state-of-the-art of Se speciation analysis in these food sources and in human tissues and body fluids. (orig.)

  3. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided.

  4. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165

  5. Breastfeeding Self-efficacy: A Critical Review of Available Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L.; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Graber, Melanie; Cusson, Regina M.; Young, Sera L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates in the United States is a national priority. Yet, initiation and duration of breastfeeding remains below national targets. Breastfeeding self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of both breastfeeding initiation and duration and is therefore an important characteristic to be able to measure. However, there is currently a myriad of instruments for measuring breastfeeding self-efficacy, which makes selection of an appropriate instrument difficult. Thus, our aim was to identify, compare, and critically review available breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments. In a systematic review, 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments were identified. The instruments’ purposes, theoretical framework, final scale development, and application in 5 most recent settings were analyzed. The 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments apply a number of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in their development, with Bandura’s social cognitive theory being most common. Content, construct, and predictive validity were strong for most scales. Some, but not all, have been successfully adapted to novel settings. In sum, there are several measurements of breastfeeding self-efficacy that can and should be employed to better understand reasons for suboptimal breastfeeding rates and the effects of interventions on breastfeeding self-efficacy. Instrument selection should be based on domains of primary interest, time available, peripartum timing, and assessment of previous adaptations. Failure to apply appropriate measures in research may garner results that are inconclusive, inaccurate, or nonrepresentative of true study effects. PMID:26319113

  6. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  7. Reminiscence and adaptation to critical life events in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The role of reminiscence as a way of adapting to critical life events and chronic medical conditions was investigated in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Reminiscence is the (non)volitional act or process of recollecting memories of one's self in the past. Method:

  8. Reproducing Gender Inequality: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Turkish Adult Literacy Textbook. Research Brief #7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

  9. The process of death imminence awareness by family members of patients in adult critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhover, Nancy C

    2015-01-01

    A focus on cost-effective quality end-of-life care remains a high priority in adult critical care given an aging population, high prevalence of death, and aggressive technologies used to extend or sustain life in this setting. A Glaserian grounded theory design was used to conduct this retrospective study to yield a substantive middle-range theory. The data source was semistructured interviews with 14 family members of decedents who died 6 to 60 months prior to the study. The purpose of this study was to generate a theory on how family members of patients in adult critical care come to realize that their loved one is dying. The Process of Death Imminence Awareness by Family Members of Patients in Adult Critical Care middle-range theory contained 6 phases: (1) patient's near-death awareness, (2) dying right in front of me, (3) turning points in the patient's condition, (4) no longer the person I once knew, (5) doing right by them, and (6) time to let go. Patient's near-death awareness preceded all other phases, if communicated by the decedent with their family. Then, family members iteratively moved through all the other key phases in the process until a time to let go became evident. This substantive middle-range theory will guide nursing education, practice, and research aimed at providing quality and cost-effective end-of-life care in adult critical care.

  10. Hypersexuality: A Critical Review and Introduction to the "Sexhavior Cycle".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Michael T; Cantor, James M; Bhullar, Navjot; Lykins, Amy D

    2017-11-01

    An empirical review of hypersexuality is timely as "compulsive sexual behavior" is being considered as an impulse control disorder for inclusion in the forthcoming International Classification of Diseases, 11th ed. Specifically, hypersexuality has been conceptualized in the literature as the inability to regulate one's sexual behavior that is a source of significant personal distress. Various theoretical models have been posited in an attempt to understand the occurrence of hypersexuality, although disagreement about these divergent conceptualizations of the condition has made assessment and treatment of hypersexual clients more challenging. Theories of sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, dual control (sexual inhibition/excitation), and sex addiction are critically examined, as are the diagnostic criteria for clinically assessing hypersexuality as a sexual disorder. Our discussion of hypersexuality covers a diversity of research and clinical perspectives. We also address various challenges associated with reliably defining, psychometrically measuring, and diagnosing hypersexuality. Furthermore, literature is reviewed that expresses concerns regarding whether hypersexuality (conceptualized as a disorder) exists, whether it is simply normophilic behavior at the extreme end of sexual functioning, or alternatively is a presenting problem that requires treatment rather than a clinical diagnosis. Following our literature review, we developed the "sexhavior cycle of hypersexuality" to potentially explain the neuropsychology and maintenance cycle of hypersexuality. The sexhavior cycle suggests that, for some hypersexual persons, high sexual arousal may temporarily and adversely impact cognitive processing (cognitive abeyance) and explain a repeated pattern of psychological distress when interpreting one's sexual behavior (sexual incongruence). We also suggest that further research is required to validate whether hypersexuality is a behavioral disorder (such as

  11. Static Magnetic Field Therapy: A Critical Review of Treatment Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha P. Colbert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Static magnetic field (SMF therapy, applied via a permanent magnet attached to the skin, is used by people worldwide for self-care. Despite a lack of established SMF dosage and treatment regimens, multiple studies are conducted to evaluate SMF therapy effectiveness. Our objectives in conducting this review are to: (i summarize SMF research conducted in humans; (ii critically evaluate reporting quality of SMF dosages and treatment parameters and (iii propose a set of criteria for reporting SMF treatment parameters in future clinical trials. We searched 27 electronic databases and reference lists. Only English language human studies were included. Excluded were studies of electromagnetic fields, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnets placed on acupuncture points, animal studies, abstracts, posters and editorials. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design and 10 essential SMF parameters. Three reviewers assessed quality of reporting and calculated a quality assessment score for each of the 10 treatment parameters. Fifty-six studies were reviewed, 42 conducted in patient populations and 14 in healthy volunteers. The SMF treatment parameters most often and most completely described were site of application, magnet support device and frequency and duration of application. Least often and least completely described were characteristics of the SMF: magnet dimensions, measured field strength and estimated distance of the magnet from the target tissue. Thirty-four (61% of studies failed to provide enough detail about SMF dosage to permit protocol replication by other investigators. Our findings highlight the need to optimize SMF dosing parameters for individual clinical conditions before proceeding to a full-scale clinical trial.

  12. The rumination syndrome in adults: A review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumination in adults is considered to be the effortless regurgitation of recently ingested food into the mouth, followed by either rechewing and reswallowing or expulsion of the regurgitate. On the basis of the definition of rumination as a unique category of functional gastroduodenal disorders, according to the newly established Rome III classification, a review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of the rumination syndrome in adults is presented after systematic and critical approach of all articles that could be retrieved through PubMed using the term "rumination".

  13. Literature review of post-traumatic stress disorder in the critical care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Matthew; Collier, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    To determine which factors relate to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, in adult patients who are admitted to critical care units. Patient survival rates from critical care areas are improving each year and this has led to interest in the long-term outcomes for patients who have been discharged from such environments. Patients typically require invasive and extensive treatment, which places a stress on physical and mental health. Prevalence estimates of post-traumatic stress disorder in the critical care discharge population vary from 5-63%, yet it remains unclear what the predisposing factors are. A systematised review. Subject heading and keyword searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect, with 23 articles identified that examined the relationship between critical care and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Three main themes were identified; Critical Care Factors, Patient Factors and Experience Factors. Eight key and three potential causative factors were found: younger age, female, previous psychiatric history, length of ICU stay, benzodiazepine sedation, use of stress hormones, delusional memory and traumatic memory, delirium, GCS score of ≤9 on admission & use of mechanical restraint. Post-traumatic stress reactions can be strongly related to the development and presence of traumatic and delusional memories. Younger patients may exclude themselves from research to avoid their traumatic thoughts. The role of prior psychiatric illness is unknown. Distinction between 'factual' and 'false' or delusional memory as occurs in the literature maybe unhelpful in understanding trauma reactions. There are around 38,000 occupied critical care beds each year in England. The scale of the issue is therefore substantial. Risk factors can be isolated from available evidence and provide a rudimentary risk assessment tool to inform practice development in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Adult intussusception: A case series and review

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify factors differentiating pathologic adult intussusception (AI) from benign causes and the need for an operative intervention. Current evidence available from the literature is discussed. METHODS This is a case series of eleven patients over the age of 18 and a surgical consultation for ?Intussusception? at a single veteran?s hospital over a five-year period (2011-2016). AI was diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) scan and or flexible endoscopy (colonoscopy). Surgical referrals...

  15. Mixed-methods research in nursing - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Valentina; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Timmins, Fiona; Barisone, Michela; Bianchi, Monica; Pellegrini, Ramona; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-10-01

    To review the use of mixed-methods research in nursing with a particular focus on the extent to which current practice informs nurse researchers. It also aimed to highlight gaps in current knowledge, understanding and reporting of this type of research. Mixed-methods research is becoming increasingly popular among nurses and healthcare professionals. Emergent findings from this type of research are very useful for nurses in practice. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a scientific base for practice but also richness from the qualitative enquiry. However, at the same time mixed-methods research is underdeveloped. This study identified mixed-methods research papers and critically evaluated their usefulness for research practice. To support the analysis, we performed a two-stage search using CINAHL to find papers with titles that included the key term 'mixed method'. An analysis of studies that used mixed-methods research revealed some inconsistencies in application and reporting. Attempts to use two distinct research methods in these studies often meant that one or both aspects had limitations. Overall methods were applied in a less rigorous way. This has implications for providing somewhat limited direction for novice researchers. There is also potential for application of evidence in healthcare practice that limited validity. This study highlights current gaps in knowledge, understanding and reporting of mixed-methods research. While these methods are useful to gain insight into clinical problems nurses lack guidance with this type of research. This study revealed that the guidance provided by current mixed-methods research is inconsistent and incomplete and this compounds the lack of available direction. There is an urgent need to develop robust guidelines for using mixed-methods research so that findings may be critically implemented in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Knowledge translation interventions for critically ill patients: a systematic review*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinuff, Tasnim; Muscedere, John; Adhikari, Neill K J; Stelfox, Henry T; Dodek, Peter; Heyland, Daren K; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Cook, Deborah J; Pinto, Ruxandra; Manoharan, Venika; Currie, Jan; Cahill, Naomi; Friedrich, Jan O; Amaral, Andre; Piquette, Dominique; Scales, Damon C; Dhanani, Sonny; Garland, Allan

    2013-11-01

    We systematically reviewed ICU-based knowledge translation studies to assess the impact of knowledge translation interventions on processes and outcomes of care. We searched electronic databases (to July, 2010) without language restrictions and hand-searched reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing any ICU-based knowledge translation intervention (e.g., protocols, guidelines, and audit and feedback) to management without a knowledge translation intervention. We focused on clinical topics that were addressed in greater than or equal to five studies. Pairs of reviewers abstracted data on the clinical topic, knowledge translation intervention(s), process of care measures, and patient outcomes. For each individual or combination of knowledge translation intervention(s) addressed in greater than or equal to three studies, we summarized each study using median risk ratio for dichotomous and standardized mean difference for continuous process measures. We used random-effects models. Anticipating a small number of randomized controlled trials, our primary meta-analyses included randomized controlled trials and observational studies. In separate sensitivity analyses, we excluded randomized controlled trials and collapsed protocols, guidelines, and bundles into one category of intervention. We conducted meta-analyses for clinical outcomes (ICU and hospital mortality, ventilator-associated pneumonia, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay) related to interventions that were associated with improvements in processes of care. From 11,742 publications, we included 119 investigations (seven randomized controlled trials, 112 observational studies) on nine clinical topics. Interventions that included protocols with or without education improved continuous process measures (seven observational studies and one randomized controlled trial; standardized

  17. A Critical Review of Studies on Health Needs Assessment of Elderly in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ghasemi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health improvement, control of communicable diseases and increase in life expectancy among the elderly of developed and developing countries has greatly increased. Since the health care and social needs of older adults differ from that of other adults, it is necessary to identify the needs of the elderly in order to make proper plans that will promote their health. The aim of this paper is to critically review these researches. Methods: A comprehensive literature review on the needs assessment of elderly health was applied searching English and Persian databases in Pub Med, Science Direct, ProQuest, Elsevier, Magiran, ISC and using key words including, Health need, Assessment, Elderly, Aging, Older adults, Aged and Health care needs. Results: Initial search yielded 745 references, considering the inclusion criteria, 21 papers were reviewed. Results revealed that in conducting needs assessment, various methods and procedures in various health dimensions including physical health, mental health, emotional, care, social, cultural, economic, nutritional, service, security, legal and educational needs have been utilized. Some of the dimensions had been more explored and some rarely. Conclusion: Most of the conducted studies had mainly focused on the elderly physical health needs and had neglected to take in to account other needs such as social and health care needs. In order to comprehensively recognize the health needs of the elderly, identifying their health care and care services is also important. Furthermore, in addition to quantitative studies, discovering the older adults’ perceptions of their own health needs is also necessary. It seems that the challenge ahead of managers, experts and researchers on elderly health is trying to design comprehensive mechanisms of health need assessment and considering it as a reference for any future planning.

  18. Development and Use of Health-Related Technologies in Indigenous Communities: Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise; Jacklin, Kristen; O'Connell, Megan E

    2017-07-20

    Older Indigenous adults encounter multiple challenges as their age intersects with health inequities. Research suggests that a majority of older Indigenous adults prefer to age in place, and they will need culturally safe assistive technologies to do so. The aim of this critical review was to examine literature concerning use, adaptation, and development of assistive technologies for health purposes by Indigenous peoples. Working within Indigenous research methodologies and from a decolonizing approach, searches of peer-reviewed academic and gray literature dated to February 2016 were conducted using keywords related to assistive technology and Indigenous peoples. Sources were reviewed and coded thematically. Of the 34 sources captured, only 2 concerned technology specifically for older Indigenous adults. Studies detailing technology with Indigenous populations of all ages originated primarily from Canada (n=12), Australia (n=10), and the United States (n=9) and were coded to four themes: meaningful user involvement and community-based processes in development, the digital divide, Indigenous innovation in technology, and health technology needs as holistic and interdependent. A key finding is the necessity of meaningful user involvement in technology development, especially in communities struggling with the digital divide. In spite of, or perhaps because of this divide, Indigenous communities are enthusiastically adapting mobile technologies to suit their needs in creative, culturally specific ways. This enthusiasm and creativity, coupled with the extensive experience many Indigenous communities have with telehealth technologies, presents opportunity for meaningful, culturally safe development processes. ©Louise Jones, Kristen Jacklin, Megan E O'Connell. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 20.07.2017.

  19. SRTC criticality technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Separate review of NMP-NCS-930058, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility (U), August 17, 1993,close quotes was requested of SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine waste container uranium limits in the Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility. The NCSE under review concludes that the NDA room remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. The ability to make this conclusion is highly dependent on array limitation and inclusion of physical barriers between 2x2x1 arrays of boxes containing materials contaminated with uranium. After a thorough review of the NCSE and independent calculations, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  20. Epigenetics of psoriatic disease: A systematic review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Remy A; Abji, Fatima; Gladman, Dafna D

    2017-03-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease of the skin that is sometimes accompanied by an auto-inflammatory arthritis called psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Psoriasis and PsA are multifactorial diseases that result from complex interactions of environmental and genetic risk factors. Epigenetic marks, which are labile chemical marks with diverse functions, form a layer of biological information that sits at the interface of genetics and the environment. Aberrant epigenetic regulation has been previously implicated in other rheumatological disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize and critically evaluate the nascent literature on epigenetics in psoriasis and PsA. A systematic review yielded 52 primary articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized template and study quality assessed using a methodological quality checklist. Studies reflect a broad range of epigenetic sub-disciplines, the most common being DNA methylation, followed by the parent of origin effect or genomic imprinting, expression or activity of epigenetic modifying enzymes, and histone modifications. Epidemiological studies demonstrating excessive paternal transmission provided the earliest evidence of epigenetic deregulation in psoriatic disease, however few studies have examined its molecular mechanisms. Methylation studies evolved rapidly from low resolution global to targeted analyses of known psoriatic disease susceptibility loci such as HLA-C*0602. The recent explosion of epigenome-wide association studies has provided us with novel insights into psoriasis pathogenesis, and the mechanism of action of UVB, methotrexate, and anti-TNF therapies, as well as molecular signatures of psoriasis that may have clinical relevance. Finally, recent studies of pharmacological inhibitors of epigenetic modifier enzymes demonstrate their potential applicability as novel treatment modalities for psoriasis. Challenges of epigenetics research in psoriasis and Ps

  1. Concise Review: Quiescence in Adult Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumman, M; Dhawan, J; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) are tissue resident stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury. In uninjured tissues, ASCs exist in a nonproliferating, reversibly cell cycle-arrested state known as quiescence or G0. A key function of the quiescent state is to preserve...... stemness in ASCs by preventing precocious differentiation, and thus maintaining a pool of undifferentiated ASCs. Recent evidences suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state and that excessive or defective quiescence may lead to compromised tissue regeneration or tumorigenesis. The aim...

  2. Book Review: Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity by Patrick Finn

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity, Patrick Finn expands upon his 2011 TEDx Talk, ‘Loving Communication’, to suggest that critical thinking implies disapproval and unnecessary judgement originating from a particular mode of Classical thought. Jodie Matthews argues that Finn’s discussion is dependent upon a crudely drawn straw man and neglects to consider thinking critically as a necessary corollary, rather than antithesis, to thinking creatively.

  3. Venous thromboembolism and coffee: critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Among the various risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE), nutrients seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this condition. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between coffee intake and venous thrombosis, and we performed a critical review of clinical studies that have been published so far. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Science with the keywords "coffee" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism" in "Title/Abstract/Keywords", with no language and date restriction. According to our criteria, three studies (two prospective and one case-control) were finally selected (inter-study heterogeneity: 78%; P<0.001). Cumulative data suggests that a modest intake of coffee (i.e., 1-4 cups/day) may be associated with an 11% increased risk of VTE compared to abstainers, whereas a larger intake (i.e., ≥5 coffee/day) may be associated with a 25% decreased risk. Our analysis of published data seemingly confirm the existence of a U-shape relationship between coffee intake and VTE, thus exhibiting a trend that overlaps with that previously reported for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  4. Bipolar disorders in the Arab world: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfol, Ziad; Zakaria Khalil, Mostafa; Kumar, Pankaj; Suhre, Karsten; Karam, Elie; McInnis, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    Bipolar disorders are common psychiatric disorders that affect 1-5% of the population worldwide. Major advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of the disorders have recently occurred. The majority of published reports, however, originate from the Western hemisphere, mostly Europe and the United States. There is a shortage of data from the Arab world on bipolar disorders. In an era of globalization and rapid communication, it is not clear to what extent research findings pertaining to one part of the world are by necessity applicable to other parts. Psychiatric disorders are known to be affected by the culture in which they occur, and knowledge of variations in illness presentation in different ethnic groups is also increasing. However, knowledge of variations affecting Arab populations remains quite limited. This paper provides a critical review of the literature on bipolar affective disorders in the Arab world, pointing to major gaps in knowledge and future opportunities to fill these gaps. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  6. Birth-weight charts and immigrant populations: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Sørbye, Ingvil K; Wanigaratne, Susitha

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing body of literature focusing on differences in newborn size between different population subgroups defined by racial, ethnic, and immigration status. The interpretation of these differences as pathological or as merely reflecting normal variability is not straightforward and may have consequences for the provision of obstetric and neonatal care to minority populations. In this review, we critically assess some methodological issues affecting the assessment of newborn size and their potential implications for minority populations. In particular, we discuss the pros and cons of different types of newborn birth-weight (BW) charts (i.e., single local population-based references, minority-specific references, and a single international standard) to determine abnormal newborn size, with emphasis on immigrant populations. We conclude that size alone is not enough to inform clinical decisions and that all newborn size charts should be used as screening tools, not as diagnostic tools. Parental minority status may be regarded as a marker and used to further inquire about individual risk factors, particularly among immigrants who may not have a complete medical history in the new country. Finally, we outline areas for further research and recommendations for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of the critical heat flux correlations for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Han, H. D.; Chang, W. P.; Kwon, Y. M.

    1999-09-01

    The CHF phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal reactor (LMR). Especially in the LWR application, many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed over the past three decades. Most of the existing CHF correlations have been developed for light water reactor core applications. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture of boiling pattern. This can be attributed to the consequence that special CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. Numerous liquid metal boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow studies have put emphasis on development of models and understanding of the mechanism for improving the CHF predictions. Thus far, no overall analytical solution method has been obtained and the reliable prediction method has remained empirical. The principal objectives of the present report are to review the state of the art in connection with liquid metal critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions and to discuss the basic mechanisms. (author)

  8. Resveratrol and diabetes: A critical review of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Ebru; Arslan, Ayşe Kübra Karaboğa; Yerer, Mükerrem Betül; Bishayee, Anupam

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. The disease results from the defects of insulin secretion and/or action. Resveratrol is a non-flavonoid polyphenol that naturally occurs as phytoalexin. The shell and stem of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) are the richest source of this compound. In addition to various in vitro and in vivo studies revealing the effectiveness of resveratrol in DM, there are many clinical trials indicating that resveratrol has the potential to benefit in DM patients. The therapeutic action of this compound in relation to diabetes is complex and involves in several beneficial roles. In view of this, clinical studies are necessary to elucidate these roles. In the near future, the use of resveratrol, alone or in combination with current anti-diabetic therapies, might be a conventional approach to effectively manage DM or its complications. This mini-review provides a critical overview of currently available clinical studies examining the effects of resveratrol in DM last decade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Alexithymia and eating disorders: a critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24999402

  10. Liquid-liquid extraction in flow analysis: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Cristina I.C.; Santos, Joao L.M. [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Lima, Jose L.F.C., E-mail: limajlfc@ff.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Zagatto, Elias A.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 96, Piracicaba 13400-970 (Brazil)

    2009-10-12

    Liquid-liquid extractions (LLE) are a common sample pre-treatment in many analytical applications. This review aims at providing a critical overview of the distinct automated continuous flow-based approaches that were developed for liquid-liquid extraction with the purpose of pre-concentration and/or separation of multiple analytes, such as ultra-trace metal and metalloid species, phenolic compounds, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, etc., hyphenated with many detection technique such as UV/vis spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometric detection systems and luminescent detectors, including distinct extraction strategies and applications like single and multiple extraction schemes, wetting film extraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, back extraction, closed-loop systems and the utilisation of zone sampling, chromatomembranes and iterative reversal techniques. The analytical performance of the developed flow-based LLE methods and the influence of flow manifold components such as the segmenter, extraction coil and phase separator, is emphasised and object of discussion. An overall presentation of each system components, selectivity, advantages and shortcomings is carried out and exemplified with selected applications.

  11. Planning and the Public Interest. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIA A. NAGY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From an ethical perspective, the biggest difficulty for planners is to take the best approach in responding to the decision makers and in acting in the public interest because it always becomes subject of pressures arising with the governmental change, on the one hand, and the societal change on the other hand. Even though many debates arise regarding its existence, for planners, as well as for the planning profession, the public interest has always been legitimizing principles as a norm of practice (Alexander, 2002. The paper critically analyses the planning activity in relation to the public interest and highlights the importance of reciprocity between the two. In order to analyse this issue, the article starts with the presentation of different perspectives regarding the public interest, touching upon its conceptual meaning which is followed by a historical review of its origins and transformation. The third section presents its contextual meaning, its representatives, and the change of its content starting from the 19th century until nowadays and discusses the planners’ ability to represent it. The final part comprises the conclusions that indicate that the planning activity should serve the public interest and, by that, it would serve also the interest of planning as a profession. It emphasises two important issues of the present days: the definition of the public interest and the rational decision making within the planning process.

  12. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models

  13. Critical Success Factors for Malaysian Construction Projects: An Investigative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cheong Yong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects play an important role in the advancement of a nation through infrastructure development that leads to economic growth. They are planned carefully to accomplish certain goals. However, not all the projects achieved the goals as per planned. Many factors contribute to the successes and failures, and it becomes an interesting arena for research. The primary objective of this paper is to outline the development trend of project success measurement globally and locally. The research method employed was to make selected reviews on critical success factors' (CSFs literature and to compare international standards and progress in incorporating human behavioural aspects of project management to the situation in Malaysia. A somewhat similar pattern can be observed in Malaysia where the studies have departed from the usual criteria of time, cost and quality, to define project success in a more holistic way. However, the domestic industry has failed to respond to the emerging trend globally as there has yet been any widely published research on the importance of human-related factors towards project success. A consolidated framework of CSFs has therefore, been proposed in responding to the findings. This paper fulfils an identified need as there has been a dearth of research on the subject matter locally.

  14. Abortion law, policy and services in India: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak S

    2004-11-01

    Despite 30 years of liberal legislation, the majority of women in India still lack access to safe abortion care. This paper critically reviews the history of abortion law and policy in India since the 1960s and research on abortion service delivery. Amendments in 2002 and 2003 to the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, including devolution of regulation of abortion services to the district level, punitive measures to deter provision of unsafe abortions, rationalisation of physical requirements for facilities to provide early abortion, and approval of medical abortion, have all aimed to expand safe services. Proposed amendments to the MTP Act to prevent sex-selective abortions would have been unethical and violated confidentiality, and were not taken forward. Continuing problems include poor regulation of both public and private sector services, a physician-only policy that excludes mid-level providers and low registration of rural compared to urban clinics; all restrict access. Poor awareness of the law, unnecessary spousal consent requirements, contraceptive targets linked to abortion, and informal and high fees also serve as barriers. Training more providers, simplifying registration procedures, de-linking clinic and provider approval, and linking policy with up-to-date technology, research and good clinical practice are some immediate measures needed to improve women's access to safe abortion care.

  15. A critical review of the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Francisco Javier; Acevedo Ferrer, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime. The Nuclear Security Act (Law 18.302), enacted in 1984, and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified ed by Chile in 1989, are the fundamental laws of the current regime. Although Chile has no nuclear power plants, it is still important to analyze how the Chilean legislation would protect citizens from nuclear damages. This paper does not consider the policy reasons for and against the promotion of atomic energy. Rather, it critically examines the current status of the Chilean nuclear regime. Undoubtedly, if in the future Chile chooses to include nuclear sources in its energy mix, it will not be enough to introduce some isolated legal amendments, but it will be necessary to build a new Chilean Energy Regime which includes nuclear energy. In that scenario, though, it will be useful to know and understand how the current nuclear liability regime works. From this point of view, the reforms this article proposes to the current nuclear liability regime might be helpful to academics and policy makers alike

  16. A review of factors that influence adult handwriting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drempt, Nadege; McCluskey, Annie; Lannin, Natasha A

    2011-10-01

    Handwriting is an important activity for people of all ages. Handwriting is frequently affected after stroke and other neurological conditions. However, research on the handwriting of healthy adults is difficult to find. This review aims to advance the development of evidence-informed handwriting assessment and retraining. The aim of this paper was to review factors that influence the handwriting performance of unimpaired adults, some of which are amenable to intervention. Searches were conducted of eight electronic databases up to April 2009 and again in November 2010. Reference lists were also used to identify potential studies of interest. No limits were placed on study design.  Age: Younger adults write more legibly and faster than older adults. Gender: Women write faster and more legibly than men. Pengrip: Grips other than the traditional dynamic tripod are functional, producing legible text in an acceptable time. Pen pressure: Pressure varies with different letters, words, text size, speed and across a page of text. Error corrections and a mixed writing style occur in healthy adult handwriting. Research was inconclusive about the association between speed, pressure and upper limb movements on handwriting performance. Other factors able to predict adult handwriting legibility have been largely unexplored. A number of knowledge and research gaps about adult handwriting were identified, including the need for more contemporary normative data. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D

    2009-12-01

    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  18. Private prayer as a suitable intervention for hospitalised patients: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollywell, Claire; Walker, Jan

    2009-03-01

    This critical review seeks to identify if there is evidence that private (personal) prayer is capable of improving wellbeing for adult patients in hospital. The review was conducted in the belief that the spiritual needs of hospitalised patients may be enhanced by encouragement and support to engage in prayer. Systematic review. A systematic approach was used to gather evidence from published studies. In the absence of experimental research involving this type of population, evidence from qualitative and correlational studies was critically reviewed. Results. The findings indicate that private prayer, when measured by frequency, is usually associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety. Most of the studies that show positive associations between prayer and wellbeing were located in areas that have strong Christian traditions and samples reported a relatively high level of religiosity, church attendance and use of prayer. Church attenders, older people, women, those who are poor, less well educated and have chronic health problems appear to make more frequent use of prayer. Prayer appears to be a coping action that mediates between religious faith and wellbeing and can take different forms. Devotional prayers involving an intimate dialogue with a supportive God appear to be associated with improved optimism, wellbeing and function. In contrast, prayers that involve pleas for help may, in the absence of a pre-existing faith, be associated with increased distress and possibly poorer function. Future research needs to differentiate the effects of different types of prayer. Encouragement to engage in prayer should be offered only following assessment of the patient's faith and likely content and form of prayer to be used. Hospitalised patients who lack faith and whose prayers involve desperate pleas for help are likely to need additional support from competent nursing and chaplaincy staff.

  19. Review of studies on criticality safety evaluation and criticality experiment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamane, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, many studies on criticality safety evaluation have been conducted in Japan. Computer code systems were developed initially by employing finite difference methods, and more recently by using Monte Carlo methods. Criticality experiments have also been carried out in many laboratories in Japan as well as overseas. By effectively using these study results, the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook was published in 1988, almost the intermediate point of the last 50 years. An increased interest has been shown in criticality safety studies, and a Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS) was set up by the Nuclear Science Committee of Organisation Economic Co-operation and Development in 1997. WPNCS has several task forces in charge of each of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program (ICSBEP), Subcritical Measurement, Experimental Needs, Burn-up Credit Studies and Minimum Critical Values. Criticality safety studies in Japan have been carried out in cooperation with WPNCS. This paper describes criticality safety study activities in Japan along with the contents of the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook and the tasks of WPNCS. (author)

  20. Inverse Problems in Systems Biology: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzi, Rodolfo; Colombo, Teresa; Paci, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Systems Biology may be assimilated to a symbiotic cyclic interplaying between the forward and inverse problems. Computational models need to be continuously refined through experiments and in turn they help us to make limited experimental resources more efficient. Every time one does an experiment we know that there will be some noise that can disrupt our measurements. Despite the noise certainly is a problem, the inverse problems already involve the inference of missing information, even if the data is entirely reliable. So the addition of a certain limited noise does not fundamentally change the situation but can be used to solve the so-called ill-posed problem, as defined by Hadamard. It can be seen as an extra source of information. Recent studies have shown that complex systems, among others the systems biology, are poorly constrained and ill-conditioned because it is difficult to use experimental data to fully estimate their parameters. For these reasons was born the concept of sloppy models, a sequence of models of increasing complexity that become sloppy in the limit of microscopic accuracy. Furthermore the concept of sloppy models contains also the concept of un-identifiability, because the models are characterized by many parameters that are poorly constrained by experimental data. Then a strategy needs to be designed to infer, analyze, and understand biological systems. The aim of this work is to provide a critical review to the inverse problems in systems biology defining a strategy to determine the minimal set of information needed to overcome the problems arising from dynamic biological models that generally may have many unknown, non-measurable parameters.

  1. A PEDAGOGICAL CRITICAL REVIEW OF ONLINE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi SULISWORO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning which have various shapes such as blog, classroom learning which is facilitated the World Wide Web; a mix of online instruction and meeting the class known as additional models or hybrid; or the full online experience, where all assessment and instruction is done electronically. Object relationship of learning and constructivist educational philosophy and confirmed that online learning has the orientation which is basically a constructivist ideology, where the combination of some of the knowledge is an inquiry-oriented activities and authentic and also promote the progress of the construction of new knowledge. Description of the online learning system in theory and practice can be illustrated in a few examples that have been found in the research that has been done and found new discoveries obtained in the study, but not everything can be done because of several factors. Please note that the components in the online learning system can serve as a learning system which is very strong influence on learning in the class. The objective of this research is to a pedagogical critical review of online learning system in theory and practice that can be applied by teachers in the teaching process in the classroom. The results obtained in this study were teachers and students need extra effort to make online classes and virtual. Further research is needed on appropriate strategies in order to determine the next result is more useful. There some advices for any studies that discuss online learning system are done in certain areas, namely the use of electricity and other disciplines such as social and humanities.

  2. Marine monitoring surveys for desalination plants-A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Lattemann, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies are standard practice and a regulatory requirement for most new desalination projects today. However, most of the EIA studies are limited to predictive information; that is, they gather information on the project and the project\\'s environment before project implementation to make predictions about likely impacts. The EIAs may involve comprehensive studies, such as field monitoring, laboratory toxicity testing, and modeling studies. Consequently, the"surprising paucity of useful experimental data, either from laboratory tests or from field monitoring studies", which was observed by the US National Research Council in 2008, has been gradually decreasing. However, there is still a long-term research need on the site-specific effects of desalination plants after project commissioning has taken place. A main challenge of field research is the adequate design of the monitoring studies, which have to adequately distinguish the effects of the desalination project from natural processes over long periods of time. The existing monitoring studies have so far used a wide range of approaches and methods to investigate the environmental impacts of desalination plant discharges. Shortfalls are often that they are limited in scope, short-term, or localized. In essence, many studies fall short of recognizing the potentially synergetic effects of the single waste components of the discharges on marine organisms and the complexity of the potential responses by the ecosystem. While the possible risk of damage arising from the concentrate discharge to the marine environment in close proximity to the outfall is at hand, no conclusive evidence can yet be provided concerning the long-term impacts of desalination plant discharges, let alone the cumulative impacts on certain sea areas. This paper conducts a critical review of existing monitoring programs for desalination plants. Shortcomings of current practices are identified and relevant

  3. Reforming EIA systems: A critical review of proposals in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Alberto, E-mail: albertof@em.ufop.br [Federal University of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Sánchez, Luis Enrique [University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, José Claudio Junqueira [Escola Superior Dom Helder Câmara, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems are under pressure in many countries, driven by a call for efficiency and streamlining. Such a phenomenon is particularly clear in Brazil, where, in the past few years, a number of influential associations put forward documents proposing significant changes to environmental licensing and impact assessment regulations. So far, there is no publicly available information about any initiative towards scrutinizing those proposals. The objective of this study was to critically review the merits and drawbacks of the changes proposed in those documents. The analysis triangulated content analysis, focus group and online survey data. The focus group included ten seasoned Brazilian EIA specialists; the survey, based on Likert-scale and open-ended questions, resulted in 322 valid responses from EIA professionals. Results show that the proposals generally agree that the current EIA system, while playing a key role in mitigating impacts and enhancing project design, needs many changes. Nonetheless, the proposals neither offered solutions to overcome political, technical and budget barriers, nor established a sense of priority of the most urgent issues. Findings from the focus group and the survey signaled that a number of proposed actions might face public outcry, and that those changes that do not depend on legislative action are more likely to be implementable. Previous studies about EIA reform focused mostly on the context of developed countries after changes had taken place. This study, while addressing the perspective of a large developing country in a “before-reform” stage, shows that capacity-building is a key requirement in EIA reform. - Highlights: • Brazil's EIA system is under strong pressure for change. • Findings corroborate ineffectiveness in current system. • There are tensions as to the best approaches to overcome problems. • Exact effects of proposals are uncertain. • Low institutional capacity can

  4. Critical Review of Diagnostic Methods Used in Chronic Pancreatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan T Beck

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a balanced assessment of the various pancreatic function tests and imaging techniques used in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatic disease. Function tests that study the digestive capacity of the pancreas (fat absorption of dietary lipids, fluorescein- or radiolabelled fats, bentiromide test, etc have high specificity, but very low sensitivity. This is because 90% of pancreas has to be destroyed before steatorrhea or creatorrhea occurs. Tests that directly measure pancreatic bicarbonate and protein secretion (secretin test, etc are more accurate and may detect pancreatic dysfunction even before anatomical changes occur. Measurement of pancreatic enzymes in serum or urine, or the decreased decline of serum amino acids during their incorporation into pancreatic enzymes, are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to help diagnose pancreatic disease. Sensitive and specific tumour markers are not yet available. Thus screening tests are not cost-effective - if they are negative, they do not exclude pancreatic disease; and if positive, they have to be confirmed by more specific tests. Imaging techniques are the most commonly used methods of investigation. The usefulness of abdominal survey films, barium studies, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography is critically reviewed. Most of the radiological methods can be combined with cytology or biopsy. Histology demonstrating malignancy establishes this diagnosis, but negative biopsies do not exclude malignant tumours. Presently only ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound can diagnose cancers sufficiently early to allow for possible `curative' surgery, and only endoscopic ultrasound is capable to stage tumours for the assessment of resectability.

  5. Review Article: A Review Of Adult Orthodontics – Role Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adjunctive and comprehensive orthodontic treatments are the main types of orthodontic therapy recommended for adult malocclusion. The orthodontic therapy and refer to the specialist appropriately. KEY WORDS: Review, Adult Orthodontics, General Dental Practitioner. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice Vol.7(1) 2004: ...

  6. An Integrative Review of the Concealed Connection: Nurse Educators' Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B

    2017-11-01

    The role of nurse educators in the development of students' critical thinking has been overlooked despite the emphasized need for effective teaching methods. An integrative review was performed to examine both quantitative and qualitative research published from 2000 to 2015 related to nurse educators' critical thinking. Many barriers and facilitators existing on individual, interpersonal, and contextual levels affected nurse educators' critical thinking. Various tools have been used to measure nurse educators' critical thinking. This review also highlighted the continued lack of a consensus definition of critical thinking and the limited presence of conceptual models to guide the use of critical thinking in nursing education. Continued examination of nurse educators' critical thinking is needed, given the limited number of studies that have been completed. Much needs to be explored further, including conceptualizations of critical thinking and confirmation of emerging themes identified in this review. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(11):648-654.]. © 2017 Raymond, Profetto-McGrath, Myrick, et al.

  7. Epidemiology of constipation in children and adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugie, Suzanne M.; Benninga, Marc A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to review the published literature regarding the epidemiology of constipation in the general paediatric and adult population and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution, and associated factors. A search of the Medline database was performed. Study selection criteria included:

  8. The critical current of superconductors: an historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew-Hughes, D.

    2001-01-01

    The most important practical characteristic of a superconductor is its critical current density. This article traces the history, both of the experimental discoveries and of the development of the theoretical ideas that have lead to the understanding of those factors that control critical current densities. These include Silsbee's hypothesis, the Meissner effect, London, Ginsburg-Landau and Abrikosov theories, flux pinning and the critical state, and the control of texture in high temperature superconductors

  9. More than Meets the Eye: Adult Education for Critical Consciousness in Luis Camnitzer's Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Ana Carlina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between art and adult education for critical consciousness through the conceptual art of Luis Camnitzer. The theoretical framework grounding this research was critical public pedagogy, influenced by both critical theory and Stuart Hall's systems of representation (1997). This framework…

  10. Patient outcomes after critical illness: a systematic review of qualitative studies following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed D; Nallagangula, Aparna; Nalamalapu, Swaroopa; Nunna, Krishidhar; Nausran, Utkarsh; Robinson, Karen A; Dinglas, Victor D; Needham, Dale M; Eakin, Michelle N

    2016-10-26

    There is growing interest in patient outcomes following critical illness, with an increasing number and different types of studies conducted, and a need for synthesis of existing findings to help inform the field. For this purpose we conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies evaluating patient outcomes after hospital discharge for survivors of critical illness. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases from inception to June 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the study population was >50 % adults discharged from the ICU, with qualitative evaluation of patient outcomes. Studies were excluded if they focused on specific ICU patient populations or specialty ICUs. Citations were screened in duplicate, and two reviewers extracted data sequentially for each eligible article. Themes related to patient outcome domains were coded and categorized based on the main domains of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) framework. A total of 2735 citations were screened, and 22 full-text articles were eligible, with year of publication ranging from 1995 to 2015. All of the qualitative themes were extracted from eligible studies and then categorized using PROMIS descriptors: satisfaction with life (16 studies), including positive outlook, acceptance, gratitude, independence, boredom, loneliness, and wishing they had not lived; mental health (15 articles), including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and irritability/anger; physical health (14 articles), including mobility, activities of daily living, fatigue, appetite, sensory changes, muscle weakness, and sleep disturbances; social health (seven articles), including changes in friends/family relationships; and ability to participate in social roles and activities (six articles), including hobbies and disability. ICU survivors may experience positive emotions and life satisfaction; however, a wide range of mental

  11. Review of the CRAC and SILENE Criticality Accident Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, F.; Fouillaud, P.; Grivot, P.; Reverdy, L.

    2009-01-01

    In 1967, the Commissariat et l'Energie Atomique (French Atomic Energy Agency) performed its first research on criticality accidents for the purpose of limiting their impact on people, the environment, and nuclear facilities themselves. A criticality accident is accompanied by intense neutron and gamma emissions and release of radioactive fission products-gases and aerosols-gene rating risk of irradiation and contamination. This work has supplemented earlier work in criticality safety, which concentrated on critical mass measurements and computations. Understanding of the consequences of criticality accidents was limited. Emergency planning was hampered by lack of data. Information became available from pulsed reactor experiments, but the experiments were restricted to the established reactor configurations. The objectives of research performed at the Valduc criticality laboratory, mainly on aqueous fissile media, using the CRAC and SILENE facilities, by multidisciplinary teams of physicists, dosimetry specialists, and radio-biologists, were to model criticality accident physics, estimate irradiation risks and radioactive releases, detect excursions, and organize emergency response. The results of the Valduc experiments have contributed toward improved understanding of criticality accident phenomenology and better evaluation of the risks associated with such accidents. (authors)

  12. Review of the CRAC and SILENE Criticality Accident Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbry, F.; Fouillaud, P.; Grivot, P.; Reverdy, L. [CEA Valduc, Serv Rech Neutron and Critcite, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-02-15

    In 1967, the Commissariat et l'Energie Atomique (French Atomic Energy Agency) performed its first research on criticality accidents for the purpose of limiting their impact on people, the environment, and nuclear facilities themselves. A criticality accident is accompanied by intense neutron and gamma emissions and release of radioactive fission products-gases and aerosols-gene rating risk of irradiation and contamination. This work has supplemented earlier work in criticality safety, which concentrated on critical mass measurements and computations. Understanding of the consequences of criticality accidents was limited. Emergency planning was hampered by lack of data. Information became available from pulsed reactor experiments, but the experiments were restricted to the established reactor configurations. The objectives of research performed at the Valduc criticality laboratory, mainly on aqueous fissile media, using the CRAC and SILENE facilities, by multidisciplinary teams of physicists, dosimetry specialists, and radio-biologists, were to model criticality accident physics, estimate irradiation risks and radioactive releases, detect excursions, and organize emergency response. The results of the Valduc experiments have contributed toward improved understanding of criticality accident phenomenology and better evaluation of the risks associated with such accidents. (authors)

  13. Risk Factors Associated with Falls in Older Adults with Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Eresha; Fraser, Michelle; Hendriksen, Jane; Kim, Corey H; Muir-Hunter, Susan W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: People with dementia fall more often than cognitively healthy older adults, but their risk factors are not well understood. A review is needed to determine a fall risk profile for this population. The objective was to critically evaluate the literature and identify the factors associated with fall risk in older adults with dementia. Methods: Articles published between January 1988 and October 2014 in EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched. Inclusion criteria were participants aged 55 years or older with dementia or cognitive impairment, prospective cohort design, detailed fall definition, falls as the primary outcome, and multi-variable regression analysis. Two authors independently reviewed and extracted data on study characteristics, quality assessment, and outcomes. Adjusted risk estimates were extracted from the articles. Results: A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors were categorized into demographic, balance, gait, vision, functional status, medications, psychosocial, severity of dementia, and other. Risk factors varied with living setting and were not consistent across all studies within a setting. Conclusion: Falls in older adults with dementia are associated with multiple intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, some shared with older adults in general and others unique to the disease. Risk factors vary between community- and institution-dwelling samples of adults with dementia or cognitive impairment.

  14. The scholarship of critical review: improving quality and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Dana; Ebrall, Phillip

    2008-12-01

    To describe the process of scientific peer review as it is used in the manuscript submission process, assess threats and challenges to the peer review process, and to offer suggestions for enhancing its effectiveness. Peer review is often seen as one of the hallmarks of scientific publication. The primary goal of peer review is to improve the science within papers that are ultimately published, by helping an editor better understand the strengths and weaknesses of a given paper. This process, while fairly well studied within the medical field, has received almost no attention at all within chiropractic. This paper provides guidance to reviewers and potential reviewers which can help them to understand both the scientific and the human aspects of peer review. This is designed to elevate this function to one trusted by the profession rather than seen as simply another hurdle to overcome. Several future directions are offered, including unblinding the review process for transparency, conducting rigorous studies looking at peer review, and developing formal training programs for potential reviewers. Peer review is likely to remain in force as a means to provide guidance to authors and editors about the rigor of submitted papers. However, the nature of peer review may be changing and editors and authors need to stay aware of the implications of these changes. Recommendations to open the process, study it and develop training programs are designed to ensure that the process remains as impartial as possible.

  15. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  16. [Mixed depression and DSM-5: A critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, S; Bertschy, G

    2016-02-01

    Mixed depression is a depressive syndrome characterized by the presence, along with the typical depressive symptoms of depression, of those of over activation and excitation. If sometimes this activation is expressed by classical hypomanic symptoms, it is often observed by means of more subtle expression: inner tension, crowded thoughts, dramatic expression suffering, and unproductive agitation. It is important to identify mixed depression because such patients are particularly at risk of suicidal behaviors, substance abuse and therapeutic resistance. Even if therapeutic strategies continue to be discussed, treatments should rely on mood stabilizers and antipsychotics instead of antidepressants as in pure depression. Even though the concept of mixed depression has been described for more than twenty years, first by Koukopoulos and then by other authors, it had been little studied, especially because it did not appear in international psychiatric classifications. The DSM-IV supported a very narrow conception of the mixed states because the criteria required simultaneous full manic and full depressive syndromes, corresponding only to some dysphoric manias. The recently published DSM-5 proposes modifications in mood and bipolar disorder classifications, and especially introduces the possibility to specify depressive and manic episodes with "mixed features". To diagnose depression with mixed features, a full depressive syndrome has to be present together most of time with three hypomanic symptoms, except symptoms that are considered as overlapping (that can be observed either in mania or in depression), i.e. agitation, irritability and distractibility. Critical analysis of DSM criteria and review of literature. We first analyzed the clinical relevance of the definition of depression with mixed features which could correspond to mixed depression. The problem is that the hypomanic symptoms allowed by the manual lead to symptom associations that are rather illogical (as

  17. Gold nanoparticles delivery in mammalian live cells: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Lévy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional nanomaterials have recently attracted strong interest from the biology community, not only as potential drug delivery vehicles or diagnostic tools, but also as optical nanomaterials. This is illustrated by the explosion of publications in the field with more than 2,000 publications in the last 2 years (4,000 papers since 2000; from ISI Web of Knowledge, ‘nanoparticle and cell’ hit. Such a publication boom in this novel interdisciplinary field has resulted in papers of unequal standard, partly because it is challenging to assemble the required expertise in chemistry, physics, and biology in a single team. As an extreme example, several papers published in physical chemistry journals claim intracellular delivery of nanoparticles, but show pictures of cells that are, to the expert biologist, evidently dead (and therefore permeable. To attain proper cellular applications using nanomaterials, it is critical not only to achieve efficient delivery in healthy cells, but also to control the intracellular availability and the fate of the nanomaterial. This is still an open challenge that will only be met by innovative delivery methods combined with rigorous and quantitative characterization of the uptake and the fate of the nanoparticles. This review mainly focuses on gold nanoparticles and discusses the various approaches to nanoparticle delivery, including surface chemical modifications and several methods used to facilitate cellular uptake and endosomal escape. We will also review the main detection methods and how their optimum use can inform about intracellular localization, efficiency of delivery, and integrity of the surface capping. Raphaël Lévy is a BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool. He graduated in Physics at the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg (France. In 2002, after a Master in Soft Condensed Matter Physics, he obtained a PhD in Physics at the University Louis Pasteur. He then moved to

  18. Is the "Health and Physical Education" Curriculum in South Australia Enough? A Critical Review of the SACSA Framework and the New SACE Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases as well as the major hepatides, hepatitis A, B and C are on the rise in South Australia, specifically among the adolescents and young adults' age group. Adolescents rely much on school programs for their health-related information. Accordingly, the present review provides critical insights into the existing…

  19. PENERAPAN CRITICAL REVIEW ARTIKEL PEMBELAJARAN IPA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN MAHASISWA DALAM MENYUSUN PROPOSAL SKRIPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    p parmin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to improve students’ ability in develop- ing a proposal thesis by applying critical review of scientific articles come from journals. The research is designed by class action research. The results showed 63% of students thesis proposals on Research Methodology course scored above 80. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the application has been critical review or critical study of scientific articles can enhance students’ ability in preparing research proposals.

  20. What is really causing the obesity epidemic? A review of reviews in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharon E; Flynn, Jennifer I; Pate, Russell R

    2016-01-01

    Obesity prevention is a public health priority and intervention strategies have focused primarily on healthy eating and physical activity in children and adults. To date, no review has systematically compiled and synthesised the scientific evidence from published review articles to determine whether there is clear consensus on the causes of obesity. A systematic review of the literature was conducted searching PubMed/Medline for narrative and systematic review articles published between January 1990 and October 2014 that examined the causes of obesity. In total, 12 of 65 articles met the inclusion criteria; 7 reviews focused on adults (1 systematic, 6 narrative) and 5 reviews on children (2 systematic, 3 narrative). The most popular cause of obesity identified in reviews of adult studies was "combined physical activity and diet" (3 of 7 studies), whereas the most popular cause specified in reviews of child studies was deemed "inconclusive" (2 of 5 studies). While a number of reviews have examined the causes of obesity, the methodology and conclusions varied widely, and few were conducted systematically. Currently, no consensus exists across published literature reviews regarding the primary cause of the obesity epidemic, and more research, particularly prospective studies using state-of-the-art measures, is warranted.

  1. Ethical Considerations Regarding the Use of Smart Home Technologies for Older Adults: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2016-01-01

    With the wide adoption and use of smart home applications, there is a need for examining ethical issues regarding smart home use at the intersection of aging, technology, and home environment. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of ethical considerations and the evidence on these ethical issues based on an integrative literature review with regard to the utilization of smart home technologies by older adults and their family members. REVIEW DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an integrative literature review of the scientific literature from indexed databases (e. g., MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO). The framework guiding this review is derived from previous work on ethical considerations related to telehealth use for older adults and smart homes for palliative care. Key ethical issues of the framework include privacy, informed consent, autonomy, obtrusiveness, equal access, reduction in human touch, and usability. Six hundred and thirty-five candidate articles were identified between the years 1990 and 2014. Sixteen articles were included in the review. Privacy and obtrusiveness issues appear to be the most important factors that can affect smart home technology adoption. In addition, this article recommends that stigmatization and reliability and maintenance of the system are additional factors to consider. When smart home technology is used appropriately, it has the potential to improve quality of life and maintain safety among older adults, ultimately supporting the desire of older adults for aging in place. The ability to respond to potential ethical concerns will be critical to the future development and application of smart home technologies that aim to enhance safety and independence.

  2. Adult Craniopharyngioma: Case Series, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandurand, Charlotte; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Asadi Lari, Mohammad Hossein; Akagami, Ryojo; Gooderham, Peter

    2017-12-18

    The optimal therapeutic approach for adult craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Some advocate for gross total resection (GTR), while others advocate for subtotal resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (STR + XRT). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the rate of recurrence in the follow-up of 3 yr in adult craniopharyngioma stratified by extent of resection and presence of adjuvant radiotherapy. MEDLINE (1946-July 1, 2016) and EMBASE (1980-June 30, 2016) were systematically reviewed. From1975 to 2013, 33 patients were treated with initial surgical resection for adult onset craniopharyngioma at our center and were reviewed for inclusion in this study. Data from 22 patients were available for inclusion as a case series in the systematic review. Eligible studies (n = 21) were identified from the literature in addition to a case series of our institutional experience. Three groups were available for analysis: GTR, STR + XRT, and STR. The rates of recurrence were 17%, 27%, and 45%, respectively. The risk of developing recurrence was significant for GTR vs STR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.38) and STR + XRT vs STR (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41). Risk of recurrence after GTR vs STR + XRT did not reach significance (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-1.24, P = .18). This is the first and largest systematic review focusing on the rate of recurrence in adult craniopharyngioma. Although the rates of recurrence are favoring GTR, difference in risk of recurrence did not reach significance. This study provides guidance to clinicians and directions for future research with the need to stratify outcomes per treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  3. Accuracy of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring in critically ill adults: improved sensor performance with enhanced calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; English, Shane W; Thabit, Hood; Caldwell, Karen; Allen, Janet M; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Nodale, Marianna; Haidar, Ahmad; Evans, Mark L; Burnstein, Rowan; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-02-01

    Accurate real-time continuous glucose measurements may improve glucose control in the critical care unit. We evaluated the accuracy of the FreeStyle(®) Navigator(®) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device in critically ill adults using two methods of calibration. In a randomized trial, paired CGM and reference glucose (hourly arterial blood glucose [ABG]) were collected over a 48-h period from 24 adults with critical illness (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; mean±SD body mass index, 29.6±9.3 kg/m(2); mean±SD Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, 12±4 [range, 6-19]) and hyperglycemia. In 12 subjects, the CGM device was calibrated at variable intervals of 1-6 h using ABG. In the other 12 subjects, the sensor was calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions (1, 2, 10, and 24 h) using arterial blood and the built-in point-of-care glucometer. In total, 1,060 CGM-ABG pairs were analyzed over the glucose range from 4.3 to 18.8 mmol/L. Using enhanced calibration median (interquartile range) every 169 (122-213) min, the absolute relative deviation was lower (7.0% [3.5, 13.0] vs. 12.8% [6.3, 21.8], P<0.001), and the percentage of points in the Clarke error grid Zone A was higher (87.8% vs. 70.2%). Accuracy of the Navigator CGM device during critical illness was comparable to that observed in non-critical care settings. Further significant improvements in accuracy may be obtained by frequent calibrations with ABG measurements.

  4. A missing ethical competency? A review of critical reflection in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretheway, Rebecca; Taylor, Jane; O'Hara, Lily; Percival, Nikki

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing emphasis in the health promotion literature on the ethical imperative for the profession to move towards critical practice. A key challenge for health promotion is that critical practice appears both under-developed and under-practiced. This is evident in the omission of critical reflection from Australian and international competencies for health promotion practitioners. A narrative literature review was undertaken to explore the current use of critical reflection in health promotion. Critical reflection models relevant to health promotion were identified and critiqued. There was a dearth of literature on critical reflection within health promotion, despite recognition of its potential to support critical practice. The discipline of critical social work provided literature on the use, effect and outcome of critical reflection in practice. The interdisciplinary critical reflection model was identified as the model most applicable to health promotion. Underpinned by critical theory, this model emphasises both critical and ethical practice. Critical reflection is a core competency for health promotion practitioners to address the ethical imperative to move towards critical practice. There is a need to explore the application of a critical reflection model in health promotion to determine how it may support critical and ethical practice. So what? If health promotion is to meet its ethical responsibilities, then critical reflection needs to be articulated as a core health promotion competency and a model for its application in health promotion developed.

  5. Young adult cancer survivors and work: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Dawn S; Ganz, Patricia A; Pavlish, Carol; Robbins, Wendie A

    2017-12-01

    Sixty-three percent of cancer survivors continue to work, or return to work after treatment. Among this population, work ability and challenges encountered in the workplace by young adult cancer survivors have not been well established. The purposes of the study are to describe what is currently known about work-related issues for young adult cancer survivors diagnosed between ages 15 and 39, to identify gaps in the research literature, and to suggest interventions or improvements in work processes and occupational settings. A narrative review of articles using PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo was conducted without date limitations. Search phrases included young adult cancer survivors, long-term cancer survivors, young adults affected by cancer, further combined with key terms employment, work, and occupationally active. Inclusion criteria for publications were young adult cancer survivors initially diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39, data about work or employment was presented, and articles written in English. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. Work-related issues included the potential for reduced work productivity from cancer-changed physical and cognitive functional ability that affected income, and resulted in distress. Coping style, support systems, and changing perspectives about work and life in general were also influential on career decisions among young adult cancer survivors. More research is needed to study interventions to better manage health changes in young adult cancer survivors within the context of the workplace. Since financial hardship has been shown to be especially high among young cancer survivors, employment is essential to ensure payment of cancer-associated costs and continued medical care. While young adult cancer survivors may initially grapple with cancer-related physical and psychosocial changes that impact work productivity or influence choice of occupation, employment appears to enhance overall quality of life.

  6. Not the Sum of Its Parts: A Critical Review of the MacDonald Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Charlotte Hannah; Alleyne, Emma

    2018-01-01

    The MacDonald triad posits that animal cruelty, fire setting, and bed wetting in childhood is indicative of later aggressive and violent behavior in adults. Researchers refer to this phenomenon as a precursor to later antisocial behaviors including serial and sexual murder; while practitioners cite the triad in clinical formulations and risk assessments. However, there is yet to be a critical review and consolidation of the literature that establishes whether there is empirical support. This article explores the validity of the triad. We conducted a narrative review of the relevant studies examining the MacDonald triad and its individual constituents. There is evidence that any one of the triad behaviors could predict future violent offending, but it is very rare to find all three behaviors together as predictors. Thus, the empirical research on the MacDonald triad does not fully substantiate its premise. Rather, it would appear that the triad, or its individual constituents, is better used as an indicator of dysfunctional home environments, or poor coping skills in children. Future research is needed with robust and rigorous methodologies (e.g., adequate control groups, longitudinal designs) to fully establish the MacDonald triad's validity. Finally, further consideration is needed as to whether the triad behaviors are more indicative of other problematic outcomes (e.g., maladaptive coping to life stressors).

  7. Contraceptive Health Programs for Adolescents: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Hayes, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews some contraceptive education programs designed for adolescents that differ in educational process based on delivery setting. Reviews school-based, community-based, and college/university-based programs and discusses them in terms of their effectiveness, potential, and limitations. Notes that educational accountability in each setting…

  8. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  9. A Review on the Linear and Nonlinear Critical Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several authors have proposed 'easier numerical methods' to find multiple attractors and the critical speed in railway dynamical problems. Actually, the methods do function in some cases, but they are not safe in the sense that you will calculate the relevant critical parameter...... values with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases the 'easier numerical methods' are really just a gamble. In this presentation the methods will be discussed. For this purpose linearisations of the nonlinear dynamical problem are made. A linearisation of the nonlinear dynamical problem simplifies...... the calculations and may give relevant answers to important questions such as the possibility of resonance phenomena in the designs, but a linearisation is not always allowed, and it does not help to find the critical speed of a railway vehicle. We shall also address the curious fact that the hunting motion...

  10. Social media use of older adults: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Anja K

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining social relationships has been defined as a core element of aging well. With a considerable amount of older adults living alone, social media provides the possibility to engage in meaningful social contact, e.g. by joining online social networks and online discussion forums. The review encompasses current knowledge of prerequisites in social media use of older adults such as functional capacity, information and communications technology-related knowledge, and favorable attitudes towards social media. Then, the potential of social media use for clinical practice and possible negative consequences are outlined. Literature on social media use from a gerontological perspective was reviewed in July and August 2012. Online communities are suitable for providing and receiving social support when confronted with a difficult life situation, regardless of geographical location or time. From a practitioner's perspective, social media can be used to advance health-related knowledge such as information on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of specific conditions and disorders. Further positive consequences have been shown to be overcoming loneliness, relieving stress, and raising feelings of control and self-efficacy. Possible negative consequences could be misuse of personal data as well as the distribution and uncritical adoption of potentially harmful information via online communities. The potential of social media in clinical practice is reflected in a wide range of intervention possibilities for older adults. However, with the rise of social media, new threats emerge for older adults as well. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the...

  12. PENERAPAN CRITICAL REVIEW ARTIKEL PEMBELAJARAN IPA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN MAHASISWA DALAM MENYUSUN PROPOSAL SKRIPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmin -

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam menyusun proposal skripsi melalui penerapan critical review artikel ilmiah bersumber dari jurnal. Penelitian dirancang dengan metode penelitian tindakan kelas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 63% proposal skripsi mahasiswa pada mata kuliah Metodologi Penelitian mendapatkan nilai diatas 80. Berdasarkan hasil yang telah diperoleh dapat disimpulkan penerapan critical review atau kajian kritis terhadap artikel ilmiah dapat meningkatkan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam menyusun proposal penelitian.   The aims of this research is to improve students' ability in developing a proposal thesis by applying critical review of scientific articles come from journals. The research is designed by class action research. The results showed 63% of students thesis proposals on Research Methodology course scored above 80. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the application has been critical review or critical study of scientific articles can enhance students' ability in preparing research proposals.

  13. Adult-Perpetrated Animal Abuse: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Parfitt, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Adults perpetrate the majority of animal abuse incidents yet clinicians are left with very little evidence base to advance/enhance their practice. The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize and evaluate the current literature on adult-perpetrated animal abuse and to identify the etiological factors related to this type of offending. Twenty-three studies met the specific inclusion criteria but most importantly, they examined the characteristics of adult perpetrators of animal abuse. The findings from this review were demarcated by sample type: (1) Participants were the perpetrators of the animal abuse or held offense-supportive attitudes and (2) participants were victims of intimate partner violence reporting incidents of animal abuse perpetrated by their partner. From the perpetrator perspective, there were key developmental (i.e., maladaptive parenting strategies), behavioral (such as varied offending behaviors), and psychological (e.g., callousness, empathy deficits) factors highlighted in the literature. Finally, in the context of intimate partner violence, findings indicated that perpetrators abuse animals to control, coerce, intimidate, and/or manipulate their victims (this effect is moderated by the victims' emotional attachment to their pet). This review inherently underlines treatment targets that could achieve greater clinical gains, but we also conclude that more empirical and theoretical work is needed in order to set an agenda that prioritizes future research and effective practice.

  14. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  15. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885

  16. Critical Factors in Mobile Learning: A Quasi-Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sergio Assis; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pereira; Arnaud, Lucas; de Souza, Jano Moreira

    2013-01-01

    The advance of mobile industry and research has expanded e-learning in order to support an efficient and effective educational process. However, the promised benefits are as much attractive as the existing difficulties and barriers. In this paper, we intend to identify and summarize the critical factors in mobile learning through a…

  17. A Review on Developing Critical Thinking Skills through Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraini Ahmad Shukri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010. As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the arguments of others and of their own, coming to well-reasoned resolutions to any complex problems and to be able to resolve conflicts encountered in their daily lives. Critical thinking requires them to be actively involved in their own learning process as they attempt to individually understand and apply the information they are exposed to during the classroom interaction (Landsberger, 1999; Tung & Chang, 2009. The many advantageous and feasibility of teaching instruction that incorporates the study of literature in the ESL classroom which suggests that literature texts, if correctly chosen and instructed, can prove to be beneficial to ESL students’ overall level of literacy and critical thinking skills. Numerous empirical researches also asserted that literary texts that are authentic, enjoyable, and motivating would naturally increase both their knowledge of the target language patterns and cultural awareness. Keywords: Critical thinking, ESL classroom, literature, literary text

  18. Theoretical approaches to social innovation – A critical literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzin, A.; Davis, A.; Domanski, D.; Dhondt, S.; Howaldt, J.; Kaletka, C.; Kesselring, A.; Kopp, R.; Millard, J.; Oeij, P.; Rehfeld, D.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Schwartz, M.; Scoppetta, A.; Wagner-Luptacik, P.; Weber, M.

    2014-01-01

    The SI-DRIVE report “Theoretical approaches to Social Innovation – A Critical Literature Review” delivers a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of theoretically relevant building blocks for advancing a theoretical understanding of social innovation. It collects different theoretical

  19. "The Bell Curve" and Its Critical Progeny: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses R. Herrnstein's and C. Murray's attempt to persuade an educated white readership that they, the readers, are genetically, socially, and intellectually superior. The most effective criticisms are those that rely on scientific evidence about the manipulation of data and flawed analyses rather than the display of moral outrage. (SLD)

  20. A Critical Review of the IELTS Writing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Hacer Hande

    2010-01-01

    Administered at local centres in 120 countries throughout the world, IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is one of the most widely used large-scale ESL tests that also offers a direct writing test component. Because of its popularity and its use for making critical decisions about test takers, it is crucial to draw attention to…

  1. Kinetic aspects of the Maillard reaction: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The literature concerning the kinetics of the Maillard reaction was critically discussed according to the initial, intermediate and advanced stages, as this is the way the Maillard reaction is traditionally analysed. For each stage, a division is made between simple kinetics and complex kinetics.

  2. A Critical Review of Qualitative Interviews in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article asks what applied linguistics can learn from related disciplines with regard to the collection, analysis and representation of qualitative interviews. It assesses the contributions of qualitative sociology, anthropology, discursive psychology and outlines four "discourse dilemmas" which might provide the basis for a more critical and…

  3. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, A.; Hoek, W.Z.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that multiple extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts resulted in the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive wildfires, megafaunal extinctions and changes in human population. After the hypothesis was first published in 2007, it gained much criticism, as the

  4. Learning styles and critical thinking relationship in baccalaureate nursing education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios

    2014-03-01

    Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. Systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies

  5. Increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review Health Maintenance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschwitz, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Health Maintenance System. It includes information on the carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture removal system (CMRS), the variable oxygen system,rendevous station panels, and the crew contamination protection kit (CCPK).

  6. Nanofluidic technology for biomolecule applications: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napoli, M.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Pennathur, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we present nanofluidic phenomena, particularly as they relate to applications involving analysis of biomolecules within nanofabricated devices. The relevant length scales and physical phenomena that govern biomolecule transport and manipulation within nanofabricated nanofluidic

  7. Comprehension of Critical News Items as Expressed by College Students and Adults in Business, Industry, and Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Effie Kaye; Scott, Elois M.

    College students were compared to adults for their reading comprehension of news items on two critical issues of national concern. The subjects were 109 adults and 97 college students who read ten short magazine articles on the Iran-United States hostage crisis and the U.S. energy problem. After reading the articles, the subjects' comprehension…

  8. Critical success factors for competitiveness of construction companies: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Abdul Ghafur; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Making progress basically, a fundamental issue for the construction companies to get by in a highly competitive industry. From time to time, industry players are facing stiff and tough competition due to large number of players, whether existing or new players involved from various background and track record. Furthermore, the large numbers of component deciding the competitiveness of contractors, whose organization structures and governance have turned out to be more muddled. Different construction companies have their own unique criteria which may differ from one to another. The enormous amount of issues needs to bring down to manageable numbers so that measures can be identified and scrutinized to enhance competitiveness. This paper discusses the result from the critical investigation from past studies in the Asian countries, namely China, India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Several fundamental factors have been identified as CSFs in construction companies in respective country. Also highlighted a critical survey based upon various literatures written on this subject where critical success factors (CSFs) as a yardstick to gauge the relationship among CSFs in various construction companies in the Asian region. Far reaching estimation of an organization's performance and resulting input to its supervision is crucial for business change. Estimation additionally empowers organizations to be contrasted from one another on the premise of institutionalized data, permitting best practices to be distinguished and connected more widely. Different countries have their own set of critical success factors (CSFs) which may differ in term of priority and at the same time share common elements of success factor in accomplishment as a construction companies. The study, which is exploratory in nature, embraced the content investigation and inductive technique to accomplish its objectives.

  9. A review of critical in-flight events research methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.; Smith, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Pilot's cognitive responses to critical in-flight events (CIFE's) were investigated, using pilots, who had on the average about 2540 flight hours each, in four experiments: (1) full-mission simulation in a general aviation trainer, (2) paper and pencil CIFE tests, (3) interactive computer-aided scenario testing, and (4) verbal protocols in fault diagnosis tasks. The results of both computer and paper and pencil tests showed only 50 percent efficiency in correct diagnosis of critical events. The efficiency in arriving at a diagnosis was also low: over 20 inquiries were made for 21 percent of the scenarios diagnosed. The information-seeking pattern was random, with frequent retracing over old inquiries. The measures for developing improved cognitive skills for CIFE's are discussed.

  10. Von Glaserfeld`s Radical Constructivism: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Michael D.

    We explore Ernst von Glaserfelds radical constructivism, its criticisms, and our own thoughts on what it promises for the reform of science and mathematics teaching. Our investigation reveals that many criticisms of radical constructivism are unwarranted; nevertheless, in its current cognitivist form radical constructivism may be insufficient to empower teachers to overcome objectivist cultural traditions. Teachers need to be empowered with rich understandings of philosophies of science and mathematics that endorse relativist epistemologies; for without such they are unlikely to be prepared to reconstruct their pedagogical practices. More importantly, however, is a need for a powerful social epistemology to serve as a referent for regenerating the culture of science education. We recommend blending radical constructivism with Habermas theory of communicative action to provide science teachers with a moral imperative for adopting a constructivist epistemology.

  11. Clinical review: International comparisons in critical care - lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Srinivas; Wunsch, Hannah

    2012-12-12

    Critical care medicine is a global specialty and epidemiologic research among countries provides important data on availability of critical care resources, best practices, and alternative options for delivery of care. Understanding the diversity across healthcare systems allows us to explore that rich variability and understand better the nature of delivery systems and their impact on outcomes. However, because the delivery of ICU services is complex (for example, interplay of bed availability, cultural norms and population case-mix), the diversity among countries also creates challenges when interpreting and applying data. This complexity has profound influences on reported outcomes, often obscuring true differences. Future research should emphasize determination of resource data worldwide in order to understand current practices in different countries; this will permit rational pandemic and disaster planning, allow comparisons of in-ICU processes of care, and facilitate addition of pre- and post-ICU patient data to better interpret outcomes.

  12. A critical review of qualitative interviews in applied linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Steve J.

    2011-01-01

    This article asks what applied linguistics can learn from related disciplines with regard to the collection, analysis and representation of qualitative interviews. It assesses the contributions of qualitative sociology, anthropology, discursive psychology and outlines four ‘discourse dilemmas’ which might provide the basis for a more critical and reflective dimension to the use of qualitative interviews in applied linguistics. Summarizing important contributions that have already been made in...

  13. Structural empowerment and patient safety culture among registered nurses working in adult critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellino, Donna; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between structural empowerment and patient safety culture among staff level Registered Nurses (RNs) within adult critical care units (ACCU). There is literature to support the value of RNs' structurally empowered work environments and emerging literature towards patient safety culture; the link between empowerment and patient safety culture is being discovered. A sample of 257 RNs, working within adult critical care of a tertiary hospital in the United States, was surveyed. Instruments included a background data sheet, the Conditions of Workplace Effectiveness and the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Structural empowerment and patient safety culture were significantly correlated. As structural empowerment increased so did the RNs' perception of patient safety culture. To foster patient safety culture, nurse leaders should consider providing structurally empowering work environments for RNs. This study contributes to the body of knowledge linking structural empowerment and patient safety culture. Results link structurally empowered RNs and increased patient safety culture, essential elements in delivering efficient, competent, quality care. They inform nursing management of key factors in the nurses' environment that promote safe patient care environments. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A critical review of treatment approaches for gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C

    2011-06-01

    This review presents the theoretical model, evidence base, and theoretical and methodological issues for seven treatment approaches to gambling disorders: 1) psychoanalytic and psychodynamic treatments, 2) Gamblers Anonymous, 3) behavioural treatments, 4) cognitive and cognitive-behavioural therapies, 5) brief, motivational, and self-directed interventions, 6) pharmacotherapies, and 7) family therapy approaches. Throughout the review, broader clinical and research issues are also discussed, including barriers to treatment-seeking, controlled gambling versus abstinence as a treatment goal, comorbidity, and the evaluation of treatment efficacy and effectiveness.

  15. Understanding Monitoring Technologies for Adults With Pain: Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Iyubanit; Herskovic, Valeria; Gerea, Carmen; Fuentes, Carolina; Rossel, Pedro O; Marques, Maíra; Campos, Mauricio

    2017-10-27

    Monitoring of patients may decrease treatment costs and improve quality of care. Pain is the most common health problem that people seek help for in hospitals. Therefore, monitoring patients with pain may have significant impact in improving treatment. Several studies have studied factors affecting pain; however, no previous study has reviewed the contextual information that a monitoring system may capture to characterize a patient's situation. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to (1) determine what types of technologies have been used to monitor adults with pain, and (2) construct a model of the context information that may be used to implement apps and devices aimed at monitoring adults with pain. A literature search (2005-2015) was conducted in electronic databases pertaining to medical and computer science literature (PubMed, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) using a defined search string. Article selection was done through a process of removing duplicates, analyzing title and abstract, and then reviewing the full text of the article. In the final analysis, 87 articles were included and 53 of them (61%) used technologies to collect contextual information. A total of 49 types of context information were found and a five-dimension (activity, identity, wellness, environment, physiological) model of context information to monitor adults with pain was proposed, expanding on a previous model. Most technological interfaces for pain monitoring were wearable, possibly because they can be used in more realistic contexts. Few studies focused on older adults, creating a relevant avenue of research on how to create devices for users that may have impaired cognitive skills or low digital literacy. The design of monitoring devices and interfaces for adults with pain must deal with the challenge of selecting relevant contextual information to understand the user's situation, and not overburdening or inconveniencing users with

  16. How to measure comorbidity. a critical review of available methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, V.; Beckerman, H.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bouter, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The object of this article was to systematically review available methods to measure comorbidity and to assess their validity and reliability. A search was made in Medline and Embase, with the keywords comorbidity and multi-morbidity, to identify articles in which a method to measure comorbidity was

  17. How to measure comorbidity. A critical review of available methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, V; Beckerman, H; Lankhorst, G J; Bouter, L M

    2003-01-01

    The object of this article was to systematically review available methods to measure comorbidity and to assess their validity and reliability. A search was made in Medline and Embase, with the keywords comorbidity and multi-morbidity, to identify articles in which a method to measure comorbidity was

  18. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  19. Analytical approaches for arsenic determination in air: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel, E-mail: rodas@uhu.es [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M. [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Mining, Mechanic and Energetic Engineering, ETSI, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Alsioufi, Louay [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2015-10-22

    This review describes the different steps involved in the determination of arsenic in air, considering the particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous phase. The review focuses on sampling, sample preparation and instrumental analytical techniques for both total arsenic determination and speciation analysis. The origin, concentration and legislation concerning arsenic in ambient air are also considered. The review intends to describe the procedures for sample collection of total suspended particles (TSP) or particles with a certain diameter expressed in microns (e.g. PM10 and PM2.5), or the collection of the gaseous phase containing gaseous arsenic species. Sample digestion of the collecting media for PM is described, indicating proposed and established procedures that use acids or mixtures of acids aided with different heating procedures. The detection techniques are summarized and compared (ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ET-AAS), as well those techniques capable of direct analysis of the solid sample (PIXE, INAA and XRF). The studies about speciation in PM are also discussed, considering the initial works that employed a cold trap in combination with atomic spectroscopy detectors, or the more recent studies based on chromatography (GC or HPLC) combined with atomic or mass detectors (AFS, ICP-MS and MS). Further trends and challenges about determination of As in air are also addressed. - Highlights: • Review about arsenic in the air. • Sampling, sample treatment and analysis of arsenic in particulate matter and gaseous phase. • Total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation analysis.

  20. Progress in electrical energy storage system:A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Chen; Thang Ngoc Cong; Wei Yang; Chunqing Tan; Yongliang Li; Yulong Ding

    2009-01-01

    Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed.Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage,compressed air energy storage,battery,flow battery,fuel cell,solar fuel,superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor,and thermal energy torage.Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteris-tics,applications and deployment status.

  1. Guardianship for crime prevention: A critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollis-Peel, M.; Reynald, D.M.; van Bavel, M.L.; Elffers, H.; Welsh, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Cohen and Felson's (Cohen and Felson American Sociological Review 44(4):588-608, 1979) routine activity theory posits that for a crime to occur three necessary elements must converge in time and space: motivated offenders, suitable targets, and the absence of capable guardianship. Capable guardians

  2. Critical Readiness Review EHS Water Quality and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Presentation reviews the status in reference to the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) of the water quality and microbiology for the International Space Station. It includes information about crew training, hardware delivery, and those items that will be returned for study.

  3. A Critical Review of Digital Storyline-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Storyline is one of the major motivators that lead people to play video games. However, little empirical evidence exists on the instructional effectiveness of integrating a storyline into digital learning materials. This systematic literature review presents current empirical findings on the effects of a storyline game design element for human…

  4. Are Effective Counselors Made or Born? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCsipkes, Robert A.; And Others

    The purpose of this review was to investigate the relationship between counselor characteristics and reports of effectiveness. The theoretical position appears to focus on two opposing views. The humanists emphasize the influence of intuition, genuineness, and spontaneity, while the behaviorists place importance on technique, analysis of…

  5. Abortion Care in Ghana: A Critical Review of the Literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research.

  6. A critical review of the literature on school dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Cabus, S.; Thyssen, G.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing literature on early school leaving. We clarify what is at stake with early school leaving, and touch upon underlying problems and methodological issues raised in the literature. The paper investigates the levels, the methods and models with which the topic has been

  7. Problems with quantizing the Skyrmion: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    We review the motivation and construction of the chiral soliton picture of baryons. We discuss the semi-classical quantization procedure of Adkins, Nappi and Witten and the stability of the semi-classical solution under the collective coordinate quantization. By studying the behavior in the chiral limit and specific numerical predictions, we conclude that the collective coordinate procedure is inadequate

  8. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Chemistry Program: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry has reviewed OHER's Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). This report contains the committee's evaluation and critique arising from that review. The review process included a two-day symposium held at the National Academy of Sciences on September 25 and 26, 1990, that focused on presenting the ACP's current components, recent scientific accomplishments, and scientific plans. Following the symposium, committee members met in a one-day executive session to formulate and outline this report. In undertaking this review, OHER and ACP management requested that the committee attempt to answer several specific questions involving the program's technical capability and productivity, its leadership and organization, and its future direction. These questions are given in the Appendix. This report represents the committee's response to the questions posed in the Appendix. Chapter I explores the committee's view of the role that atmospheric chemistry could and should assume within the DOE and its prospective National Energy Strategy. Chapter 2 assesses the current ACP, Chapter 3 presents recommendations for revising and strengthening it, and Chapter 4 restates the committee's conclusions and recommendations

  9. Assistive technology for communication of older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrozo Campos Antunes, Thaiany; Souza Bulle de Oliveira, Acary; Hudec, Robert; Brusque Crocetta, Tania; Ferreira de Lima Antão, Jennifer Yohanna; de Almeida Barbosa, Renata Thais; Guarnieri, Regiani; Massetti, Thais; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2018-02-16

    Describe the use of assistive technology to enhance communication opportunities for older adults. A systematic review was conducted in two databases, PubMed and Web of Science, by using two different searches in each. The search was limited to original articles, in English language, including people aged 60 years and older that used any type of assistive technology for communication. The articles found in the initial search were filtered by title, abstracts and the remaining articles were fully read. Eighteen studies were included in this review after the reading of full-texts. Most of the studies included apparently healthy participants with communication limitations due to aging related changes and the others included people with some pathology that prevent them from normal communication. Four categories of assistive technology were identified: assistive technology for people with speech problems; robot or videoconferencing systems; Information and Communication Technologies and, other types of assistive technology for communication, such as hearing aids and scrapbooks. Assistive technology for communication of older adults is not only used by people with disabilities that prevent them from usual communication. They are mostly for older adults without a pathological communication problem.

  10. Atmospheric emission of NOx from mining explosives: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwoye, Ibukun; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Gore, Jeff; Oskierski, Hans C.; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

    2017-10-01

    High-energy materials such as emulsions, slurries and ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil (ANFO) explosives play crucial roles in mining, quarrying, tunnelling and many other infrastructure activities, because of their excellent transport and blasting properties. These explosives engender environmental concerns, due to atmospheric pollution caused by emission of dust and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from blasts, the latter characterised by the average emission factor of 5 kg (t AN explosive)-1. This first-of-its-kind review provides a concise literature account of the formation of NOx during blasting of AN-based explosives, employed in surface operations. We estimate the total NOx emission rate from AN-based explosives as 0.05 Tg (i.e., 5 × 104 t) N per annum, compared to the total global annual anthropogenic NOx emissions of 41.3 × 106 t N y-1. Although minor in the global sense, the large localised plumes from blasting exhibit high NOx concentration (500 ppm) exceeding up to 3000 times the international standards. This emission has profound consequences at mining sites and for adjacent atmospheric environment, necessitating expensive management of exclusion zones. The review describes different types of AN energetic materials for civilian applications, and summarises the essential properties and terminologies pertaining to their use. Furthermore, we recapitulate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the reactive nitrogen species in blasting of AN-based explosives, review their implications to atmospheric air pollution, and compare the mechanisms with those experienced in other thermal and combustion operations. We also examine the mitigation approaches, including guidelines and operational-control measures. The review discusses the abatement technologies such as the formulation of new explosive mixtures, comprising secondary fuels, spin traps and other additives, in light of their effectiveness and efficiency. We conclude the review with a summary of unresolved problems

  11. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  12. The myth of individualism-collectivism: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Maxim; Singer, Jefferson A

    2002-08-01

    The authors critically assess the dimension of individualism-collectivism (I-C) and its various uses in cross-cultural psychology. They argue that I-C research is characterized largely by insufficient conceptual clarity and a lack of systematic data. As a result, they call into question the utility of I-C as an explanatory tool for cultural variation in behavior, suggest alternative dimensions for cross-cultural research, and interpret the weaknesses of research on I-C as illustrative of a general trend in social psychology.

  13. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  14. A Review of Accident Modelling Approaches for Complex Critical Sociotechnical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qureshi, Zahid H

    2008-01-01

    .... This report provides a review of key traditional accident modelling approaches and their limitations, and describes new system-theoretic approaches to the modelling and analysis of accidents in safety-critical systems...

  15. Anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy for generalized and localized vulvodynia : a critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Symen K.; Borg, Charmaine; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar

    Anticonvulsant therapy has occasionally been recommended to treat vulvodynia. However, convincing evidence to support this therapeutic option is lacking. The goal of this study was to critically review studies published on the effectiveness of anticonvulsants for the treatment of vulvodynia.

  16. International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies : A critical review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.N.; Danis, W.D.; Cavusgil, S.T.

    This article systematically reviews and critically examines international entrepreneurship research in emerging economies (IEEE research), and articulates its importance, timeliness and relevance in consideration of the growing influence of emerging markets in the global economy. A systematic

  17. Older adults and mobile phones for health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Jonathan; Demiris, George

    2013-10-01

    To report on the results of a review concerning the use of mobile phones for health with older adults. PubMed and CINAHL were searched for articles using "older adults" and "mobile phones" along with related terms and synonyms between 1965 and June 2012. Identified articles were filtered by the following inclusion criteria: original research project utilizing a mobile phone as an intervention, involve/target adults 60 years of age or older, and have an aim emphasizing the mobile phone's use in health. Twenty-one different articles were found and categorized into ten different clinical domains, including diabetes, activities of daily life, and dementia care, among others. The largest group of articles focused on diabetes care (4 articles), followed by COPD (3 articles), Alzheimer's/dementia Care (3 articles) and osteoarthritis (3 articles). Areas of interest studied included feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness. While there were many different clinical domains, the majority of studies were pilot studies that needed more work to establish a stronger base of evidence. Current work in using mobile phones for older adult use are spread across a variety of clinical domains. While this work is promising, current studies are generally smaller feasibility studies, and thus future work is needed to establish more generalizable, stronger base of evidence for effectiveness of these interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U

    2010-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care......A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care...

  19. Tracheal intubation in critically ill patients: a comprehensive systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Baiardo Radaelli, Martina; Saleh, Omar; Votta, Carmine D; Fominskiy, Evgeny; Putzu, Alessandro; Snak de Souza, Cézar Daniel; Antonelli, Massimo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Pelosi, Paolo; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2018-01-20

    We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled studies evaluating any drug, technique or device aimed at improving the success rate or safety of tracheal intubation in the critically ill. We searched PubMed, BioMed Central, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials and references of retrieved articles. Finally, pertinent reviews were also scanned to detect further studies until May 2017. The following inclusion criteria were considered: tracheal intubation in adult critically ill patients; randomized controlled trial; study performed in Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department or ordinary ward; and work published in the last 20 years. Exclusion criteria were pre-hospital or operating theatre settings and simulation-based studies. Two investigators selected studies for the final analysis. Extracted data included first author, publication year, characteristics of patients and clinical settings, intervention details, comparators and relevant outcomes. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. We identified 22 trials on use of a pre-procedure check-list (1 study), pre-oxygenation or apneic oxygenation (6 studies), sedatives (3 studies), neuromuscular blocking agents (1 study), patient positioning (1 study), video laryngoscopy (9 studies), and post-intubation lung recruitment (1 study). Pre-oxygenation with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) showed a possible beneficial role. Post-intubation recruitment improved oxygenation , while ramped position increased the number of intubation attempts and thiopental had negative hemodynamic effects. No effect was found for use of a checklist, apneic oxygenation (on oxygenation and hemodynamics), videolaryngoscopy (on number and length of intubation attempts), sedatives and neuromuscular blockers (on hemodynamics). Finally, videolaryngoscopy was associated with severe adverse effects in multiple trials. The limited available

  20. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Chaube, Alok; Jain, Shashi Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Wrong waste land estimates for jatropha has failed Biodiesel Mission. ► No redressal of technological problems with biodiesel usage. ► Present estimated costing of jatropha biodiesel is Rs. 46.45 per liter. ► Promotion of any biofuel needs central government assistance to the states. ► Targets under National Biofuel Policy are also unlikely to be met.

  1. Haloperidol for delirium in critically ill patients - protocol for a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, M; Kraus, S R; Collet, M O

    2018-01-01

    , relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients. METHODS: We will search for randomised clinical trials...... decision makers on the use of or future trials with haloperidol for the management of delirium in critically ill patients....

  2. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Critical Review of Dual Diagnosis Training for Mental Health Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinderup, Pernille; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-01-01

    To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training, ...... of dual diagnosis training programs for mental health professionals should involve control groups, validated measures, follow-ups, and patient outcomes.......To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training...... level showed mixed results. Training mental health professionals in dual diagnosis treatment may have a positive effect on professional competencies and clinical practice. Any conclusion regarding the overall training effect is premature due to limitations in study designs. Future studies on the effects...

  4. Devil in the Details: A Critical Review of "Theoretical Loss".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Matthew A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2016-09-01

    In their review of Internet gambling studies, Auer and Griffiths (J Gambl Stud 30(4), 879-887, 2014) question the validity of using bet size as an indicator of gambling intensity. Instead, in that review and in a response (Auer and Griffiths, J Gambl Stud 31(3), 921-931, 2015) to a previous comment (Braverman et al., J Gambl Stud 31(2), 359-366, 2015), Auer and Griffiths suggested using "theoretical loss" as a preferable measure of gambling intensity. This comment extends and advances the discussion about measures of gambling intensity. In this paper, we describe previously identified problems that Auer and Griffiths need to address to sustain theoretical loss as a viable measure of gambling intensity and add details to the discussion that demonstrate difficulties associated with the use of theoretical loss with certain gambling games.

  5. Knowledge Management : Review of the Critical Success Factors and Development of a Conceptual Classification Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Zand, F.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management is a critical issue in today's business world. Knowledge is considered as one of the most strategic resources of the firm and sources of competitive advantage. This research provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) and identifies

  6. Cultural Value and Inequality: A Critical Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, K; O'Brien, D

    2015-01-01

    Inequality has become essential to understanding contemporary British society and is at the forefront of media, political and practice discussions of the future of the arts in the UK. Whilst there is a wealth of work on traditional areas of inequality, such as those associated with income or gender, the relationship between culture, specifically cultural value, and inequality is comparatively under-researched. The literature review considers inequality and cultural value from two points of vi...

  7. Pollution biomarkers in estuarine animals: critical review and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, José M; Martínez, Pablo E; Geracitano, Laura A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Martins, Camila Martinez Gaspar; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Chaves, Isabel Soares; Ferreira-Cravo, Marlize; Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Bianchini, Adalto

    2007-01-01

    In this review, recent developments in monitoring toxicological responses in estuarine animals are analyzed, considering the biomarker responses to different classes of pollutants. The estuarine environment imposes stressful conditions to the organisms that inhabit it, and this situation can alter their sensitivity to many pollutants. The specificity of some biomarkers like metallothionein tissue concentration is discussed in virtue of its dependence on salinity, which is highly variable in estuaries. Examples of cholinesterase activity measurements are also provided and criteria to select sensitive enzymes to detect pesticides and toxins are discussed. Regarding non-specific biomarkers, toxic responses in terms of antioxidant defenses and/or oxidative damage are also considered in this review, focusing on invertebrate species. In addition, the presence of an antioxidant gradient along the body of the estuarine polychaete Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae) and its relationship to different strategies, which deal with the generation of oxidative stress, is reviewed. Also, unusual antioxidant defenses against environmental pro-oxidants are discussed, including the mucus secreted by L. acuta. Disruption of osmoregulation by pollutants is of paramount importance in several estuarine species. In some cases such as in the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, there is a trade off between bioavailability of toxicants (e.g. metals) and their interaction with key enzymes such as Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase. Thus, the metal effect on osmoregulation is also discussed in the present review. Finally, field case studies with fish species like the croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Scianidae) are used to illustrate the application of DNA damage and immunosuppressive responses as potential biomarkers of complex mixture of pollutants.

  8. The Revised Hierarchical Model: A critical review and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Judith F.; van Hell, Janet G.; Tokowicz, Natasha; Green, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Brysbaert and Duyck (2009) suggest that it is time to abandon the Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll and Stewart, 1994) in favor of connectionist models such as BIA+ (Dijkstra and Van Heuven, 2002) that more accurately account for the recent evidence on nonselective access in bilingual word recognition. In this brief response, we first review the history of the Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM), consider the set of issues that it was proposed to address, and then evaluate the evidence that supp...

  9. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ickes, M.J.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20). Most of the interventions were community based (n=16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16), with social cognitive theory and trans theoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  11. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  12. Operations and Maintenance Cost for Stratified Buildings: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ghani Nor Zaimah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance is essential in preserving buildings’ appearance and performance. It needs to upkeep the building performance to prolong its value and building life cycle. Malaysia is still lacking in managing cost for building operation and maintenance. It has been found that the cost for housing maintenance is high due to poor maintenance practices. In order to get better understanding on how to manage the cost, this study reviews the contributing factors that affecting operation and maintenance cost of stratified buildings in Malaysia. The research first identified the factors through extensive literature review and scrutinize on factors that affecting and can minimize operation and maintenance cost. This literature review offers insight into building maintenance scenario in Malaysia focusing on the issues and challenges. The study also finds that operation and maintenance cost for housing in Malaysia is still in poor state. Interestingly, this paper revealed that operation and maintenance cost is also influenced by three significant factors like expectation of tenants, building characteristics and building defects. Measures to reduce the housing operation and maintenance cost are also highlighted so that this study can be a stepping stone towards proposing efficient and effective facilities management strategies for affordable housing in future.

  13. Patient-important outcomes in randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Stéphane; Messika, Jonathan; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Guillo, Sylvie; Pasquet, Blandine; Dubief, Emeline; Boukertouta, Tanissia; Dreyfuss, Didier; Tubach, Florence

    2017-12-01

    Intensivists' clinical decision making pursues two main goals for patients: to decrease mortality and to improve quality of life and functional status in survivors. Patient-important outcomes are gaining wide acceptance in most fields of clinical research. We sought to systematically review how well patient-important outcomes are reported in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in critically ill patients. Literature search was conducted to identify eligible trials indexed from January to December 2013. Articles were eligible if they reported an RCT involving critically ill adult patients. We excluded phase II, pilot and physiological crossover studies. We assessed study characteristics. All primary and secondary outcomes were collected, described and classified using six categories of outcomes including patient-important outcomes (involving mortality at any time on the one hand and quality of life, functional/cognitive/neurological outcomes assessed after ICU discharge on the other). Of the 716 articles retrieved in 2013, 112 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most common topics were mechanical ventilation (27%), sepsis (19%) and nutrition (17%). Among the 112 primary outcomes, 27 (24%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 21/27) but only six (5%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (functional disability = 4; quality of life = 2). Among the 598 secondary outcomes, 133 (22%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 92/133) but only 41 (7%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (quality of life = 20, functional disability = 14; neurological/cognitive performance = 5; handicap = 1; post-traumatic stress = 1). Seventy-three RCTs (65%) reported at least one patient-important outcome but only 11 (10%) reported at least one patient-important outcome besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge. Patient-important outcomes are rarely primary

  14. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Kueider

    Full Text Available A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative.

  15. Intelligence Assessment Instruments in Adult Prison Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, A Y M; Denzel, A D; Scherder, E J A; Masthoff, E D M

    2017-10-01

    Detection of intellectual disability (ID) in the penitentiary system is important for the following reasons: (a) to provide assistance to people with ID in understanding their legal rights and court proceedings; (b) to facilitate rehabilitation programs tailored to ID patients, which improves the enhancement of their quality of life and reduces their risk of reoffending; and (c) to provide a reliable estimate of the risk of offence recidivism. It requires a short assessment instrument that provides a reliable estimation of a person's intellectual functioning at the earliest possible stage of this process. The aim of this systematic review is (a) to provide an overview of recent short assessment instruments that provide a full-scale IQ score in adult prison populations and (b) to achieve a quality measurement of the validation studies regarding these instruments to determine which tests are most feasible in this target population. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement is used to ensure reliability. The Satz-Mögel, an item-reduction short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, shows the highest correlation with the golden standard and is described to be most reliable. Nevertheless, when it comes to applicability in prison populations, the shorter and less verbal Quick Test can be preferred over others. Without affecting these conclusions, major limitations emerge from the present systematic review, which give rise to several important recommendations for further research.

  16. Flavour preferences in youth versus adults: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Allison C; Salgado, Raydel Valdes; Dresler, Carolyn; Faller, Rachel Williams; Bartlett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the available evidence of how children and adults differ in their preferences for flavours that may be used in tobacco products. Data sources A total of 474 articles published between 1931 and August 2015 were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and PsycINFO. Study selection and extraction A 2-phase relevancy review process resulted in the identification of 59 articles and information was extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Data synthesis Findings were grouped by taste and smell preferences, which are important components of overall flavour. For taste, evidence is summarised in the following categories: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami and fat; within each of them, findings are organised by age categories. For smell, evidence is summarised as follows: fruit/herbal/spices, tobacco and coffee and other odours. Major findings from this search indicated that sweet preference in children and adolescents was higher than in adults. Examples of preferred food-related tastes and odours for young people included cherry, candy, strawberry, orange, apple and cinnamon. Currently, all these are used to flavour cigars, cartridges for electronic cigarettes, hookah (waterpipe) and smokeless tobacco products. Conclusions Infants and children exhibited elevated sweet and salty preference relative to adults. Age-related changes in bitter, sour, umami and fat taste were not clear and more research would be useful. ‘Sweet’ food odours were highly preferred by children. Tobacco products in flavours preferred by young people may impact tobacco use and initiation, while flavours preferred by adults may impact product switching or dual use. PMID:27633764

  17. Conceptualising engagement with digital behaviour change interventions: a systematic review using principles from critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perski, Olga; Blandford, Ann; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2017-06-01

    "Engagement" with digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) is considered important for their effectiveness. Evaluating engagement is therefore a priority; however, a shared understanding of how to usefully conceptualise engagement is lacking. This review aimed to synthesise literature on engagement to identify key conceptualisations and to develop an integrative conceptual framework involving potential direct and indirect influences on engagement and relationships between engagement and intervention effectiveness. Four electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect) were searched in November 2015. We identified 117 articles that met the inclusion criteria: studies employing experimental or non-experimental designs with adult participants explicitly or implicitly referring to engagement with DBCIs, digital games or technology. Data were synthesised using principles from critical interpretive synthesis. Engagement with DBCIs is conceptualised in terms of both experiential and behavioural aspects. A conceptual framework is proposed in which engagement with a DBCI is influenced by the DBCI itself (content and delivery), the context (the setting in which the DBCI is used and the population using it) and the behaviour that the DBCI is targeting. The context and "mechanisms of action" may moderate the influence of the DBCI on engagement. Engagement, in turn, moderates the influence of the DBCI on those mechanisms of action. In the research literature, engagement with DBCIs has been conceptualised in terms of both experience and behaviour and sits within a complex system involving the DBCI, the context of use, the mechanisms of action of the DBCI and the target behaviour.

  18. HYPNOSIS FOR ACUTE PROCEDURAL PAIN: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Cassie; Sliwinski, Jim; Yu, Yimin; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William; Kekecs, Zoltán; Elkins, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of acute, procedural pain was critically evaluated based on reports from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Results from the 29 RCTs meeting inclusion criteria suggest that hypnosis decreases pain compared to standard care and attention control groups and that it is at least as effective as comparable adjunct psychological or behavioral therapies. In addition, applying hypnosis in multiple sessions prior to the day of the procedure produced the highest percentage of significant results. Hypnosis was most effective in minor surgical procedures. However, interpretations are limited by considerable risk of bias. Further studies using minimally effective control conditions and systematic control of intervention dose and timing are required to strengthen conclusions. PMID:26599994

  19. Hypnosis for Acute Procedural Pain: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Cassie; Sliwinski, Jim; Yu, Yimin; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William; Kekecs, Zoltán; Elkins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of acute procedural pain was critically evaluated based on reports from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Results from the 29 RCTs meeting inclusion criteria suggest that hypnosis decreases pain compared to standard care and attention control groups and that it is at least as effective as comparable adjunct psychological or behavioral therapies. In addition, applying hypnosis in multiple sessions prior to the day of the procedure produced the highest percentage of significant results. Hypnosis was most effective in minor surgical procedures. However, interpretations are limited by considerable risk of bias. Further studies using minimally effective control conditions and systematic control of intervention dose and timing are required to strengthen conclusions.

  20. Job stress and cardiovascular disease: a theoretic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, T S

    1996-07-01

    During the last 15 years, the research on job stress and cardiovascular diseases has been dominated by the job strain model developed by R. Karasek (1979) and colleagues (R. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990). In this article the results of this research are briefly summarized, and the theoretical and methodological basis is discussed and criticized. A sociological interpretation of the model emphasizing theories of technological change, qualifications of the workers, and the organization of work is proposed. Furthermore, improvements with regard to measuring the job strain dimensions and to sampling the study base are suggested. Substantial improvements of the job strain research could be achieved if the principle of triangulation were used in the measurements of stressors, stress, and sickness and if occupation-based samples were used instead of large representative samples.

  1. Biomedical Engineering curriculum at UAM-I: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Licona, Fabiola; Azpiroz-Leehan, Joaquin; Urbina Medal, E Gerardo; Cadena Mendez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM) has undergone at least four major transformations since the founding of the BME undergraduate program in 1974. This work is a critical assessment of the curriculum from the point of view of its results as derived from an analysis of, among other resources, institutional databases on students, graduates and their academic performance. The results of the evaluation can help us define admission policies as well as reasonable limits on the maximum duration of undergraduate studies. Other results linked to the faculty composition and the social environment can be used to define a methodology for the evaluation of teaching and the implementation of mentoring and tutoring programs. Changes resulting from this evaluation may be the only way to assure and maintain leadership and recognition from the BME community.

  2. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Critical review of pH sensing with optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Francesco

    1999-02-01

    The chemical parameter most investigated with optical fibers is doubtless pH. The first pH optical fiber sensor was described in 1980. Since then, more than one hundred and twenty original papers describing different pH sensors have been published, based on absorption-based indicators on fluorophores. Such interest is perfectly justified, since pH detection is essential in many fields of application, ranging from the environment and medicine to industry and process control. Moreover, pH transduction can be used for measuring different chemical species, such as carbon dioxide, ammonia and pesticides. Notwithstanding the great number of prototypes realized in different laboratories all over the world, only a few products are available on the market. A critical analysis of the state of art in pH sensing using optical fibers is described, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of an optical approach.

  4. Review article: Critical Care Airway Management eLearning modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Deepak; McCarthy, Sally; Mowatt, Elizabeth; Cahill, Angela; Peirce, Bronwyn; Hawking, Geoff; Osborne, Ruth; Hibble, Belinda; Ebbs, Katharine

    2017-11-16

    The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) has recently launched the Critical Care Airway Management eLearning modules to support emergency medicine trainees in developing their airway management skills in the ED. A team of emergency physicians and trainees worked collaboratively to develop the eLearning resources ensuring extensive stakeholder consultation. A comprehensive resource manual was written to provide learners with knowledge that underpins the modules. ACEM provided project coordination as well as administrative and technical team support to the production. Although specifically developed with early ACEM trainees in mind, it is envisaged the resources will be useful for all emergency clinicians. The project was funded by the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  5. Defining Small and Medium Enterprises: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentrit Berisha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The OECD estimates that small and medium enterprises account for 90% of firms and employ 63% of the workforce in the world (Munro: 2013. Small and medium enterprises account for that amount of businesses thatit is senseless the arbitrariness with which they are defined. Language mainly used for definition is numbers, but it is difficult to find two institutions, statistical agencies or countries who speak the same language in terms of small and medium enterprises. Academics, authors, policy makers apply SMEdefinitions in terms of dichotomy between universality and standardization of a unique definition and relativity and sectored specialization. Although qualitative criteria-characteristics of SMEs easily distinguish them from large businesses, quantitative criteria are mainlyused for their dimensional classification. This paper deals with a critical approachto the definition of small and medium enterprises, inconsistencies in criteria and various proposed approaches to the definition towards universal acceptance.

  6. Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGioia, Jonathan; Watkins, Kari Edison; Xu, Yanzhi; Rodgers, Michael; Guensler, Randall

    2017-06-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the present state of bicycle infrastructure treatment safety research, highlighting data needs. Safety literature relating to 22 bicycle treatments is examined, including findings, study methodologies, and data sources used in the studies. Some preliminary conclusions related to research efficacy are drawn from the available data and findings in the research. While the current body of bicycle safety literature points toward some defensible conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of certain bicycle treatments, such as bike lanes and removal of on-street parking, the vast majority treatments are still in need of rigorous research. Fundamental questions arise regarding appropriate exposure measures, crash measures, and crash data sources. This research will aid transportation departments with regard to decisions about bicycle infrastructure and guide future research efforts toward understanding safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  7. A critical review of lexical analysis and Big Five model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Richaud de Minzi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the idea has resurfaced that traits can be measured in a reliable and valid and this can be useful inthe prediction of human behavior. The five-factor model appears to represent a conceptual and empirical advances in the field of personality theory. Necessary orthogonal factors (Goldberg, 1992, p. 26 to show the relationships between the descriptors of the features in English is five, and its nature can be summarized through the broad concepts of Surgency, Agreeableness, Responsibility, Emotional Stability versus neuroticism and openness to experience (John, 1990, p96 Furthermore, despite the criticisms that have been given to the model, represents a breakthrough in the field of personality assessment. This approach means a contribution to the study of personality, without being the integrative model of personality.

  8. A critical review of clinical trials in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Mary A.; Strand, Vibeke; Simon, Lee S.; Lipsky, Peter E.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    One challenge in caring for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a paucity of approved therapeutics for treatment of the diverse disease manifestations. In the last 60 years, only one drug, belimumab, has been approved for SLE treatment. Critical evaluation of investigator initiated and pharma-sponsored randomized controlled trials (RCTs) highlights barriers to successful drug development in SLE, including disease heterogeneity, inadequate trial size or duration, insufficient dose finding before initiation of large trials, handling of background medications, and choice of primary endpoint. Herein we examine lessons learned from landmark SLE RCTs and subsequent advances in trial design, as well as discuss efforts to address limitations in current SLE outcome measures that will improve detection of true therapeutic responses in future RCTs. PMID:27497257

  9. Nutritional determinants of frailty in older adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana; de Labra, Carmen; Regueiro-Folgueira, Laura; Rodríguez-Villamil, José L; Millán-Calenti, José C

    2017-05-15

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that affects multiple domains of human functioning. A variety of problems contributes to the development of this syndrome; poor nutritional status is an important determinant of this condition. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine recent evidence regarding the association between nutritional status and frailty syndrome in older adults. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus electronic databases were searched using specific key words, for observational papers that were published during the period from 2005 to February 2017 and that studied the association or relationship between nutritional status and frailty in older adults. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement was followed to assess the quality of the included articles. Of the 2042 studies found, nineteen met the inclusion criteria. Of these studies, five provided data on micronutrients and frailty, and reported that frailty syndrome is associated with low intakes of specific micronutrients. Five studies provided data on macronutrients and frailty, and among those studies, four revealed that a higher protein intake was associated with a lower risk of frailty. Three studies examined the relationship between diet quality and frailty, and showed that the quality of the diet is inversely associated with the risk of being frail. Two studies provided data on the antioxidant capacity of the diet and frailty, and reported that a high dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of developing frailty. Finally, seven studies evaluated the relationship between scores on both the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and the MNA-SF (Short Form) and frailty, and revealed an association between malnutrition and/or the risk of malnutrition and frailty. This systematic review confirms the importance of both quantitative (energy intake) and qualitative (nutrient quality) factors of nutrition in the development of frailty

  10. A critical review of nanotechnologies for composite aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Vassilis; Masouras, Athanasios; Baltopoulos, Athanasios; Vavouliotis, Antonios; Sotiriadis, George; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The past decade extensive efforts have been invested in understanding the nano-scale and revealing the capabilities offered by nanotechnology products to structural materials. Integration of nano-particles into fiber composites concludes to multi-scale reinforced composites and has opened a new wide range of multi-functional materials in industry. In this direction, a variety of carbon based nano-fillers has been proposed and employed, individually or in combination in hybrid forms, to approach the desired performance. Nevertheless, a major issue faced lately more seriously due to the interest of industry is on how to incorporate these nano-species into the final composite structure through existing manufacturing processes and infrastructure. This interest originates from several industrial applications needs that request the development of new multi-functional materials which combine enhanced mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, an attempt is performed to review the most representative processes and related performances reported in literature and the experience obtained on nano-enabling technologies of fiber composite materials. This review focuses on the two main composite manufacturing technologies used by the aerospace industry; Prepreg/Autoclave and Resin Transfer technologies. It addresses several approaches for nano-enabling of composites for these two routes and reports latest achieved results focusing on performance of nano-enabled fiber reinforced composites extracted from literature. Finally, this review work identifies the gap between available nano-technology integration routes and the established industrial composite manufacturing techniques and the challenges to increase the Technology Readiness Level to reach the demands for aerospace industry applications.

  11. Nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis : a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragle, Ryan L; Sawitzke, Allen D

    2012-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, highly prevalent and disabling disease that is expected to increase in prevalence secondary to longer life expectancy and a disproportionately aging population. Treatment of OA is only marginally effective and has been focused primarily on symptom control using weight loss, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, intra-articular steroids or viscosupplementation, topical NSAIDs and analgesics, diacerein (an oral interleukin-1β inhibitor) and finally joint replacement surgery. The use of nutraceuticals in the treatment of OA is common, and scientific studies examining the effects of nutraceuticals on the pathogenesis and treatment of OA are increasing. This review examines the efficacy and safety of select nutraceuticals for the treatment of OA. The reviewed nutraceuticals include glucosamine, chondroitin, collagen hydrolysates (CHs) and avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASUs). There have been several clinical trials examining the efficacy of these products and the results demonstrate significant heterogeneity. Significant improvements in pain, function and structural outcomes have been shown for some of the treatment arms or subgroups of patients, but the effects are not consistent across the studies. Glucosamine, chondroitin and the two in combination have been the most extensively studied. Significant improvement in pain and functional indices and a decrease in the loss of joint space width were demonstrated in some but not all studies. CHs showed significant improvement in pain and functional indices for several subgroups of patients, but these findings were not pervasive amongst the treatment arms. ASU has demonstrated positive results with respect to decreased NSAID use in several studies and functional and pain end points in most of the reviewed studies; however, in the two studies examining structural end points, the results were mixed. The safety of these nutraceuticals has been

  12. Equilibrium models of trade equations : a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, Marcelo Savino

    1993-01-01

    Neste artigo, revisa-se a literatura teórica sobre equações de comércio exterior, inclusive o modelo de comércio baseado na teoria da produção. Discute-se vários problemas comumente encontrados em trabalhos empíricos e também a literatura existente sobre equações relativas ao comércio exterior brasileiro. In this paper we review the theoretical literature on trade equation models, including the production theory approach. We discuss several empirical problems commonly found in the applied ...

  13. Critical review of the probability of causation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.A. Jr.; Fiksel, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In a more controversial report than the others in the study, the authors use one scientific discipline to review the work of another discipline. Their proposal recognizes the imprecision that develops in moving from group to individual interpretations of causal effects by substituting the term assigned share for probability of causation. The authors conclude that the use of a formula will not provide reliable measures of risk attribution in individual cases. The gap between scientific certainty and assigning shares of responsibility must be filled by subjective value judgments supplied by the scientists. 22 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  14. A Critical Review of Recent Literature on Populism

    OpenAIRE

    John Abromeit

    2017-01-01

    This is a review article of the following five recent studies on populism: 1) Ruth Wodak’s The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean (Sage, 2015); 2) Benjamin Moffitt’s The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style and Representation (Stanford University Press, 2016); 3) Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser’s Populism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2017); 4) Jan-Werner Müller’s What is Populism? (University of Pennsylvania Press, 201...

  15. Hotel revenue management – a critical literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Zhechev, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a literature review of the main concepts of hotel revenue management (RM) and current state-of-the-art of its theoretical research. The article emphasises on the different directions of hotel RM research and is structured around the elements of the hotel RM system and the stages of RM process. The elements of the hotel RM system discussed in the paper include hotel RM centres (room division, F&B, function rooms, spa & fitness facilities, golf courses, casino and gambling fa...

  16. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Smith-Osborne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.

  17. Dietary Guidelines for Breast Cancer Patients: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2017-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for breast cancer patients (BCPs) fail to address adequate dietary intakes of macro- and micronutrients that may improve patients' nutritional status. This review includes information from the PubMed and Biomed Central databases over the last 15 y concerning dietary guidelines for BCPs and the potential impact of a personalized, nutrient-specific diet on patients' nutritional status during and after antineoplastic treatment. Results indicated that BCPs should receive a nutritional assessment immediately after diagnosis. In addition, they should be encouraged to pursue and maintain a healthy body weight [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) 20-24.9], preserving their lean mass and avoiding an increase in fat mass. Therefore, after nutritional status diagnosis, a conservative energy restriction of 500-1000 kcal/d could be considered in the dietary intervention when appropriate. Based on the reviewed information, we propose a personalized nutrition intervention for BCPs during and after antineoplastic treatment. Specifications in the nutritional therapy should be based on the patients' nutritional status, dietary habits, schedule, activities, and cultural preferences. BCPs' daily energy intake should be distributed as follows: vegetables (∼75 g/serving) should be encouraged. Garlic and cruciferous vegetables must also be part of the nutrition therapy. Adequate dietary intakes of food-based macro- and micronutrients rich in β-carotene and vitamins A, E, and C can both prevent deterioration in BCPs' nutritional status and improve their overall health and prognosis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Ecotoxicology of Hexavalent Chromium in Freshwater Fish: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Vutukuru, S.S.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil, predominantly in its insoluble trivalent form [Cr(III)]. Intense industrialization and other anthropogenic activities have led to the global occurrence of soluble Cr(VI), which is readily leached from soil to groundwater or surface water, in concentrations above permissible levels. The ecotoxicology of Cr(VI) is linked to its environmental persistence and the ability to induce a variety of adverse effects in biologic systems, including fish. In aquatic ecosystems, Cr(VI) exposure poses a significant threat to aquatic life. This paper reviews the fate and transport of Cr(VI) in the environment and its acute and chronic effects on fish. We also discuss Cr(VI) toxicity at the cellular, biochemical, and genetic levels. An attempt is made in this review to comprehend the staggered data on the toxic effects of Cr(VI) to various species of fish. Such data are extremely useful to the scientific community and public officials involved in health risk assessment and management of environmental contaminants as a guide to the best course of action to restore ecosystems and, in turn, to preserve human health. PMID:19658319

  19. Morcellation of undiagnosed uterine sarcoma: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Chiappa, Valentina; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Donfrancesco, Cristina; Indini, Alice; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    In the recent decades, laparoscopy has replaced open abdominal procedures in the setting of gynecologic surgery. Extraction of large specimens (e.g., large uteri or myomas) following operative laparoscopy is technically challenging. Technological attempts allow the removal of large and solid pelvic masses via small abdominal incisions (using instruments called morcellators), thus reducing unnecessary laparotomies and improving short-term patients' outcomes. However, morcellation of undiagnosed uterine malignancies may lead to worse survival outcomes. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns about the use of power morcellators, thus causing ongoing concerns on the applicability of minimally invasive approaches for myomectomy and the removal of large uteri. In the present review, we sought to assess pro and cons regarding minimally invasive morcellation. This review will discuss the effects of morcellation of undiagnosed uterine malignancies, focusing on possible techniques for preoperative detection of uterine sarcoma and for avoiding intra-abdominal dissemination of potentially malignant tissues. Further efforts are necessary in order to identify tools to make a more accurate and reliable preoperative diagnosis of uterine masses. However, on the light of the current evidence, intra-abdominal morcellation should be banned from clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A review on critical heat flux in horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, P.K.; Gaikwad, Avinash; Prabhu, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Coolant channels of PHWR during accident similar to loss of coolant accident (LOCA) may experience different flow transients with low pressure and low flow conditions. In the advanced PHWRs it is desired to have small amount of positive quality at the exit of the coolant channel to increase the thermal efficiency. Investigation on pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient under subcooled boiling condition is important in the design and operation of the PHWRs. Understanding of thermal hydraulic phenomena associated with horizontal flow is also important in the safety and accident management in these reactors. A detailed experimental investigation on the important thermal hydraulic phenomena of horizontal tubes under low pressure and low flow conditions is carried out. The phenomena covered in this work are measurement of diabatic single phase and subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficients, steady state CHF, effect of upstream flow restrictions on flow transients and CHF, CHF under oscillatory flow and flow decreasing transients. A detailed literature review is carried out on CHF in horizontal channels to take stock of the works being carried out along with current state of the art and to justify the motivation for the experimental study. This paper presents the review of available literature on horizontal CHF with the results of the experimental work. (author)

  1. Use of recycled plastics in concrete: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay

    2016-05-01

    Plastics have become an essential part of our modern lifestyle, and the global plastic production has increased immensely during the past 50years. This has contributed greatly to the production of plastic-related waste. Reuse of waste and recycled plastic materials in concrete mix as an environmental friendly construction material has drawn attention of researchers in recent times, and a large number of studies reporting the behavior of concrete containing waste and recycled plastic materials have been published. This paper summarizes the current published literature until 2015, discussing the material properties and recycling methods of plastic and the influence of plastic materials on the properties of concrete. To provide a comprehensive review, a total of 84 studies were considered, and they were classified into sub categories based on whether they dealt with concrete containing plastic aggregates or plastic fibers. Furthermore, the morphology of concrete containing plastic materials is described in this paper to explain the influence of plastic aggregates and plastic fibers on the properties of concrete. The properties of concretes containing virgin plastic materials were also reviewed to establish their similarities and differences with concrete containing recycled plastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interventions to Reduce Adult Nursing Turnover: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halter, Mary; Pelone, Ferruccio; Boiko, Olga; Beighton, Carole; Harris, Ruth; Gale, Julia; Gourlay, Stephen; Drennan, Vari

    2017-01-01

    Nurse turnover is an issue of concern in health care systems internationally. Understanding which interventions are effective to reduce turnover rates is important to managers and health care organisations. Despite a plethora of reviews of such interventions, strength of evidence is hard to determine. We aimed to review literature on interventions to reduce turnover in nurses working in the adult health care services in developed economies. We conducted an overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, CINAHL plus and SCOPUS and forward searching. We included reviews published between 1990 and January 2015 in English. We carried out parallel blinded selection, extraction of data and assessment of bias, using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews. We carried out a narrative synthesis. Despite the large body of published reviews, only seven reviews met the inclusion criteria. These provide moderate quality review evidence, albeit from poorly controlled primary studies. They provide evidence of effect of a small number of interventions which decrease turnover or increase retention of nurses, these being preceptorship of new graduates and leadership for group cohesion. We highlight that a large body of reviews does not equate with a large body of high quality evidence. Agreement as to the measures and terminology to be used together with well-designed, funded primary research to provide robust evidence for nurse and human resource managers to base their nurse retention strategies on is urgently required.

  4. A review of the evidence linking adult attachment theory and chronic pain: presenting a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela; Ownsworth, Tamara; Strong, Jenny

    2008-03-01

    It is now well established that pain is a multidimensional phenomenon, affected by a gamut of psychosocial and biological variables. According to diathesis-stress models of chronic pain, some individuals are more vulnerable to developing disability following acute pain because they possess particular psychosocial vulnerabilities which interact with physical pathology to impact negatively upon outcome. Attachment theory, a theory of social and personality development, has been proposed as a comprehensive developmental model of pain, implicating individual adult attachment pattern in the ontogenesis and maintenance of chronic pain. The present paper reviews and critically appraises studies which link adult attachment theory with chronic pain. Together, these papers offer support for the role of insecure attachment as a diathesis (or vulnerability) for problematic adjustment to pain. The Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain developed from this body of literature, combines adult attachment theory with the diathesis-stress approach to chronic pain. The evidence presented in this review, and the associated model, advances our understanding of the developmental origins of chronic pain conditions, with potential application in guiding early pain intervention and prevention efforts, as well as tailoring interventions to suit specific patient needs.

  5. Use of wild trout for PBDE assessment in freshwater environments: Review and summary of critical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Ríos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain wild animals represent sentinels to address issues related to environmental pollution, since they can provide integrative data on both pollutant exposure and biological effects. Despite their technological benefits, PBDEs are considered a threat to environmental health due to their persistence, toxicity, and capacity to be accumulated. These pollutants have been found geographically widespread in fish, particularly in predator species such as trout. The aim of this work is to critically review the applicability and usefulness of wild trout for assessing PBDEs in freshwater environments. Reviewed reports include data from highly industrialized areas as well as areas from remote regions with relatively low human activity, including European and North American great lakes and freshwater environments in Europe, Greenland, subarctic areas and Patagonia, respectively. A summary of relevant factors were grouped into organism-specific factors (food habits, age, size, lipid content, sex and reproduction, tissue type, mechanism of contaminant uptake and metabolism, and PBDE levels in the surrounding environment (sediment. Five wild trout species [rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout (Salmo trutta, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush, arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis], collected worldwide within the 1994 to present time frame, were considered. Multivariate techniques (principal component analysis-PCA and mapping approach, showed clear differences in geographic distribution patterns of PBDE levels in trout depending on the region studied: wild trout from European and North American great lakes have the highest PBDE loads. This pattern could be due to high industrial activity at these locations. A correlational approach used to explore intraspecific relationships between PBDE levels and morphometry, showed positive relationships only for brown trout. Further, brown trout showed the highest trout

  6. Tablet Use in Schools: A Critical Review of the Evidence for Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haßler, B.; Major, L.; Hennessy, S.

    2016-01-01

    The increased popularity of tablets in general has led to uptake in education. We critically review the literature reporting use of tablets by primary and secondary school children across the curriculum, with a particular emphasis on learning outcomes. The systematic review methodology was used, and our literature search resulted in 33 relevant…

  7. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  8. School Uniforms: A Critical Review of the Literature. From Inquiry to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    The debate surrounding the effectiveness of school-uniform policies, as well as discussions concerning when and how to implement them, is rooted in anecdote. This review summarizes anecdotal literature on which the current debate is based and critically reviews the empirical literature, including theoretical underpinnings, findings, and…

  9. Critical Discourse Analysis in Education: A Review of the Literature, 2004 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda; Schott, Christopher; O'Brien, Kathryn; Trigos-Carrillo, Lina; Starkey, Kim; Chasteen, Cynthia Carter

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews critical discourse analysis scholarship in education research from 2004 to 2012. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases. Second, we completed an analytic review template for each article and encoded these data into a digital spreadsheet to assess macro-trends in the field.…

  10. Peer-to-Peer Teaching in Higher Education: A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigmar, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of my critical literature review is to identify studies where students are engaged as partners in teaching in higher education and to analyze how tutors and tutees benefit from peer teaching. Thirty studies were included for review. Thirteen countries are represented and two thirds of the studies conducted in the United States of America…

  11. A critical review of advance directives in Germany: attitudes, use and healthcare professionals’ compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Bausewein, C.; Meñaca, A.; Andrew, E.V.W.; Higginson, I.J.; Harding, R.; Pool, R.; Gysels, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent legal changes in Germany make non-compliance with advance directives (ADs) a criminal offence. This article assesses the evidence on attitudes towards, use of, and physician compliance with ADs in Germany. Methods Critical review: studies on ADs, identified from a systematic review

  12. Openness in Adoption: What We Know So Far--A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgram, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    What are the factors that keep adoptive parents and birth parents connected and sustain their kinship relationships over time? This is the central research question critically reviewed across studies dating from 1987 to 2000. A preliminary review of the literature revealed 15 to 20 studies within this 13-year scope limited to the perspective of…

  13. Beethoven recordings reviewed: a systematic method for mapping the content of music performance criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Elena; Williamson, Victoria J; Eiholzer, Hubert; Williamon, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Critical reviews offer rich data that can be used to investigate how musical experiences are conceptualized by expert listeners. However, these data also present significant challenges in terms of organization, analysis, and interpretation. This study presents a new systematic method for examining written responses to music, tested on a substantial corpus of music criticism. One hundred critical reviews of Beethoven's piano sonata recordings, published in the Gramophone between August 1934 and July 2010, were selected using in-depth data reduction (qualitative/quantitative approach). The texts were then examined using thematic analysis in order to generate a visual descriptive model of expert critical review. This model reveals how the concept of evaluation permeates critical review. It also distinguishes between two types of descriptors. The first characterizes the performance in terms of specific actions or features of the musical sound (musical parameters, technique, and energy); the second appeals to higher-order properties (artistic style, character and emotion, musical structure, communicativeness) or assumed performer qualities (understanding, intentionality, spontaneity, sensibility, control, and care). The new model provides a methodological guide and conceptual basis for future studies of critical review in any genre.

  14. Bioethical conflicts of gene therapy: a brief critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ednésio da Cruz Freire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods and techniques employed in gene therapy are reviewed in parallel with pertinent ethical conflicts. Clinical interventions based on gene therapy techniques preferentially use vectors for the transportation of therapeutic genes, however little is known about the potential risks and damages to the patient. Thus, attending carefully to the clinical complications arising as well as to security is essential. Despite the scientific and technological advances, there are still many uncertainties about the side effects of gene therapy. Moreover, there is a need, above all, to understand the principles of bioethics as both science and ethics, in accordance with its socioecological responsibility, in order to prioritize the health and welfare of man and nature, using properly natural resources and technology. Therefore, it is hard to determine objective results and to which extent the insertion of genes can affect the organism, as well as the ethical implication

  15. Health Impacts of the Great Recession: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Falconi, April; Downing, Janelle

    2016-03-01

    The severity, sudden onset, and multipronged nature of the Great Recession (2007-2009) provided a unique opportunity to examine the health impacts of macroeconomic downturn. We comprehensively review empirical literature examining the relationship between the Recession and mental and physical health outcomes in developed nations. Overall, studies reported detrimental impacts of the Recession on health, particularly mental health. Macro- and individual-level employment- and housing-related sequelae of the Recession were associated with declining fertility and self-rated health, and increasing morbidity, psychological distress, and suicide, although traffic fatalities and population-level alcohol consumption declined. Health impacts were stronger among men and racial/ethnic minorities. Importantly, strong social safety nets in some European countries appear to have buffered those populations from negative health effects. This literature, however, still faces multiple methodological challenges, and more time may be needed to observe the Recession's full health impact. We conclude with suggestions for future work in this field.

  16. Biomimetics in drug delivery systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhpour, Mojgan; Barani, Leila; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-05-10

    Today, the advanced drug delivery systems have been focused on targeted drug delivery fields. The novel drug delivery is involved with the improvement of the capacity of drug loading in drug carriers, cellular uptake of drug carriers, and the sustained release of drugs within target cells. In this review, six groups of therapeutic drug carriers including biomimetic hydrogels, biomimetic micelles, biomimetic liposomes, biomimetic dendrimers, biomimetic polymeric carriers and biomimetic nanostructures, are studied. The subject takes advantage of the biomimetic methods of productions or the biomimetic techniques for the surface modifications, similar to what accrues in natural cells. Moreover, the effects of these biomimetic approaches for promoting the drug efficiency in targeted drug delivery are visible. The study demonstrates that the fabrication of biomimetic nanocomposite drug carriers could noticeably promote the efficiency of drugs in targeted drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NSSS aging review: critical systems operating measures and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quero, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    How long the nuclear plants can get. In this question we can find three main aspects: Economic - Licensing - and Technical ones. The final answer to this question will include compulsory elements coming from these three areas, each of them being a deciding factor. The presentation is focused on the technical aspect; but before a few comments are done on economic and licensing factors. Then, some particular technical items dealing with aging or life time of our nuclear plants are reviewed: electrical equipment, heat exchangers (steam generators), wear: primary pump, embrittlement: Reactor Pressure Vessel (Austeno-ferritic parts), fatigue (Thermo-hydraulic transients). By the way, some information about how this problem is handled, at the present time, explicitely or implicitely in France are given

  18. Membrane contactors for CO2 capture processes - critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalska, Adrianna; Trojanowska, Anna; Garcia-Valls, Ricard

    2017-07-01

    The use of membrane contactor in industrial processes is wide, and lately it started to be used in CO2 capture process mainly for gas purification or to reduce the emission. Use of the membrane contactor provides high contact surface area so the size of the absorber unit significantly decreases, which is an important factor for commercialization. The research has been caried out regarding the use of novel materials for the membrane production and absorbent solution improvements. The present review reveals the progress in membrane contactor systems for CO2 capture processes concerning solution for ceramic membrane wetting, comparison study of different polymers used for fabrication and methods of enzyme immobilization for biocomposite membrane. Also information about variety of absorbent solutions is described.

  19. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  20. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of radiation on coal mine environment -a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Varma, N.K.; Sahay, N.; Ahmad, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to mass-scale industrialization, world's environment is being polluted every day endangering the existence of living beings on the earth. This has attracted the attention of environmental engineers, medical practitioners, planners and researchers throughout the world. Attempts are being made to make air, water and atmosphere clean and to prevent likely hazards arising out of various industrial activities. In addition, the radiation from natural sources is all around us and has been here since time immemorial. Coal miners have small occupational radiation which arise from naturally occurring radioactive substance(s) underground. The predominant source of natural radiation present in coal mines is the radon gas. This paper describes the origin of radon and its radiological hazards. An attempt has been made to review the status of the problem likely to be caused by the different radioactive elements present in Indian coal, coal ash and allied coal-based industries. (author)

  2. Critical variables of business failure: a review and classification framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Failure is a phenomenon that ventures face during all stages of the life cycle and requires insight into its causes before it can be reversed. The scientific literature on failure is, however, spread over multiple disciplines. This study’s line of enquiry firstly reviews the documented research (both theoretical and empirical encompassing the phenomenon ‘business failure’ on a multi-disciplinary basis. A conceptual framework is then proposed for categorising variables into four sub-domains namely: signs and prediction; causes and preconditions; recovery; and cognition and learning. Better understanding of the failure phenomenon is achieved. The methodology applied is fundamentally based on grounded theory interpretation with a focus on classifying the identified relevant variables.

  3. Social and ethical aspects of forensic genetics: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Wienroth, M

    2017-07-01

    This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of the concept of "proportionality" as a resource for balancing the social and ethical risks and benefits of the use of forensic genetics in support of criminal justice. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.

  4. Black Phosphorus: Critical Review and Potential for Water Splitting Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A century after its first synthesis in 1914, black phosphorus has been attracting significant attention as a promising two-dimensional material in recent years due to its unique properties. Nowadays, with the development of its exfoliation method, there are extensive applications of black phosphorus in transistors, batteries and optoelectronics. Though, because of its hardship in mass production and stability problems, the potential of the black phosphorus in various fields is left unexplored. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of crystal structure, electronic, optical properties and synthesis of black phosphorus. Recent research works about the applications of black phosphorus is summarized. Among them, the possibility of black phosphorous as a solar water splitting photocatalyst is mainly discussed and the feasible novel structure of photocatalysts based on black phosphorous is proposed.

  5. Nattokinase: an updated critical review on challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Ethiraj; Bhatnagar, Niharika

    2017-12-07

    Natto, a fermented soybean food, has been consumed by oriental people for more than 1000 years. Nattokinase, formerly called subtilisin NAT is a well studied protease of microbial origin that possesses fibrinolytic (anti-clotting) activities. Due to its strong fibrinolytic and thrombolytic activity, Nattokinase is regarded as a precious dietary supplement or nutraceutical for the oral thrombolytic therapy. Nattokinase is witnessed to be a useful enzyme for the com-plete removal of the vitreous and associated proliferative tissues in proliferative vitreo retinal disorders. This review focuses on the native and recombinant Nattokinase from bacteria and other sources, their production, purification, immobilization and nano-immobilization studies, which aid in ameliorating their properties to suit the targeted industrial applications. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. A Critical Review of OSHA Heat Enforcement Cases: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbury, Sheila; Lindsley, Matthew; Hodgson, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to review the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) 2012 to 2013 heat enforcement cases, using identified essential elements of heat illness prevention to evaluate employers' programs and make recommendations to better protect workers from heat illness. (1) Identify essential elements of heat illness prevention; (2) develop data collection tool; and (3) analyze OSHA 2012 to 2013 heat enforcement cases. OSHA's database contains 84 heat enforcement cases in 2012 to 2013. Employer heat illness prevention programs were lacking in essential elements such as providing water and shade; adjusting the work/rest proportion to allow for workload and effective temperature; and acclimatizing and training workers. In this set of investigations, most employers failed to implement common elements of illness prevention programs. Over 80% clearly did not rely on national standard approaches to heat illness prevention.

  7. Reviewing the Evidence on How Adult Students Learn: An Examination of Knowles' Model of Andragogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    While there may be similarities between adults and children in how they learn (such as language, interaction and communication), many writers argue that adult learners are different from child learners in a number of ways. This article aims to review how adults learn through examining one particular theory of adult learning. Two conflicting…

  8. Yogurt and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Critical Review of Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Panahi, Shirin; Daniel, Noémie; Tremblay, Angelo; Marette, André

    2017-11-01

    Associations between yogurt intake and risk of diet-related cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) have been the subject of recent research in epidemiologic nutrition. A healthy dietary pattern has been identified as a pillar for the prevention of weight gain and CMDs. Epidemiologic studies suggest that yogurt consumption is linked to healthy dietary patterns, lifestyles, and reduced risk of CMDs, particularly type 2 diabetes. However, to our knowledge, few to no randomized controlled trials have investigated yogurt intake in relation to cardiometabolic clinical outcomes. Furthermore, there has been little attempt to clarify the mechanisms that underlie the potential beneficial effects of yogurt consumption on CMDs. Yogurt is a nutrient-dense dairy food and has been suggested to reduce weight gain and prevent CMDs by contributing to intakes of protein, calcium, bioactive lipids, and several other micronutrients. In addition, fermentation with bacterial strains generates bioactive peptides, resulting in a potentially greater beneficial effect of yogurt on metabolic health than nonfermented dairy products such as milk. To date, there is little concrete evidence that the mechanisms proposed in observational studies to explain positive results of yogurt on CMDs or parameters are valid. Many proposed mechanisms are based on assumptions that commercial yogurts contain strain-specific probiotics, that viable yogurt cultures are present in adequate quantities, and that yogurt provides a minimum threshold dose of nutrients or bioactive components capable of exerting a physiologic effect. Therefore, the primary objective of this review is to investigate the plausibility of potential mechanisms commonly cited in the literature in order to shed light on the inverse associations reported between yogurt intake and various cardiometabolic health parameters that are related to its nutrient profile, bacterial constituents, and food matrix. This article reviews current gaps and challenges

  9. Retention systems for extraoral maxillofacial prosthetic implants: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobein, M V; Coto, N P; Crivello Junior, O; Lemos, J B D; Vieira, L M; Pimentel, M L; Byrne, H J; Dias, R B

    2017-10-01

    We describe the techniques available for retention of implant-supported prostheses: bar-clips, O-rings, and magnets. We present reported preferences and, although this is limited by the heterogeneity of methods used and patients studied, we hope we have identified the best retention systems for maxillofacial prosthetic implants. If practitioners know the advantages and disadvantages of each system, they can choose the most natural and comfortable prosthesis. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases, and restricted our search to papers published 2001-13. MeSH terms used were Maxillofacial prosthesis and Craniofacial prosthesis OR Craniofacial prostheses. We found a total of 2630 papers, and after duplicates had been removed we analysed the rest and found 25 papers for review. Of these, 12 were excluded because they were case reports or non-systematic reviews. Of the remaining 13, 10 described group analyses and seemed appropriate to find practitioner's choices, as cited in the abstract (n=1611 prostheses). Three papers did not mention the type of prosthetic connection used, so were excluded. The most popular choices for different conditions were analysed, though the sites and retention systems were not specified in all 10 papers. The bar-clip system was the most used in auricular (6/10 papers) and nasal prostheses (4/10). For the orbital region, 6/10 favoured magnets. Non-osseointegrated mechanical or adhesive retention techniques are the least expensive and have no contraindications. When osseointegrated implants are possible, each facial region has a favoured system. The choice of system is influenced by two factors: standard practice and the abilities of the maxillofacial surgeon and maxillofacial prosthetist. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Larry P.; Li, Abby A.; Minnema, Daniel J.; Collier, Richard H.; Creek, Moire R.; Peffer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood–brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of action and potential exposure with agricultural and residential uses. This review identified in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiology studies in the literature and studies performed in rats in accordance with GLP standards and EPA guidelines with imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, which are all the neonicotinoids currently registered in major markets. For the guideline-based studies, treatment was administered via the diet or gavage to primiparous female rats at three dose levels, plus a vehicle control (≥20/dose level), from gestation day 0 or 6 to lactation day 21. F1 males and females were evaluated using measures of motor activity, acoustic startle response, cognition, brain morphometry, and neuropathology. The principal effects in F1 animals were associated with decreased body weight (delayed sexual maturation, decreased brain weight, and morphometric measurements) and acute toxicity (decreased activity during exposure) at high doses, without neuropathology or impaired cognition. No common effects were identified among the neonicotinoids that were consistent with DNT or the neurodevelopmental effects associated with nicotine. Findings at high doses were associated with evidence of systemic toxicity, which indicates that these insecticides do not selectively affect the developing nervous system. PMID:26513508

  11. Defining recovery in chronic fatigue syndrome: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Jenna L; Caikauskaite, Indre; Friedberg, Fred

    2014-11-01

    In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), the lack of consensus on how recovery should be defined or interpreted has generated controversy and confusion. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review, compare, and evaluate the definitions of recovery reported in the CFS literature and to make recommendations about the scope of recovery assessments. A search was done using the MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases for peer review papers that contained the search terms "chronic fatigue syndrome" and "recovery," "reversal," "remission," and/or "treatment response." From the 22 extracted studies, recovery was operationally defined by reference with one or more of these domains: (1) pre-morbid functioning; (2) both fatigue and function; (3) fatigue (or related symptoms) alone; (4) function alone; and/or (5) brief global assessment. Almost all of the studies measuring recovery in CFS did so differently. The brief global assessment was the most common outcome measure used to define recovery. Estimates of recovery ranged from 0 to 66 % in intervention studies and 2.6 to 62 % in naturalistic studies. Given that the term "recovery" was often based on limited assessments and less than full restoration of health, other more precise and accurate labels (e.g., clinically significant improvement) may be more appropriate and informative. In keeping with common understandings of the term recovery, we recommend a consistent definition that captures a broad-based return to health with assessments of both fatigue and function as well as the patient's perceptions of his/her recovery status.

  12. Critical review of the building downwash algorithms in AERMOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ron L; Guerra, Sergio A; Bova, Anthony S

    2017-08-01

    The only documentation on the building downwash algorithm in AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model), referred to as PRIME (Plume Rise Model Enhancements), is found in the 2000 A&WMA journal article by Schulman, Strimaitis and Scire. Recent field and wind tunnel studies have shown that AERMOD can overpredict concentrations by factors of 2 to 8 for certain building configurations. While a wind tunnel equivalent building dimension study (EBD) can be conducted to approximately correct the overprediction bias, past field and wind tunnel studies indicate that there are notable flaws in the PRIME building downwash theory. A detailed review of the theory supported by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and wind tunnel simulations of flow over simple rectangular buildings revealed the following serious theoretical flaws: enhanced turbulence in the building wake starting at the wrong longitudinal location; constant enhanced turbulence extending up to the wake height; constant initial enhanced turbulence in the building wake (does not vary with roughness or stability); discontinuities in the streamline calculations; and no method to account for streamlined or porous structures. This paper documents theoretical and other problems in PRIME along with CFD simulations and wind tunnel observations that support these findings. Although AERMOD/PRIME may provide accurate and unbiased estimates (within a factor of 2) for some building configurations, a major review and update is needed so that accurate estimates can be obtained for other building configurations where significant overpredictions or underpredictions are common due to downwash effects. This will ensure that regulatory evaluations subject to dispersion modeling requirements can be based on an accurate model. Thus, it is imperative that the downwash theory in PRIME is corrected to improve model performance and ensure that the model better represents reality.

  13. Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

    2015-01-01

    Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Larry P; Li, Abby A; Minnema, Daniel J; Collier, Richard H; Creek, Moire R; Peffer, Richard C

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood-brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of action and potential exposure with agricultural and residential uses. This review identified in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiology studies in the literature and studies performed in rats in accordance with GLP standards and EPA guidelines with imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, which are all the neonicotinoids currently registered in major markets. For the guideline-based studies, treatment was administered via the diet or gavage to primiparous female rats at three dose levels, plus a vehicle control (≥20/dose level), from gestation day 0 or 6 to lactation day 21. F1 males and females were evaluated using measures of motor activity, acoustic startle response, cognition, brain morphometry, and neuropathology. The principal effects in F1 animals were associated with decreased body weight (delayed sexual maturation, decreased brain weight, and morphometric measurements) and acute toxicity (decreased activity during exposure) at high doses, without neuropathology or impaired cognition. No common effects were identified among the neonicotinoids that were consistent with DNT or the neurodevelopmental effects associated with nicotine. Findings at high doses were associated with evidence of systemic toxicity, which indicates that these insecticides do not selectively affect the developing nervous system.

  15. Interventions following hearing screening in adults: a systematic descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Marieke; Kramer, Sophia E; Davis, Adrian C; Stephens, Dafydd; Smith, Pauline A; Thodi, Chryssoula; Anteunis, Lucien J C; Parazzini, Marta; Grandori, Ferdinando

    2011-09-01

    Adult hearing screening may be a solution to the under-diagnosis and under-treatment of hearing loss in adults. Limited use and satisfaction with hearing aids indicate that consideration of alternative interventions following hearing screening may be needed. The primary aim of this study is to provide an overview of all intervention types that have been offered to adult (≥ 18 years) screen-failures. Systematic literature review. Articles were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, private libraries, and through reference checking. Of the initial 3027 papers obtained from the searches, a total of 37 were found to be eligible. The great majority of the screening programmes (i.e. 26) referred screen-failures to a hearing specialist without further rehabilitation being specified. Most of the others (i.e. seven) led to the provision of hearing aids. Four studies offered alternative interventions comprising communication programme elements (e.g. speechreading, hearing tactics) or advice on environmental aids. Interventions following hearing screening generally comprised referral to a hearing specialist or hearing aid rehabilitation. Some programmes offered alternative rehabilitation options. These may be valuable as an addition to or replacement of hearing aid rehabilitation. It is recommended that this be addressed in future research.

  16. Judicial Performance Review in Arizona: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca White Berch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluations are a relatively new tool for assessing judges and providing information to voters to help them determine whether to retain judges in contested or retention elections. Arizona implemented its judicial evaluation program about 20 years ago, and since that time, the state has continually strived to improve its process. The result is that today Arizona has one of the most progressive and comprehensive judicial performance evaluation programs in the United States. This article takes a critical look at the strengths and weaknesses of Arizona’s program, keeping in mind two key values that the system seeks to protect: judicial accountability and judicial independence. Las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial son una herramienta relativamente nueva para evaluar a los jueces y ofrecer información a los votantes, que les ayude a decidir si quieren reelegir a los jueces en las elecciones. Arizona implementó su programa de evaluación judicial hace unos 20 años, y desde ese momento, el Estado se ha esforzado continuamente en mejorar el proceso. El resultado es que hoy en día, Arizona tiene uno de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial más progresistas e integrales de los Estados Unidos. Este artículo ofrece una mirada crítica a las fortalezas y debilidades del programa de Arizona, teniendo en cuenta dos valores clave que el sistema trata de proteger: la responsabilidad judicial y la independencia judicial. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533868

  17. What we know about primary dysmenorrhea today: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovides, Stella; Avidon, Ingrid; Baker, Fiona C

    2015-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea, or painful menstruation in the absence of pelvic pathology, is a common, and often debilitating, gynecological condition that affects between 45 and 95% of menstruating women. Despite the high prevalence, dysmenorrhea is often poorly treated, and even disregarded, by health professionals, pain researchers, and the women themselves, who may accept it as a normal part of the menstrual cycle. This review reports on current knowledge, particularly with regards to the impact and consequences of recurrent menstrual pain on pain sensitivity, mood, quality of life and sleep in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Comprehensive literature searches on primary dysmenorrhea were performed using the electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library. Full-text manuscripts published between the years 1944 and 2015 were reviewed for relevancy and reference lists were cross-checked for additional relevant studies. In combination with the word 'dysmenorrhea' one or more of the following search terms were used to obtain articles published in peer-reviewed journals only: pain, risk factors, etiology, experimental pain, clinical pain, adenomyosis, chronic pain, women, menstrual cycle, hyperalgesia, pain threshold, pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, pain reactivity, pain perception, central sensitization, quality of life, sleep, treatment, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Women with dysmenorrhea, compared with women without dysmenorrhea, have greater sensitivity to experimental pain both within and outside areas of referred menstrual pain. Importantly, the enhanced pain sensitivity is evident even in phases of the menstrual cycle when women are not experiencing menstrual pain, illustrating that long-term differences in pain perception extend outside of the painful menstruation phase. This enhanced pain sensitivity may increase susceptibility to other chronic pain conditions in later life; dysmenorrhea is a risk factor for fibromyalgia. Further

  18. A critical literature review of focused electron beam induced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorp, W. F. van; Hagen, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review is given of the results from literature on electron beam induced deposition. Electron beam induced deposition is a complex process, where many and often mutually dependent factors are involved. The process has been studied by many over many years in many different experimental setups, so it is not surprising that there is a great variety of experimental results. To come to a better understanding of the process, it is important to see to which extent the experimental results are consistent with each other and with the existing model. All results from literature were categorized by sorting the data according to the specific parameter that was varied (current density, acceleration voltage, scan patterns, etc.). Each of these parameters can have an effect on the final deposit properties, such as the physical dimensions, the composition, the morphology, or the conductivity. For each parameter-property combination, the available data are discussed and (as far as possible) interpreted. By combining models for electron scattering in a solid, two different growth regimes, and electron beam induced heating, the majority of the experimental results were explained qualitatively. This indicates that the physical processes are well understood, although quantitatively speaking the models can still be improved. The review makes clear that several major issues remain. One issue encountered when interpreting results from literature is the lack of data. Often, important parameters (such as the local precursor pressure) are not reported, which can complicate interpretation of the results. Another issue is the fact that the cross section for electron induced dissociation is unknown. In a number of cases, a correlation between the vertical growth rate and the secondary electron yield was found, which suggests that the secondary electrons dominate the dissociation rather than the primary electrons. Conclusive evidence for this hypothesis has not been found. Finally

  19. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    In this report we review the range of teaching resources and strategies used in anatomy education with the aim of coming up with suggestions about the best teaching practices in this area. There is much debate about suitable methods of delivering anatomical knowledge. Competent clinicians, particularly surgeons, need a deep understanding of anatomy for safe clinical procedures. However, because students have had very limited exposure to anatomy during clinical training, there is a concern that medical students are ill-prepared in anatomy when entering clerkships and residency programs. Therefore, developing effective modalities for teaching anatomy is essential to safe medical practice. Cadaver-based instruction has survived as the main instructional tool for hundreds of years, however, there are differing views on whether full cadaver dissection is still appropriate for a modern undergraduate training. The limitations on curricular time, trained anatomy faculty and resources for gross anatomy courses in integrated or/and system-based curricula, have led many medical schools to abandon costly and time-consuming dissection-based instruction in favour of alternative methods of instruction including prosection, medical imaging, living anatomy and multimedia resources. To date, no single teaching tool has been found to meet curriculum requirements. The best way to teach modern anatomy is by combining multiple pedagogical resources to complement one another, students appear to learn more effectively when multimodal and system-based approaches are integrated. Our review suggests that certain professions would have more benefit from certain educational methods or strategies than others. Full body dissection would be best reserved for medical students, especially those with surgical career intentions, while teaching based on prosections and plastination is more suitable for dental, pharmacy and allied health science students. There is a need to direct future research

  20. Fear of Falling in Older Adults: Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukyoo Jung, PhD, RN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fear of falling has been reported in a high percentage of community-dwelling elderly who both do and don't have a history of falling. The aims of this review are to: (a elucidate the definition of fear of falling; (b clarify measurements of fear of falling based on its definition; and (c describe the risk factors for fear of falling. Despite the importance of the percentage and the consequences of fear of falling, its definition is still vague and warrants clarification. Based on a literature review, major fear of falling measurements involve the evaluation of fear of falling and use of a fall efficacy scale. Using a correct definition of fear of falling, nurses working close with older adults need to identify the different definitions of fear of falling and fall efficacy scale. In addition, nurses who work closely with older adults should encourage them to increase or maintain modifiable factors by maximizing their basic health status and enhancing their physical activity to decrease fear of falling.

  1. [Prediabetes as a riskmarker for stress-induced hyperglycemia in critically ill adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallegos, Diego Jesús; Luis-López, Eliseo

    2017-01-01

    It is not known if patients with prediabetes, a subgroup of non-diabetic patients that usually present hyperinsulinemia, have higher risk to present stress-induced hyperglycemia. The objective was to determine if prediabetes is a risk marker to present stress-induced hyperglycemia. Analytic, observational, prospective cohort study of non-diabetic critically ill patients of a third level hospital. We determined plasmatic glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at admission to diagnose stress-induced hyperglycemia (glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL) and prediabetes (HbA1c between 5.7 and 6.4%), respectively. We examined the proportion of non-prediabetic and prediabetic patients that developed stress hyperglycemia with contingence tables and Fisher's exact test for nominal scales. Of 73 patients studied, we found a proportion of stress-induced hyperglycemia in 6.6% in those without prediabetes and 61.1% in those with prediabetes. The Fisher's exact test value was 22.46 (p Prediabetes is a risk marker for stress-induced hyperglycemia in critically ill adults.

  2. Folklore and Folk Songs of Chittagong: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Folk Songs stems from Folklore are very rich in the southern region of Chittagong. In this part of the world Folk Songs play pivotal role in the lifestyle of people as a heart-touching and heavenly connection exists between human, nature and Folk Songs. Folk Songs in this area are special because we found the theme of Nature Conservation in them. We took the southern part of Chittagong (Lohagara, Satkania, Chandanaish and Patiya as our research area, selected a village namely Chunati in the systematic sampling and more than 100 people were interviewed through focus group discussion and key informant interviews. The sufficient literature review is also done. People in this area love nature a lot. Here music personnel were born from time to time who not only worked for the musical development but also created consciousness among people to love nature and save it. We discussed about the origin of Folk Songs, pattern of Folk Songs to clarify the importance of Folk Songs of Chittagong for its connection to Folklore and at the same time for promoting the idea of Nature Conservation. Of course, this part of studies deserves more attention in the field of research. Our ultimate goal should be to conserve and promote Folk Songs of Chittagong with yearlong heritage that automatically will later enrich Folklore and Nature Conservation.

  3. Masked hypertension definition, impact, outcomes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris P; Makris, Thomas K

    2007-12-01

    The phenomenon of masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a clinical condition in which a patient's office blood pressure (BP) level is hypertensive range. The prevalence in the population is about the same as that of isolated office hypertension; about 1 in 7 or 8 persons with a normal office BP level may fall into this category. The high prevalence of MH would suggest the necessity for measuring out-of-office BP in persons with apparently normal or well-controlled office BP. Reactivity to daily life stressors and behavioral factors such as smoking, alcohol use, contraceptive use in women, and sedentary habits can selectively influence MH. MH should be searched for in individuals who are at increased risk for cardiovascular complications including patients with kidney disease or diabetes. Individuals with MH have been shown to have a greater-than-normal prevalence of organ damage, particularly with an increased prevalence of metabolic risk factors, left ventricular mass index, carotid intima-media thickness, and impaired large artery distensibility compared with patients with a truly normal BP level in and out of the clinic or office. Also, outcome studies have suggested that MH increases cardiovascular risk, which appears to be close to that of in-office and out-of-office hypertension. The aim of this review was to define the entity of MH, to describe its prevalence in the general population, and to discuss its correlation with cardiovascular events.

  4. Developing and understanding biofluid vibrational spectroscopy: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew J; Hussain, Shawn R; Lovergne, Lila; Untereiner, Valérie; Hughes, Caryn; Lukaszewski, Roman A; Thiéfin, Gérard; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2016-04-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy can provide rapid, label-free, and objective analysis for the clinical domain. Spectroscopic analysis of biofluids such as blood components (e.g. serum and plasma) and others in the proximity of the diseased tissue or cell (e.g. bile, urine, and sputum) offers non-invasive diagnostic/monitoring possibilities for future healthcare that are capable of rapid diagnosis of diseases via specific spectral markers or signatures. Biofluids offer an ideal diagnostic medium due to their ease and low cost of collection and daily use in clinical biology. Due to the low risk and invasiveness of their collection they are widely welcomed by patients as a diagnostic medium. This review underscores recent research within the field of biofluid spectroscopy and its use in myriad pathologies such as cancer and infectious diseases. It highlights current progresses, advents, and pitfalls within the field and discusses future spectroscopic clinical potentials for diagnostics. The requirements and issues surrounding clinical translation are also considered.

  5. A critical review on factors influencing fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Kumar, Virendra; Pathak, Vinayak V; Ahmad, Shamshad; Aoyi, Ochieng; Tyagi, V V

    2017-03-01

    Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of different waste materials is a promising approach to produce bio-energy in terms of renewable energy exploration. This communication has reviewed various influencing factors of dark fermentation process with detailed account of determinants in biohydrogen production. It has also focused on different factors such as improved bacterial strain, reactor design, metabolic engineering and two stage processes to enhance the bioenergy productivity from substrate. The study also suggest that complete utilization of substrates for biological hydrogen production requires the concentrated research and development for efficient functioning of microorganism with integrated application for energy production and bioremediation. Various studies have been taken into account here, to show the comparative efficiency of different substrates and operating conditions with inhibitory factors and pretreatment option for biohydrogen production. The study reveals that an extensive research is needed to observe field efficiency of process using low cost substrates and integration of dark and photo fermentation process. Integrated approach of fermentation process will surely compete with conventional hydrogen process and replace it completely in future.

  6. Spanish-language screening scales: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Castro, S; Mena-Montes, B; González-Ambrosio, G; Zubieta-Zavala, A; Torres-Carrillo, N M; Acosta-Castillo, G I; Espinel-Bermúdez, M C

    2018-05-09

    Dementia is a chronic, degenerative disease with a strong impact on families and health systems. The instruments currently in use for measuring cognitive impairment have different psychometric characteristics in terms of application time, cut-off point, reliability, and validity. The objective of this review is to describe the characteristics of the validated, Spanish-language versions of the Mini-Cog, Clock-Drawing Test, and Mini-Mental State Examination scales for cognitive impairment screening. We performed a three-stage literature search of articles published on Medline since 1953. We selected articles on validated, Spanish-language versions of the scales that included data on reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity. The 3 screening tools assessed in this article provide support for primary care professionals. Timely identification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia is crucial for the prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amiodarone-Associated Optic Neuropathy: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passman, Rod S.; Bennett, Charles L.; Purpura, Joseph M.; Kapur, Rashmi; Johnson, Lenworth N.; Raisch, Dennis W.; West, Dennis P.; Edwards, Beatrice J.; Belknap, Steven M.; Liebling, Dustin B.; Fisher, Mathew J.; Samaras, Athena T.; Jones, Lisa-Gaye A.; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E.; McKoy, June M.

    2011-01-01

    Although amiodarone is the most commonly prescribed antiarrhythmic drug, its use is limited by serious toxicities, including optic neuropathy. Current reports of amiodarone associated optic neuropathy identified from the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FDA-AERS) and published case reports were reviewed. A total of 296 reports were identified: 214 from AERS, 59 from published case reports, and 23 from adverse events reports for patients enrolled in clinical trials. Mean duration of amiodarone therapy before vision loss was 9 months (range 1-84 months). Insidious onset of amiodarone associated optic neuropathy (44%) was the most common presentation, and nearly one-third were asymptomatic. Optic disc edema was present in 85% of cases. Following drug cessation, 58% had improved visual acuity, 21% were unchanged, and 21% had further decreased visual acuity. Legal blindness (< 20/200) was noted in at least one eye in 20% of cases. Close ophthalmologic surveillance of patients during the tenure of amiodarone administration is warranted. PMID:22385784

  9. Neurofeedback with fMRI: A critical systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Robert T; MacPherson, Amanda; Lifshitz, Michael; Roth, Raquel R; Raz, Amir

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback relying on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-nf) heralds new prospects for self-regulating brain and behavior. Here we provide the first comprehensive review of the fMRI-nf literature and the first systematic database of fMRI-nf findings. We synthesize information from 99 fMRI-nf experiments-the bulk of currently available data. The vast majority of fMRI-nf findings suggest that self-regulation of specific brain signatures seems viable; however, replication of concomitant behavioral outcomes remains sparse. To disentangle placebo influences and establish the specific effects of neurofeedback, we highlight the need for double-blind placebo-controlled studies alongside rigorous and standardized statistical analyses. Before fMRI-nf can join the clinical armamentarium, research must first confirm the sustainability, transferability, and feasibility of fMRI-nf in patients as well as in healthy individuals. Whereas modulating specific brain activity promises to mold cognition, emotion, thought, and action, reducing complex mental health issues to circumscribed brain regions may represent a tenuous goal. We can certainly change brain activity with fMRI-nf. However, it remains unclear whether such changes translate into meaningful behavioral improvements in the clinical domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredydd; Kholod, Nazar; Kuklinski, Teresa; Denysenko, Artur; Smith, Steven J.; Staniszewski, Aaron; Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Liang; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive review of estimated black carbon (BC) emissions in Russia from a range of studies. Russia has an important role regarding BC emissions given the extent of its territory above the Arctic Circle, where BC emissions have a particularly pronounced effect on the climate. We assess underlying methodologies and data sources for each major emissions source based on their level of detail, accuracy and extent to which they represent current conditions. We then present reference values for each major emissions source. In the case of flaring, the study presents new estimates drawing on data on Russia's associated petroleum gas and the most recent satellite data on flaring. We also present estimates of organic carbon (OC) for each source, either based on the reference studies or from our own calculations. In addition, the study provides uncertainty estimates for each source. Total BC emissions are estimated at 688 Gg in 2014, with an uncertainty range 401 Gg-1453 Gg, while OC emissions are 9224 Gg with uncertainty ranging between 5596 Gg and 14,736 Gg. Wildfires dominated and contributed about 83% of the total BC emissions: however, the effect on radiative forcing is mitigated in part by OC emissions. We also present an adjusted estimate of Arctic forcing from Russia's BC and OC emissions. In recent years, Russia has pursued policies to reduce flaring and limit particulate emissions from on-road transport, both of which appear to significantly contribute to the lower emissions and forcing values found in this study.

  11. Wearable Electronics and Smart Textiles: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Stoppa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Textiles (e-textiles are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible of becoming tangled or snagged by surrounding objects. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to fast changes in the computational and sensing requirements of any specific application, this one representing a useful feature for power management and context awareness. The vision behind wearable computing foresees future electronic systems to be an integral part of our everyday outfits. Such electronic devices have to meet special requirements concerning wearability. Wearable systems will be characterized by their ability to automatically recognize the activity and the behavioral status of their own user as well as of the situation around her/him, and to use this information to adjust the systems’ configuration and functionality. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of Smart Textiles and pays particular attention to the materials and their manufacturing process. Each technique shows advantages and disadvantages and our aim is to highlight a possible trade-off between flexibility, ergonomics, low power consumption, integration and eventually autonomy.

  12. Incineration of hazardous waste: A critical review update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.R.; Oppelt, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, concern over improper disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste cleanup and control statutes of unprecedented scope. The more traditional and lowest-cost methods of direct landfilling, storage in surface impoundments and deep-well injection are being replaced in large measure by waste minimization at the source of generation, waste reuse, physical/chemical/biological treatment, incineration and chemical stabilization/solidification methods. Of all of the 'permanent' treatment technologies, properly designed incineration systems are capable of the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of hazardous waste streams. Substantial design and operation experience exists in this area and a wide variety of commercial systems are available. Consequently, significant growth is anticipated in the use of incineration and other thermal destruction methods. The objective of this review is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding hazardous waste incineration in an effort to put these technological and environmental issues into perspective

  13. Synaesthesia and learning: A critical review and novel theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Robert Watson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning and synaesthesia are profoundly interconnected. On the one hand, the development of synaesthesia is clearly influenced by learning. Synaesthetic inducers—the stimuli that evoke these unusual experiences—often involve the perception of complex properties learned in early childhood, e.g. letters, musical notes, numbers, months of the year and even swimming strokes. Further, recent research has shown that the associations individual synaesthetes make with these learned inducers are not arbitrary, but are strongly influenced by the structure of the learnt do- main. For instance, the synaesthetic colours of letters are partially determined by letter frequency and the relative positions of letters in the alphabet. On the other hand, there is also a small, but growing, body of literature which shows that synaesthesia can influence or be helpful in learning. For instance, synaesthetes appear to be able to use their unusual experiences as mnemonic de- vices and can even exploit them while learning novel abstract categories. Here we review these two directions of influence and argue that they are interconnected. We propose that synaesthesia arises, at least in part, because of the cognitive demands of learning in childhood, and that it is used to aid perception and understanding of a variety of learned categories. Our thesis is that the structural similarities between synaesthetic triggering stimuli and synaesthetic experiences are the remnants, the fossilized traces, of past learning challenges for which synasethesia was helpful.

  14. Gamification in Stress Management Apps: A Critical App Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Corinna A; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Background In today’s society, stress is more and more often a cause of disease. This makes stress management an important target of behavior change programs. Gamification has been suggested as one way to support health behavior change. However, it remains unclear to which extend available gamification techniques are integrated in stress management apps, and if their occurrence is linked to the use of elements from behavior change theory. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the use of gamification techniques in stress management apps and the cooccurrence of these techniques with evidence-based stress management methods and behavior change techniques. Methods A total of 62 stress management apps from the Google Play Store were reviewed on their inclusion of 17 gamification techniques, 15 stress management methods, and 26 behavior change techniques. For this purpose, an extended taxonomy of gamification techniques was constructed and applied by 2 trained, independent raters. Results Interrater-reliability was high, with agreement coefficient (AC)=.97. Results show an average of 0.5 gamification techniques for the tested apps and reveal no correlations between the use of gamification techniques and behavior change techniques (r=.17, P=.20), or stress management methods (r=.14, P=.26). Conclusions This leads to the conclusion that designers of stress management apps do not use gamification techniques to influence the user’s behaviors and reactions. Moreover, app designers do not exploit the potential of combining gamification techniques with behavior change theory. PMID:28592397

  15. Methyl methacrylate and respiratory sensitization: A Critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Jonathan; Fields, Cheryl; Andrews, Larry S; Pemberton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a respiratory irritant and dermal sensitizer that has been associated with occupational asthma in a small number of case reports. Those reports have raised concern that it might be a respiratory sensitizer. To better understand that possibility, we reviewed the in silico, in chemico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology literature, and also epidemiologic and occupational medicine reports related to the respiratory effects of MMA. Numerous in silico and in chemico studies indicate that MMA is unlikely to be a respiratory sensitizer. The few in vitro studies suggest that MMA has generally weak effects. In vivo studies have documented contact skin sensitization, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and weakly positive responses on local lymph node assay; guinea pig and mouse inhalation sensitization tests have not been performed. Cohort and cross-sectional worker studies reported irritation of eyes, nose, and upper respiratory tract associated with short-term peaks exposures, but little evidence for respiratory sensitization or asthma. Nineteen case reports described asthma, laryngitis, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis in MMA-exposed workers; however, exposures were either not well described or involved mixtures containing more reactive respiratory sensitizers and irritants.The weight of evidence, both experimental and observational, argues that MMA is not a respiratory sensitizer. PMID:21401327

  16. The domestic benefits of tropical forests: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, K M; Kumari, K

    1998-02-01

    This review focuses on forests in the humid tropics and on two of their potentially most important benefits. These include hydrological benefits, such as erosion control and regulation of stream flows, and non-timber forest products, such as rubber, rattan, fruits, and nuts. The first benefit is motivational. Host countries capture only a small proportion of the global benefits, which stem from biodiversity conservation. Demonstration of palpable local benefits could help to build support for biodiversity-oriented projects. The second benefit is the magnitude of domestic benefits that could influence project financing. Sufficiently large net domestic benefits could justify financing of a project on narrow economic grounds, with biodiversity conservation as a by-product. Overall, it is noted that the quantifiable benefits of forest preservation in providing hydrological services and non-timber forest products are highly variable. These classes of domestic benefits may in general be smaller than popularly supposed. In view of this, the need for financing conservation from the Global Environmental Facility or other global sources is emphasized rather than placing the burden on domestic resources.

  17. Bio-nano interface and environment: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Reyes, Gerardo; Leganes, Francisco; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; Rosal, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The bio-nano interface is the boundary where engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) meet the biological system, exerting the biological function for which they have been designed or inducing adverse effects on other cells or organisms when they reach nontarget scenarios (i.e., the natural environment). Research has been performed to determine the fate, transport, and toxic properties of ENMs, but much of it is focused on pristine or so-called as-manufactured ENMs, or else modifications of the materials were not assessed. We review the most recent progress regarding the bio-nano interface and the transformations that ENMs undergo in the environment, paying special attention to the adsorption of environmental biomolecules on the surface of ENMs. Whereas the protein corona has received considerable attention in the fields of biomedics and human toxicology, its environmental analogue (the eco-corona) has been much less studied. A section dedicated to the analytical methods for studying and characterizing the eco-corona is also presented. We conclude by presenting and discussing the key problems and knowledge gaps that need to be resolved in the near future regarding the bio-nano interface and the eco-corona. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3181-3193. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  19. Oklo. A review and critical evaluation of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterstroem, Lena

    2000-10-01

    The Oklo natural fossil fission reactors in Gabon, Equatorial Africa, have been studied as a natural analogue for spent nuclear fuel in a geological environment. For these studies, it is important to know what has happened to these reactors since they formed. This review is focussed on existing geological and geochronological information concerning the Oklo reactors and the surrounding ore. A sequence of geological and geochemical events in the Oklo area, as described in the literature, is given. The data and the studies behind this established geochronology are discussed and evaluated. Of the regional geology, special attention is given to the dating of the Francevillian sediments, and the intrusion of a dolerite dyke swarm. The processes that led to the mineralisation at Oklo, the subsequent formation of the nuclear reactors and later migration of fission products are described. Further discussion concerns the studies of the dolerite dyke swarm, since this appears to be one of the most important events related to fission product migration. A close look at the data related to this event shows that further study of the age of the dolerite dykes, and their effect on the uraninite in the Oklo reactors, is needed

  20. Recent developments in organic redox flow batteries: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P.; Shah, A. A.; Sanz, L.; Flox, C.; Morante, J. R.; Xu, Q.; Mohamed, M. R.; Ponce de León, C.; Walsh, F. C.

    2017-08-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have emerged as prime candidates for energy storage on the medium and large scales, particularly at the grid scale. The demand for versatile energy storage continues to increase as more electrical energy is generated from intermittent renewable sources. A major barrier in the way of broad deployment and deep market penetration is the use of expensive metals as the active species in the electrolytes. The use of organic redox couples in aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes is a promising approach to reducing the overall cost in long-term, since these materials can be low-cost and abundant. The performance of such redox couples can be tuned by modifying their chemical structure. In recent years, significant developments in organic redox flow batteries has taken place, with the introduction of new groups of highly soluble organic molecules, capable of providing a cell voltage and charge capacity comparable to conventional metal-based systems. This review summarises the fundamental developments and characterization of organic redox flow batteries from both the chemistry and materials perspectives. The latest advances, future challenges and opportunities for further development are discussed.

  1. Models for Microbial Fuel Cells: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chengshuo; Zhang, Daxing; Pedrycz, Witold; Zhu, Yingmin; Guo, Yongxian

    2018-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been widely viewed as one of the most promising alternative sources of renewable energy. A recognition of needs of efficient development methods based on multidisciplinary research becomes crucial for the optimization of MFCs. Modeling of MFCs is an effective way for not only gaining a thorough understanding of the effects of operation conditions on the performance of power generation but also becomes of essential interest to the successful implementation of MFCs. The MFC models encompass the underlying reaction process and limiting factors of the MFC. The models come in various forms, such as the mathematical equations or the equivalent circuits. Different modeling focuses and approaches of the MFC have emerged. In this study, we present a state of the art of MFCs modeling; the past modeling methods are reviewed as well. Models and modeling methods are elaborated on based on the classification provided by Mechanism-based models and Application-based models. Mechanisms, advantages, drawbacks, and application fields of different models are illustrated as well. We exhibit a complete and comprehensive exposition of the different models for MFCs and offer further guidance to promote the performance of MFCs.

  2. Strategic learning and information and communication technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Monerero Font

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 93 514 USAL 4 1 606 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This article presents an outline of a learning strategy redefinition, based on recent contributions from learning technologies. This new definition addresses the question of how technological affordances of the software, of the technological tools, or an educational environment, allow a learner or a group of learners develop a new ways to perform a strategic learning action. We review how different characteristics of learning strategy definition have been transformed because of introduction of ICT into education. Finally, the article points toward conceptual challenges and future research questions.

  3. Economic evaluation of targeted cancer interventions: critical review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Elena B; Marshall, Deborah A; Kulin, Nathalie A; Ferrusi, Ilia L; Hassett, Michael J; Ladabaum, Uri; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2011-10-01

    Scientific advances have improved our ability to target cancer interventions to individuals who will benefit most and spare the risks and costs to those who will derive little benefit or even be harmed. Several approaches are currently used for targeting interventions for cancer risk reduction, screening, and treatment, including risk prediction algorithms for identifying high-risk subgroups and diagnostic tests for tumor markers and germline genetic mutations. Economic evaluation can inform decisions about the use of targeted interventions, which may be more costly than traditional strategies. However, assessing the impact of a targeted intervention on costs and health outcomes requires explicit consideration of the method of targeting. In this study, we describe the importance of this principle by reviewing published cost-effectiveness analyses of targeted interventions in breast cancer. Few studies we identified explicitly evaluated the relationships among the method of targeting, the accuracy of the targeting test, and outcomes of the targeted intervention. Those that did found that characteristics of targeting tests had a substantial impact on outcomes. We posit that the method of targeting and the outcomes of a targeted intervention are inextricably linked and recommend that cost-effectiveness analyses of targeted interventions explicitly consider costs and outcomes of the method of targeting.

  4. Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin A; Koelsch, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Expectation and prediction constitute central mechanisms in the perception and cognition of music, which have been explored in theoretical and empirical accounts. We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified predictive models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity (ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sclerotherapy of Plummer's disease - A critical ten year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrock, D.; Humplik, B.I.; Munz, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Since ten years sclerotherapy with ethanol is proposed for the treatment of Plummer's disease (unifocal autonomy). Hence, it was the aim of this study to evaluate critically all the sclerotherapies performed in our institution. Special attention should be given to the long-term results. Material and Methods: In the study enrolled were 47 consecutive patients with Plummer's disease, who were referred to sclerotherapy with ethanol since 1991 (10 men, 37 women, aged 24-79 years). The diagnosis of unifocal autonomy was proven in all patients by scintigraphy under TSH-suppressed conditions. 31 patients had latent, 16 manifest hyperthyroidism, 12 of these under antithyroid medication. All patients received ultrasound guided infiltrations of 0.5-2 ml 96 % ethanol into the autonomy. The procedure was repeated at intervals (individually between 1 week and 3 months) until there was A) sufficient success, B) partial success or C) the patient refused further infiltrations. Results: Overall, 407 infiltrations were performed. The number of infiltrations per patient reached from 1 to 63 (mean 7). The side effects included 2 cases of a (transient) paresis of the recurrent nerve and pain/discomfort in 32 %. The therapy was finished successfully (group A; normal TSH, normalisation of the scintigraphic pattern) in 17 patients, partially successfully (group B; change from manifest to latent hyperthyroidism and/or TSH > 0.1 mU/l, scintigram not completely normalized) in 12 patients, and without success (group C) in 16 patients - 2 changed to surgery, 4 to radioiodine therapy, 3 continued antithyroid medication and 4 refused therapy without further comments. Excluding 2 patients from group B (with 35 and 61 infiltrations, respectively) there was no significant difference between A, B, and C in the parameters uptake under suppression, volume of the autonomy, laboratory values, number of infiltrations, age or sex. Conclusion: The sclerotherapy with ethanol, consequently performed, is

  6. Treatment Effects for Dysphagia in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Dalal; Ballard, Kirrie; Bogaardt, Hans

    2016-10-01

    Dysphagia or swallowing difficulties have been reported to be a concern in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). This problem can result in several complications including aspiration pneumonia, reduced quality of life and an increase in mortality rate. No previous systematic reviews on treatment effects for dysphagia in MS have been published. The main objective of this study is to summarise and qualitatively analyse published studies on treatment effects for dysphagia in MS. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were applied to conduct a systematic search of seven databases, using relevant key words, and subsequent analysis of the identified studies. The studies were required to meet all three inclusion criteria of including a statement on intention to treat, or measure the effects of treatment for dysphagia in adults with MS and data on treatment outcomes for at least one adult diagnosed with MS. Retained studies were evaluated by two independent reviewers using a critical appraisal tool. This study has not been registered. A total of 563 studies were identified from the database searches. After screening and assessment of full articles for eligibility, five studies were included in the review. Three examined electrical stimulation and two examined the use of botulinum toxin. One study testing electrical stimulation was a randomised controlled trial, two were well-designed case series and two were case series lacking experimental control. All studies reported some positive effects on dysphagia; however, treatments that involved the use of electrical stimulation showed larger effect sizes. There is a paucity of evidence to guide treatment of dysphagia in MS, with only electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin treatment represented in the literature search conducted here. While both treatments show initial promise for reducing the swallowing impairment, they require further research using well-controlled experimental

  7. Psychotropic Drug Use in Physically Restrained, Critically Ill Adults Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Melanie; Burry, Lisa; Cheung, Alexandra; Farquharson, Tara; Traille, Marlene; Mantas, Ioanna; Mehta, Sangeeta; Rose, Louise

    2017-09-01

    Restraining therapies (physical or pharmacological) are used to promote the safety of both patients and health care workers. Some guidelines recommend nonpharmacological or pharmacological interventions be used before physical restraints in critically ill patients. To characterize psychotropic drug interventions before and after use of physical restraints in critically ill adults receiving mechanical ventilation. A single-center, prospective, observational study documenting psychotropic drug use and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) scores in the 2 hours before and the 6 hours after application of physical restraints. Ninety-three patients were restrained for a median of 21 hours (interquartile range, 9-70 hours). Thirty percent of patients did not receive a psychotropic drug or had a drug stopped or decreased before physical restraints were applied. More patients received a psychotropic drug intervention after use of physical restraints than before (86% vs 56%, P = .001). Administration of opioids was more common after the use of physical restraints (54% vs 20% of patients, P = .001) and accounted for more drug interventions (45% vs 29%, P = .001). Fifty patients had SAS scores from both time periods; 16% remained oversedated, 24% were appropriately sedated, and 16% remained agitated in both time periods. Patients became oversedated (20%), more agitated (10%), less agitated (8%), and less sedated (6%) after restraint use. Psychotropic drug interventions (mostly using opioids) were more common after use of physical restraints. Some patients may be physically restrained for anticipated treatment interference without consideration of pharmacological options and without documented agitation. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. A critical review on toxicological safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Soo-Jeong; Jin, Young-Bae; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Gang-Sung; Marchioni, Eric

    2014-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are known as unique radiolytic products generated from the major fatty acids and triglycerides in food through only irradiation. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively with synthetic compounds. Mutagenicity tests of 2-ACBs on the microorganisms reviewed in this study clearly indicate that no evidence was observed, while several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs through cell death. Moreover, the genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested as DNA strand breaks were observed. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because genotoxicity may result from cytotoxicity, which causes DNA damage or from cell membrane destruction and indirect oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of genotoxic effects is needed. With regards to the suggestion of Raul et al. (2002) who showed the promoting effect of colon cancer by the administration of 2-ACBs, further studies are needed to correct some experimental design errors. Moreover, an in-vivo experiment that evaluated the metabolism of 2-ACBs has revealed that 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted through fecal discharge. In conclusion, it is considered that the ingestion of 2-ACBs through irradiated foods is unlikely to affect the human health. However, more specific studies are required to identify the fate of 2-ACBs in body and the LD 50 values. The determination of chronic toxicity by long-term exposure to low concentrations of 2-ACBs has to be evaluated more clearly to determine if these compounds are safe to human. - Highlights: • Mutagenicity 2-ACBs on the microorganisms was not observed. • Several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs. • Genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested, but elucidation of the mechanism is needed. • 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted in feces. • Further studies for toxicity of 2-ACBs following

  9. Fieldwork Methodology in South American Maritime Archaeology: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüeso, Amaru; Ciarlo, Nicolás C.

    2017-12-01

    In archaeology, data obtained from the analysis of material evidence (i.e., the archaeological record) from extensive excavations have been a significant means for the ultimate development of interpretations about human life in the past. Therefore, the methodological procedures and tools employed during fieldwork are of crucial importance due to their effect on the information likely to be recovered. In the case of maritime archaeology, the development of rigorous methods and techniques allowed for reaching outcomes as solid as those from the work performed on land. These improvements constituted one of the principal supports—if not, the most important pillar—for its acceptance as a scientific field of study. Over time, the growing diversity of sites under study (e.g., shipwrecks, ports, dockyards, and prehistoric settlements) and the underwater environments encountered made it clear that there was a need for the application of specific methodological criteria, in accordance with the particularities of the sites and of each study (e.g., the research aims and the available resources). This article presents some ideas concerning the methodologies used in South American investigations that have exhibited a strong emphasis on the analysis of historical shipwrecks (the sixteenth to twentieth centuries). Based on a state-of-the-knowledge review of these research projects, in particular where excavations were conducted, the article focuses on the details of the main strategies adopted and results achieved. The ideas proposed in this article can be useful as a starting point for future activities of surveying, recording, and excavating shipwrecks.

  10. Gamification in Stress Management Apps: A Critical App Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Alexandra; Christmann, Corinna A; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-06-07

    In today's society, stress is more and more often a cause of disease. This makes stress management an important target of behavior change programs. Gamification has been suggested as one way to support health behavior change. However, it remains unclear to which extend available gamification techniques are integrated in stress management apps, and if their occurrence is linked to the use of elements from behavior change theory. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of gamification techniques in stress management apps and the cooccurrence of these techniques with evidence-based stress management methods and behavior change techniques. A total of 62 stress management apps from the Google Play Store were reviewed on their inclusion of 17 gamification techniques, 15 stress management methods, and 26 behavior change techniques. For this purpose, an extended taxonomy of gamification techniques was constructed and applied by 2 trained, independent raters. Interrater-reliability was high, with agreement coefficient (AC)=.97. Results show an average of 0.5 gamification techniques for the tested apps and reveal no correlations between the use of gamification techniques and behavior change techniques (r=.17, P=.20), or stress management methods (r=.14, P=.26). This leads to the conclusion that designers of stress management apps do not use gamification techniques to influence the user's behaviors and reactions. Moreover, app designers do not exploit the potential of combining gamification techniques with behavior change theory. ©Alexandra Hoffmann, Corinna A Christmann, Gabriele Bleser. Originally published in JMIR Serious Games (http://games.jmir.org), 07.06.2017.

  11. The cutting of cocaine and heroin: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The illicit drug cutting represents a complex problem that requires the sharing of knowledge from addiction studies, toxicology, criminology and criminalistics. Therefore, cutting is not well known by the forensic community. Thus, this review aims at deciphering the different aspects of cutting, by gathering information mainly from criminology and criminalistics. It tackles essentially specificities of cocaine and heroin cutting. The article presents the detected cutting agents (adulterants and diluents), their evolution in time and space and the analytical methodology implemented by forensic laboratories. Furthermore, it discusses when, in the history of the illicit drug, cutting may take place. Moreover, researches studying how much cutting occurs in the country of destination are analysed. Lastly, the reasons for cutting are addressed. According to the literature, adulterants are added during production of the illicit drug or at a relatively high level of its distribution chain (e.g. before the product arrives in the country of destination or just after its importation in the latter). Their addition seems hardly justified by the only desire to increase profits or to harm consumers' health. Instead, adulteration would be performed to enhance or to mimic the illicit drug effects or to facilitate administration of the drug. Nowadays, caffeine, diltiazem, hydroxyzine, levamisole, lidocaïne and phenacetin are frequently detected in cocaine specimens, while paracetamol and caffeine are almost exclusively identified in heroin specimens. This may reveal differences in the respective structures of production and/or distribution of cocaine and heroin. As the relevant information about cutting is spread across different scientific fields, a close collaboration should be set up to collect essential and unified data to improve knowledge and provide information for monitoring, control and harm reduction purposes. More research, on several areas of investigation, should be

  12. Notes on critical care-review of seminal management and leadership papers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Maureen

    2009-06-01

    Review of recent critical care provision reveals substantial changes in clinical unit operating, and policy drivers influencing international critical care delivery. Practitioners who have worked in healthcare environments over this time, will have witnessed substantial shifts in healthcare policy, changes in professional body guidance and greater service evaluation have impacted on critical care management and leadership. This paper offers a personal perspective on seminal management and leadership papers published in the critical care literature over the past decade. Presenting a range of national and international work that utilise diverse approaches, ten key papers are highlighted that have impacted in the United Kingdom setting. Through this, the influence of the modernisation agenda, the increasing significance of outcome studies, and the need for flexible, interdependent practice emerges. A key message to surface from this paper is the need for all in critical care to engage with, and understand the wider implications of management and leadership change for critical care delivery.

  13. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Comfort Scale to Assess Pain in Ventilated Critically Ill Adult Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih, Indah Sri; Prasetyo, Awal; Utami, Reni Sulung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pain is a common phenomenon experienced by ventilated and critically ill adult patients. It is urgent to measure the pain among these patients since they are unable to report their pain verbally. Comfort Scale is one of the instruments used to measure pain in adult patients. The scale is used to measure pain among children patients with fairly high sensitivity and specificity.Purpose: This study aimed to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Comfort Scale to measure pain ...

  14. Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is substantially depleted in bromine (often exceeding 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that the supermicrometer depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. Mechanisms for the submicrometer enrichments are not well understood. Currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many Br containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans outside the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight

  15. Predicting risk and outcomes for frail older adults: an umbrella review of frailty screening tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João; Cooke, Richard; Bobrowicz-Campos, Elzbieta; Santana, Silvina; Marcucci, Maura; Cano, Antonio; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; Germini, Federico; Holland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background A scoping search identified systematic reviews on diagnostic accuracy and predictive ability of frailty measures in older adults. In most cases, research was confined to specific assessment measures related to a specific clinical model. Objectives To summarize the best available evidence from systematic reviews in relation to reliability, validity, diagnostic accuracy and predictive ability of frailty measures in older adults. Inclusion criteria Population Older adults aged 60 years or older recruited from community, primary care, long-term residential care and hospitals. Index test Available frailty measures in older adults. Reference test Cardiovascular Health Study phenotype model, the Canadian Study of Health and Aging cumulative deficit model, Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment or other reference tests. Diagnosis of interest Frailty defined as an age-related state of decreased physiological reserves characterized by an increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. Types of studies Quantitative systematic reviews. Search strategy A three-step search strategy was utilized to find systematic reviews, available in English, published between January 2001 and October 2015. Methodological quality Assessed by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for systematic reviews and research synthesis. Data extraction Two independent reviewers extracted data using the standardized data extraction tool designed for umbrella reviews. Data synthesis Data were only presented in a narrative form due to the heterogeneity of included reviews. Results Five reviews with a total of 227,381 participants were included in this umbrella review. Two reviews focused on reliability, validity and diagnostic accuracy; two examined predictive ability for adverse health outcomes; and one investigated validity, diagnostic accuracy and predictive ability. In total, 26 questionnaires and brief assessments and eight frailty

  16. Eccentric Exercises Reduce Hamstring Strains in Elite Adult Male Soccer Players: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Ian B; Cacolice, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Hamstring strains are a common sport-related injury, which may limit athletic performance for an extended period of time. These injuries are common in the soccer setting. As such, it is important to determine an appropriate prevention program to minimize the risk of such an injury for these athletes. Eccentric hamstring training may be an effective and practical hamstring strain prevention strategy. What is the effect of eccentric exercises on hamstring strain prevention in adult male soccer players? Summary of Key Findings: Current literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effect of eccentric exercises in preventing hamstring strains in adult male soccer players. Three articles returned from the literature search met the inclusion criteria. A fourth article looked at differences in strength gains between eccentric and concentric hamstring strengthening exercises, but did not record hamstring strain incidence. A fifth article, a systematic review, met all the criteria except for the correct population. Of the 3 studies, 2 were randomized control trails and 1 was a cohort study. Clinical Bottom Line: There is robust supportive evidence that eccentric hamstring exercises can prevent a hamstring injury to an elite adult male soccer player. Therefore, it is recommended that athletic trainers and other sports medicine providers evaluate current practices relating to reducing hamstring strains and consider implementing eccentric exercise based prevention programs. Strength of Recommendation: All evidence was attained from articles with a level of evidence 2b or higher, based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) criteria, stating that eccentric exercises can decrease hamstring strains.

  17. Severe imported falciparum malaria: a cohort study in 400 critically ill adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Bruneel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large studies on severe imported malaria in non-endemic industrialized countries are lacking. We sought to describe the clinical spectrum of severe imported malaria in French adults and to identify risk factors for mortality at admission to the intensive care unit. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective review of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes according to the 2000 World Health Organization definition and requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Data were collected from medical charts using standardised case-report forms, in 45 French intensive care units in 2000-2006. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Data from 400 adults admitted to the intensive care unit were analysed, representing the largest series of severe imported malaria to date. Median age was 45 years; 60% of patients were white, 96% acquired the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and 65% had not taken antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Curative quinine treatment was used in 97% of patients. Intensive care unit mortality was 10.5% (42 deaths. By multivariate analysis, three variables at intensive care unit admission were independently associated with hospital death: older age (per 10-year increment, odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.28-2.32; P = 0.0004, Glasgow Coma Scale score (per 1-point decrease, OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.20-1.45; P<0.0001, and higher parasitemia (per 5% increment, OR, 1.41; 95%CI, 1.22-1.62; P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In a large population of adults treated in a non-endemic industrialized country, severe malaria still carried a high mortality rate. Our data, including predictors of death, can probably be generalized to other non-endemic countries where high-quality healthcare is available.

  18. Informed consent and decision-making about adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation: a systematic review of empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elisa J; Daud, Amna; Caicedo, Juan Carlos; Cameron, Kenzie A; Jay, Colleen; Fryer, Jonathan; Beauvais, Nicole; Skaro, Anton; Baker, Talia

    2011-12-27

    Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a complex procedure that poses serious health risks to and provides no direct health benefit for the donor. Because of this uneven risk-benefit ratio, ensuring donor autonomy through informed consent is critical. To assess the current knowledge pertaining to informed consent for LDLT, we conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on donors' decision-making process, comprehension about risks and outcomes, and information needs for LDLT. Of the 1423 identified articles, 24 met final review criteria, representing the perspective of approximately 2789 potential and actual donors. As donors' decisions to donate often occur before evaluation, they often make uninformed decisions. The review found that 88% to 95% of donors reported understanding information clinicians disclosed about risks and benefits. However, donors reported unmet information needs, knowledge gaps regarding risks, and unanticipated complications. Few donors reported feeling pressure to donate. Most studies were limited by cultural differences, small sample sizes, inconsistent measures, and poor methodological approaches. This systematic review suggests that informed consent for LDLT is sub-optimal as donors do not adequately appreciate disclosed information during the informed consent process, despite United Network for Organ Sharing/CMS regulations requiring formal psychological evaluation of donor candidates. Interventions are needed to improve donor-clinician communication during the LDLT informed consent process such as through the use of comprehension assessment tools and e-health educational tools that leverage adult learning theory to effectively convey LDLT outcome data.

  19. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine H Yu,1,2 Giuliana Guarna,1 Pamela Tsao,3 Jude R Jesuthasan,1 Adrian NC Lau,3,4 Ferhan S Siddiqi,1 Julie Anne Gilmour,3 Danyal Ladha,1 Henry Halapy,5 Andrew Advani1–3 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 5Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases.Methods: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included.Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated.Conclusion: While the majority of

  20. The Role and Impact of Critical Review as Perceived by an Implementer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, Claes; Laarouchi Engstroem, Saida; Olsson, Olle

    2006-01-01

    The quality and success of a nuclear waste management programme is based on the amalgamation of the interests of a wide number of stakeholders, integration of many different scientific disciplines, and merging of scientific, technical, ethical and social issues. In this process, a broad and structured review of all aspects of the program is necessary and we find the process with submission and review by stakeholders, regulators and government every third year very useful. High-quality critical review of is always a real benefit to the implementer - as it gives the implementer the possibility to see where improvements can be made. However, a close dialogue and a dynamic reviewing process, where questions are raised throughout the process, are essential in order to optimize the quality of the final applications. Naturally, critical review should not be used for pushing specific general research interests or issues that belong to the political arena rather than nuclear waste management itself. Moreover, critical review provides additional insight and promotes confidence by the general public. However, sometimes the public might be confused and have difficulties in judging the importance and relevance of critical comments. The implementer and regulatory authorities have a special duty to provide an overall perspective of safety-related issues. Even if critical review is valuable, the implementer can not only rely on this. The implementers' own internal quality assurance practise, internal review process as well as its overall safety culture is all crucial. Indeed, a successful management of radio-active waste, including operational aspects as well as siting process, starts with the implementers' own wish to perform state-of-the art-work both in terms of technology and overall approach

  1. The Role and Impact of Critical Review as Perceived by an Implementer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thegerstroem, Claes; Laarouchi Engstroem, Saida; Olsson, Olle [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    The quality and success of a nuclear waste management programme is based on the amalgamation of the interests of a wide number of stakeholders, integration of many different scientific disciplines, and merging of scientific, technical, ethical and social issues. In this process, a broad and structured review of all aspects of the program is necessary and we find the process with submission and review by stakeholders, regulators and government every third year very useful. High-quality critical review of is always a real benefit to the implementer - as it gives the implementer the possibility to see where improvements can be made. However, a close dialogue and a dynamic reviewing process, where questions are raised throughout the process, are essential in order to optimize the quality of the final applications. Naturally, critical review should not be used for pushing specific general research interests or issues that belong to the political arena rather than nuclear waste management itself. Moreover, critical review provides additional insight and promotes confidence by the general public. However, sometimes the public might be confused and have difficulties in judging the importance and relevance of critical comments. The implementer and regulatory authorities have a special duty to provide an overall perspective of safety-related issues. Even if critical review is valuable, the implementer can not only rely on this. The implementers' own internal quality assurance practise, internal review process as well as its overall safety culture is all crucial. Indeed, a successful management of radio-active waste, including operational aspects as well as siting process, starts with the implementers' own wish to perform state-of-the art-work both in terms of technology and overall approach.

  2. PHOTOPERIODIC CONTROL OF ADULT DIAPAUSE IN CHRYSOPERLA SINICA (TJEDER) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) -I. CRITICAL PHOTOPERIOD AND SENSITIVE STAGES OF ADULT DIAPAUSE INDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-yuXu; Ji-yuanMu; CuiHu; Hong-gangWang

    2004-01-01

    Photoperiodic sensitivity for diapause induction of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder) was examined at 22℃. The adult diapause of C. sinica was induced by short-day photoperiods, and the critical photoperiod for its induction was between 12.5L-11.5D and 13L-11D.Adults developed without diapause under long-day conditions, and entered diapause under short-day conditions. The adult stage was the uppermost sensitive stage for adult diapause induction, adults could go into diapause only when the emerging adults were under diapause-inducing short-day photoperiods. The short-day photoperiodic experience by transferring between 15L: 9D and 9L: 15D at preimaginal stages did not result in adult diapause under 15L: 9D photo regime, although some treatments extended the pre-oviposition period in adult stage. The results showed that the 3rd instar larvae and pre-pupae were more sensitive to the photoperiodic change from 15L: 9D to 9L: 15D photo regime than the other preimaginal stages.

  3. A review of conceptualisation of expressed emotion in caregivers of older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Yin; Murray, MaryAnne

    2015-02-01

    To clarify the concept of 'expressed emotion' and its application to caregivers of older adults with dementia. Expressed emotion has been a useful construct for understanding the quality of family relationships affecting patients with mental illness and their caregivers. However, this concept has been developed without precisely defining 'expressed emotion' as it pertains to dementia patients. Clarity regarding expressed emotion will enable nurses to apply knowledge of expressed emotion and provide important information for the development of new clinical interventions for this specific population. Integrative review. A review of literature on expressed emotion by caregivers of older adults with dementia. The inclusion criteria were: (1) published in English or Chinese during 1970-2012; (2) included both research and theoretical review articles on expressed emotion in nursing and other disciplines such as psychology, psychiatry and sociology. Initially, 236 articles were screened, and finally, 32 articles were evaluated for this review. Emotional expression and expressed emotion were discussed to clarify the distinctions and address overlap between these two similar terms. In addition, expressed emotion was examined further from three different aspects: trait or state, social control and cross-cultural. Finally, the results of reviewed papers for expressed emotion on dementia patients were explored and synthesised. A conceptual definition and a theoretical framework for the concept of expressed emotion are urgently needed to further our understanding of this critical phenomenon. With increasing attention to caregiving for patients with dementia, including the concept of expressed emotion in the research of this field may accelerate understanding of the importance of the family dynamics in advanced ageing caregiving. The expressed emotion concept could guide much of current clinical practice and help professional nurses understand the family's experience and

  4. How do older adults experience and perceive socially assistive robots in aged care: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemeulebroucke, Tijs; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Gastmans, Chris

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to gain a better understanding of how older adults experience, perceive, think, and feel about the use of socially assistive robots (SARs) in aged care settings. We conducted a literature search for studies that used a qualitative or a mixed-method approach having a significant qualitative element. Pubmed, Cinahl, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases were queried. Candidate articles published in journals and conference proceedings were considered for review. Two independent reviewers assessed the included studies for methodological quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program, after which data on subjects' self-reported opinions and perceptions were extracted and synthesized using thematic analyses. Seventeen studies producing 23 publications were included. Based on the opinions of older adults, four themes emerged in relation to the use of SARS: (1) roles of a SAR; (2) interaction between the older adult and the SAR, which could be further subdivided into (a) the technical aspect of the interaction and (b) the human aspect of the interaction; (3) appearance of the SAR; and (4) normative/ethical issues regarding the use of SARs in aged care. Older adults have clear positive and negative opinions about different aspects of SARs in aged care. Nonetheless, some opinions can be ambiguous and need more attention if SARs are to be considered for use in aged care. Understanding older adults' lived experiences with SARs creates the possibility of using an approach that embeds technological innovation into the care practice itself.

  5. Updating the treatment of recurrent tonsillitis in adults. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina GASCÓN-RUBIO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Acute pharyngitis in adults (APA is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in primary care. The main objective of this review is to update the therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of APA and to determine which interventions have the greatest impact in reducing morbidity and improving the quality of life of patients, which directly affects the consumption of health resources. Material and Methods: First clinical criteria of the FAA, indications of tonsillectomy and patterns of antibiotic therapy according to clinical guidelines of national and international scientific societies were defined. Subsequently, the literature related to the treatment of the FAA including other therapeutic options not covered in previous clinical guidelines (P. Leucotomos extract, vaccination by the mucosal route, AM3 and beta-glucans, homeopathy and herbal medicine was revised. ClinicalKey bases and PubMed data were used. Results: The comparison of the studies was difficult due to the disparity of criteria for inclusion and diagnostics, sample sizes, time tracking and poor uniformity in the clinical scales measuring variations. Conclusions: Therefore we cannot conclude whether a therapeutic option is more effective than another in the treatment and prevention of adult APA.

  6. Correlates associated with participation in physical activity among adults: a systematic review of reviews and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding which factors influence participation in physical activity is important to improve the public health. The aim of the present review of reviews was to summarize and present updated evidence on personal and environmental factors associated with physical activity. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for reviews published up to 31 Jan. 2017 reporting on potential factors of physical activity in adults aged over 18 years. The quality of each review was appraised with the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR checklist. The corrected covered area (CCA was calculated as a measure of overlap for the primary publications in each review. Results Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria which reviewed 90 personal and 27 environmental factors. The average quality of the studies was moderate, and the CCA ranged from 0 to 4.3%. For personal factors, self-efficacy was shown as the strongest factor for participation in physical activity (7 out of 9. Intention to exercise, outcome expectation, perceived behavioral control and perceived fitness were positively associated with physical activity in more than 3 reviews, while age and bad status of health or fitness were negatively associated with participation in physical activity in more than 3 reviews. For environmental factors, accessibility to facilities, presence of sidewalks, and aesthetics were positively associated with participation in physical activity. Conclusions The findings of this review of reviews suggest that some personal and environmental factors were related with participation in physical activity. However, an association of various factors with physical activity could not be established because of the lack of primary studies to build up the organized evidence. More studies with a prospective design should be conducted to understand the potential causes for physical activity.

  7. Evaluation of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, Jacoline; Teerenstra, Steven; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2008-03-01

    Point-of-care analyzers may benefit therapeutic decision making by reducing turn-around-time for samples. This is especially true when biochemical parameters exceed the clinical reference range, in which acute and effective treatment is essential. We therefore evaluated the analytical performance of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in two critically ill adult patient populations. During a 3-month period, 48 blood samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 42 blood samples from non-cardiac patients who needed intensive care treatment were analyzed on both the i-STAT analyzer (CPB and non-CPB mode, respectively) and our laboratory analyzers (RapidLab 865/Sysmex XE-2100 instrument). The agreement analysis for quantitative data was used to compare i-STAT to RapidLab for blood gas/electrolytes and for hematocrit with the Sysmex instrument. Point-of-care electrolytes and blood gases had constant deviation, except for pH, pO2, and hematocrit. A clear linear trend in deviation of i-STAT from RapidLab was noticed for pH during CPB (r = 0.32, p = .03) and for pO2 > 10 kPa during CPB (r = -0.59, p pO2 pO2 pO2 range (10.6 pO2 range below 25% (n = 11) using the i-STAT. The i-STAT analyzer is suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes and blood gases in critically ill patients, except for high pO2. However, the discrepancy in hematocrit bias shows that accuracy established in one patient population cannot be automatically extrapolated to other patient populations, thus stressing the need for separate evaluation.

  8. Neighborhood Environment and Cognition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; McDonald, Noreen C; Song, Yan; Kukull, Walter A; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2017-08-01

    Some evidence suggests that treating vascular risk factors and performing mentally stimulating activities may delay cognitive impairment onset in older adults. Exposure to a complex neighborhood environment may be one mechanism to help delay cognitive decline. PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Global database were systematically reviewed, identifying 25 studies published from February 1, 1989 to March 5, 2016 (data synthesized, May 3, 2015 to October 7, 2016). The review was restricted to quantitative studies focused on: (1) neighborhood social and built environment and cognition; and (2) community-dwelling adults aged ≥45 years. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, U.S.-based, and found at least one significant association. The diversity of measures and neighborhood definitions limited the synthesis of findings in many instances. Evidence was moderately strong for an association between neighborhood SES and cognition, and modest for associations between neighborhood demographics, design, and destination accessibility and cognition. Most studies examining effect modification found significant associations, with some evidence for effect modification of the neighborhood SES-cognition association by individual-level SES. No studies had low risk of bias and many tested multiple associations that increased the chance of a statistically significant finding. Considering the studies to date, the evidence for an association between neighborhood characteristics and cognition is modest. Future studies should include longitudinal measures of neighborhood characteristics and cognition; examine potential effect modifiers, such as sex and disability; and study mediators that may help elucidate the biological mechanisms linking neighborhood environment and cognition. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  10. Consequences of child emotional abuse, emotional neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence for eating disorders: a systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; McTavish, Jill R; Couturier, Jennifer; Boven, Alison; Gill, Sana; Dimitropoulos, Gina; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2017-09-22

    Child maltreatment and eating disorders are significant public health problems. Yet, to date, research has focused on the role of child physical and sexual abuse in eating-related pathology. This is despite the fact that globally, exposure to emotional abuse, emotional neglect and intimate partner violence are the three of the most common forms of child maltreatment. The objective of the present study is to systematically identify and critically review the literature examining the association between child emotional abuse (EA), emotional neglect (EN), and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and adult eating-disordered behavior and eating disorders. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ERIC up to October 2015 to identify original research studies that investigated the association between EA, EN and children's exposure to IPV, with adult eating disorders or eating-disordered behavior using a quantitative research design. Database searches were complemented with forward and backward citation chaining. Studies were critically appraised using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. A total of 5556 publications were screened for this review resulting in twenty-three articles included in the present synthesis. These studies focused predominantly on EA and EN, with a minority examining the role of child exposure to IPV in adult eating-related pathology. Prevalence of EA and EN ranged from 21.0% to 66.0%, respectively. No prevalence information was provided in relation to child exposure to IPV. Samples included predominantly White women. The methodological quality of the available literature is generally low. Currently, the available literature precludes the possibility of determining the extent to which EA, EN or child exposure to IPV have independent explanatory influence in adult eating-related pathology above what has been identified for physical and sexual abuse. While a large proportion

  11. A Decade of Critical Information Literacy: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon Tewell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As information literacy continues in its centrality to many academic libraries’ missions, a line of inquiry has developed in response to ACRL’s charge to develop information literate citizens. The literature of critical information literacy questions widely held assumptions about information literacy and considers in what ways librarians may encourage students to engage with and act upon information’s complex and inherently political nature. This review explores the research into critical information literacy, including critical pedagogy and critiques of information literacy, in order to provide an entry point for this emerging and challenging approach to information literacy.

  12. Frailty in Older Adults Using Pre-hospital Care and the Emergency Department: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Judah P; Andrew, Melissa K; Travers, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    Older adults use more health-care services per capita than younger age groups and the older adult population varies greatly in its needs. Evidence suggests that there is a critical distinction between relative frailty and fitness in older adults. Here, we review how frailty is described in the pre-hospital literature and in the broader emergency medicine literature. PubMed was used as the primary database, but was augmented by searches of CINAHL and EMBASE. Articles were included if they focused on patients 60 years and older and implemented a definition of frailty or risk screening tool in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) or Emergency Department setting. IN THE BROAD CLINICAL LITERATURE, THREE TYPES OF MEASURES CAN BE IDENTIFIED: frailty index measures, frailty scales, and a phenotypic definition. Each offers advantages and disadvantages for the EMS stakeholder. We identified no EMS literature on frailty conceptualization or management, although some risk measures from emergency medicine use terms that overlap with the frailty literature. There is a paucity of research on frailty in the Emergency Medical Services literature. No research was identified that specifically addressed frailty conceptualization or management in EMS patients. There is a compelling need for further research in this area.

  13. Effectiveness of surgery for adults with hallux valgus deformity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugarova, Jitka; Hood, Victoria; Bath-Hextall, Fiona; Klugar, Miloslav; Mareckova, Jana; Kelnarova, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    Hallux valgus (HV) is a common foot deformity. In severe stages of this condition, surgery is often necessary. Currently, there is no systematic review comparing the effectiveness of surgery over conservative treatment. The objective of this review was to establish the effectiveness of surgery compared to conservatory management for adults with HV. The current review included adults (18 years or over) with HV deformity, excluding adults with neurological problems causing foot deformities, for example, cerebral palsy, neuropathy, stroke and multiple sclerosis. The review included any type of HV surgery compared to no surgery, conservative treatment or different types of HV surgeries. The primary outcome was gait measurement, and secondary outcomes included quality of life, patient satisfaction, pain assessed using any validated assessment tool and adverse events. The review included randomized controlled trials. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilized in 16 databases without language and date limitations. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical appraisal instruments developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). Data were extracted from papers included in the review using the standardized data extraction tool developed by the JBI. Quantitative data were, where possible, pooled in statistical meta-analysis using RevMan5 (Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane). Effect sizes expressed as risk ratio (for categorical data) and mean differences (MD) or standardized MD (for continuous data) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for analysis. Where statistical pooling was not possible, the findings have been presented in narrative form. Searching identified 2412 citations. After removal of duplicates, paper retrieval and critical appraisal, 25 studies

  14. Effectiveness of haloperidol prophylaxis in critically ill patients with a high risk of delirium: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo; Cardoso, Daniela; Neves, Hugo; Cunha, Madalena; Rodrigues, Manuel; Apóstolo, João

    2017-05-01

    ). For these reasons, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Therefore, the results have been described in a narrative format. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. One of these studies was excluded due to poor methodological quality. The remaining four original studies (total of 1142 patients) were included in this review. Three studies were randomized controlled trials and one was a cohort study.Two studies confirmed the effectiveness of haloperidol prophylaxis in critically ill patients with a high risk of delirium. These studies showed that short-term prophylactic administration of low-dose intravenous haloperidol significantly decreased the incidence of delirium in elderly patients admitted to intensive care units after non-cardiac surgery and in general intensive care unit patients with a high risk of delirium.However, the two remaining studies showed contradictory results in mechanically ventilated critically ill adults, revealing that the administration of haloperidol reduced delirium prevalence, delayed its occurrence, and/or shorten its duration. The evidence related to the effectiveness of haloperidol prophylaxis in critically ill patients with a high risk of delirium is contradictory. However, balancing the benefits and low side effects associated with haloperidol prophylaxis, this preventive intervention may be useful to reduce the incidence of delirium in critically ill adults in intensive care units.

  15. Sucralfate versus histamine 2 receptor antagonists for stress ulcer prophylaxis in adult critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alquraini, Mustafa; Alshamsi, Fayez; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2017-01-01

    .80; P = 0.42; I2 = 0%; low quality evidence). However, there was a statistically significant lower risk of ICU acquired pneumonia with sucralfate compared to H2RAs (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72, 0.98; P = 0.03; I2 = 0%; moderate quality evidence). Sucralfate did not significantly affect the risk of death (RR 0.......95; 95% CI 0.82, 1.10; P = 0.51; I2 = 0%; high quality evidence), or duration of ICU stay in days (mean difference − 0.39; 95% CI [− 1.12, 0.34]; P = 0.29; I2 = 0%; moderate quality evidence). Trial sequential analysis adjusted estimates were consistent with conventional estimates. Conclusion Moderate...... sucralfate to H2RAs for SUP in adult critically ill patients. Results 21 RCTs enrolling 3121 patients met inclusion criteria. There was no significant difference between sucralfate compared to H2RAs in the risk of clinically important GI bleeding (risk ratio [RR] 1.19; 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.79, 1...

  16. The social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women's lives: a critical narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Culley, Lorraine; Law, Caroline; Hudson, Nicky; Denny, E.; Mitchell, H.; Baumgarten, M.; Raine-Fenning, N.

    2013-01-01

    The attached file is a pre – copy – editing, author produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Human Reproduction Update following peer review. The definitive publisher – authenticated version (Culley, L, Law, C, Hudson, N, Denny, E, Mitchell, H, Baumgarten, M, Raine – Fenning, N (2013) The social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women’s lives: a critical narrative review. Hum. Reprod. Update 19 (6): 625 – 639) is available online at: http://humupd.oxfordjournals.org/...

  17. Social science research of HIV in Vietnam: A critical review and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Amy; Hirsch, Jennifer; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Social science research, with theoretical and methodological tools that are well suited to capture the complexities of Vietnam’s rapidly changing social and political context, could contribute important insights that would enhance the response to Vietnam’s growing HIV epidemic. The present paper reviews the published, peer-reviewed English-language social science literature on HIV in Vietnam in order to identify critical theoretical and substantive gaps and lay the groundwork for future resea...

  18. Glucose monitoring as a guide to diabetes management. Critical subject review.

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, B.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To encourage a balanced approach to blood glucose monitoring in diabetes by a critical review of the history, power and cost of glucose testing. DATA SOURCES: The Cambridge Data Base was searched and was supplemented by a random review of other relevant sources, including textbooks, company pamphlets, and laboratory manuals. STUDY SELECTION: Keywords used were "glucosuria diagnosis," "blood glucose self-monitoring," "glycosylated hemoglobin," and "fructosamine" for the 10-year period...

  19. A new prescription for empirical ethics research in pharmacy: a critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J

    2007-01-01

    Empirical ethics research is increasingly valued in bioethics and healthcare more generally, but there remain as yet under-researched areas such as pharmacy, despite the increasingly visible attempts by the profession to embrace additional roles beyond the supply of medicines. A descriptive and critical review of the extant empirical pharmacy ethics literature is provided here. A chronological change from quantitative to qualitative approaches is highlighted in this review, as well as differi...

  20. Critical appraisal of nonrandomized studies-A review of recommended and commonly used tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Joan M; Thompson, Juliette C; Halfpenny, Nicholas J; Scott, David A

    2018-02-27

    When randomized controlled trial data are limited or unavailable, or to supplement randomized controlled trial evidence, health technology assessment (HTA) agencies may rely on systematic reviews of nonrandomized studies (NRSs) for evidence of the effectiveness of health care interventions. NRS designs may introduce considerable bias into systematic reviews, and several methodologies by which to evaluate this risk of bias are available. This study aimed to identify tools commonly used to assess bias in NRS and determine those recommended by HTA bodies. Appraisal tools used in NRS were identified through a targeted search of systematic reviews (January 2013-March 2017; MEDLINE and EMBASE [OVID SP]). Recommendations for the critical appraisal of NRS by expert review groups and HTA bodies were reviewed. From the 686 studies included in the narrative synthesis, 48 critical appraisal tools were identified. Commonly used tools included the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, the methodological index for NRS, and bespoke appraisal tools. Neither the Cochrane Handbook nor the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination recommends a particular instrument for the assessment of risk of bias in NRS, although Cochrane has recently developed their own NRS critical appraisal tool. Among HTA bodies, only the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health recommends use of a specific critical appraisal tool-SIGN 50 (for cohort or case-control studies). Several criteria including reporting, external validity, confounding, and power were examined. There is no consensus between HTA groups on the preferred appraisal tool. Reviewers should select from a suite of tools on the basis of the design of studies included in their review. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Older adults' perceptions of technologies aimed at falls prevention, detection or monitoring: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Boulton, Elisabeth; Hall, Alex; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Todd, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Over recent years a number of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have emerged aiming at falls prevention, falls detection and alarms for use in case of fall. There are also a range of ICT interventions, which have been created or adapted to be pro-active in preventing falls, such as those which provide strength and balance training to older adults in the prevention of falls. However, there are issues related to the adoption and continued use of these technologies by older adults. This review provides an overview of older adults' perceptions of falls technologies. We undertook systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO, COMPENDEX and the Cochrane database. Key search terms included 'older adults', 'seniors', 'preference', 'attitudes' and a wide range of technologies, they also included the key word 'fall*'. We considered all studies that included older adults aged 50 and above. Studies had to include technologies related specifically to falls prevention, detection or monitoring. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tool and the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies by the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) were used. We identified 76 potentially relevant papers. Some 21 studies were considered for quality review. Twelve qualitative studies, three quantitative studies and 6 mixed methods studies were included. The literature related to technologies aimed at predicting, monitoring and preventing falls suggest that intrinsic factors related to older adults' attitudes around control, independence and perceived need/requirements for safety are important for their motivation to use and continue using technologies. Extrinsic factors such as usability, feedback gained and costs are important elements which support these attitudes and perceptions. Positive messages about the benefits of falls technologies for promoting healthy active ageing and independence are critical, as is ensuring that the technologies are simple

  2. Nurses' attitudes towards adult patients who are obese: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a review of all empirical studies focusing on nurses' attitudes towards adult overweight or obese patients, with the aim of clarifying the dimensions and patterns of these attitudes and the methods by which they have been studied. Obesity has become a common condition and a major public health concern, but it is often associated with negative attitudes and discrimination. Nurses play a key role in providing support and care to patients who are obese. Electronic searches were carried out on seven databases from inception to December 2004, along with hand-searching of references in relevant studies. The search terms were built around obesity (and related terms), nursing (and its branches) and attitudes (and related terms). Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and summarized in tabular form and analysed in relation to the aims of this review during January 2005. There is relatively little research about nurses' attitudes towards obese patients, and the studies reviewed mostly have weaknesses of sampling and measurement. However, they do consistently suggest that a proportion of nurses have negative attitudes and beliefs, reflecting wider stereotypes within Western cultures. There is also a hint of a more complex mix of attitudes among nurses, some of which may counter the consequences of negative attitudes, but these have not been adequately investigated. A number of variables that influence attitudes of nurses can be identified, including age, gender, experience and the weight/body mass index of the nurse. Further research (both qualitative and quantitative) is needed with more rigorous sampling and, where appropriate, more consistency of measurement. A shift in focus towards the sets of attitudes (positive as well as negative) and behaviours that influence health service quality and outcomes for obese persons would be useful.

  3. A Review of Physiological and Psychological Changes in Aging and Their Implications for Teachers of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Samuel E.

    This review of literature on the aging process points out primary physiological and psychological changes in maturing adults which have implications for teachers of adults. Visual acuity and hearing decline during adult years and there is a general slowing down process of most bodily activities. Teachers should be aware of the need for good…

  4. A Theoretical Basis for Adult Learning Facilitation: Review of Selected Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneja, Mussa S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…

  5. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…

  6. A Review of Critical Conditions for the Onset of Nonlinear Fluid Flow in Rock Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting appropriate governing equations for fluid flow in fractured rock masses is of special importance for estimating the permeability of rock fracture networks. When the flow velocity is small, the flow is in the linear regime and obeys the cubic law, whereas when the flow velocity is large, the flow is in the nonlinear regime and should be simulated by solving the complex Navier-Stokes equations. The critical conditions such as critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient are commonly defined in the previous works to quantify the onset of nonlinear fluid flow. This study reviews the simplifications of governing equations from the Navier-Stokes equations, Stokes equation, and Reynold equation to the cubic law and reviews the evolutions of critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient for fluid flow in rock fractures and fracture networks, considering the influences of shear displacement, normal stress and/or confining pressure, fracture surface roughness, aperture, and number of intersections. This review provides a reference for the engineers and hydrogeologists especially the beginners to thoroughly understand the nonlinear flow regimes/mechanisms within complex fractured rock masses.

  7. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  8. Effect of ventilation rate and board loading on formaldehyde concentration : a critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Myers

    1984-01-01

    A critical literature review has been carried out on the influence of ventilation rate (N, hr.-1) and board loading (L, m2/m3) on steady state formaldehyde concentrations (Cs, ppm) resulting from particleboard and plywood emissions. Large differences exist among boards in the extent to which their formaldehyde concentrations change with N or L in laboratory chambers....

  9. Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Higher Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Niu, Lian

    2011-01-01

    The authors reviewed 42 empirical studies of teaching of critical thinking skills in postsecondary education published between 1994 and 2009. The instructional intervention, test measure, and research design of the studies were analyzed. Study results suggest that: (1) the same instructional interventions can lead to different results, depending…

  10. A Cross-Industry Review of B2B Critical Success Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Riyad; Trueman, Myfanwy; Ahmed, Abdel Moneim

    2002-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive review of B2B (business-to- business) international Internet marketing and identifies 21 critical success factors in five categories: marketing strategy, including management support, strategic goals, and collaboration; Web site factors, including Web site design; global factors, including multilanguage sites and cultural…

  11. A critical review of "internet addiction" criteria with suggestions for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Rooij (Antonius); N. Prause (Nicole)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAims: In the last 5 years a deluge of articles on the topic of Internet addiction (IA) has proposed many candidate symptoms as evidence of this proposed disease. We critically reviewed the current approach to the measurement and identification of this new excessive behavior syndrome.

  12. On critical reflection : A review of Mezirow’s theory and its operationalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundgren, H.; Poell, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review empirical studies that research critical reflection based on Mezirow’s definition. The concepts of content, process, and premise reflection have often been cited, and operationalizing Mezirow’s high-level transformative learning theory and its components has been the

  13. A Critical Review of Instructional Design Process of Distance Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; ur-Rahman, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University…

  14. Is puberty a risk factor for back pain in the young? a systematic critical literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, A.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.; Le Scanff, C.

    2014-01-01

    the increasing stages of puberty and the subsequent prevalence of back pain? 4) Is there a temporal link between puberty and back pain? DESIGN: A systematic critical literature review. METHODS: Systematic searches were made in March 2014 in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO including longitudinal or cross...

  15. The Reasons Requirement in International Investment Arbitration: Critical Case Studies (book review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2008-01-01

    3. In the article, the Researcher reviews the work of Professors Guillermo A. Alvarez and W. Michael Reisman from Yale Law School, regarding the mechanisms of international investment arbitration and their importance for developing countries. The article provides a critical perspective on the aut...

  16. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  17. Psychoanalysis and Humanism: A Review and Critical Examination of Integrationist Efforts with Some Proposed Resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Critically reviews efforts at theoretical integration of psychoanalysis and humanism along the lines of F. Pine's (1990) four psychologies of psychoanalysis. Concludes that psychoanalysis and humanism have certain compatible features, but that they generally represent opposing vantage points in the study of subjectivity. Provides recommendations…

  18. Contending Claims to Causality: A Critical Review of Mediation Research in HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajashi; Jacobson, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical review of the mediation studies published in the field of Human Resource Development (HRD) to discern if the study designs, the nature of data collection and the choice of statistical methods justify the causal claims made in those studies. Design/methodology/approach: This paper conducts…

  19. Explaining Differences in Age at Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Amy M.; Mandell, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism is often delayed, which translates into a missed opportunity to provide treatment during a critical developmental period. This study reviews studies that assessed factors associated with age at autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and provides recommendations on future research, programs, and policies to improve early…

  20. Determinant of Adult Education Program: A Critical Analysis of Adult Education in Some Selected Training Centers of Eastern Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilfashewa Seyoum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors affecting adult education in the eastern part of Ethiopia. The study employed a survey design that involved qualitative and quantitative approaches. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 515 male and 285 female respondents. A questionnaire and an interview for collecting information from the primary sources were designed and implemented. Data were analyzed with linear correlation and Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression. The findings indicated that the relationship of overall adult learning achievement to assessment of learning (r = 0,29, P < 0,01, and the methods used by facilitators (r = 0,23, P < 0,01 is positive and significant. The regression model demonstrated that overall adult learning condition is significantly affected by variables such as relevance of the content, methods of teaching, assessment of learning outcome, and locality of the adult education learners. 

  1. Integration of Mobile Health Technology in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Lalitha V; Edwards, Robert R; Ross, Edgar L; Jamison, Robert N

    This article provides a critical overview and best-evidence synthesis of the use of mobile health (mHealth) technology among persons with chronic pain and their health care providers and examines the future benefits and barriers of implementing mHealth technology in clinical care. We critically review articles about electronic pain diaries, pain assessment programs, text messaging, and smartphone pain apps for management of persons with pain. Also presented are findings on the utility of activity trackers and use of telehealth to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy. Finally, barriers, study gaps, and future challenges of incorporating mobile technology for chronic pain are discussed. Although the future of mHealth technology and telemedicine in clinical practice is promising, this critical review highlights the need for rigorous studies to establish an association of the use of mHealth technology with improved quality of life, functional autonomy, and decreased hospital use.

  2. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1,217 studies were…

  3. Adult Children of Divorce and Intimate Relationships: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Brooks, Morgan C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research specific to the effects of parental divorce on adults in terms of relationship issues. Specific purposes of this review are to (a) explore research specific to intimacy and marital attitudes in adult children of divorce, (b) inform couple and family counselors of effects of parental divorce, and (c) relay implications for…

  4. Review: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012 Buchbesprechung: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Faye Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 Seiten

  5. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management for community-living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; McKey, Colleen; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged internationally that chronic disease management (CDM) for community-living older adults (CLOA) is an increasingly complex process. CDM for older adults, who are often living with multiple chronic conditions, requires coordination of various health and social services. Coordination is enabled through interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among individual providers, community organizations, and health sectors. Measuring IPC is complicated given there are multiple conceptualisations and measures of IPC. A literature review of several healthcare, psychological, and social science electronic databases was conducted to locate instruments that measure IPC at the team level and have published evidence of their reliability and validity. Five instruments met the criteria and were critically reviewed to determine their strengths and limitations as they relate to CDM for CLOA. A comparison of the characteristics, psychometric properties, and overall concordance of each instrument with salient attributes of IPC found the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool to be the most appropriate instrument for measuring IPC for CDM in CLOA.

  6. Physical activity and older adults: a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.H.; Cable, N.T.; Faulkner, G.; Hillsdon, M.; Narici, M.; Bij, A.K. van der

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical

  7. Physical activity and older adults : a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, AH; Cable, NT; Faulkner, G; Hillsdon, M; Narici, M

    The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical

  8. Developing critical practitioners: A review of teaching methods in the Bachelor of Radiography and Medical Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Inerney, J.; Baird, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The capacity to apply critical thinking clinically is no longer an option for radiographers. Radiographers are obliged by their registration board to embrace a contemporary and integrated conceptualisation of competence, including the capacity to think critically and reflectively to resolve clinical challenges. The study examines the complexity of critical thinking, identifies the skill set and personal traits necessary to enact it practically. Methods: Third and final year radiography students' perceptions of three teaching approaches used within the undergraduate course were explored using peer reviewed survey instruments. Thematic analysis and descriptive analyses were applied to the data to make sense of the responses. Conclusions: Students are exhibiting the capacity to formulate, evaluate and revise their own work practices through critical thinking. Educational activities that have been proven effective in empowering students with the skills necessary to meet professional standards and the personal traits required to enact them should be prioritised in curricula. The study has shown that establishment of an audit trail for the educational activities in use within radiography programs can facilitate the acquisition of evidence-based and reflective practice skills amongst students. An assessment of student's perceptions of the learning activities they engage with is an important step on this trail, though a before and after measure could be applied. - Highlights: • Examines the concept of critical thinking including the personal traits required to enact it. • Reviews three teaching activities aimed at teaching critical thinking. • Assesses student perceptions of the activities in facilitating critical thinking skills. • Students who acquire critical thinking skills can undergo transformative learning. • Establishing an audit trail can ensure teaching activities are having desired effect.

  9. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult…

  10. Promotion of physical activity interventions for community dwelling older adults: A systematic review of reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Zubala

    Full Text Available While there is strong evidence that regular participation in physical activity (PA brings numerous health benefits to older adults, and interventions to effectively promote PA are being developed and tested, the characteristics and components of the most effective interventions remain unclear. This systematically conducted review of systematic reviews evaluated the effects and characteristics of PA promotion interventions aimed at community dwelling people over 50 years old.Major databases were searched for reviews from January 1990 to May 2015. TIDieR guidelines aided data extraction and the ROBIS tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Primary outcomes were objective and self-reported levels of PA. Indicators of psychological wellbeing and participation rates were secondary outcomes.Of 1284 records identified, 19 reviews met inclusion criteria and eight included meta-analyses. Interventions typically incorporated behaviour change techniques (BCTs and were delivered as face-to-face, remote, group, individual or as combined interventions. Despite their heterogeneity, interventions often resulted in sustained improvements in PA over the study period, typically at 12 months, and led to improvements in general wellbeing. However, ways to ensure effective maintenance beyond one year are unclear. Certain intervention components were more clearly associated with positive effects (e.g. tailoring promotion strategy with combination of cognitive and behavioural elements, low to moderate intensity activity recommended. We found no evidence that certain other intervention characteristics were superior in achieving positive outcomes (e.g. mode of delivery, setting, professional background of the intervention provider, type of PA recommended.The evidence suggests that interventions to promote PA among older adults are generally effective but there is uncertainty around the most beneficial intervention components. There are indications that purely cognitive

  11. Promotion of physical activity interventions for community dwelling older adults: A systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubala, Ania; MacGillivray, Stephen; Frost, Helen; Kroll, Thilo; Skelton, Dawn A; Gavine, Anna; Gray, Nicola M; Toma, Madalina; Morris, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    While there is strong evidence that regular participation in physical activity (PA) brings numerous health benefits to older adults, and interventions to effectively promote PA are being developed and tested, the characteristics and components of the most effective interventions remain unclear. This systematically conducted review of systematic reviews evaluated the effects and characteristics of PA promotion interventions aimed at community dwelling people over 50 years old. Major databases were searched for reviews from January 1990 to May 2015. TIDieR guidelines aided data extraction and the ROBIS tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Primary outcomes were objective and self-reported levels of PA. Indicators of psychological wellbeing and participation rates were secondary outcomes. Of 1284 records identified, 19 reviews met inclusion criteria and eight included meta-analyses. Interventions typically incorporated behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and were delivered as face-to-face, remote, group, individual or as combined interventions. Despite their heterogeneity, interventions often resulted in sustained improvements in PA over the study period, typically at 12 months, and led to improvements in general wellbeing. However, ways to ensure effective maintenance beyond one year are unclear. Certain intervention components were more clearly associated with positive effects (e.g. tailoring promotion strategy with combination of cognitive and behavioural elements, low to moderate intensity activity recommended). We found no evidence that certain other intervention characteristics were superior in achieving positive outcomes (e.g. mode of delivery, setting, professional background of the intervention provider, type of PA recommended). The evidence suggests that interventions to promote PA among older adults are generally effective but there is uncertainty around the most beneficial intervention components. There are indications that purely cognitive strategies

  12. A critical review of published research literature reviews on nursing and healthcare ageism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna M; Nam, Mavis A; Murphy, Jill; Victorino, João P; Gondim, Ellen C; Low, Gail

    2017-12-01

    To establish how common and impactful nursing and healthcare ageism is and whether proven interventions or prevention methods exist. Ageism has been a concern since 1969 when it was first introduced as a concept for social reform. As ageism has been linked to lower quality health services and reduced health care access, it is imperative that healthcare and nursing ageism is prevented or identified and reduced or eliminated. A qualitative narrative review of published research literature reviews using a scoping design to map all published reviews was undertaken. The EBSCO Discovery Service (providing access to articles in 271 databases, including MEDLINE and CINAHL) and Directory of Open Access Journals (providing access to over 9,000 open access journals) were used to find review articles. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and limited by English language and peer-review publications, 12 eligible reviews were identified and information from them was systematically identified, assessed and synthesised. The 12 reviews did not provide clear and convincing information to determine how common and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, nor what can best be done to prevent or address it. Although each review had value since research literature was collected and discussed on nursing or healthcare ageism, the array of literature search and analysis methods, and diversity in conclusions reached about the evidence is highly problematic. Research literature reviews offering a more balanced perspective and demonstrating greater care in finding and using quality evidence are needed. At this point in time, there is no clear understanding of how widespread and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, and what can best be done to prevent or address it. Nurses need to be aware that ageism may be common and impactful, and guard against it. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence.

  14. Who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems? A critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Megan A; Malla, Ashok K; Iyer, Srividya N

    2018-05-01

    Individuals with mental health problems have many support needs that are often inadequately met; however, perceptions of who should be responsible for meeting these needs have been largely unexplored. Varying perceptions may influence whether, how, and to what extent relevant stakeholders support individuals with mental health problems. To critically evaluate the literature to determine who different stakeholders believe should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems, what factors shape these perceptions, and how they relate to one another. A critical literature review was undertaken. Following an extensive literature search, the conceptual contributions of relevant works were critically evaluated. A concept map was created to build a conceptual framework of the topic. Views of individual versus societal responsibility for need provision and health; the morality of caring; and attributions of responsibility for mental illness offered valuable understandings of the review questions. Creating a concept map revealed that various interrelated factors may influence perceptions of responsibility. Varying perceptions of who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems may contribute to unmet support needs among this group. Our critical review helps build a much-needed conceptual framework of factors influencing perceptions of responsibility. Such a framework is essential as these views iteratively shape and reflect the complex divisions of mental healthcare roles and responsibilities. Understanding these perceptions can help define relevant stakeholders' roles more clearly, which can improve mental health services and strengthen stakeholder accountability.

  15. Strategies used for the promotion of critical thinking in nursing undergraduate education: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Diana P S R P; Azevedo, Isabelle C; Cruz, Giovanna K P; Mafra, Gabriela A C; Rego, Anna L C; Vitor, Allyne F; Santos, Viviane E P; Cogo, Ana L P; Ferreira Júnior, Marcos A

    2017-10-01

    Identifying the strategies used to promote critical thinking (CT) during undergraduate education in nursing courses. Systematic review. Five electronic databases were searched without language, publication time or geographic filters. A systematic review of the literature. Including experimental studies that considered at least one teaching strategy to promote critical thinking of undergraduate students in Nursing courses. The search for studies occurred in three phases: title and summary review, complete text and implementation of a clinical form of selection according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were assessed for quality through a classification tool for experimental studies. Six studies were selected. The results were grouped into three key themes: an evaluation of the quality of the selected studies, characterization of the studies and the strategies used to promote critical thinking. All selected studies were in English, with significant conceptual similarity of Critical Thinking and dominance in choosing the approached theme during strategies in clinical nursing education with an emphasis on the nursing process. The most widely used teaching intervention was Problem-Based Learning. Nursing education mediated by strategies that stimulate CT is considered a positive difference in undergraduate curriculums. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The importance of service-users' perspectives: A systematic review of qualitative evidence reveals overlooked critical features of weight management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Katy; Melendez-Torres, G J; Burchett, Helen E D; Richardson, Michelle; Rees, Rebecca; Thomas, James

    2018-03-14

    Extensive research effort shows that weight management programmes (WMPs) targeting both diet and exercise are broadly effective. However, the critical features of WMPs remain unclear. To develop a deeper understanding of WMPs critical features, we undertook a systematic review of qualitative evidence. We sought to understand from a service-user perspective how programmes are experienced, and may be effective, on the ground. We identified qualitative studies from existing reviews and updated the searches of one review. We included UK studies capturing the views of adult WMP users. Thematic analysis was used inductively to code and synthesize the evidence. Service users were emphatic that supportive relationships, with service providers or WMP peers, are the most critical aspect of WMPs. Supportive relationships were described as providing an extrinsic motivator or "hook" which helped to overcome barriers such as scepticism about dietary advice or a lack confidence to engage in physical activity. The evidence revealed that service-users' understandings of the critical features of WMPs differ from the focus of health promotion guidance or descriptions of evaluated programmes which largely emphasize educational or goal setting aspects of WMPs. Existing programme guidance may not therefore fully address the needs of service users. The study illustrates that the perspectives of service users can reveal unanticipated intervention mechanisms or underemphasized critical features and underscores the value of a holistic understanding about "what happens" in complex psychosocial interventions such as WMPs. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Across the Lifespan: A Systematic and Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven; Mittelman, Andrew; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of comorbidity between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been discussed for two decades. No review, however, has examined this question in light of the stark contrast in disorder-specific phenomenology and neurobiology. We review reported prevalence rates and the methodological, phenomenological, and theoretical issues concerning concomitant ADHD-OCD. Reported co-occurrence rates are highly inconsistent in the literature. Studies aimed at examining the potential for comorbidity have suffered from various methodological problems, including the existence of very few community samples, highly variable exclusionary criteria, and possible clinical misinterpretation of symptoms. Despite numerous studies suggesting an ADHD-OCD comorbidity, thus far etiological (i.e., genetic) backing has been provided only for a pediatric comorbidity. Additionally, inflated rates of ADHD-OCD co-occurrence may be mediated by the presence of tic disorders, and evidence of impaired neuronal maturational processes in pediatric OCD may lead to possibly transient phenotypical expressions that resemble ADHD symptomatology. Thus, clinicians are encouraged to consider the possibility that ADHD-like symptoms resulting from OCD-specific symptomatology may be misdiagnosed as ADHD. This suggestion may account for the lower co-occurrence rates reported in adolescents and adults and for the lack of a theoretical account for comorbidity in these age groups. Existing literature is summarized and critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:26052877

  18. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  19. Obesity and suicide risk in adults--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinitzke, G; Steinig, J; Blüher, M; Kersting, A; Wagner, B

    2013-03-05

    There is evidence from prospective studies that obesity is positively associated with depression. In contradiction to this, however, a number of studies have revealed that the number of completed suicides decreases with increasing BMI. The objective of this systematic review is to elucidate this ambiguous research field, providing an overview of literature examining the relationship between obesity and risk of suicide in adults (>18 years). Literature searches of the databases PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, and Web of Sciences were conducted. Fifteen studies concerning completed suicide, suicide attempts and suicidal ideation met the inclusion criteria (seven prospective and eight cross-sectional studies). Eight studies evaluating completed suicide reported an inverse relationship between BMI and suicide, meaning that obese people are less likely to commit suicide than people of low or normal weight, whereas one study showed no association and one showed a positive association. Studies about suicide attempts and ideation, on the other hand, found results that differed depending on gender. While obese woman reported more suicide attempts and suicidal ideation, obese men reported less attempts and thoughts. The role of confounding variables such as age or psychiatric illness on suicide risk are discussed and remaining research questions are outlined, especially regarding the role of different underlying biological pathways and consideration of different classes of obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Alinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran. Carbon monoxide poisoning was common in cities with many motor vehicles such as Tehran and in colder climates such as in northern and western regions due to inadequately vented gas appliances such as stoves and heaters. Majoon Birjandi (containing cannabis is a unique substance used in eastern Iran. Poisoning by opioids, tramadol, and pesticides (organophosphate and aluminum phosphide has remained a common hazard in Iran. Poisoning-associated morbidity and mortality rates vary by region and have changed over time due to the introduction of new drugs and chemicals. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may be lifesaving; thus, understanding the general pattern of poisoning in different regions is important.