WorldWideScience

Sample records for adults critical review

  1. Book review: Learning with adults: A critical pedagogical introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Saragoça, José

    2014-01-01

    Written at a time when, for many, the neoliberal policies and globalization lead to an increasing confusion between education and training, as well as to the reification of the “theories of human capital”, this book addresses the critical pedagogy in the context of adult education in several fields. (...)Book review about the book "Learning with adults: A critical pedagogical introduction", written by Leona M. English and Peter Mayo. (Rotterdam: Sense Publishers., 2012) 269 pp.,

  2. A critical review of arsenic exposures for Bangladeshi adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    Groundwater, the most important source of water for drinking, cooking, and irrigation in Bangladesh, is a significant contributor to the daily human intake of arsenic. Other arsenic intake pathways, established as relevant for Bangladeshi adults through this review, include consumption of contaminated edible plant parts and animal-origin food, inhalation of contaminated air, soil ingestion, betel quid chewing, and tobacco smoking. This review qualifies and quantifies these arsenic intake pathways through analysis of the range of arsenic levels observed in different food types, water, soil, and air in Bangladesh, and highlights the contributions of dietary intake variation and cooking method in influencing arsenic exposures. This study also highlights the potential of desirable dietary patterns and intakes in increasing arsenic exposure which is relevant to Bangladesh where nutritional deficiencies and lower-than-desirable dietary intakes continue to be a major concern. PMID:26004539

  3. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B.; Bess, Jukelia J.; Mills, Kevin R.; Jimmy T. Efird

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesit...

  4. Early mobilization in the critical care unit: A review of adult and pediatric literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Saoirse; Ball, Ian; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Choong, Karen; Doherty, Timothy J; Ellis, Christopher G; Martin, Claudio M; Mele, Tina S; Sharpe, Michael; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Fraser, Douglas D

    2015-08-01

    Early mobilization of critically ill patients is beneficial, suggesting that it should be incorporated into daily clinical practice. Early passive, active, and combined progressive mobilizations can be safely initiated in intensive care units (ICUs). Adult patients receiving early mobilization have fewer ventilator-dependent days, shorter ICU and hospital stays, and better functional outcomes. Pediatric ICU data are limited, but recent studies also suggest that early mobilization is achievable without increasing patient risk. In this review, we provide a current and comprehensive appraisal of ICU mobilization techniques in both adult and pediatric critically ill patients. Contraindications and perceived barriers to early mobilization, including cost and health care provider views, are identified. Methods of overcoming barriers to early mobilization and enhancing sustainability of mobilization programs are discussed. Optimization of patient outcomes will require further studies on mobilization timing and intensity, particularly within specific ICU populations. PMID:25987293

  5. Residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eCorral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with any certainty in light of the considerable methodological problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided.

  6. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J; Mills, Kevin R; Efird, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the) studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with certainty in light of the considerable methodologic problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided. PMID:26191522

  7. A critical review of approaches to the treatment of dental anxiety in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dina; Heimberg, Richard G; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I

    2013-05-01

    Dental anxiety and specific phobia of dental procedures are prevalent conditions that can result in substantial distress and oral health impairment. This paper critically reviews 22 randomized treatment trials aimed at reducing dental anxiety and avoidance in adults, published in peer-reviewed journals between 1974 and 2012. The following treatment techniques are reviewed: various forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation training, benzodiazepine premedication, music distraction, hypnotherapy, acupuncture, nitrous oxide sedation, and the use of lavender oil scent. CBT delivered in a variety of formats, including one-session treatment, has the most evidence for its efficacy. Cognitive techniques, relaxation, and techniques to increase patients' sense of control over dental care are also efficacious but perform best when combined with repeated, graduated exposure. Other interventions require further study in randomized trials before conclusions about their efficacy are warranted. Limitations of the extant outcome research and implications for future treatment and research are discussed. PMID:23746494

  8. Epidemiological studies of leukaemia in children and young adults around nuclear facilities: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    An epidemiological study published in late 2007 described an increased risk of leukaemia in children under 5 living within 5 kilometres of German nuclear power plants. A great deal of research has been carried out on this subject since the early 1980's. The aim of this report was to provide a synthesis and critical analysis of results related to the risk of leukaemia in children and young adults aged under 25 living close to nuclear facilities. The report is structured in three sections: - a reminder of the main characteristics of childhood leukaemia and a description of the methods used to conduct epidemiological studies; - the most exhaustive review possible of epidemiological studies published in the international literature describing the frequency of leukaemia close to nuclear facilities in different countries around the world. A critical analysis is made of the published results. Some results from studies not focused on nuclear facilities are also presented. The methodological limitations associated with descriptive studies are explained and discussed; - the last section discusses the possible causes of childhood leukaemia and the main hypotheses explored to explain certain clusters of cases observed locally close to some nuclear sites. Appendices at the end of the document provide additional explanations of the concepts and methods used in epidemiology and statistics, and of the classification of malignant hemopathies. (authors)

  9. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients during critical illness: an overview of systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Bronwen; Brenda, O'Neill; Salisbury, Lisa; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical rehabilitation interventions aim to ameliorate the effects of critical illness-associated muscle dysfunction in survivors. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews (SR) evaluating the effect of these interventions across the continuum of recovery.Methods Six electronic databases (Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, DARE, Medline, Embase, and Cinahl) were searched. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility and conducted data extraction and quality appr...

  10. The epidemiological studies of leukemia around nuclear facilities for children and young adults: critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This objective of this report is to make a review of studies relative to the risk of leukemia among children and young adults less than twenty five years old near the nuclear facilities. the nuclear facilities considered in this report are nuclear power plants (electric power generation), the nuclear research centers, the fuel or weapons fabrication plants, reprocessing plants. This report does not describe the risk analysis near the sites of nuclear weapons test, the consequences of accidents on nuclear facilities such Chernobylsk or the the population near the military and industrial site of Mayak (Ural). The same is for the mining sites and the facilities of uranium extraction that are out of this report. (N.C.)

  11. Drug treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: a critical review of adult guideline recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Sequeira, Reginald P; Alkhaja, Alwaleed K; Damanhori, Awatif H H

    2014-03-01

    This review evaluates the guideline recommendations for the management of hypertension in pregnancy as presented by 25 national/international guidelines developed for the management of arterial hypertension in adults. There is a general consensus that oral α-methyldopa and parenteral labetalol are the drugs of choice for nonsevere and severe hypertension in pregnancy, respectively. Long-acting nifedipine is recommended by various guidelines as an alternative for first-line and second-line therapy in nonsevere and severe hypertension. The safety of β-blockers, atenolol in particular, in early and late stages of pregnancy is unresolved; their use is contraindicated according to several guidelines. Diuretic-associated harmful effects on maternal and fetal outcomes are controversial: their use is discouraged in pregnancy. It is important to develop specific guidelines for treating hypertension in special groups such as adult females of childbearing age and sexually active female adolescents to minimize the risk of adverse effects of drugs on the fetus. In several guidelines, the antihypertensive classes, recommended drug(s), intended drug formulation, and route of administration are not explicit. These omissions should be addressed in future guideline revisions in order to enhance the guidelines' utility and credibility in clinical practice. PMID:24384846

  12. Attenuating the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Critical Review of the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R Clive; Brown, Jeremiah R; Fitzgerald, David; Likosky, Donald S; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Baker, Robert A; Hammon, John W

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of pharmacological, surgical, and mechanical pump approaches have been studied to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass, yet no systematically based review exists to cover the scope of anti-inflammatory interventions deployed. We therefore conducted an evidence-based review to capture "self-identified" anti-inflammatory interventions among adult cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. To be included, trials had to measure at least one inflammatory mediator and one clinical outcome, specified in the "Outcomes 2010" consensus statement. Ninety-eight papers satisfied inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the review. The review identified 33 different interventions and approaches to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response. However, only a minority of papers (35 of 98 [35.7%]) demonstrated any clinical improvement to one or more of the predefined outcome measures (most frequently myocardial protection or length of intensive care unit stay). No single intervention was supported by strong level A evidence (multiple randomized controlled trials [RCTs] or meta-analysis) for clinical benefit. Interventions at level A evidence included off-pump surgery, minimized circuits, biocompatible circuit coatings, leukocyte filtration, complement C5 inhibition, preoperative aspirin, and corticosteroid prophylaxis. Interventions at level B evidence (single RCT) for minimizing inflammation included nitric oxide donors, C1 esterase inhibition, neutrophil elastase inhibition, propofol, propionyl-L-carnitine, and intensive insulin therapy. A secondary analysis revealed that suppression of at least one inflammatory marker was necessary but not sufficient to confer clinical benefit. The most effective interventions were those that targeted multiple inflammatory pathways. These observations are consistent with a "multiple hit" hypothesis, whereby clinically effective suppression of the systemic inflammatory response requires hitting multiple

  13. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  14. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M

    2016-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  15. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

    2003-01-01

    Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  16. Review - Critical Han Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Ye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Thomas Mullaney, James Leibold, Stéphane Gros, and Eric Armand Vanden Bussche (eds. 2012. Critical Han Studies: The History, Representation, and Identity of China's Majority. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. This path-breaking volume is an academic collaboration that emerged out of the "Critical Han Studies Conference and Workshop" at Stanford University in April 2008. Eleven scholars contributed to the question of what it means to be 'Han' in China, both historically and at present. Constituting over ninety percent of China's population, the Han are not only the largest ethnic group in China, but are also one of the largest categories of collective identity in the world. Despite this, the dominant Han group has so far eluded careful scholarly scrutiny, with the Han often referred to as an unmarked majority category in contemporary China. This volume challenges such conventional views by conceptualizing new interdisciplinary approaches to the question of Hanness. The eleven essays of the volume are divided into three themes: 'Han and China', 'The Problem of Han Origins', and 'The Problem of Han Formations'. The first theme, comprised of four essays, analyzes the ties that bind the category of Han to those of Chinese ethnicity, race, and polity. Kevin Carrico in "Recentering China: The Cantonese in and Beyond the Han" questions a single, unitary Hanness that he believes conceals "countless other perceived and imagined lines of differentiation" (25. The study examines how multiple identities...

  17. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    and non-player characters that can actively participate in such relationships. The focus of this review is relational agents, agents that can build long term socioemotional relationships with users. In virtual worlds, such agents are just starting to emerge; they are more common in other environments...... but remain few and far between. This review critically assesses the progress of relational agent development and research since their inception in 2005, proposes new areas of research and considers the potential for their exploitation in virtual worlds....

  18. Milrinone for cardiac dysfunction in critically ill adult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, Geert; Bekema, Hanneke J; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    review was performed according to The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Searches were conducted until November 2015. Patients with cardiac dysfunction were included. The primary outcome was serious adverse events (SAE) including mortality at maximum follow-up. The risk of bias...... analyses displayed statistical and/or clinical heterogeneity of patients, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and/or settings and all featured missing data. DISCUSSION: The current evidence on the use of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction suffers from considerable risks...

  19. [Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for critically ill adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Kunihiko; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (ECMO) is an artificial life support for severe respiratory and/or cardiac failure, and refractory cardiac arrest. It consists of a hollow-fiber membrane that oxygenates the blood and removes carbon dioxide and a centrifugal pump that drain blood from central venous circulation, pump through membrane, and return to the patients. Veno-venous ECMO provides gas change in hemodynamically stable patients with respiratory failure. Veno-arterial ECMO offers hemodynamic support in addition to gas change for cardiac failure or refractory cardiac arrest. We describe the physiological principles and the clinical evidence supporting the use of ECMO in critically ill adult patients. PMID:26915254

  20. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard. PMID:25160247

  1. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  2. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...... supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...... sequential analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We included six new RCTs in this review update. In total we included 16 RCTs (2084 participants) in this review. Most trials were at high risk of bias. The availability of outcome data was limited and trials involving selenium supplementation were, with the exception of one...

  3. In Pursuit of Critical Literacy: Understanding Experiences of Exclusion for Adult Literacy Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Margaret; Logan, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores exclusion and equality through critical theory, in the context of adult literacy provision in Ireland, by investigating the sites of exclusion that exist for a group of five male adult literacy learners. A summary review of literacy theories, exclusion and equality is provided framing the reporting of data from this…

  4. Adult atopic dermatitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Patruno, Cataldo; Gisondi, Paolo; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, inflammatory skin disease which predominantly affects children usually clearing up during or after childhood. However, AD may persist with a chronic recurrent course until adulthood, being recalcitrant to any treatment strategy. Moreover, in some patients AD is not present during childhood but starts later in life (i.e. after 16 years of age) being defined late-onset AD. Even if AD incidence is increasing worldwide with cases in which clinical manifestations first appeared or persisted during adolescence and adulthood raising, especially in industrialized countries, studies on adult AD are still scant. Since this subgroup of AD patients often has a nonflexural rash distribution, and atypical morphologic variants and validated diagnostic criteria are lacking, there is no clear consensus on the diagnostic work-up that should be performed when evaluating adult patients with AD. In this review the many aspects of work-up in adult patients with AD, such as diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, quality of life and pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25658440

  5. Sodium nitroprusside-associated cyanide toxicity in adult patients – fact or fiction? A critical review of the evidence and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Lockwood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alissa Lockwood1, John Patka2, Marina Rabinovich2, Katleen Wyatt2, Prasad Abraham21Department of Pharmacy, Parkland Health System, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy and Drug Information, Grady Health System, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Since its US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in 1974, sodium nitroprusside (SNP has been fraught with controversy in regards to its safety. Over the years, a growing concern related to SNPs propensity to cause cyanide (CN toxicity culminated into a series of case reports that led the FDA to develop a black-box warning with dose limitations of <2 µg/kg/min. These recommendations stemmed also from the reality of the difficulty of obtaining CN levels in a timely manner, as well as the presumed poor correlation of metabolic markers (lactate levels and pH as it related to the severity of CN toxicity. All these issues have driven practitioners to the use of alternative agents. In this paper, we critically review the cases and the data that led to the development of these restrictive dosing recommendations and reveal several limitations of the data and assumptions that led to these recommendations. We conclude that SNP is still a reasonable agent to use in the management of patients with hypertension today and can safely be used beyond doses of 2 µg/kg/min. Furthermore, in lieu of CN levels, monitoring of lactic acid levels is also a reasonable measure to ensure safety.Keywords: dose limits, monitoring, controversy, thiosulfate stores, cyanide levels

  6. Simulation Gaming: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nancy

    The review of the empirical literature on simulation gaming categorizes positive, negative, and contradictory aspects of gaming as an educational tool as revealed by the research. The review, which concentrates on simulation games for elementary and secondary school students, is presented in seven sections. Section I presents a brief history of…

  7. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients with critical illness across the continuum of recovery:an overview of systematic reviews protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Bronwen; O'Neill, Brenda; Salisbury, Lisa; McDowell, Kathryn; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with critical illness often experience significant physical impairments, which typically persist for many years following resolution of the original illness. Physical rehabilitation interventions that enhance restoration of physical function have been evaluated across the continuum of recovery following critical illness including within the intensive care unit, following discharge to the ward and beyond hospital discharge. Multiple syst...

  8. Nutritional interventions in sarcopenia: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Mary

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to critically review the details of the published nutrition intervention trials, with and without exercise, targeting sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass, strength and/or performance with age. Since amino acids and energy are required for muscle synthesis it is possible that nutritional intake influences sarcopenia. Nutritional studies are challenging to carry out because of the complexity of modulating dietary intake. It is very difficult to change one nutrient without influencing many others, which means that many of the published studies are problematic to interpret. The studies included evaluate whole protein, essential amino acids and β-hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate (HMB). Whole-protein supplementation failed to show a consistent effect on muscle mass, strength or function. This can be explained by the variations in study design, composition of the protein supplement and the failure to monitor voluntary food intake, adherence and baseline nutritional status. Essential amino-acid supplements showed an inconsistent effect but there are only two trials that have significant differences in methodology and the supplement used. The HMB studies are suggestive of a beneficial effect on older adults, but larger well-controlled studies are required that measure outcomes relevant to sarcopenia, ideally in sarcopenic populations. The issues of timing and distribution of protein intake, and increased splanchnic amino-acid sequestration are discussed, and recommendations for future trials are made. PMID:25923603

  9. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  10. Book review: critical theory and contemporary Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Papgaryfallou, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Critical Theory and Contemporary Europe introduces the major contributions that critical theorists have made to the study of Europe, from the interwar years to the present time. The work begins with theorists such as Adorno who addressed Nazism and the Holocaust, then moves on to discuss the postwar affluence of capitalist Europe, taking in Habermas and Marcuse. Reviewed by Ioannis Papagaryfallou.

  11. Year in review 2013: Critical Care - respirology

    OpenAIRE

    Curley, Gerard F; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2014-01-01

    This review documents important progress made in 2013 in the field of critical care respirology, in particular with regard to acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Twenty-five original articles published in the respirology and critical care sections of Critical Care are discussed in the following categories: pre-clinical studies, protective lung ventilation – how low can we go, non-invasive ventilation for respiratory failure, diagnosis and prognosis in acute resp...

  12. Price hedonics: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Charles R. Hulten

    2003-01-01

    This paper was presented at the conference "Economic Statistics: New Needs for the Twenty-First Century," cosponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, and the National Association for Business Economics, July 11, 2002. The main objective of this paper is to make a start in the evaluation of price hedonics. The author describes the hedonic model and reviews its main uses, because the credibility of price hedonics depends in part on the c...

  13. Clinical review: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Greet; De Jonghe, Bernard; Bruyninckx, Frans; Berghe, Greet Van den

    2008-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and myopathy (CIM) are major complications of severe critical illness and its management. CIP/CIM prolongs weaning from mechanical ventilation and physical rehabilitation since both limb and respiratory muscles can be affected. Among many risk factors implicated, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ failure appear to play a crucial role in CIP/CIM. This review focuses on epidemiology, diagnostic challenges, the current under...

  14. [Diagnostic and prognostic values of 1p and 19q deletions in adult gliomas: critical review of the literature and implications in daily clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Lebrun, C; Paquis, V; Frenay, M

    2008-01-01

    Losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q are deemed correlated with diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, higher chemosensitivity and better prognosis. We reviewed the literature to evaluate the usefulness of these correlations in daily clinical practice. The rates of deletions relative to histology (WHO classifications) were extracted from 33 studies, including 2666 patients. The 1p deletions and 1p19q codeletion mean rates were respectively 65.4 and 63.3% in oligodendrogliomas, 28.7 and 21.6% in oligoastrocytomas, 13.2 and 7.5% in astrocytomas, 11.6 and 2.9% in glioblastomas. The presence of 1p deletion and 1p19q codeletion were strongly correlated with the histological diagnosis corresponding to oligodendroglioma. Calculation of specificity, sensitivity, predictive positive values and false negative rates suggests that presence of deletion 1p or codeletion represents a strong argument in favor of the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. However, considering the high false negative rate, absence of such deletions does not rule out the diagnosis. In grade 3 oligodendroglial tumors, the probability of responding to chemotherapy, and the duration of response, were higher when codeletions were present. This suggests that, in these tumors, the presence of codeletion is a strong argument in favor of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy should not be systematically excluded when codeletions are absent, as the chances of response are about 33% in this situation. Data concerning low-grade gliomas were more controversial. Oligodendroglial tumors with 1p deletion or 1p19q codeletion seemed to have a better prognosis, as five-year survival rates were 50% higher than in tumors without deletion. This might be explained by the correlation between 1p deletion and other identified prognosis factors: (1) higher chemosensitivity, (2) tumor location more frequently in the frontal lobe, leading to better resection and lower risk of neurological deficit, (3) slower growth rate, (4) higher risk

  15. A critical review of clarifier modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek; Nopens, Ingmar; Rieger, Leiv; Griborio, Alonso; Clercq, Jeriffa De; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Daigger, Glen T.; Takacs, Imre; Wicks, Jim; Ekama, George A.

    This outline paper aims to provide a critical review of secondary settling tank (SST) modelling approaches used in current wastewater engineering and develop tools not yet applied in practice. We address the development of different tier models and experimental techniques in the field with a part...

  16. USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for uses other than taste and odor control is poorly documented, the purpose of this article is to critically review uses that have been reported (i.e., pesticides and herbicides, synthetic organic chemicals, and trihalom...

  17. Critical Review: Medical Students' Motivation after Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Chris

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of students in each years' entrants to medical school will encounter academic failure at some stage in their programme. The usual approach to supporting these students is to offer them short term remedial study programmes that often enhance approaches to study that are orientated towards avoiding failure. In this critical review I will…

  18. The War against People: Adult education practice for critical democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Brid; Hussey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the role of adult education for criti - cal democracy, in order to address the social suffering (Bourdieu, 1999) that we encounter in our work as critical adult community educators. We explore this through dialogue, as a process of education and research. Dialogue is the moment where humans meet to reflect on their reality as they make and remake it (Shor, Freire, 1987: 13). The purpose of dialogue is to transform social rela - ...

  19. Methionine production--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an updated critical review about several attempts to contribute methionine (Met) to the world market with an emphasis on fermentation processes, especially from natural biological sources. Analytical methods for the determination of methionine are reviewed as well as applications in feed, food, pharmacy, and medicine. Fermentation studies published within the last five decades are elucidated critically, mainly with respect to the sulfur balance, substrate yield, and the analytical validity. From all the published fermentation data, it can be concluded that up to now no more than 5 g/L methionine are achievable without using genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The highest L-methionine concentration from natural sources reached so far amounts to 35 g/L and is published as a patent using a GMO of Escherichia coli. The review closes with a comprehensive overview of the role and activities of global methionine manufacturers. Some current market data is also presented. PMID:25381187

  20. Critical Design Reviews Project: SAPHIRE 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt G. Vedros; Curtis L. Smith

    2011-09-01

    The Critical Design Review (CDR) is intended to be performed at the phase of the design request immediately before proceeding to implementation of the design request. The design request is initiated with a Design Specification document which includes a problem statement, design details, a design checklist and supporting documentation and/or projected sample output. The document then records the process through the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and on to the finalized design specification. In addition to this, the design specification has a chapter devoted to the completion of the CDR. This document describes the process of documentation of the CDR in the Design Specification.

  1. EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question

  2. A Critical Review of Classical Bouncing Cosmologies

    OpenAIRE

    Battefeld, Diana; Peter, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The Planck data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind...

  3. Year in review 2009: Critical Care - shock

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Wolfgang; Bracht, Hendrik; Radermacher, Peter; Thomas, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The research papers on shock that have been published in Critical Care throughout 2009 are related to four major subjects: first, alterations of heart function and, second, the role of the sympathetic central nervous system during sepsis; third, the impact of hemodynamic support using vasopressin or its synthetic analog terlipressin, and different types of fluid resuscitation; as well as, fourth, experimental studies on the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present review ...

  4. Respiratory Review of 2013: Critical Care Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hye Sook

    2013-01-01

    Several papers on respiratory and critical care published from March 2012 to February 2013 were reviewed. From these, this study selected and summarized ten articles, in which the findings were notable, new, and interesting: effects of high-frequency oscillation ventilation on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); safety and efficacy of hydroxyethyl starch as a resuscitation fluid; long-term psychological impairments after ARDS; safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine for sedation; B-typ...

  5. Moving Object Tracking Techniques: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar Patel; Agya Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Moving Object Tracking is one of the challenging problems in the field of computer vision, surveillance, traffic monitoring, video compression etc. The goal of object tracking is to locate a moving object in consecutive video frames. Normally a video tracking system combines three stages of data treating; object extraction, objectrecognition & tracking, and decisions about activities. This paper presents a critical review of various video object tracking techniques like point tracking, kernel...

  6. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  7. Plant safety review from mass criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review has been done to understand the resent status of the plant in facing postulated mass criticality accident. From the design concept of the plant all the components in the system including functional groups have been designed based on favorable mass/geometry safety principle. The criticality safety for each component is guaranteed because all the dimensions relevant to criticality of the components are smaller than dimensions of 'favorable mass/geometry'. The procedures covering all aspects affecting quality including the safety related are developed and adhered to at all times. Staff are indoctrinated periodically in short training session to warn the important of the safety in process of production. The plant is fully equipped with 6 (six) criticality detectors in strategic places to alert employees whenever the postulated mass criticality accident occur. In the event of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness, PT BATAN TEKNOLOGI has also proposed the organization structure how promptly to report the crisis to Nuclear Energy Control Board (BAPETEN) Indonesia. (author)

  8. Development of critical digital review procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the critical digital review (CDR) procedure, which was developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), and sponsored by Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A preliminary CDR application experience which was performed by INER, is also described in this paper. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The 'CDR Review Items' chapter proposes optional review items, including the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SV and V), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/Component, Seismic Evaluation, HFE Evaluation, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. Since CDR has become a TPC policy, Chin Shan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) performed the CDR practice of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) digital I and C replacement, even though the project had been on the half way. The major review items of this CDR were: the comparison of the design change, SV and V, FMEA, Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/ Component, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. The experience of the CDR showed the importance of preparation of the documents by the vendor. This means the communication with the vendors for the bid preparation is crucial. (author)

  9. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  10. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Blood parasites are considered some of the most significant pathogens for the conservation of penguins, due to the considerable morbidity and mortality they have been shown to produce in captive and wild populations of these birds. Parasites known to occur in the blood of penguins include haemosporidian protozoans (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus), piroplamid protozoans (Babesia), kinetoplastid protozoans (Trypanosoma), spirochete bacteria (Borrelia) and nematode microfilariae. This review provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on these parasites, providing an overview of their biology, host and geographic distribution, epidemiology, pathology and implications for public health and conservation. PMID:27253438

  11. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  12. Critical Criminological Understandings of Adult Pornography and Woman Abuse: New Progressive Directions in Research and Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter DeKeseredy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a small, but growing, social scientific literature on the racist and violent nature of contemporary adult pornography. However, considerably more empirical and theoretical work needs to be done to advance a critical criminological understanding of how such hurtful sexual media contribute to various forms of woman abuse in intimate relationships. The main objective of this article is to briefly review the relevant literature and to suggest a few new progressive empirical and theoretical directions.

  13. Nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo or hypertonic saline in adult critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, Casper; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nebulised dornase alfa is used off-label in critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the benefits and harms of nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline on patient-important outcome measures in adult critically ill patients. METHODS: We performed a...... systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing nebulised dornase alfa with placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline. The predefined outcome measures were all-cause mortality...

  14. A Critical Review of Classical Bouncing Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Battefeld, D

    2014-01-01

    Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both, of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and assess the fitness of different proposals. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be fine-tuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large non-Gaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing fatal instabilities at...

  15. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  16. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report

  17. Critical review: medical students' motivation after failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Chris

    2016-08-01

    About 10 % of students in each years' entrants to medical school will encounter academic failure at some stage in their programme. The usual approach to supporting these students is to offer them short term remedial study programmes that often enhance approaches to study that are orientated towards avoiding failure. In this critical review I will summarise the current theories about student motivation that are most relevant to this group of students and describe how they are enhanced or not by various contextual factors that medical students experience during their programme. I will conclude by suggesting ways in which support programmes for students who have encountered academic failure might be better designed and researched in the future. PMID:26443085

  18. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i dyes; (ii heavy metals; (iii phenols; (iv pesticides and (v pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods; (ii agricultural residues and wastes; (iii low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources. These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc., but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful topics such as: (i adsorption capacity; (ii kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes and (iii critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents.

  19. A review on adult pragmatic assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Sobhani Rad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatics is defined as appropriate use of language either to comprehend ideas or to interact in social situations effectively. Pragmatic competence, which is processed in the right hemisphere, comprises a number of interrelated skills that manifest in a range of adaptive behaviors. Due to the widespread influence of language in communication, studying pragmatic profiles, by developing appropriate tools, is of importance. Here, a range of pragmatic theories and assessment instruments available for use in adult patients is reviewed.

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals drug interactions: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceuticals play a critical role in modern medicine primarily for diagnostic purposes, but also for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. These interactions which have an impact on image by competing with the radiopharmaceutical for binding sites for example can lead to false negative results. Drugs that accelerate the metabolism of the radiopharmaceutical can have a positive impact (i.e. speeding its clearance) or, if repeating image is needed, a negative impact. In some cases, for example in cardiac image among patients taking doxirubacin, these interactions may have a therapeutic benefit. The incidence of drug-radiopharmaceuticals adverse reactions is unknown, since they may not be reported or even recognized. Here, we compiled the medical literature, using the criteria of a systematic review established by the Cochrane Collaboration, on pharmaceutical-drug interactions to provide a summary of documented interactions by organ system and radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose is to provide a reference on drug interactions that could inform the nuclear medicine staff in their daily routine. Efforts to increase adverse event reporting, and ideally consolidate reports worldwide, can provide a critically needed resource for prevention of drug-radiopharmaceuticals interactions. (author)

  1. A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battefeld, Diana; Peter, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be fine-tuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large non-Gaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research.

  2. A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be fine-tuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large non-Gaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research

  3. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  4. Obesity and Physical Frailty in Older Adults: A Scoping Review of Intervention Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2014-01-01

    Many frail older adults are thin, weak, and undernourished; this component of frailty remains a critical concern in the geriatric field. However, there is also strong evidence that excessive adiposity contributes to frailty by reducing the ability of older adults to perform physical activities and increasing metabolic instability. Our scoping review explores the impact of being obese on physical frailty in older adults by summarizing the state of the science for both clinical markers of physi...

  5. Carbon Nanomaterials in Agriculture: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Servin, Alia D; Pagano, Luca; Dhankher, Om Parkash; White, Jason C

    2016-01-01

    There has been great interest in the use of carbon nano-materials (CNMs) in agriculture. However, the existing literature reveals mixed effects from CNM exposure on plants, ranging from enhanced crop yield to acute cytotoxicity and genetic alteration. These seemingly inconsistent research-outcomes, taken with the current technological limitations for in situ CNM detection, present significant hurdles to the wide scale use of CNMs in agriculture. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current literature, including studies with both positive and negative effects of different CNMs (e.g., carbon nano-tubes, fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, and carbon nano-horns, among others) on terrestrial plants and associated soil-dwelling microbes. The effects of CNMs on the uptake of various co-contaminants will also be discussed. Last, we highlight critical knowledge gaps, including the need for more soil-based investigations under environmentally relevant conditions. In addition, efforts need to be focused on better understanding of the underlying mechanism of CNM-plant interactions. PMID:26941751

  6. CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN AGRICULTURE: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab eMukherjee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere has been great interest in the use of carbon nano-materials (CNMs in agriculture. However, the existing literature reveals mixed effects from CNM exposure on plants, ranging from enhanced crop yield to acute cytotoxicity and genetic alteration. These seemingly inconsistent research-outcomes, taken with the current technological limitations for in situ CNM detection, present significant hurdles to the wide scale use of CNMs in agriculture. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current literature, including studies with both positive and negative effects of different CNMs (e.g., carbon nano-tubes, fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, and carbon nano-horns, among others on terrestrial plants and associated soil-dwelling microbes. The effects of CNMs on the uptake of various co-contaminants will also be discussed. Last, we highlight critical knowledge gaps, including the need for more soil-based investigations under environmentally relevant conditions. In addition, efforts need to be focused on better understanding of the underlying mechanism of CNM-plant interactions.

  7. Carbon Nanomaterials in Agriculture: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Servin, Alia D.; Pagano, Luca; Dhankher, Om Parkash; White, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    There has been great interest in the use of carbon nano-materials (CNMs) in agriculture. However, the existing literature reveals mixed effects from CNM exposure on plants, ranging from enhanced crop yield to acute cytotoxicity and genetic alteration. These seemingly inconsistent research-outcomes, taken with the current technological limitations for in situ CNM detection, present significant hurdles to the wide scale use of CNMs in agriculture. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current literature, including studies with both positive and negative effects of different CNMs (e.g., carbon nano-tubes, fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, and carbon nano-horns, among others) on terrestrial plants and associated soil-dwelling microbes. The effects of CNMs on the uptake of various co-contaminants will also be discussed. Last, we highlight critical knowledge gaps, including the need for more soil-based investigations under environmentally relevant conditions. In addition, efforts need to be focused on better understanding of the underlying mechanism of CNM-plant interactions. PMID:26941751

  8. Adult Pancreatic Hemangioma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard S. Mundinger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an adult pancreatic hemangioma diagnosed on pathological specimen review following pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for a symptomatic cystic mass in the head of the pancreas. Eight cases of adult pancreatic hemangioma have been reported in literature since 1939. Presenting symptoms, radiographic diagnosis, pathologic characteristics, and treatment of adult pancreatic hemagiomas are discussed following review of all published cases.

  9. Adult pancreatic hemangioma: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundinger, Gerhard S; Gust, Shannon; Micchelli, Shien T; Fishman, Elliot K; Hruban, Ralph H; Wolfgang, Christopher L

    2009-01-01

    We report an adult pancreatic hemangioma diagnosed on pathological specimen review following pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for a symptomatic cystic mass in the head of the pancreas. Eight cases of adult pancreatic hemangioma have been reported in literature since 1939. Presenting symptoms, radiographic diagnosis, pathologic characteristics, and treatment of adult pancreatic hemagiomas are discussed following review of all published cases. PMID:19421421

  10. Adult Pancreatic Hemangioma: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mundinger, Gerhard S.; Shannon Gust; Micchelli, Shien T.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    We report an adult pancreatic hemangioma diagnosed on pathological specimen review following pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for a symptomatic cystic mass in the head of the pancreas. Eight cases of adult pancreatic hemangioma have been reported in literature since 1939. Presenting symptoms, radiographic diagnosis, pathologic characteristics, and treatment of adult pancreatic hemagiomas are discussed following review of all published cases.

  11. Ozone production from wildfires: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Daniel A.; Wigder, Nicole L.

    2012-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) negatively impacts human health and ecosystems, and is a greenhouse gas. Wildfires are a source of tropospheric O3, and studies show that wildfires are increasing in North America. In this study, we present a critical review of O3 production from wildfires focusing on three key topics: the influence of wildfire emissions on O3 production; the influence of photochemistry on wildfire O3 production; and regulatory issues associated with wildfire O3 production in the United States. Observations of ΔO3/ΔCO range from approximately -0.1 to 0.9, and are caused by the interplay of numerous factors including fire emissions, efficiency of combustion, chemical and photochemical reactions, aerosol effects on chemistry and radiation, and local and downwind meteorological patterns. Using average ΔO3/ΔCO ratios for major biomes, we estimate global wildfires produce approximately 170 Tg of O3 per year, which is 3.5% of all global tropospheric O3 production. Areas of uncertainty in wildfire O3 production include the net effect of aerosols on chemical and photochemical reactions within a fire plume, the impact of oxygenated volatile organic compounds and nitrous acid on O3 production, and the interplay of variables that lead to extreme ΔO3/ΔCO values. Because wildfire frequencies are likely increasing and have been shown to contribute to elevated O3 at air quality monitoring sites, it is important to better understand the emissions, photochemistry and impacts of these fires.

  12. Gastric Versus Small Bowel Feeding in Critically Ill Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlein, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Critically ill patients often require enteral feedings as a primary supply of nutrition. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) should be delivered as a gastric versus small bowel feeding in the critically ill patient population remains a contentious topic. The Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), the European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN), and the Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines (CCPG) are not in consensus on this topic. No research to date demonstrates a significant difference between the two feeding routes in terms of patient mortality, ventilator days, or length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU); however, studies provide some evidence that there may be other benefits to using a small bowel feeding route in critically ill patients. The purpose of this paper is to examine both sides of this debate and review advantages and disadvantages of both small bowel and gastric routes of EN. Practical issues and challenges to small bowel feeding tube placement are also addressed. Finally, recommendations are provided to help guide the clinician when selecting a feeding route, and suggestions are made for future research. PMID:26920643

  13. Radiopharmaceuticals drug interactions: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals play a critical role in modern medicine primarily for diagnostic purposes, but also for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. These interactions which have an impact on image by competing with the radiopharmaceutical for binding sites for example can lead to false negative results. Drugs that accelerate the metabolism of the radiopharmaceutical can have a positive impact (i.e. speeding its clearance or, if repeating image is needed, a negative impact. In some cases, for example in cardiac image among patients taking doxirubacin, these interactions may have a therapeutic benefit. The incidence of drug-radiopharmaceuticals adverse reactions is unknown, since they may not be reported or even recognized. Here,we compiled the medical literature, using the criteria of a systematic review established by the Cochrane Collaboration, on pharmaceutical-drug interactions to provide a summary of documented interactions by organ system and radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose is to provide a reference on drug interactions that could inform the nuclear medicine staff in their daily routine. Efforts to increase adverse event reporting, and ideally consolidate reports worldwide, can provide a critically needed resource for prevention of drug-radiopharmaceuticals interactions.Os radiofármacos desempenham função crítica na medicina moderna, primariamente para fins diagnósticos, mas também no monitoramento da progressão de doenças assim como na avaliação de respostas ao tratamento. O uso da tecnologia por imagem tem crescido e conseqüentemente as prescrições de medicamentos (radiofármacos em especial com esse propósito. Este fato, aumenta o risco de interações entre medicamentos e radiofármacos. Interações que podem ter um impacto na

  14. Functional magnetic resonance and swallowing: critical literature review,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Santilli de Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Aspects of the neuroanatomical representation of swallowing have been investigated in humans through brain mapping techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. OBJECTIVE: This critical qualitative review of the literature analyzed international scientific publications in the PubMed database that investigated the activation of the central nervous system in humans during the act of swallowing. METHODS: This investigation was limited to articles that investigated adults older than 18 years, published in English or Portuguese, between January 2002 and December 2013. Publications that did not have access to the full text, that were repeated by overlapping keywords, case studies, literature reviews, letters to the editor, and those not directly related to the topic of the investigation were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 649 articles were identified, of which 21 matched the inclusion criteria. CONCLUSION: The main purpose of the manuscripts that investigate the swallowing process through fMRI were: to characterize swallowing in different pathologies; to compare swallowing in different age groups; to describe brain activation in different stimulation conditions. These studies indicate multiple cortical regions involved in swallowing control. Overall, the studies indicate that fMRI is a non-invasive and quantitative method that allows the investigation of characteristics that are quite often not clinically visible.

  15. Year in review 2010: Critical Care - infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagani, Leonardo; Afshari, Arash; Harbarth, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Infections remain among the most important concerns in critically ill patients. Early and reliable diagnosis of infection still poses difficulties in this setting but also represents a crucial step toward appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Increasing antimicrobial resistance challenges ...

  16. CRITICAL REVIEW OF PROSTATE CANCER PREDICTIVE TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokh F. Shariat; Michael W Kattan; Vickers, Andrew J; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Scardino, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a very complex disease, and the decision-making process requires the clinician to balance clinical benefits, life expectancy, comorbidities, and potential treatment related side effects. Accurate prediction of clinical outcomes may help in the difficult process of making decisions related to prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss attributes of predictive tools and systematically review those available for prostate cancer. Types of tools include probability formulas, lo...

  17. The New Fluoroquinolones: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    George G Zhanel; Walkty, Andrew; Vercaigne, Lavern; Karlowsky, James A.; Embil, John; Gin, Alfred S; Hoban, Daryl J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the literature available on the new fluoroquinolones – clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin – to compare these agents with each other and contrast them with ciprofloxacin, an older fluoroquinolone.DATA SELECTION: Published papers used were obtained by searching MEDLINE for articles published between 1994 and 1998, inclusive. References of published papers were also obtained and reviewed. Abstracts ...

  18. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT TREATMENT GUIDELINES FOR COMPLEX PTSD IN ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jongh, Ad; Resick, Patricia A; Zoellner, Lori A; van Minnen, Agnes; Lee, Christopher W; Monson, Candice M; Foa, Edna B; Wheeler, Kathleen; Broeke, Erik Ten; Feeny, Norah; Rauch, Sheila A M; Chard, Kathleen M; Mueser, Kim T; Sloan, Denise M; van der Gaag, Mark; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Neuner, Frank; de Roos, Carlijn; Hehenkamp, Lieve M J; Rosner, Rita; Bicanic, Iva A E

    2016-05-01

    According to current treatment guidelines for Complex PTSD (cPTSD), psychotherapy for adults with cPTSD should start with a "stabilization phase." This phase, focusing on teaching self-regulation strategies, was designed to ensure that an individual would be better able to tolerate trauma-focused treatment. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the research underlying these treatment guidelines for cPTSD, and to specifically address the question as to whether a phase-based approach is needed. As reviewed in this paper, the research supporting the need for phase-based treatment for individuals with cPTSD is methodologically limited. Further, there is no rigorous research to support the views that: (1) a phase-based approach is necessary for positive treatment outcomes for adults with cPTSD, (2) front-line trauma-focused treatments have unacceptable risks or that adults with cPTSD do not respond to them, and (3) adults with cPTSD profit significantly more from trauma-focused treatments when preceded by a stabilization phase. The current treatment guidelines for cPTSD may therefore be too conservative, risking that patients are denied or delayed in receiving conventional evidence-based treatments from which they might profit. PMID:26840244

  19. More... or Less? Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Adult Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, Aileen

    2014-01-01

    The development of socio-cultural understandings of mathematics combined with policy interest in adult numeracy as a result of international studies, which compare skill levels in different countries, have impacted adult education practice in recent years. In Scotland, a "social practice approach" is espoused and adult numeracy tutors…

  20. A critical review of constructal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constructal theory applied to the volume to point or point to volume flows aims to decrease global flow resistance by furnishing low resistive flow links in the flow field. Constructal theory expects to improve the flow performance by increasing the branching of the low resistive flow links. Fourteen different constructal theory applications involving tree shaped flow networks are reviewed with the purpose to check whether the increase in branching of tree shaped flow networks leads to increased flow performance or not? In other words, the review aims to answer the question; does the evolution model of constructal theory, increasing the branching of tree shaped flow networks through the sequence of constructal designs, improve the flow performance? The review shows that constructal theory will not necessarily improve the flow performance if the internal branching of the flow field is increased, in contrast, the performance will mostly be lowered if the internal branching of the flow field is increased

  1. The Grand Tack model: a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Sean N

    2014-01-01

    The `Grand Tack' model proposes that the inner Solar System was sculpted by the giant planets' orbital migration in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Jupiter first migrated inward then Jupiter and Saturn migrated back outward together. If Jupiter's turnaround or "tack" point was at ~1.5 AU the inner disk of terrestrial building blocks would have been truncated at ~1 AU, naturally producing the terrestrial planets' masses and spacing. During the gas giants' migration the asteroid belt is severely depleted but repopulated by distinct planetesimal reservoirs that can be associated with the present-day S and C types. The giant planets' orbits are consistent with the later evolution of the outer Solar System. Here we confront common criticisms of the Grand Tack model. We show that some uncertainties remain regarding the Tack mechanism itself; the most critical unknown is the timing and rate of gas accretion onto Saturn and Jupiter. Current isotopic and compositional measurements of Solar System bodies -- including ...

  2. Review of "Political Psychology: Critical Perspectives"

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Nesbitt-Larking

    2014-01-01

    The core focus of "Political Psychology: Critical Perspectives" is an interrelated set of European-based theories and perspectives that emphasize both the social context of the individual and the capacity of citizens to engage in strategic discursive and rhetorical agency. Through an explanation of social representations, social identity, self-categorization and other theories, Tileagă raises questions about mainstream methodologies in political psychology and offers alternatives. The core ac...

  3. Organic livestock farming – a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2001-01-01

    Based on production guidelines, organic livestock farming has set itself the goal to establish an environmentally friendly production, to sustain animals in good health, to realise high animal welfare standards, and to produce products of high quality. By striving for these goals, organic livestock farming meets the demands of an increasing number of consumers, which are critical towards the conventional production methods. The paper gives an overview of the present state of the art in the di...

  4. Regional Innovation Clusters: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Junbo Yu; Randall W. Jackson

    2010-01-01

    This paper begins by investigating the Obama administration’s rationale of promoting regional innovation clusters (RICs) in the context of increasing public concerns on the Strategy for American Innovation. Next, the connections between RICs and existing research and policies in clusters, innovation and regional economic development are identified and analyzed to highlight those most critical challenges in conceptualizing and theorizing RICs. While we applaud the long overdue focus of economi...

  5. A critical review of the model minority stereotype shibboleth

    OpenAIRE

    Harlep, Nicholas Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The author conducted a thematic review of the literature on the model minority stereotype (MMS). MMS writings (n = 246) included peer-reviewed and non-peerreviewed materials spanning from the 1960s to present. Writings were reviewed if their title included ???model minority.??? The purpose was to review the MMS critically. Six major themes were found to recurrently appear in the MMS literature. Those themes were the following: (1) critiquing colorblindness, (2) countering merit...

  6. The Three-Part Harmony of Adult Learning, Critical Thinking, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making are fields that receive attention individually, although they are interspersed with elements of each other's theories and philosophies. In addressing adult learning precepts, it is essential to include critical thinking and decision-making. One without the other creates weakness; all must be…

  7. Writing the New West: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

  8. A Scoping Review of Treatments for Older Adults with Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Orion; Quinn, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify effective treatment services for older, substance-using adults, an examination of the evidence associated with interventions for this group is presented. Methods: Using explicit, validated criteria to identify effective interventions, 22 publications were included in a review and were subject to a critical appraisal of…

  9. A Critical Review of Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ciceo Andreea; Ionescu Andreea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to draw attention upon the importance of service quality and the evolution of the concept accross the years. In order to attain this goal, the authors will make a review of the ”service quality” concept – for what does it stand and how it can be measured?, as well as the most notable managerial implications associated with service quality.

  10. Knowledge Management and Measurement: a Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Arisha, Amr; Ragab, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Knowledge is the currency of the current economy, a vital organisational asset and a key to creating a sustainable competitive advantage. The consequent interest in Knowledge Management (KM) has spurred an exponential increase in publications covering a broad spectrum of diverse and overlapping research areas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review and categorised analysis of the rapidly growing number of KM publications, and offer a comprehensive reference for ...

  11. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  12. Complications in critically ill adult patients’ transportations reported in the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bambi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport of critically ill patients is a complex process, made up by several phases involving the healthcare professionals. It requires a careful planning for the prevention of potential complications undermining the patients’ safety outside critical care environment. Literature review about complications and adverse events reported during intra and inter-hospital transport of critically ill adult patients. Intra-hospital transfers are affected by adverse events rates ranging from 22.2 to 75.7% in the published literature. Major adverse events, defined as life threatening conditions that require urgent therapeutic intervention, vary from 4.2 to 31%. Death is a rare occurrence. Adverse events during interhospital have a maximum rate of 34%. Technical incidents represent a typical feature of these transports. Authors reported problems to gas supply, ambulance electric system, equipment. There is a lack of studies about the complications related to rotary wing inter-hospital transports. While extracorporeal membrane oxygenation/extracorporeal life support patients seem to be the most complex category of critically ill to be transported outside the hospital, 11 papers revealed only 29 adverse events ranging from 0 to 17%. No deaths were recorded. Currently, research must explore more accurately how much transports affect the outcome of patients, and what are the most appropriate time-frames to assess the consequences of transfers on patients’ clinical conditions.

  13. Physical theory of measuring process : a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    榛葉, 豊; 福地, 充; 坂田, 亮

    1980-01-01

    After a survey of the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics and von Neumann's approach to a measurement theory, the measurement theory of Daneri, Loinger and Prosperi is critically reviewed in regard in particular to their aims and assumptions. The review will lead us to see what is still desirable of a physical theory of measurement on quantum mechanical systems.

  14. Pharmacological Management of Overactive Bladder: A Systematic and Critical Review of Published Economic Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Getsios; Wissam El-Hadi; Ingrid Caro; J. Jaime. Caro

    2005-01-01

    Overactive bladder is a common condition, with recent findings estimating the prevalence in adults at about 15%. Symptoms, including urinary urgency, high voiding frequency and urge incontinence, have been shown to decrease patients' quality of life. Given its high prevalence, the economic burden of overactive bladder is also substantial, with a recent estimate placing the annual cost in the US at $US9.1 billion (year 2000 values). The objective of this review is to provide a critical apprais...

  15. Color Image Enhancement Techniques: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Kumar Vishwakarma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement is one of the key issues in high quality pictures such as digital camera and HDTV. Since Image clarity is very easily affected by lighting, weather, or equipment that has been used to capture the image. These conditions lead to image may suffer from loss of information. As a result, many techniques have developed known as image Enhancement techniques to recover the information in an image. This paper presents a literature review on some of the image Enhancement techniques for color image enhancement like, Contrast Stretching, Histogram Equalization and its improvement versions, Homomorphic Filtering, Retinex, and Wavelet Multiscale Transform. Comparison of all the techniques concludes the better approach for its future research.

  16. Wireless Magnetoelastic Resonance Sensors: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keat G. Ong

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive review of magnetoelastic environmental sensor technology; topics include operating physics, sensor design, and illustrative applications. Magnetoelastic sensors are made of amorphous metallic glass ribbons or wires, with a characteristic resonant frequency inversely proportional to length. The remotely detected resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor shifts in response to different physical parameters including stress, pressure, temperature, flow velocity, liquid viscosity, magnetic field, and mass loading. Coating the magnetoelastic sensor with a mass changing, chemically responsive layer enables realization of chemical sensors. Magnetoelastic sensors can be remotely interrogated by magnetic, acoustic, or optical means. The sensors can be characterized in the time domain, where the resonant frequency is determined through analysis of the sensor transient response, or in the frequency domain where the resonant frequency is determined from the frequency-amplitude spectrum of the sensor.

  17. Using Concept Maps to Engage Adult Learners in Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.; Conceição, Simone C. O.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of learning theories can help adult educators become more effective practitioners and meet the needs of the learners they serve. Adult educators who understand how individuals learn can be better prepared to use effective strategies during the learning process. This article addresses the use of concept maps as a strategy to engage…

  18. Critical Environmental Adult Education in Canada: Student Environmental Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth; Chubb, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Today recent polls have indicated that the Canadian public considers the environment and climate change as their top concern (De Souza, 2007), perhaps eclipsed only by recent economic fears. In keeping with the historical responsiveness of adult educators, environmental adult education (EAE) is widespread across North America. However, this area…

  19. Economics of Malignant Gliomas: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Fitzner, Karen A.; Jacobs, Daniel I.; Bennett, Charles L.; Liebling, Dustin B.; Luu, Thanh Ha; Trifilio, Steven M.; Grimm, Sean A.; Fisher, Matthew J.; Haleem, Meraaj S.; Ray, Paul S.; McKoy, Judith M.; DeBoer, Rebecca; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E.; Deeb, Mohammed; McKoy, June M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 18,500 persons are diagnosed with malignant glioma in the United States annually. Few studies have investigated the comprehensive economic costs. We reviewed the literature to examine costs to patients with malignant glioma and their families, payers, and society. Methods: A total of 18 fully extracted studies were included. Data were collected on direct and indirect costs, and cost estimates were converted to US dollars using the conversion rate calculated from the study's publication date, and updated to 2011 values after adjustment for inflation. A standardized data abstraction form was used. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results: Before approval of effective chemotherapeutic agents for malignant gliomas, estimated total direct medical costs in the United States for surgery and radiation therapy per patient ranged from $50,600 to $92,700. The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) and bevacizumab to glioblastoma treatment regimens has resulted in increased overall costs for glioma care. Although health care costs are now less front-loaded, they have increased over the course of illness. Analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year suggests that the benefits of TMZ fall on the edge of acceptable therapies. Furthermore, indirect medical costs, such as productivity losses, are not trivial. Conclusion: With increased chemotherapy use for malignant glioma, the paradigm for treatment and associated out-of-pocket and total medical costs continue to evolve. Larger out-of-pocket costs may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, the economic implications of which should be evaluated prospectively. PMID:25466707

  20. Brain alterations in paedophilia: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnke, Sebastian; Müller, Sabine; Amelung, Till; Krüger, Tillmann H C; Ponseti, Jorge; Schiffer, Boris; Walter, Martin; Beier, Klaus M; Walter, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    Psychosocial and biological factors have been implicated in paedophilia, such as alterations in brain structure and function. The purpose of this paper is to review the expanding body of literature on this topic including brain abnormality case reports, as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Case studies of men who have committed sexual offences against children implicate frontal and temporal abnormalities that may be associated with impaired impulse inhibition. Structural neuroimaging investigations show volume reductions in paedophilic men. Although the findings have been heterogeneous, smaller amygdala volume has been replicated repeatedly. Functional neuroimaging investigations demonstrate an overlap between paedophiles and teleiophiles during sexual arousal processing. While it is controversial among studies regarding group differences, reliable discrimination between paedophilic and teleiophilic men may be achieved using functional activation patterns. Nevertheless, the heterogeneous findings published so far suggest further research is necessary to disentangle the neurobiological mechanisms of paedophilic preference. A number of methodological confounds have been identified, which may account for the inconsistent results that could prove to be beneficial for future investigations. PMID:25116710

  1. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. PMID:27062345

  2. Cognitive impairments and depression: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Miquel; Vives, Margalida; López-Navarro, Emilio; García-Campayo, Javier; Gili, Margalida

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive impairments are core symptoms of depressive disorders. We assess the systematic reviews and meta-analysis studies published over the last 10 years (2004-2014) that address cognitive performance of depressed patients and taking into account age; clinical and demographic features; symptom severity; number of previous episodes; clinical remission; depressive subtypes and pharmacological treatment. Twelve (12) papers were included after search in international databases. In first episode depression the cognitive domains affected were psychomotor speed, attention, visual learning and memory as well as executive functions. Depressive patients in remission phase improved their performance in attention tasks although they did not achieve similar performance levels as healthy controls. Melancholic patients seem to have a different pattern of cognitive impairment compared with non-melancholic depressive patients. Patients treated with the current antidepressants perform worse in inhibition tasks, verbal fluency, and working memory scores as well as on composite scores of visual and verbal working memory. Future research should study longitudinal outcome and clinical relevance of cognitive symptoms, determine their underlying etiopathogenesis and how they impact on clinical functioning. Specifically, it would be important to analyze the ability of the new antidepressant drugs to improve affective symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26320897

  3. A critical review of Electric Earthquake Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vallianatos

    2001-06-01

    and can guarantee reliable electric field measurements, although improvements are still possible with new generation electrodes and smart measurement schemes facilitating noise suppression. It is increasingly apparent that simultaneous electric and magnetic measurements are indispensable and conducted in most new experiments. There is also an emerging trend towards multi-parametric, broadband observations that should provide far better data and constraints on the source processes. The physics of electrification mechanisms are beginning to clarify, as also is the potential of solid state effects: charge and current densities under controlled conditions are such, that if scaled up to the size of seismogenic zones, they would yield observable EEP. However, there are still many unknowns, requiring careful experimentation and theoretical development. Research is also directed towards decoding the physics of stress/strain changes that cause electrification, exploiting properties such as are the fractal nature of faulting and Self-Organised Criticality (SOC. The first evidence of possible electromagnetic precursors due to a SOC system has been published recently. Modelling of the source processes from first principles is stepping up and certain classes of observed signals can now be predicted by theory, providing new and more rigorous means of data authentication; such models have also established the feasibility of long range EEP signals. Although progress is apparent, the knowledge is still grossly incomplete and EEP data are not indisputable, if tested with the full rigour of scientific verification methods. The new research philosophy requires time and vigilance before it begins to pay off, but it appears to have taken a more promising course.

  4. Adult learning theories and medical education : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Abela, Jurgen C.

    2009-01-01

    Adult learning theories describe ways in which adults assimilate knowledge, skills and attitudes. One popular theory is andragogy. This is analysed in detail in this review. The importance of extrinsic motivation and reflective practice in adult learning is highlighted, particularly since andragogy fails to address adequately these issues. Transformative Learning is put forward as an alternative concept. Using the three recognised domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes, ways of applying t...

  5. Physical Activity Interventions Among Older Adults: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important in the management of chronic illness among older adults worldwide. Researchers have conducted several intervention studies to increase PA behavior in this population. This review of the past 12 years of relevant PA intervention research among adults age 60 and older systematically summarized research findings, identified characteristics of successful interventions, and proposed areas of future research. Twenty studies were reviewed for this paper, most empl...

  6. Adult burn survivors' personal experiences of rehabilitation: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, R; Wilson, A; Abu-Qamar, M Z; McLean, L

    2014-02-01

    Burn rehabilitation is a lengthy process associated with physical and psychosocial problems. As a critical area in burn care, the aim was to systematically synthesise the literature focussing on personal perceptions and experiences of adult burn survivors' rehabilitation and to identify factors that influence their rehabilitation. Studies were identified through an electronic search using the databases: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, PsycINFO and Trove of peer reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 limited to English-language research with search terms developed to reflect burn rehabilitation. From the 378 papers identified, 14 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, there were 184 participants conducted in eight different countries. The reported mean age was 41 years with a mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn of 34% and the length of stay ranging from one day to 68 months. Significant factors identified as influential in burn rehabilitation were the impact of support, coping and acceptance, the importance of work, physical changes and limitations. This review suggests there is a necessity for appropriate knowledge and education based programmes for burn survivors with consideration given to the timing and delivery of education to facilitate the rehabilitation journey. PMID:24050979

  7. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  8. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRADY RAAP, M.C.

    1999-06-24

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999.

  9. Review of impact experiments on the critical ionization velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact experiments on the critical ionization velocity (V sub (c)) interactions are reviewed. In these experiments, a highly ionized plasma impacts on a neutral gas cloud. V sub (c)-interaction is observed only when the magnetic field, and the neutral gas density, are above certain critical limits. The values of these limits, however, differ between the experiments. The extrapolation of the laboratory results to space applications is also discussed. (Author)

  10. Year in review 2007: Critical Care – shock

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Florian; Baumgart, Katja; Simkova, Vladislava; Georgieff, Michael; Radermacher, Peter; Calzia, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The research papers on shock published in Critical Care throughout 2007 are related to three major subjects: the modulation of the macrocirculation and microcirculation during shock, focusing on arginine vasopressin, erythropoietin and nitric oxide; studies on metabolic homeostasis (acid–base status, energy expenditure and gastrointestinal motility); and basic supportive measures in critical illness (fluid resuscitation and sedation, and body-temperature management). The present review summar...

  11. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999

  12. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  13. Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high…

  14. A Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezirow, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Interpreting the ideas of Jurgen Habermas, the nature of three generic domains of adult learning is posited, each with its own interpretive categories, ways of determining which knowledge claims are warranted, methods of inquiry as well as its own learning goals, learning needs and modes of educational intervention. (CT)

  15. Strangeness nuclear physics: a critical review on selected topics

    OpenAIRE

    ,; T., Bressani; G., Garbarino

    2012-01-01

    Selected topics in strangeness nuclear physics are critically reviewed. This includes production, structure and weak decay of $\\Lambda$--Hypernuclei, the $\\bar K$ nuclear interaction and the possible existence of $\\bar K$ bound states in nuclei. Perspectives for future studies on these issues are also outlined.

  16. Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Critical Review of Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallin, Antoinette; Nayar, Shoba

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the funding and delivery of research programmes at the university level have, in recent years, resulted in significant changes to research supervision. This paper critically reviews key influences effecting postgraduate supervision. Analysis draws on literature spanning 2000-2010 to determine the appropriateness of traditional models of…

  17. The Behavioral Treatment of School Phobia: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, David

    1984-01-01

    Presents a critical review of the studies that have applied behavioral techniques in the treatment of school phobia. Notes the conspicuous absences of any studies designed to assess either the relative efficacy of behavior therapy in comparison to other types of therapy or the different effects of various behavioral treatments. (JAC)

  18. Using Customer Reviews to Build Critical Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Junior high school teacher Mary Rice designs a consumer research unit that cultivates students' critical reading and thinking skills. As students learn how to develop and revise criteria for evaluating the reliability of online information, they read customer reviews, research products, and present their findings orally.

  19. A Review of Bipolar Disorder in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hilty, Donald M; Leamon, Martin H.; Lim, Russell F.; Kelly, Rosemary H.; Hales, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and management of bipolar disorder. Special attention is paid to factors that complicate treatment, including nonadherence, comorbid disorders, mixed mania, and depression. Methods: A Medline search was conducted from January of 1990 through December of 2005 using key terms of bipolar disorder, diagnosis, and treatment. Papers selected for further review included those published in English in peer-reviewed journals, with ...

  20. Using Critical Discourse Analysis to Understand and Facilitate Identification Processes of Bilingual Adults Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahnmann, Melisa; Rymes, Betsy; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2005-01-01

    Our research focuses on bilingual adults enrolled in the Teachers for English Language Learners (TELL) program. TELL is a scholarship program whose goal is to increase the number of critically-minded bilingual educators in the state of Georgia in the United States. In this paper, we use critical discourse analysis to inform theoretical and…

  1. Lisdexamfetamine: A Review in ADHD in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, James E

    2016-04-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting amfetamine prodrug with a convenient once-daily oral regimen that offers the potential for improved adherence and reduced abuse compared with short-acting preparations of amfetamines. Lisdexamfetamine (as Elvanse Adult(®); Tyvense Adult™) has been approved for use in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under the EU decentralization procedure, with the first approvals in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. This approval reflects the results of three short-term trials in adults with ADHD in which fixed- or flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine produced significantly greater improvements than placebo in ADHD symptoms, overall functioning, executive functioning (including in patients with significant pre-existing impairment) and quality of life. Of note, a post hoc analysis of one of these studies suggested that the response to lisdexamfetamine was generally similar in treatment-naïve patients and those who had already received-and not responded satisfactorily to-previous ADHD therapies, including methylphenidate (MPH). Two further studies demonstrated the longer-term effectiveness of flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine in reducing ADHD symptoms, albeit maintenance of efficacy required ongoing treatment with the drug. Lisdexamfetamine was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with an adverse event profile typical of that reported for other long-acting stimulants. Head-to-head comparisons with other long-acting agents, notably MPH and atomoxetine, are lacking. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available data, lisdexamfetamine provides a useful alternative option for the treatment of adults with ADHD, including those who have not responded adequately to previous ADHD therapies, including MPH. PMID:27048350

  2. Severe Hypercapnia in Critically Ill Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Hassan S.; Tiangco, Noel Dexter; Harrell, Christopher; Vender, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenetic autosomal recessive multi-organ disease affecting approximately 50,000 patients worldwide. Overall median survival is continually increasing but pulmonary disease remains the most common cause of death. Guidelines have been published in relation to the outpatient maintenance of lung health for CF patients and treatment of acute lung exacerbations but little information exists about the management of the critically ill CF patient. Invasive mecha...

  3. The rumination syndrome in adults: A review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumination in adults is considered to be the effortless regurgitation of recently ingested food into the mouth, followed by either rechewing and reswallowing or expulsion of the regurgitate. On the basis of the definition of rumination as a unique category of functional gastroduodenal disorders, according to the newly established Rome III classification, a review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of the rumination syndrome in adults is presented after systematic and critical approach of all articles that could be retrieved through PubMed using the term "rumination".

  4. Social media use of older adults: a mini-review

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background. Maintaining social relationships has been defined as a core element of aging well. With a considerable amount of older adults living alone, social media provides the possibility to engage in meaningful social contact, e. g., by joining online social networks and online discussion forums. Objective. The review encompasses current knowledge of prerequisites in social media use of older adults such as functional capacity, ICT-related knowledge, and favorable attitudes towards social ...

  5. Review on Adult Neurogenesis in Humans and Other Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfamichael Berhe

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of adult neurogenesis has recently indicated significant progress.The objective of this paper is to review the basic concepts, new findings and clinical implications of neurogenesis making emphasis on the significance, especially in humans. Although scientists still debate the extent and purpose of neurogenesis in the adult brain, research has identified certain areas of the brain where it is most evident. These areas include the hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and olfacto...

  6. Radically Reducing the Costs of Panel Critical Reviews According to ISO 14040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Christiansen, Kim; Wernet, Gregor

    We suggest a procedure that radically reduces the critical review costs without compromising their thoroughness and overall quality. This procedure has 3 elements: A fixed panel for all reviews, an already critically reviewed background database, and a software-supported review procedure. The...... presentation discusses these elements in the light of the upcoming ISO 14071 on critical review....

  7. A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton, Darren ER; Charlesworth, Sarah; Ivey, Adam; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Bredin, Shannon SD

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review examines critically the scientific basis for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Active Living for adults. Particular reference is given to the dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature all-cause mortality and seven chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) and osteoporosis). The strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific heal...

  8. A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ivey Adam; Charlesworth Sarah; Warburton Darren ER; Nettlefold Lindsay; Bredin Shannon SD

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review examines critically the scientific basis for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Active Living for adults. Particular reference is given to the dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature all-cause mortality and seven chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) and osteoporosis). The strength of the relationship between physical activity and spec...

  9. Concise Review: Quiescence in Adult Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumman, M; Dhawan, J; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) are tissue resident stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury. In uninjured tissues, ASCs exist in a nonproliferating, reversibly cell cycle-arrested state known as quiescence or G0. A key function of the quiescent state is to preserve...... stemness in ASCs by preventing precocious differentiation, and thus maintaining a pool of undifferentiated ASCs. Recent evidences suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state and that excessive or defective quiescence may lead to compromised tissue regeneration or tumorigenesis. The aim...

  10. Artificial neural networks in foodstuffs: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goyal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical review of literature concerning the artificial neural networks (ANN in foodstuffs. The main aim is to provide background information, motivation for applications and an exposition to the methodologies employed in the development of ANN techniques in foodstuffs. This review includes that all the latest works on the application of ANN to foodstuffs which have been reported excellently with positive and encouraging results. This review paper highlights the methodologies and algorithms employed for ANN models suitable for various foodstuffs, viz., avocados, tomatoes, cherries, grape, mosambi juice, apple juice, chicken nuggets, pistachio nuts, potato chips, kalakand, cakes, processed cheese, butter, milk and other foodstuffs. This review paper would be very beneficial for those working in food industry, academicians, students, researchers, scientists, factories manufacturing the food products and regulatory authorities, as it provides comprehensive latest information.

  11. The EDL Effect in Microchannel Flow: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microchannels are currently being used in many areas and have high potential for applications in many other areas. The application areas include Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS, microfuidics such as microchannel heat sinks for cooling micro-chips and laser diode arrays, Lab-On-Chip devices for chemical and bio-medical analyses, biotechnology, telecommunications, metrology, computer technology, office equipment and home appliances, safety technology, process engineering, robotics, automotive engineering and environmental protection and micro fluid pumps, etc. In this paper, a bibliographical review of the electric double layer effect in microchannels is presented. The effect of different parameters such as friction coefficient, Nusselt number, aspect ratio on the performance of microchannel with EDL is critically reviewed. The available numerical and experimental works quoted in the open literature are critically analysed in order to highlight the EDL effect in microchannel flow.

  12. INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN RICE: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suresh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important food grain crop and is consumed by majority of the human population. Nutrient management is an important aspect in rice to be given pivotal importance so as to attain sustainability of grain yield production. In the present chapter, aspects’ relating to integrated nutrient management in rice is critically reviewed. The effects of integrating chemical fertilizers with organic supplements on biometric characteristics and ultimately on grain and straw yields were discussed in detail. Rice is an important food grain crop and is consumed by majority of the human population. Nutrient management is an important aspect in rice to be given pivotal importance so as to attain sustainability of grain yield production. In the present chapter, aspects’ relating to integrated nutrient management in rice is critically reviewed. The effects of integrating chemical fertilizers with organic supplements on biometric characteristics and ultimately on grain and straw yields were discussed in detail.

  13. Firearm possession and violent death: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Stroebe

    2014-01-01

    This article critically reviews the empirical research on the association of firearmpossession with suicide and homicide. Both suicide and homicide reflect intentional behavior with the goal of killing oneself or another person. Firearms providemerely a means of reaching this goal. The possession of a firearm can, therefore, not be a primary cause of either suicide or homicide.However, since a defining characteristic of both suicide and homicide is the success of killing, and since guns aremo...

  14. HETEROTOPIC OSSIFICATION IN CRITICAL ILL PATIENTS : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Christakou; Maria Alimatiri; Alexsandros Kouvarakos; Emmanuel Papadopoulos; Irini Patsaki; Anastasia Kotanidou; Serafeim Nanas

    2013-01-01

    Background of the study:Heterotopic ossification is a bone formation in soft tissues around large joints. It is aserious complication affecting critical ill patients following central nervous system disorders, multiple injuries(e.g., neurological and orthopedic injuries), severe respiratory diseases (e.g., ARDS), and burns. It can havelong-lasting effects on patient’s recovery, functional status and quality of life. The present review examines theincidence, clinical symptoms, pathophysiology,...

  15. Introducing Critical Care Forum's ongoing review of medical statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Whitley, Elise; Ball, Jonathon

    2002-01-01

    Statistics is increasingly used in all fields of medicine but is often poorly understood and incorrectly applied. Critical Care is therefore launching a series of articles aimed at providing a simple introduction or refresher to some of the more commonly used statistical tools and ideas. This series does not aim to be an exhaustive review of medical statistics but rather a starting point to inform readers and stimulate more thought and investigation as to the most appropriate statistical meth...

  16. The Puzzle of Social Capital: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quibria, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This expository note provides a critical review of the burgeoning literature on social capital and highlights a number of conceptual and empirical issues. First, the concept of social capital remains largely elusive, with many different ideas attached to it. This elusiveness has serious ramifications for empirical and policy analysis. Second, while the concept of social capital is used to highlight the positive, productive aspects of sociability, it fails in important ways to qualify as a for...

  17. A critical review of regional economic integration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rui, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Under the circumstances of economic globalization, regional economic integration has become the mainstream of current economic development for each country, so China has to pay more attention to it. The critical review on regional economic integration in China can lay a certain foundation and provide experience for the in-depth research. Main contents of regional economic integration are refined according to the previous studies and realities, including the integration of regional economic re...

  18. A subtropical embayment serves as essential habitat for sub-adults and adults of the critically endangered smalltooth sawfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis P. Papastamatiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying essential habitat for large, mobile endangered species is difficult, particularly marine species where visual observations are limited. Though various methods of telemetry are available, each suffers from limitations and only provides satisfactory information over a specific temporal or spatial scale. Sawfish are one of the most imperilled groups of fishes, with every species worldwide listed as endangered or critically endangered. Whereas movements of juvenile sawfish are fairly well studied, much less is known about adults due to their rarity and the challenging environments they live in. Previous encounter records have identified Florida Bay in the Everglades National Park as a potentially important habitat for adults of the critically endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata. We used a combination of acoustic and satellite telemetry, as well as conventional tagging, to determine patterns of movement and residency by sub-adult and adult sawfish. Over short time periods, movements appeared primarily tidal driven with some evidence that animals moved into shallow water during the ebbing or flooding tides. Adult sawfish sexually segregated seasonally with males found by mangrove-lined canals in the spring and females predominantly found in outer parts of the bay. Males migrated from canals starting in late May potentially as temperatures increased above 30°C. Some males and females migrated north during the summer, while others may have remained within deeper portions of Florida Bay. Male sawfish displayed site fidelity to Florida Bay as some individuals were recaptured 1–2 years after originally being tagged. We hypothesize that mating occurs in Florida Bay based on aggregations of mature animals coinciding with the proposed mating period, initial sexual segregation of adults followed by some evidence of females moving through areas where males show seasonal residency, and a high percentage of animals showing evidence of

  19. Early markers of adult obesity: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Brisbois, T D; Farmer, A P; McCargar, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors in early childhood (≤5 years of age) that are the most significant predictors of the development of obesity in adulthood. Factors of interest included exposures/insults in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables such as socioeconomic status (SES) or birth place that could impact all three time periods. An extensive electronic and systematic search initially resulted in 8,880 citat...

  20. Renal trauma in adults - a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This review provides a framework for understanding the classification and features of renal trauma. Computed tomography (CT) is now the modality of choice in prompt diagnosis and staging of renal trauma. A retrospective review of the CT scans of all patients with blunt abdominal trauma sustaining renal injury that presented to our hospital within the last 2 years was undertaken. The patient list was obtained from our Trauma Registry database at the Trauma Services Unit. Representative cases of each category of renal injury are displayed on a poster, accompanied by explanatory notes. We also reviewed the literature on renal trauma between 1985-2001 on Medline. The indications for radiological assessment and the management of renal trauma remain controversial. Staging of renal trauma with CT imaging, when integrated with clinical information helps to facilitate appropriate management plan. Renal injuries are classified into four grades on the basis of imaging: - Grade 1: Minor cortical contusion, minor laceration with limited perinephric hematoma, and small cortical infarct. - Grade 2: Major renal lacerations extending to the medulla with or without involvement of the collecting system and segmental renal infarct. - Grade 3: Catastrophic injury which include multiple renal lacerations and injury to the renal vascular pedicle. - Grade 4: Ureteropelvic junction injuries. Diagnostic imaging and staging plays a major role in assessing patients with renal injuries and affects clinical management decisions. Understanding the radiologic classification of traumatic renal injuries and integrating the findings with clinical information assist in developing an optimal management plan. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Computerized Cognitive Training with Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kueider, Alexandra M.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were ...

  2. OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA: A REVIEW IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elavarasi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most prevalent sleep disorder in the adult population. There is accumulating evidence that OSA is being considered as an independent risk factor for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and stroke leading to increased cardio metabolic morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of OSA is higher in patients presenting for surgery than in general population and a significant proportion of OSA patients remain undiagnosed, when they present for surgery. This is of concern to the anesthesiologist and the peri-operative physician, as OSA has been associated with increased peri-operative risk and post-operative complications. Hence a protocol designed to provide practical solutions and strategies for the peri- operative /post-operative care of these patients needs to be followed and optimal use of it requires our attention. Early recognition and treatment of OSA may prevent from adverse health consequences. A multidisciplinary approach to peri-operative care and constant vigilance by experienced anesthesia providers is paramount to ensuring positive patient outcome.

  3. INTERVENTIONS FOR INCREASING BALANCE & CONFIDENCE IN OLDER ADULTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foram Dhebar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elderly is defined as being 65 years of age or older. Geriatrics or geriatric medicine is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people. The number of persons above the age of 60 years is fast growing, especially in India. Falls are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury, fractures & the leading cause of emergency department visits by older adults. Low balance confidence is a major health problem among older adults restricting their participation in daily life. Objective of this review is to determine what interventions are most effective in increasing balance confidence in older adults. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS published clinical guidelines 2011 that recommended all adults aged 65 years and older be screened for falls. Prevention of the fall can be done by combination of exercise include Strengthening exercise, Balance & co-ordination exercise,Hydrotherapy and allied therapeutics such as tai chi and yoga.

  4. Adult-Child Incest: A Review of Research and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the literature which addressses adult-child incest as a form of child abuse. Highlights incest as a class phenomenon; characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and the other parent; dynamics of the incest family; effects of incest on the victim; treating and preventing incest; and legal requirements regarding incest reporting. (Author)

  5. Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure systems (CISs) to provide essential services that support economic prosperity, governance, and quality of life. These systems are not alone but interdependent at multiple levels to enhance their overall performance. However, recent worldwide events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack, Gulf Coast hurricanes, the Chile and Japanese earthquakes, and even heat waves have highlighted that interdependencies among CISs increase the potential for cascading failures and amplify the impact of both large and small scale initial failures into events of catastrophic proportions. To better understand CISs to support planning, maintenance and emergency decision making, modeling and simulation of interdependencies across CISs has recently become a key field of study. This paper reviews the studies in the field and broadly groups the existing modeling and simulation approaches into six types: empirical approaches, agent based approaches, system dynamics based approaches, economic theory based approaches, network based approaches, and others. Different studies for each type of the approaches are categorized and reviewed in terms of fundamental principles, such as research focus, modeling rationale, and the analysis method, while different types of approaches are further compared according to several criteria, such as the notion of resilience. Finally, this paper offers future research directions and identifies critical challenges in the field. - Highlights: • Modeling approaches on interdependent critical infrastructure systems are reviewed. • I mainly review empirical, agent-based, system-dynamics, economic, network approaches. • Studies by each approach are sorted out in terms of fundamental principles. • Different approaches are further compared with resilience as the main criterion

  6. Enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients: critical review and algorithm creation Terapia nutricional enteral para pacientes adultos en estado crítico: análisis crítico de la literatura y la creación de algoritmo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Araújo-Junqueira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Undernutrition directly affects critically ill patient's clinical outcome and mortality rates. Objective: Interdisciplinar algorithm creation aiming to optimize the enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients. Data source: Pubmed, SciELO, Scholar Google, Web of Science, Scopus, with research of these key words: protocols, enteral nutrition, nutritional support, critical care, undernutrition, fasting. Setting: Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Uberlándia, MG, Brazil. Measurements and main results: Were established in the algorithm a following sequential steps: After a clinical-surgical diagnosis, including the assessment of hemodynamic stability, were requested passage of a feeding tube in post-pyloric position and a drainage tube in gastric position. After hemodynamic stability it should be done the nutritional status diagnosis, calculated nutritional requirements, as well as chosen formulation of enteral feeding. Unless contraindicated, aiming to increase tolerance was started infusion with small volumes (15 ml/h of a semi-elemental diet, normocaloric, hypolipidic (also hyperproteic, with addition of glutamine. To ensure infusion of the diet, as well as the progressive increase of infusion rates, the patient was monitored for moderate or severe intestinal intolerance. The schedule and infusion rates were respected and diet was not routinely suspended for procedures and diagnostic tests, unless indicated by the medical team. Conclusions: For nutrition therapy success it is essential routine monitoring and extensive interaction between the professionals involved. Nutritional conducts should be reevaluated and improved, seeking complete and specialized care to the critically ill patients. Adherence to new practices is challenging, though instruments such as protocols and algorithms help making information more accessible and comprehensible.Introducción: La hiponutrición afecta

  7. Mead Johnson Critical Care Symposium for the Practising Surgeon. 1. Transport of critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotti, M J; Pagliarello, G

    1988-09-01

    Interhospital transportation of critically ill patients over long distances is common in the tiered health care systems of North America. The authors describe their 1-year experience with a physician-assisted transport system, operating out of the surgical intensive care unit at the Toronto General Hospital. The application of a well-known severity of illness measure (therapeutic intervention scoring system) allowed them to correlate severity of illness, as assessed over the telephone before patient transfer, with eventual outcome after admission to the surgical intensive care unit. Their analysis of 107 critically ill patients transported by this system led them to conclude that the system is reliable and is associated with acceptable morbidity and mortality. PMID:3138018

  8. BIOCHAR: PYROGENIC CARBON FOR AGRICULTURAL USE - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvino Henrique Novotny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (carbonized biomass for agricultural use has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for Brazil, since its "inspiration" is from the historical Terra Preta de Índios(Amazon Dark Earth, and also because Brazil is the world's largest charcoal producer, generating enormous residue quantities in form of fine charcoal and due to the availability of different residual biomasses, mainly from agroindustry (e.g., sugar-cane bagasse; wood and paper-mill wastes; residues from biofuel industries; sewage sludge etc, that can be used for biochar production, making Brazil a key actor in the international scenario in terms of biochar research and utilization. In the last decade, numerous studies on biochar have been carried out and now a vast literature, and excellent reviews, are available. The objective of this paper is therefore to deliver a critical review with some highlights on biochar research, rather than an exhaustive bibliographic review. To this end, some key points considered critical and relevant were selected and the pertinent literature "condensed", with a view to guide future research, rather than analyze trends of the past.

  9. A Critical Review of Theoretical Perspectives on Emerging Economy Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Ayden

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a critical review of the mainstream (i.e. internationalization process model and eclectic paradigm and emergent perspectives (i.e. springboard perspective and linkage, leverage, and learning model on internationalization process of emerging economy multinational enterprises (EE MNEs. It discusses the theoretical knowledge on multinational enterprise (MNE behavior by providing the contributions of each perspective to the literature, their explanations about EE MNEs' international expansion, as well as the extensions, modifications, and criticism made on them. The comparative discussion of the extant literature demonstrates that each theoretical perspective explains a particular trajectory of MNE internationalization; therefore, an integration of the current perspectives on MNE internationalization is needed.

  10. Pulmonary vasculature and critical asthma syndromes: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalovic, Mark

    2015-02-01

    One of the important factors and consequences in persistent asthma is the change in the vasculature of the airways and lung parenchyma. These changes could contribute to worsening asthma control and predispose asthmatics to critical asthma syndromes. For many years, the contribution of vasculature to severe asthma was limited to discussion of small and medium vessel vasculitis commonly referred to as Churg-Strauss syndrome. This comprehensive review will explore the known mechanisms that are associated with remodeling of the vasculature in a variety of critical asthma presentations. Inflammation of pulmonary and bronchial small blood vessels may contribute significantly but silently to asthma pathobiology. Inflammation in the vasculature of the lung parenchyma can decrease lung capacity while inflammation in airway vasculature can decrease airflow. This review will provide a modern perspective on Churg-Strauss syndromes with a focus on phenotyping, mechanism, and ultimately modern therapeutic approaches. Vascular remodeling and airway remodeling are not mutually exclusive concepts in understanding the progression of asthma and frequency of acute exacerbations. Furthermore, the contribution of vascular leak, particularly in the parenchymal vasculature, has become an increasingly recognized component of certain presentations of poorly controlled, severe persistent asthmatic and during exacerbations. We highlight how these mechanisms can contribute to some the severe presentations of influenza infection in patients with a history of asthma. The ultimate aim of this review is to summarize the current literature concerning vasculitis and the contribution of airway and parenchymal vascular remodeling to presentation of persistent asthma and its consequences during acute exacerbations and critical asthma syndromes. PMID:24752370

  11. "Media Mediators": Advocating an Alternate Paradigm for Critical Adult Education ICT Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remtulla, Karim A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the efficacy of current education program approaches to prepare instructors to achieve critical thinking and active learning from their students by integrating ICTs with traditional adult education practices. An argument is put forward that the increasing presence and influence of ICTs in education necessitates a paradigmatic…

  12. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  13. Workforce Readiness: Changes in Critical Thinking Skills of Adult Learners in an Accelerated Undergraduate Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemp, Kathleen N.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-method case study explored the change in critical thinking skills over the span of the adult student's accelerated lock-step cohort experience pursuing an organizational management and leadership degree completion program at a liberal arts institution in the Midwest. Three areas of research informed this study: workforce readiness,…

  14. Editorial Commentary: Arthroscopic Hip Preservation Is Critical for Preserving Health and Function in Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hal David

    2016-09-01

    Hip health is a critical factor in preserving daily life activities and wellbeing for both adults and adolescents. There are several potential economic influences in developing arthroscopic hip techniques for the evaluation and treatment of hip pathology in patients of all ages. PMID:27594331

  15. Developments in solar still desalination systems: A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2012-10-01

    Solar still desalination uses a sustainable and pollution-free source to produce high-quality water. The main limitation is low productivity and this has been the focus of intensive research. A major concern while increasing productivity is to maintain economic feasibility and simplicity. The authors present a critical review of the research work conducted on solar stills development. Studies addressing each parameter of concern are grouped together and results compared. Novelty in design and newly introduced features are presented. Modeling efforts of flow circulation within the still and methods to estimate internal heat transfer coefficients are discussed and future research needs are outlined. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Computerized tomography and schizophrenia: critical review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of the literature regarding structural brain abnormalities in Schizophrenia is presented. It is reported that the prevalence and the localization of the abnormalities vary widely among studies. These differences might stem from samples heterogeneity, from the choice of the computer tomographic (CT) parameter to be investigated and from the use of different criteria for defining abnormalities. It seems established that at least one subgroup of Schizophrenia patients shows mild or moderate brain atrophy, in spite of some contradictory findings. (M.A.C.)

  17. it & Economic Performance a Critical Review of the Empirical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios L. Vousinas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study undertakes a critical review of the research around the multi-significant issue of the correlation between the IT investments and the economic performance to both micro and macroeconomic level. The aim of this study is to shed light on the interaction of IT with the economy, at corporate, industry and national level and document it¢ s contribution to productivity and therefore to economic growth. My conclusion is that there is a positive effect of IT investments to both the above economic indicators in all aspects, but is something that needs further research so as to find a more clear and risk adjusted relation.

  18. Criticisms of the psychopathological interpretation of witch hunts: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneman, T J

    1982-08-01

    The psychopathological interpretation of the European witch hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries, which has been prominent in histories of psychiatry, contends that demonology overwhelmed psychiatry in the late middle Ages, with the result that the mentally ill were executed by the thousands as witches. The author reviews the criticisms and contrary evidence that have been brought to bear on this paradigm in the past 20 years, including critiques of its data collection and interpretation, historical evidence which has failed to support its contentions, and questions about its implicit approach to the history and philosophy of science. PMID:7046480

  19. Phantom limb pain and its psychologic management: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, Shruti; Niraj, G

    2014-03-01

    Phantom limb pain is a puzzling phenomenon, from the viewpoints of both the patient experiencing it and the clinician trying to treat it. This review focuses on psychologic aspects in the origin of the PLP and critically evaluates the various psychologic interventions in the management of PLP. Whereas pharmacologic and surgical treatments often fail, psychologic interventions may hold promise in managing PLP. Studies using cognitive-behavioral therapies and hypnotherapy are reviewed. The outcome reports for psychologic therapies have been mainly positive. The results of the majority of these studies show a reduction in PLP. However, the lack of well controlled and randomized trials makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding the effectiveness of these psychologic therapies in the treatment of PLP. PMID:24602439

  20. A critical review of the neuroimaging literature on synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupé, Jean-Michel; Dojat, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia refers to additional sensations experienced by some people for specific stimulations, such as the systematic arbitrary association of colors to letters for the most studied type. Here, we review all the studies (based mostly on functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging) that have searched for the neural correlates of this subjective experience, as well as structural differences related to synesthesia. Most differences claimed for synesthetes are unsupported, due mainly to low statistical power, statistical errors, and methodological limitations. Our critical review therefore casts some doubts on whether any neural correlate of the synesthetic experience has been established yet. Rather than being a neurological condition (i.e., a structural or functional brain anomaly), synesthesia could be reconsidered as a special kind of childhood memory, whose signature in the brain may be out of reach with present brain imaging techniques. PMID:25873873

  1. Caffeine and cardiovascular diseases: critical review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulli, Anthony; Smith, Renee M; Kubatka, Peter; Novak, Jan; Uehara, Yoshio; Loftus, Hayley; Qaradakhi, Tawar; Pohanka, Miroslav; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Zagatina, Angela; Klimas, Jan; Hayes, Alan; La Rocca, Giampiero; Soucek, Miroslav; Kruzliak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a most widely consumed physiological stimulant worldwide, which is consumed via natural sources, such as coffee and tea, and now marketed sources such as energy drinks and other dietary supplements. This wide use has led to concerns regarding the safety of caffeine and its proposed beneficial role in alertness, performance and energy expenditure and side effects in the cardiovascular system. The question remains "Which dose is safe?", as the population does not appear to adhere to the strict guidelines listed on caffeine consumption. Studies in humans and animal models yield controversial results, which can be explained by population, type and dose of caffeine and low statistical power. This review will focus on comprehensive and critical review of the current literature and provide an avenue for further study. PMID:26932503

  2. Disaster preparedness for children and families: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Kevin R; Alisic, Eva; Towers, Briony; Johnson, Victoria A; Johnston, David M

    2015-07-01

    Preparedness for disasters is universally low; children and families are particularly vulnerable groups. Against this backdrop, research on disaster preparedness for children and families is reviewed, with a focus on disaster preparedness and prevention education programs. Following definitions and theory/rationale, research is critically analyzed. While findings indicate a large growth in research in the past 15 years and largely positive findings, significant challenges remain. These challenges include issues related to methodological rigor, long-term effectiveness, and implementation. Recent research reflecting these important challenges is reviewed. At the same time, other recent research documents real potential for these programs, including findings which suggest that increased attention to incorporating theory- and evidence-supported components can enhance outcomes. Thus, despite some important limitations and challenges, research done to date signals promise for these programs in reducing risk and increasing resilience to disasters for children, families, and the households and communities in which they live. PMID:25986782

  3. Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M. H.; Livengood, C. D.

    2006-11-27

    Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for conclusions regarding the state of knowledge

  4. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,'' was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  5. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  6. What is really causing the obesity epidemic? A review of reviews in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharon E; Flynn, Jennifer I; Pate, Russell R

    2016-06-01

    Obesity prevention is a public health priority and intervention strategies have focused primarily on healthy eating and physical activity in children and adults. To date, no review has systematically compiled and synthesised the scientific evidence from published review articles to determine whether there is clear consensus on the causes of obesity. A systematic review of the literature was conducted searching PubMed/Medline for narrative and systematic review articles published between January 1990 and October 2014 that examined the causes of obesity. In total, 12 of 65 articles met the inclusion criteria; 7 reviews focused on adults (1 systematic, 6 narrative) and 5 reviews on children (2 systematic, 3 narrative). The most popular cause of obesity identified in reviews of adult studies was "combined physical activity and diet" (3 of 7 studies), whereas the most popular cause specified in reviews of child studies was deemed "inconclusive" (2 of 5 studies). While a number of reviews have examined the causes of obesity, the methodology and conclusions varied widely, and few were conducted systematically. Currently, no consensus exists across published literature reviews regarding the primary cause of the obesity epidemic, and more research, particularly prospective studies using state-of-the-art measures, is warranted. PMID:26400631

  7. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed. PMID:25476753

  8. Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the...

  9. Systematic review of studies about countertransference in adult psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo de Bitencourt Machado; Fábio Monteiro da Cunha Coelho; Augusto Dutra Giacomelli; Mariana Almeida Lopes Donassolo; Morgana Sonza Abitante; Tatiane Dall'Agnol; Cláudio Laks Eizirik

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Countertransference, the emotional reaction of a psychotherapist toward a patient, is an important technical element of psychotherapy. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and describe the main findings of studies that evaluated countertransference in adult psychotherapy.METHODS: A search was conducted of the databases Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge to retrieve data published in any language at any time.RESULTS:Of the 1,081 studies found in the da...

  10. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  11. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  12. Expert consensus and recommendations on safety criteria for active mobilization of mechanically ventilated critically ill adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Carol L; Stiller, Kathy; Needham, Dale M.; Tipping, Claire J; Harrold, Megan; Baldwin, Claire E; Bradley, Scott; Berney, Sue; Caruana, Lawrence R; Elliott, Doug; Green, Margot; Haines, Kimberley; Higgins, Alisa M; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Leditschke, Isabel Anne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to develop consensus recommendations on safety parameters for mobilizing adult, mechanically ventilated, intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods A systematic literature review was followed by a meeting of 23 multidisciplinary ICU experts to seek consensus regarding the safe mobilization of mechanically ventilated patients. Results Safety considerations were summarized in four categories: respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and other. Consensus ...

  13. Reactive multilayers fabricated by vapor deposition: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive multilayer thin films are a class of energetic materials that continue to attract attention for use in joining applications and as igniters. Generally composed of two reactants, these heterogeneous solids can be stimulated by an external source to promptly release stored chemical energy in a sudden emission of light and heat. In this critical review article, results from recent investigations of these materials are discussed. Discussion begins with a brief description of the vapor deposition techniques that provide accurate control of layer thickness and film composition. More than 50 reactive film compositions have been reported to date, with most multilayers fabricated by magnetron sputter deposition or electron-beam evaporation. In subsequent sections, we review how multilayer ignition threshold, reaction rate, and total heat are tailored via thin film design. For example, planar multilayers with nanometer-scale periodicity exhibit rapid, self-sustained reactions with wavefront velocities up to 100 m/s. Numeric and analytical models have elucidated many of the fundamental processes that underlie propagating exothermic reactions while demonstrating how reaction rates vary with multilayer design. Recent, time-resolved diffraction and imaging studies have further revealed the phase transformations and the wavefront dynamics associated with propagating chemical reactions. Many reactive multilayers (e.g., Co/Al) form product phases that are consistent with published equilibrium phase diagrams, yet a few systems, such as Pt/Al, develop metastable products. The final section highlights current and emerging applications of reactive multilayers. Examples include reactive Ni(V)/Al and Pd/Al multilayers which have been developed for localized soldering of heat-sensitive components. - Highlights: • Vapor-deposited, reactive multilayers and their properties are reviewed. • This article includes discussion of various structure-property relationships.

  14. MUSCLE STRENGTH AND GOLF PERFORMANCE: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Torres-Ronda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Golf has become an increasingly popular sport and a growing body of research trying to identify its main physical requirements is being published. The aim of this review was twofold: first, to examine the existing scientific literature regarding strength training and golf in healthy, non-injured, subjects; and second, to reach conclusions that could provide information on how to design more effective strength training programs to improve golf performance as well as directions for future research. Studies which analyzed the relationship between muscle strength, swing performance variables (club head speed, driving distance, ball speed and skill (handicap, score were reviewed. Changes in swing performance following different strength training programs were also investigated. Finally, a critical analysis about the methodologies used was carried out. The results of the reviewed studies seem to indicate that: 1 a positive relationship exists between handicap and swing performance (even though few studies have investigated this issue; 2 there is a positive correlation between skill (handicap and/or score and muscle strength; and 3 there is a relationship between driving distance, swing speed, ball speed and muscle strength. Results suggest that training leg-hip and trunk power as well as grip strength is especially relevant for golf performance improvement. Studies that analyzed variations in swing performance following resistance-only training programs are scarce, thus it is difficult to prove whether the observed improvements are attributable to changes in strength levels. Many of the studies reviewed presented some methodological errors in their design and not all strength assessment protocols seemed appropriate. Further studies should determine muscle strength needs in relation to final swing performance, using well designed experiments and strict isoinertial assessment protocols which adequately relate to specific golf motion, age and skill level

  15. Recent development of plasma pollution control technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Shih Chang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous pollution control, solid and liquid waste treatments have been commercialized based on incineration, catalysis, adsorption, disposal with landfill, etc. More recently technology based on plasmas has become significant due to the advantages such as lower costs, higher treatment and energy efficiencies, smaller space volume, etc. In order to commercialize this new technology, the treatment rate, energy efficiency of treatment, pressure drop of reactor, reusable by-products production rate, must be improved, based on the identifications of major fundamental mechanism of processes, optimizations of reactor, and power supply for an integrated system. In this work, recent development of plasma pollution control technology was critically reviewed and the principle of processes and reactor technologies were outlined. Special attention will be focused on material processing generated pollutants.

  16. Benefits and challenges of electrical demand response: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    and challenges of demand response. These benefits include the ability to balance fluctuations in renewable generation and consequently facilitate higher penetrations of renewable resources on the power system, an increase in economic efficiency through the implementation of real-time pricing, and a reduction......Advances in IT, control and forecasting capabilities have made demand response a viable, and potentially attractive, option to increase power system flexibility. This paper presents a critical review of the literature in the field of demand response, providing an overview of the benefits...... in generation capacity requirements. Nevertheless, demand response is not without its challenges. The key challenges for demand response centre around establishing reliable control strategies and market frameworks so that the demand response resource can be used optimally. One of the greatest challenges...

  17. ‘Climate change in a shoebox’: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laboratory replication of the greenhouse effect appears deceptively simple. Using a cubic box illuminated by an ordinary lamp, one may show some of the phenomena present in the climate system. It is nonetheless necessary to use a lot of physical ingenuity to understand the complex interaction of radiative and convective phenomena which characterizes such a simple system. In this paper we introduce a critical review of some experiments in the literature and suggest a new and original experimental set up using an unusual gas; in this way we overcome some of the limitations of the typical laboratory experiment, confirming the possibility of using it in educational physics laboratories without any lack of physical plausibility. (paper)

  18. The nuclear fuel cycle for transmutation: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review presents a critical common FZK and CEA discussion of the transmutation possibilities of actinide nuclei and of fission products as Tc and I in reactors (PWRs and FBRs) and in accelerator-driven subcritical configurations. The activities in the Research Center Karlsruhe in the chemical area are briefly discussed. Activities in the chemical area at CEA are presented elsewhere at this conference. The alternate waste disposal with transmutation is compared to the direct disposal option, as seen from the FZK point of view. Work in France on this point is still underway according to a law, voted in the French Parliament in 1991. The aim of this study is to evaluate, how the short-term and long-term risks of nuclear waste, including both direct disposal and transmutation scenarios, realistically could be minimized. (authors)

  19. A critical review on photochemical conversions in flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diogo L; Kamogawa, Marcos Y; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2015-10-01

    Photochemical conversions are cost-effective and environmental friendly processes that require mild experimental conditions and avoid generation of highly acidic wastes. Treated samples are then compatible with most of the analytical techniques. These characteristics become more relevant when the photoconversions are accomplished to flow analysis, thus allowing exploitation of incomplete reactions, the effective use of the photogenerated unstable radicals and in-line sample treatment. Decreasing of reagent consumption and waste generation, sample processing in a closed environment, and improvement of efficiency of the photochemical processes are other inherent advantages. These aspects are critically reviewed in this article, which emphasizes applications to fractionation and speciation analysis, photo-induced luminescence, miniaturization, and in-line waste treatment. Design of flow-through photochemical cells, use of auxiliary reagents in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, and configurations of flow manifolds are also discussed. PMID:26481985

  20. SERVICE MARKETING MIX OF INDIAN HOSPITALS: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh, MOTWANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sreenivas, Srinivasarao and Srinivasa (2013 said that “The health care market has become consumer centered and expecting high quality care at a reasonable price. The mushroomed development of corporate hospitals in India, competition is also bringing massive changes in industry structure. In this context, hospital services’ marketing is slowly and surely coming of age and is being woven into the fabric of hospitals planning and public relations programmes.” The essence of any marketing activity is marketing mix, and the central theme of the present paper revolves around the contemporary service marketing mix offered by Indian hospitals. In this paper author has critically reviewed 51 papers to describe elements of hospital service marketing mix; product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence.

  1. What is bizarre in bizarre delusions? A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermolacce, Michel René Joseph; Jensen, Lars Meldgaard Sass; Parnas, J

    2010-01-01

    or incomprehensible. Then, we provide a critical review of contemporary studies on the reliability of BD and their methodological and conceptual limitations. Current approaches have focused intensely on BD's reliability and have defined BD strictly in terms of delusional content--mainly in terms of the physical...... impossibility or the cultural or historical incomprehensibility of the delusional claims. These approaches have neglected formal features of experience that underlie BD and the crucial issue of the nature and validity of BD. In the discussion, we argue that clinical diagnosis of BD cannot be limited...... to delusional contents alone and requires taking into account the subjective side of BD (how altered experience manifests itself) as well as the conditions of intersubjective encounter (how BD are expressed to and experienced by the clinician). The notion of "bizarreness" in schizophrenia is not purely...

  2. A Critical Review of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳晓娟

    2009-01-01

    As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.

  3. A Critical Review on the Concept of Social Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Leibetseder

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—A critical analysis of the term social technology from a social science point of view.Design/Methodology/Approach—Review of the term “social technology” from a social science point of perspective in connection to the study of governmentality and power in a Foucauldian way.Findings—The article covers the perspective that social technology provides social science knowledge for a purpose. Such a notion allows an in depth debate about the meaning of social order in modern societies. Establishing distinctive techniques now forms the basis of the modern state and governance. Social technology forms the basis of governmental decisions; it allows for a use of social theories and methods for a purpose in politics and introduces a specific conception of power between the individual and public powers. Therefore, it alters government in three ways: It provides expert power to define solutions for social problems based on social science knowledge. It transforms government. Social technology exemplifies a support system for an ordered method of the way of government, it allows for the conduct of others and self based on scientific expertise. It can define new areas of problems in need of a change of government.Research limitations/implications—Consequently, social technology requests a critical analysis using a governmental approach. Such an approach focuses on problems on the governed subject and how governing works and why it has evolved in that way towards the subject and what kind of ideas and thinking lies within the discourse.Research type—general review.

  4. A Critical Review on the Concept of Social Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Leibetseder

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—A critical analysis of the term social technology from a social science point of view.Design/Methodology/Approach—Review of the term “social technology” from a social science point of perspective in connection to the study of governmentality and power in a Foucauldian way.Findings—The article covers the perspective that social technology provides social science knowledge for a purpose. Such a notion allows an in depth debate about the meaning of social order in modern societies. Establishing distinctive techniques now forms the basis of the modern state and governance. Social technology forms the basis of governmental decisions; it allows for a use of social theories and methods for a purpose in politics and introduces a specific conception of power between the individual and public powers. Therefore, it alters government in three ways: It provides expert power to define solutions for social problems based on social science knowledge. It transforms government. Social technology exemplifies a support system for an ordered method of the way of government, it allows for the conduct of others and self based on scientific expertise. It can define new areas of problems in need of a change of government.Research limitations/implications—Consequently, social technology requests a critical analysis using a governmental approach. Such an approach focuses on problems on the governed subject and how governing works and why it has evolved in that way towards the subject and what kind of ideas and thinking lies within the discourse.

  5. Memory for allergies and health foods: how younger and older adults strategically remember critical health information

    OpenAIRE

    Middlebrooks, C. D.; McGillivray, S.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. While older adults often display memory deficits, with practice they can sometimes selectively remember valuable information at the expense of less value information. We examined age-related differences and similarities in memory for health-related information under conditions where some information was critical to remember. Method. In Experiment 1, participants studied three lists of allergens, ranging in severity from 0 (not a health risk) to 10 (potentially fatal), with the...

  6. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ubeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Odours generated in livestock buildings constitute one of the most relevant air quality issues of intensive livestock production. Reducing nuisance episodes related to odour exposure is therefore essential for a sustainable livestock production. In this study, the state-of-the-art on odour mitigation techniques in livestock housing is critically reviewed. Scientific advances in the last decade are revised and research needs are also identified. The complex nature of livestock odours is firstly reviewed and examined. Then, the most relevant odour control strategies are analyzed in terms of present knowledge and future needs. The strategies considered are: nutritional strategies, manure additives, building design, air filtration, manure covers, manure treatment systems and windbreaks. Finally, future research needs and priorities when establishing mitigation techniques are identified. Despite important recent advances, there are still some challenges for scientists, producers and regulators, particularly related to field evaluation of odours. Therefore, to control livestock odours effectively, using standardized field assessment techniques will be required. Also, investigating measurement and model errors may be useful to better understand the limitations of the current methods, as well as to identify research priorities.

  7. Selenium speciation from food source to metabolites: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Emmie; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelis, Rita [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    Especially in the last decade, a vast number of papers on Se and its role in health issues have been published. This review gives a brief, critical overview of the main analytical findings reported in these papers. Of particular interest is the Se content in different food sources worldwide and the extent to which their consumption is reflected in the Se content of human tissues and body fluids. Several food sources, both natural (Brazil nuts, garlic, Brassica juncea) and Se-enriched (yeast-based supplements), are discussed as to origin, characteristics, Se metabolism and impact of their consumption on the human body. The continuous development of new and improvement of existing analytical techniques has provided different powerful tools to unravel the Se species and their function. An up-to-date literature study on Se speciation analysis is given, illustrating how analytical chemistry in its different facets aids in the identification of Se compounds and provides insight into the complete metabolic pathway of Se throughout the human body. This review includes a detailed image of the current state-of-the-art of Se speciation analysis in these food sources and in human tissues and body fluids. (orig.)

  8. Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Some Critical Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yi Zhang; Jie Cui; Ye Zhang; Zhen-Long Wang; Tie Chong; Zi-Ming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss some critical issues of isoflavones protective against the development of prostate cancer (PCa).Data Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained primarily from PubMed and Embase from 1975 to 2015.Study Selection: Articles were selected with the search terms "isoflavone", "Phytoestrogen", "soy", "genistin", and "PCa".Results: Isoflavones do not play an important role on prostate-specific antigen levels reduction in PCa patients or healthy men.The effect ofisoflavones on sex hormone levels and PCa risk may be determined by equol converting bacteria in the intestine, specific polymorphic variation and concentrations of isoflavones.The intake of various types of phytoestrogens with lower concentrations in the daily diet may produce synergistic effects against PCa.Moreover, prostate tissue may concentrate isoflavones to potentially anti-carcinogenic levels.In addition, it is noteworthy that isoflavones may act as an agonist in PCa.Conclusions: Isoflavones play a protective role against the development of PCa.However, careful consideration should be given when isoflavones are used in the prevention and treatment of PCa.

  9. A Critical Review of Repurposing Apomorphine for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rosado, Joel A; Cousin, Margot A; Ebbert, Jon O; Klee, Eric W

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use disorder is the leading cause of preventable death and disability in the United States, with one in five Americans currently smoking cigarettes. Only two non-nicotine medications are FDA approved for treating tobacco use disorder, and advances in drug discovery are profoundly outpaced by the morbidity and mortality caused by tobacco dependence. Drug repurposing may provide an approach for addressing this health hazard, offering hope to tobacco users attempting to quit who have failed existing therapies. The focus of this review is to evaluate the potential role of apomorphine (APO) in treating tobacco dependence. Previously described in the literature as a non-specific dopamine agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease and erectile dysfunction, APO's dopaminergic targeting activity may be effective in counteracting the modified response arising from tobacco use. Here, the literature describing APO's activity is reviewed and presented in the context of known nicotine-induced response in neurotransmitter systems. Based on these data, whether APO may be an effective smoking cessation agent by ameliorating a tobacco user's anhedonic state is critically appraised, along with withdrawal symptoms and the chemical reinforcement associated with drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:26690764

  10. Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Ignazio; Giuliana, Giovanna

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to critically review the current role of community water fluoridation in preventing dental caries. Original articles and reviews published in English language from January 2001 to June 2006 were selected through MEDLINE database. Other sources were taken from the references of the selected papers. For the past 50 years community water fluoridation has been considered the milestone of caries prevention and as one of the major public health measures of the 20th century. However, it is now accepted that the primary cariostatic action of fluoride occurs after tooth eruption. Moreover, the caries reduction directly attributable to water fluoridation have declined in the last decades as the use of topical fluoride had become more widespread, whereas enamel fluorosis has been reported as an emerging problem in fluoridated areas. Several studies conducted in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities suggested that this method of delivering fluoride may be unnecessary for caries prevention, particularly in the industrialized countries where the caries level has became low. Although water fluoridation may still be a relevant public health measure in poor and disadvantaged populations, the use of topical fluoride offers an optimal opportunity to prevent caries among people living in both industrialized and developing countries. PMID:17333303

  11. What is supportive when an adult next-of-kin is in critical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ingrid; Fridlund, Bengt; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2005-01-01

    There is little documented knowledge about what is supportive from the perspective of relatives with a critically ill next-of-kin in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the present study was to generate a theoretical understanding of what relatives experience as supportive when faced with the situation of having an adult next-of-kin admitted to critical care. The study was designed using a grounded theory methodology. Interviews were conducted with 29 adult relatives of adult ICU patients in southwest Sweden. Relatives described the need to be empowered and that support was needed to enable them to use both internal and external resources to cope with having a next-of-kin in critical care. To achieve empowerment, the relatives described the need to trust in oneself, to encounter charity and to encounter professionalism. The findings can contribute understanding and sensitivity to the situation of the relatives as well as indicating what form social support should take. It is essential that healthcare professionals understand how important it is for relatives to have control over their vulnerable situation and that they also reflect upon how they would like to be treated themselves in a similar situation. Recommendations for future practice are presented. PMID:16255336

  12. Predicting colloid transport through saturated porous media: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Ian L.; Johnson, William P.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Willson, Clinton S.; O'Carroll, Denis M.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding and predicting colloid transport and retention in water-saturated porous media is important for the protection of human and ecological health. Early applications of colloid transport research before the 1990s included the removal of pathogens in granular drinking water filters. Since then, interest has expanded significantly to include such areas as source zone protection of drinking water systems and injection of nanometals for contaminated site remediation. This review summarizes predictive tools for colloid transport from the pore to field scales. First, we review experimental breakthrough and retention of colloids under favorable and unfavorable colloid/collector interactions (i.e., no significant and significant colloid-surface repulsion, respectively). Second, we review the continuum-scale modeling strategies used to describe observed transport behavior. Third, we review the following two components of colloid filtration theory: (i) mechanistic force/torque balance models of pore-scale colloid trajectories and (ii) approximating correlation equations used to predict colloid retention. The successes and limitations of these approaches for favorable conditions are summarized, as are recent developments to predict colloid retention under the unfavorable conditions particularly relevant to environmental applications. Fourth, we summarize the influences of physical and chemical heterogeneities on colloid transport and avenues for their prediction. Fifth, we review the upscaling of mechanistic model results to rate constants for use in continuum models of colloid behavior at the column and field scales. Overall, this paper clarifies the foundation for existing knowledge of colloid transport and retention, features recent advances in the field, critically assesses where existing approaches are successful and the limits of their application, and highlights outstanding challenges and future research opportunities. These challenges and opportunities

  13. Static Magnetic Field Therapy: A Critical Review of Treatment Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha P. Colbert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Static magnetic field (SMF therapy, applied via a permanent magnet attached to the skin, is used by people worldwide for self-care. Despite a lack of established SMF dosage and treatment regimens, multiple studies are conducted to evaluate SMF therapy effectiveness. Our objectives in conducting this review are to: (i summarize SMF research conducted in humans; (ii critically evaluate reporting quality of SMF dosages and treatment parameters and (iii propose a set of criteria for reporting SMF treatment parameters in future clinical trials. We searched 27 electronic databases and reference lists. Only English language human studies were included. Excluded were studies of electromagnetic fields, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnets placed on acupuncture points, animal studies, abstracts, posters and editorials. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design and 10 essential SMF parameters. Three reviewers assessed quality of reporting and calculated a quality assessment score for each of the 10 treatment parameters. Fifty-six studies were reviewed, 42 conducted in patient populations and 14 in healthy volunteers. The SMF treatment parameters most often and most completely described were site of application, magnet support device and frequency and duration of application. Least often and least completely described were characteristics of the SMF: magnet dimensions, measured field strength and estimated distance of the magnet from the target tissue. Thirty-four (61% of studies failed to provide enough detail about SMF dosage to permit protocol replication by other investigators. Our findings highlight the need to optimize SMF dosing parameters for individual clinical conditions before proceeding to a full-scale clinical trial.

  14. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20). Most of the interventions were community based (n=16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16), with social cognitive theory and trans theoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  15. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Kueider

    Full Text Available A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative.

  16. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueider, Alexandra M; Parisi, Jeanine M; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative. PMID:22792378

  17. Muscle strength and golf performance: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Golf has become an increasingly popular sport and a growing body of research trying to identify its main physical requirements is being published. The aim of this review was twofold: first, to examine the existing scientific literature regarding strength training and golf in healthy, non-injured, subjects; and second, to reach conclusions that could provide information on how to design more effective strength training programs to improve golf performance as well as directions for future research. Studies which analyzed the relationship between muscle strength, swing performance variables (club head speed, driving distance, ball speed) and skill (handicap, score) were reviewed. Changes in swing performance following different strength training programs were also investigated. Finally, a critical analysis about the methodologies used was carried out. The results of the reviewed studies seem to indicate that: 1) a positive relationship exists between handicap and swing performance (even though few studies have investigated this issue); 2) there is a positive correlation between skill (handicap and/or score) and muscle strength; and 3) there is a relationship between driving distance, swing speed, ball speed and muscle strength. Results suggest that training leg-hip and trunk power as well as grip strength is especially relevant for golf performance improvement. Studies that analyzed variations in swing performance following resistance-only training programs are scarce, thus it is difficult to prove whether the observed improvements are attributable to changes in strength levels. Many of the studies reviewed presented some methodological errors in their design and not all strength assessment protocols seemed appropriate. Further studies should determine muscle strength needs in relation to final swing performance, using well designed experiments and strict isoinertial assessment protocols which adequately relate to specific golf motion, age and skill level. More

  18. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: Review of short forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Úbeda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a theoretical review of the main short forms that have been developed by several authors based on different versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The development of short forms has been growing parallel to the appearance of new versions of the full scale. A short form allows estimating the intellectual capacity of someone with less time of administration, which could be very useful if the assessment objective is to obtain an overall measure of intellectual capacity.

  19. Reviewing the Evidence on How Adult Students Learn: An Examination of Knowles' Model of Andragogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    While there may be similarities between adults and children in how they learn (such as language, interaction and communication), many writers argue that adult learners are different from child learners in a number of ways. This article aims to review how adults learn through examining one particular theory of adult learning. Two conflicting…

  20. Enhancing undergraduate community placements: a critical review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Caroline A W; Morris, Gillian; Gable, Clare

    2015-04-01

    In the face of the UK-wide policy shift to increased home care, inspiring and enabling the next generation of community nurses is more urgent than ever. The quality of the pre-registration practice learning experience is highly influential on career choices at the point of qualification. Given that 50% of learning by pre-registration students takes place in practice, mentors have a crucial role to play in preparing the next generation of nurses to work in the community. This article discusses the findings of a systematic and critical literature review of pre-registration placements that was funded by the Queen's Nursing Institute Scotland. The review found that students' experiences of learning in community settings are variable, and perceptions of students and mentors are misaligned in terms of what a quality placement should look like. Although there is no clear definition of what constitutes a community placement and there is some underuse of learning environments in areas such as general practice nursing, there are also a number of examples of new and imaginative placements. While these innovations provide 'whole experience' placements, they are currently lacking robust evaluation, despite their potential usefulness on a larger scale. Mentors have the opportunity to provide students with a range of learning opportunities that increase preparedness for working in the community, allowing final year students in particular greater influence over their learning experience. Students undertaking community practice learning, where they have a managed level of autonomy, are more likely to feel confident to take on community nursing roles. PMID:25839877

  1. Abiotic soil changes induced by engineered nanomaterials: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Ishai; Yaron, Bruno; Berkowitz, Brian

    2015-10-01

    A large number of research papers on the fate of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil-water system have appeared in recent years, focusing on ENM transport, persistence and toxicological impact. It is clear from these publications that soil is a major sink for ENMs, and that only a small portion degrades or is mobilized further into groundwater. However, to date, very few studies have examined the impact of ENMs on the natural soil-subsurface matrix and its properties. Moreover, it is now well accepted that chemical contaminants are capable of changing soil properties either by inducing direct chemical or physical changes, or through indirect changes by, e.g., influencing biological activity that in turn modifies soil properties. Here, we review studies on the deposition, retention, and accumulation of ENMs in soil, indicative of the extent to which soil acts as a major sink of ENMs. We then examine evidence of how these retained particles lead to modification of surface properties, which are manifested by changes in the sorption capacity of soil for other (organic and inorganic) solutes, and by surface charges and composition different than the natural surfaces. Finally, we demonstrate how this results in physical and hydrological changes to soil properties, including hydraulic conductivity, swelling capacity and wettability. The overall picture revealed in this critical review sheds light on a perspective that has received little attention thus far. These aspects of soil change, due to exposure and subsequent accumulation of ENMs, may ultimately prove to be one of the most important impacts of ENM releases to the environment. PMID:25913535

  2. Review and Reassessment of the GRS Handbook of Criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Handbook of Criticality, released by GRS Garching since the seventies is used as a standard reference handbook for many criticality experts. It represents a collection of critical parameters for fissile materials and systems occurring in the nuclear fuel cycle. The critical parameters for homogeneous systems of uranyl fluoride water mixtures UO2F2-H2O, especially regarding for an updated density relationship, and also of low moderated uranium dioxide UO2-H2O have recently been recalculated and validated. Criticality benchmark experiments and sensitivity/uncertainty methodologies have bee used. Our calculation results for minimum critical values compare well with results found in the international literature

  3. Alcohol and the older adult: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Roschelle A

    2009-07-01

    Alcohol consumption in the older adult is of major concern with the advent of baby boomers coming into the over 65-age bracket. Alcohol consumption has been touted as beneficial for health, and while that may be accurate for moderate consumption in younger persons, there is considerable risk associated with increased alcohol intake in older adults. This increase is partially due to age-related physiological changes, existing diagnoses, number of comorbid conditions, and increased use of prescribed and/or over-the-counter medications, coupled with other concerns. This review addresses the current research regarding ethanol consumption in older adults and all-cause mortality as well as several conditions more frequently seen in the geriatric population. These conditions include vascular diseases, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, hepatic disorders, dental and oro-facial problems, bone density decline, and falls and fractures. In addition, drug interactions and recent research into select vitamin and mineral considerations with increased alcohol intake in older persons are addressed. While recommendations for alcohol intake have not been specifically established for age ranges within the 65-year-and-older bracket, and practitioners do not routinely assess alcohol intake or ethanol related adverse events in this population, common sense approaches to monitoring will become increasingly important as the generation of "boomers" who believe that alcohol intake improves health comes of age. PMID:21184367

  4. SRTC criticality technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate review of NMP-NCS-930058, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility (U), August 17, 1993,close quotes was requested of SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine waste container uranium limits in the Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility. The NCSE under review concludes that the NDA room remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. The ability to make this conclusion is highly dependent on array limitation and inclusion of physical barriers between 2x2x1 arrays of boxes containing materials contaminated with uranium. After a thorough review of the NCSE and independent calculations, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  5. A critical review of the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime. The Nuclear Security Act (Law 18.302), enacted in 1984, and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified ed by Chile in 1989, are the fundamental laws of the current regime. Although Chile has no nuclear power plants, it is still important to analyze how the Chilean legislation would protect citizens from nuclear damages. This paper does not consider the policy reasons for and against the promotion of atomic energy. Rather, it critically examines the current status of the Chilean nuclear regime. Undoubtedly, if in the future Chile chooses to include nuclear sources in its energy mix, it will not be enough to introduce some isolated legal amendments, but it will be necessary to build a new Chilean Energy Regime which includes nuclear energy. In that scenario, though, it will be useful to know and understand how the current nuclear liability regime works. From this point of view, the reforms this article proposes to the current nuclear liability regime might be helpful to academics and policy makers alike

  6. Liquid-liquid extraction in flow analysis: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-liquid extractions (LLE) are a common sample pre-treatment in many analytical applications. This review aims at providing a critical overview of the distinct automated continuous flow-based approaches that were developed for liquid-liquid extraction with the purpose of pre-concentration and/or separation of multiple analytes, such as ultra-trace metal and metalloid species, phenolic compounds, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, etc., hyphenated with many detection technique such as UV/vis spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometric detection systems and luminescent detectors, including distinct extraction strategies and applications like single and multiple extraction schemes, wetting film extraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, back extraction, closed-loop systems and the utilisation of zone sampling, chromatomembranes and iterative reversal techniques. The analytical performance of the developed flow-based LLE methods and the influence of flow manifold components such as the segmenter, extraction coil and phase separator, is emphasised and object of discussion. An overall presentation of each system components, selectivity, advantages and shortcomings is carried out and exemplified with selected applications.

  7. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  8. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models.

  9. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models

  10. Design optimization of rotary tiller blades: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Kr Mandal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tillage is an operation performed to obtain a desirable soil structure for a seedbed or root bed. A granular structure is desirable to allow rapid infiltration and good retention of rainfall and to minimize resistance to root penetration. Rotavator (also called rotary tiller is a tractor operated cultivating implement that breaks or works the soil with the help of rotating blades. The use of rotavator is increasing due to its versatility in doing a good quality tillage job with minimum number of passes. The rotavator do simultaneous ploughing and harrowing in dry and optimum soil moisture in single operation. The blades are the main critical parts of a rotary tiller which are engaged with soil.  So, wearing takes places at the cutting edges of these blades due to high stresses are coming. In this context a lot of research on rotavator blade has been carried out in different parts of the world. This paper briefly reviews the work done so far on the rotary tillers’ blade design optimization and development.

  11. Feasibility of Eyetracking in Critical Care Environments - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Andreas; Röhrig, Rainer; Lipprandt, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Achieving a good understanding of the socio-technical system in critical or emergency situations is important for patient safety. Research in human-computer interaction in the field of anesthesia or surgery has the potential to improve usability of the user interfaces and enhance patient safety. Therefore eye-tracking is a technology for analyzing gaze patterns. It can also measure what is being perceived by the physician during medical procedures. The aim of this review is the applicability of eye-tracker in the domain of simulated or real environments of anesthesia, surgery or intensive care. We carried out a literature research in PubMed. Two independent researchers screened the titles and abstracts. The remaining 8 full-papers were analyzed based on the applicability of eye-trackers. The articles contain topics like training of surgeons, novice vs. experts or the cognitive workload. None of the publications address our goal. The applicability or limitations of the eye-tracker technology were stated incidentally. PMID:27577455

  12. A Review : Benefits and Critical Factors of Customer Relationship Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Pal Dhaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Customer Relationship Management (CRM is a technical jargon which is a blend of methodologies, software and internet, which are used by a company to achieve its goal through the identification and satisfaction of customer’s stated and unstated needs and wants. This software addresses customer life cycle management. This system manages company interactions with current and future customers. It involves technology to organize, automate and synchronize business processes. CRM application is an essential tool for a company to grow and help to increase the satisfaction of customers. There are many benefits of CRM; those make the market environment customer centric. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies and identify those benefits which affect customers and company both. But CRM has many problems also because of them CRM gets failure. Its failure rate is more than its success rate. We also elaborated its failure factors and along with them its critical success factors which help in making CRM a successful project for a company, however implementation of CRM is a complex task.

  13. Global health diplomacy: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald; Lencucha, Raphael; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) describes the practices by which governments and non-state actors attempt to coordinate and orchestrate global policy solutions to improve global health. As an emerging field of practice, there is little academic work that has comprehensively examined and synthesized the theorization of Global Health Diplomacy (GHD), nor looked at why specific health concerns enter into foreign policy discussion and agendas. With the objective of uncovering the driving forces behind and theoretical explanations of GHD, we conducted a critical literature review. We searched three English-language scholarly databases using standardized search terms which yielded 606 articles. After screening of abstracts based on our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we retained 135 articles for importing into NVivo10 and coding. We found a lack of rigorous theorizing about GHD and fragmentation of the GHD literature which is not clearly structured around key issues and their theoretical explanations. To address this lack of theoretical grounding, we link the findings from the GHD literature to how theoretical concepts used in International Relations (IR) have been, and could be invoked in explaining GHD more effectively. To do this, we develop a theoretical taxonomy to explain GHD outcomes based on a popular categorization in IR, identifying three levels of analysis (individual, domestic/national, and global/international) and the driving forces for the integration of health into foreign policy at each level. PMID:26994358

  14. Review of the critical heat flux correlations for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CHF phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal reactor (LMR). Especially in the LWR application, many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed over the past three decades. Most of the existing CHF correlations have been developed for light water reactor core applications. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture of boiling pattern. This can be attributed to the consequence that special CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. Numerous liquid metal boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow studies have put emphasis on development of models and understanding of the mechanism for improving the CHF predictions. Thus far, no overall analytical solution method has been obtained and the reliable prediction method has remained empirical. The principal objectives of the present report are to review the state of the art in connection with liquid metal critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions and to discuss the basic mechanisms. (author)

  15. Review of the critical heat flux correlations for liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Han, H. D.; Chang, W. P.; Kwon, Y. M

    1999-09-01

    The CHF phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal reactor (LMR). Especially in the LWR application, many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed over the past three decades. Most of the existing CHF correlations have been developed for light water reactor core applications. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture of boiling pattern. This can be attributed to the consequence that special CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. Numerous liquid metal boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow studies have put emphasis on development of models and understanding of the mechanism for improving the CHF predictions. Thus far, no overall analytical solution method has been obtained and the reliable prediction method has remained empirical. The principal objectives of the present report are to review the state of the art in connection with liquid metal critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions and to discuss the basic mechanisms. (author)

  16. Antisuicide properties of psychotropic drugs: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carrie L; Goldberg, Joseph F

    2004-01-01

    The authors consider the extent to which psychotropic medications demonstrate benefits in the prevention of suicidal behavior in psychiatric patients. Results of a MedLine search are critically reviewed for lithium, divalproex and other anticonvulsants, conventional and atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants. The existing literature is almost entirely limited to noncontrolled, often retrospective studies that do not control for potential biases in treatment selection, the use of multiple medications, the impact of medication nonadherence, and nonrandomized treatment discontinuations. Nevertheless, an extensive literature has arisen regarding observed reductions in suicidal behavior with lithium for mood disorders and, to a lesser extent, with clozapine for schizophrenia. A substantially smaller literature suggests more negative than positive data with divalproex or carbamazepine in bipolar disorder, while minimal information exists regarding suicidality with atypical antipsychotics other than clozapine. Studies of antidepressants have mostly been short-term and have focused more on whether they induce (rather than ameliorate) suicidal thoughts or behaviors. The sum of existing studies is generally inconclusive about whether antidepressants appreciably reduce risk for suicide completions. Relatively little is known about pharmacotherapy effects on suicidal ideation as distinct from behaviors. Possible mechanistic considerations for understanding antisuicide properties include a therapeutic impact on depression, impulsivity, or aggression, potentially mediated through serotonergic or other neuromodulatory systems. Recommendations are provided to guide future research as well as clinical practice. PMID:14965852

  17. NASA's Space Launch System Marks Critical Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    With completion of its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, NASA is deep into the manufacturing and testing phases of its new Space Launch System (SLS) for beyond-Earth exploration. This CDR was the first in almost 40 years for a NASA human launch vehicle and marked another successful milestone on the road to the launch of a new era of deep space exploration. The review marked the 90-percent design-complete, a final look at the design and development plan of the integrated vehicle before full-scale fabrications begins and the prelude to the next milestone, design certification. Specifically, the review looked at the first of three increasingly capable configurations planned for SLS. This "Block I" design will stand 98.2 meters (m) (322 feet) tall and provide 39.1 million Newtons (8.8 million pounds) of thrust at liftoff to lift a payload of approximately 70 metric tons (154,000 pounds). This payload is more than double that of the retired space shuttle program or other current launch vehicles. It dramatically increases the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration. Additionally, it will decrease overall mission risk, increase safety, and simplify ground and mission operations - all significant considerations for crewed missions and unique, high-value national payloads. The Block 1 SLS will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an uncrewed flight beyond the moon and back and the first crewed flight around the moon. The current design has a direct evolutionary path to a vehicle with a 130t lift capability that offers even more flexibility to reduce planetary trip times, simplify payload design cycles, and provide new capabilities such as planetary sample returns. Every major element of SLS has hardware in production or testing, including flight hardware for the Exploration 1 (EM-1) test flight. In fact, the SLS MPCV-to-Stage-Adapter (MSA) flew successfully on the Exploration Flight Test (EFT) 1 launch of a Delta IV and Orion spacecraft in

  18. Critical Review of Leech's (1983) Proposal about Politeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Yutaka

    In Japanese society, it is inevitable to use polite expressions in public. Adult Japanese must use polite expressions whenever they meet anybody for the first time. Hence, it is possible to say that all adult Japanese know the usage of politeness vaguely, but not clearly. It is because they learn it through socializing with others. An examination…

  19. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D

    2009-12-01

    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  20. Psychosocial interventions for adults with visible differences: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Norman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some individuals with visible differences have been found to experience psychosocial adjustment problems that can lead to social anxiety and isolation. Various models of psychosocial intervention have been used to reduce social anxiety and appearance related distress in this population. The objective of this review was to update a previous systematic review assessing the efficacy of psychosocial intervention programs for adults with visible differences. The original review (Bessell & Moss, 2007 identified 12 papers for inclusion. Methods. A search protocol identified studies from 13 electronic journal databases. Methods: Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. Results. This update identified an additional four papers that met the inclusion criteria. Two papers provided very limited evidence for the efficacy of a combined cognitive-behavioural and social skills training approach. None of the papers provided sufficient evidence for the optimal duration, intensity or setting of psychosocial interventions for this population. Discussion. The review concluded that a greater number of Randomised Controlled Trials and experimental studies were required to increase the methodological validity of intervention studies.

  1. Pain assessment in the critically ill adult: Recent evidence and new trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Céline

    2016-06-01

    Pain assessment in the critically ill adult remains a daily clinical challenge. Position statements and practice guidelines exist to guide the ICU care team in the pain assessment process. The patient's self-report of pain remains the gold standard measure for pain and should be obtained as often as possible. When self-report is impossible to obtain, observational pain scales including the Behavioural Pain Scale (BPS) and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) have been recommended for clinical use in the critically ill adult. However, their adaptation and validation in brain-injured and burn ICU patients is required. Family caregivers may help in the identification of pain-related behaviours and should be more involved in the ICU pain assessment process. Fluctuations in vital signs should only be considered as cues for further assessment of pain with appropriate tools, and may better represent adverse events of severe pain. Other physiologic measures of pain should be explored in the ICU, and pupillometry appears as a promising technique to further study. Implementation of systematic pain assessment approaches using tools adapted to the patient's ability to communicate and condition has shown positive effects on ICU pain practices and patient outcomes, but randomised control trials are needed to confirm these conclusions. PMID:27067745

  2. Book Review: Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity by Patrick Finn

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity, Patrick Finn expands upon his 2011 TEDx Talk, ‘Loving Communication’, to suggest that critical thinking implies disapproval and unnecessary judgement originating from a particular mode of Classical thought. Jodie Matthews argues that Finn’s discussion is dependent upon a crudely drawn straw man and neglects to consider thinking critically as a necessary corollary, rather than antithesis, to thinking creatively.

  3. Book review: critical condition: replacing critical thinking with creativity by Patrick Finn

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity, Patrick Finn expands upon his 2011 TEDx Talk, ‘Loving Communication’, to suggest that critical thinking implies disapproval and unnecessary judgement originating from a particular mode of Classical thought. Jodie Matthews argues that Finn’s discussion is dependent upon a crudely drawn straw man and neglects to consider thinking critically as a necessary corollary, rather than antithesis, to thinking creatively.

  4. Adult tribal malnutrition in India: an anthropometric and socio-demographic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Subal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status and socio-demographic profile of tribal people is an important issue in India due to their marginalization from main stream population with respect to varied facilities. However, data on their nutritional status and socio-demographic profile are limited. This review aims to give an overview of the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED using Body mass index (BMI and various demographic profile of Indian tribes based on studies published hitherto. In total 76 studies were reviewed for mean BMI based on the World Health Organization (WHO classification of the public health problem of low BMI, based on adult populations worldwide. The overall sex specific prevalence of CED showed that both the tribal females (52.0% and males (49.3% were passing through the critical situation with respect to nutritional status with females being more underprivileged.

  5. CPP magnetoresistance of magnetic multilayers: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Jack

    2016-06-01

    We present a comprehensive, critical review of data and analysis of Giant (G) Magnetoresistance (MR) with Current-flow Perpendicular-to-the-layer-Planes (CPP-MR) of magnetic multilayers [F/N]n (n=number of repeats) composed of alternating nanoscale layers of ferromagnetic (F) and non-magnetic (N) metals, or of spin-valves that allow control of anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) orientations of the magnetic moments of adjacent F-layers. GMR, a large change in resistance when an applied magnetic field changes the moment ordering of adjacent F-layers from AP to P, was discovered in 1988 in the geometry with Current flow in the layer-Planes (CIP). The CPP-MR has two advantages over the CIP-MR: (1) relatively simple two-current series-resistor (2CSR) and more general Valet-Fert (VF) models allow more direct access to the underlying physics; and (2) it is usually larger, which should be advantageous for devices. When the first CPP-MR data were published in 1991, it was not clear whether electronic transport in GMR multilayers is completely diffusive or at least partly ballistic. It was not known whether the properties of layers and interfaces would vary with layer thickness or number. It was not known whether the CPP-MR would be dominated by scattering within the F-metals or at the F/N interfaces. Nothing was known about: (1) spin-flipping within F-metals, characterized by a spin-diffusion length, lsfF; (2) interface specific resistances (AR=area A times resistance R) for N1/N2 interfaces; (3) interface specific resistances and interface spin-dependent scattering asymmetry at F/N and F1/F2 interfaces; and (4) spin-flipping at F/N, F1/F2 and N1/N2 interfaces. Knowledge of spin-dependent scattering asymmetries in F-metals and F-alloys, and of spin-flipping in N-metals and N-alloys, was limited. Since 1991, CPP-MR measurements have quantified the scattering and spin-flipping parameters that determine GMR for a wide range of F- and N-metals and alloys and of F/N pairs. This

  6. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  7. Fungi contaminated by radionuclides. Critical review of approaches to modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global fallout from nuclear weapon tests in the 1960s revealed the potential of fungi as enhanced accumulators of radioactivity. More recently, data derived from Chernobyl fallout conferred fungi as major accumulators of radionuclides and in addition an important food-chain contributor to the human radiation dose. According to both individual expert judgment elicitation and group discussions conducted during a recent workshop on forest radioecology (Linkov and Schell, 1999), fungi determine to a large extent the fate and transport processes of radionuclides in forests. Forest microflora, particularly fungal mycelia, can retain a significant fraction of the deposited radionuclides in the organic layer. Recent model-model-data intercomparisons organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (BIOMASS 1999) led to the conclusion that the radionuclide accumulation in fungi is the most difficult to predict. This talk will critically review existing modeling techniques and will proposes an approach for understanding and describing radionuclide fate and transport in forest soils as a part of multimedia modeling aiming at human health and risk assessment. Fungal mycelia determine to a large extent the radionuclide retention in the organic layers. However, the detailed mechanisms involved in radionuclide and heavy metal fixation by fungi are not yet well understood. The results of our analysis show that in spite of this limited knowledge, simple models can be developed to reproduce the measured and predict the future radionuclide concentration in the organic layer compartments and fungal fruit bodies. Our review shows that transfer parameters (transfer factors of concentration ratios) from forest soil to fungal fruit bodies aggregated over a standardized soil depth or the total radionuclide deposition per unit area are highly uncertain. For modeling purposes the relevant kinetic processes are best described by uptake rates or effective half-times. These dynamic

  8. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xiaoping; Liu, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaojing; Ge, Song; Yang, Jing; Li, Changwei; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy we...

  9. Valproate-Associated Parkinsonism: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Florian; Bhatia, Kailash P; Besag, Frank M C

    2016-06-01

    Valproate was first approved as an antiepileptic drug in 1962 and has since also become established as a mood stabiliser and as prophylaxis for migraine. In 1979, Lautin published the first description of a valproate-associated extrapyramidal syndrome. Many cases of valproate-associated parkinsonism have subsequently been published, but uncertainties remain concerning its prevalence, risk factors and prognosis. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the existing literature on valproate-associated parkinsonism and to discuss possible mechanisms. Literature databases were searched systematically: we identified a total of 116 patients with valproate-associated parkinsonism published in case reports, case series and systematic analyses. Prevalence rates ranged widely, between 1.4 and 75 % of patients taking valproate. There was great heterogeneity with regard to clinical presentation, age of onset, valproate dose, concomitant conditions and imaging findings. In all patients apart from three, valproate plasma concentrations were within or even below the recommended reference range when the parkinsonism occurred. Parkinsonism was reversible in the majority of patients, although recovery was often prolonged and sometimes incomplete. A dopaminergic deficit was confirmed in three of six patients investigated with dopamine transporter imaging. Seven of 14 patients who were treated with dopaminergic medication had a good response. The quality of the evidence was assessed and probability of causation was examined using the Naranjo score, which ranged from 0 to 7 (median: 5.0). Several pathophysiological mechanisms, including altered gene expression and neurotransmitter signalling, enhanced neurodegeneration or unmasking subclinical dopaminergic degeneration, could theoretically lead to valproate-associated parkinsonism. Further studies are warranted to elucidate this entity and its underlying pathophysiology. PMID:27255404

  10. Marine monitoring surveys for desalination plants-A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Lattemann, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies are standard practice and a regulatory requirement for most new desalination projects today. However, most of the EIA studies are limited to predictive information; that is, they gather information on the project and the project\\'s environment before project implementation to make predictions about likely impacts. The EIAs may involve comprehensive studies, such as field monitoring, laboratory toxicity testing, and modeling studies. Consequently, the"surprising paucity of useful experimental data, either from laboratory tests or from field monitoring studies", which was observed by the US National Research Council in 2008, has been gradually decreasing. However, there is still a long-term research need on the site-specific effects of desalination plants after project commissioning has taken place. A main challenge of field research is the adequate design of the monitoring studies, which have to adequately distinguish the effects of the desalination project from natural processes over long periods of time. The existing monitoring studies have so far used a wide range of approaches and methods to investigate the environmental impacts of desalination plant discharges. Shortfalls are often that they are limited in scope, short-term, or localized. In essence, many studies fall short of recognizing the potentially synergetic effects of the single waste components of the discharges on marine organisms and the complexity of the potential responses by the ecosystem. While the possible risk of damage arising from the concentrate discharge to the marine environment in close proximity to the outfall is at hand, no conclusive evidence can yet be provided concerning the long-term impacts of desalination plant discharges, let alone the cumulative impacts on certain sea areas. This paper conducts a critical review of existing monitoring programs for desalination plants. Shortcomings of current practices are identified and relevant

  11. Swimming without the water: a critical perspective on mental health experience for adult nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paul; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Adult nurses and adult field nursing students come into contact with a diverse range of other patient groups in their practice but perhaps none more so than those who have co-existing mental health issues. Consequently adult field student nurses must be equipped with the requisite knowledge and skills to competently care for their patients who also experience mental health problems. Given the pressure on placements many education providers have developed alternatives to direct mental health experiences. The authors review their own experience of some of the modalities that higher education institutes (HEI) use to instruct their students in this field. They argue that, ideally, there is no substitute for the practical experience of placements in the mental health sector, particularly if these include contact with mental health nursing. The paper concludes with some recommendations for nursing education and our professional body that could help equip adult field nursing students with the necessary experience and skills of mental health to support them into their future careers. PMID:23830557

  12. Dietary treatment in adults with refractory epilepsy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Pavel; Tyrlikova, Ivana; Mathews, Gregory C

    2014-11-18

    We review adjunctive ketogenic diet (KD) and modified Atkins diet (MAD) treatment of refractory epilepsy in adults. Only a few studies have been published, all open-label. Because of the disparate, uncontrolled nature of the studies, we analyzed all studies individually, without a meta-analysis. Across all studies, 32% of KD-treated and 29% of MAD-treated patients achieved ≥ 50% seizure reduction, including 9% and 5%, respectively, of patients with >90% seizure frequency reduction. The effect persists long term, but, unlike in children, may not outlast treatment. The 3:1 and 4:1 [fat]:[carbohydrate + protein] ratio KD variants and MAD are similarly effective. The anticonvulsant effect occurs quickly with both diets, within days to weeks. Side effects of both diets are benign and similar. The most serious, hyperlipidemia, reverses with treatment discontinuation. The most common, weight loss, may be advantageous in patients with obesity. Potential barriers to large-scale use of both diets in adults include low rate of diet acceptance and high rates of diet discontinuation. The eligible screened/enrolled subject ratios ranged from 2.9 to 7.2. Fifty-one percent of KD-treated and 42% of MAD-treated patients stopped the diet before study completion. Refusal to participate was due to diet restrictiveness and complexity, which may be greater for KD than MAD. However, long-term adherence is low for both diets. Most patients eventually stop the diet because of culinary and social restrictions. For treatment of refractory status epilepticus, only 14 adult cases of KD treatment have been published, providing insufficient data to allow evaluation. In summary, KD and MAD treatment show modest efficacy, although in some patients the effect is remarkable. The diets are well-tolerated, but often discontinued because of their restrictiveness. In patients willing to try dietary treatment, the effect is seen quickly, giving patients the option whether to continue the treatment. PMID

  13. Hepatoblastoma of the adult: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celotti, Andrea; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Ceresoli, Marco; Tomasoni, Matteo; Raimondo, Stefano; Baggi, Paolo; Baiocchi, Gian Luca

    2016-09-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant liver tumor in children. On the other hand in the adult HB is very rare and characterized by unfavorable prognosis. A review of the entire literature was performed: 58 articles and 63 cases of HB were found. The patient's data were collected and analyzed. No correlation with hepatitis virus was found and AFP was elevated in most cases. Usually HB forms a large single mass in the liver and presents aggressive behavior, with local invasiveness and metastatic spread. The current median survival time is 5 months, with a 1-year survival rate near 30%. Surgical resection is the only curative treatment. However major liver resections or extensive demolitions of the adjacent organs are necessary. There are no standardized protocols in the multimodal approach to this tumor. PMID:27566042

  14. A Review on the Linear and Nonlinear Critical Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several authors have proposed 'easier numerical methods' to find multiple attractors and the critical speed in railway dynamical problems. Actually, the methods do function in some cases, but they are not safe in the sense that you will calculate the relevant critical parameter va...

  15. Gold nanoparticles delivery in mammalian live cells: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Lévy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional nanomaterials have recently attracted strong interest from the biology community, not only as potential drug delivery vehicles or diagnostic tools, but also as optical nanomaterials. This is illustrated by the explosion of publications in the field with more than 2,000 publications in the last 2 years (4,000 papers since 2000; from ISI Web of Knowledge, ‘nanoparticle and cell’ hit. Such a publication boom in this novel interdisciplinary field has resulted in papers of unequal standard, partly because it is challenging to assemble the required expertise in chemistry, physics, and biology in a single team. As an extreme example, several papers published in physical chemistry journals claim intracellular delivery of nanoparticles, but show pictures of cells that are, to the expert biologist, evidently dead (and therefore permeable. To attain proper cellular applications using nanomaterials, it is critical not only to achieve efficient delivery in healthy cells, but also to control the intracellular availability and the fate of the nanomaterial. This is still an open challenge that will only be met by innovative delivery methods combined with rigorous and quantitative characterization of the uptake and the fate of the nanoparticles. This review mainly focuses on gold nanoparticles and discusses the various approaches to nanoparticle delivery, including surface chemical modifications and several methods used to facilitate cellular uptake and endosomal escape. We will also review the main detection methods and how their optimum use can inform about intracellular localization, efficiency of delivery, and integrity of the surface capping. Raphaël Lévy is a BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool. He graduated in Physics at the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg (France. In 2002, after a Master in Soft Condensed Matter Physics, he obtained a PhD in Physics at the University Louis Pasteur. He then moved to

  16. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  17. Smart Care™ versus respiratory physiotherapy–driven manual weaning for critically ill adult patients: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Corinne; Elivane S Victor; Pieri, Talita; Henn, Renata; Santana, Carolina; Giovanetti, Erica; Saghabi, Cilene; Timenetsky, Karina; Caserta Eid, Raquel; Silva, Eliezer; Matos, Gustavo F. J.; Guilherme P. P. Schettino; Barbas, Carmen S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A recent meta-analysis showed that weaning with SmartCare™ (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany) significantly decreased weaning time in critically ill patients. However, its utility compared with respiratory physiotherapist–protocolized weaning is still a matter of debate. We hypothesized that weaning with SmartCare™ would be as effective as respiratory physiotherapy–driven weaning in critically ill patients. Methods Adult critically ill patients mechanically ventilated for more than 24 hou...

  18. A Theoretical Basis for Adult Learning Facilitation: Review of Selected Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneja, Mussa S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…

  19. Learning Career Management Skills in Europe: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    Career management skills (CMS) are increasingly touted as necessary for all citizens, young and adult, particularly given the realities of employment and self-employment in a knowledge-based society, where "protean", "portfolio" careers are expected to increasingly become the norm, and lifelong career guidance an entitlement of all citizens. This…

  20. Analytical approaches for arsenic determination in air : a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Rodas Navarro, Daniel Alejandro; Sánchez de la Campa Verdona, Ana María; Alsioufi, Louay

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the different steps involved in the determination of arsenic in air, considering the particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous phase. The review focuses on sampling, sample preparation and instrumental analytical techniques for both total arsenic determination and speciation analysis. The origin, concentration and legislation concerning arsenic in ambient air are also considered. The review intends to describe the procedures for sample collection of total suspended particl...

  1. What are the ethical issues surrounding 'intentional death' in different nursing roles? A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Tolman, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ethical aspects regarding the nurse‟s role in „intentional-death‟ is a highly controversial debate in contemporary nursing. AIM: This review aims to critically explore the question “to what extent can it be said that nurses working in warzones, euthanasia, and abortion are breaking moral codes of nursing?” METHOD: A critical review method is applied. RESULTS: By exploring the concepts of care and nursing, the review proposes that nurses are not breaking professiona...

  2. Year in review in Critical Care, 2003 and 2004: respirology and critical care

    OpenAIRE

    Brander, Lukas; Slutsky, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    We summarize all original research in the field of respirology and critical care published in 2003 and 2004 in Critical Care. Articles were grouped into the following categories to facilitate a rapid overview: pathophysiology, therapeutic approaches, and outcome in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome; hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension; mechanical ventilation; liberation from mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy; ventilator-associated pneumonia; multidrug-resista...

  3. Obesity and physical frailty in older adults: a scoping review of lifestyle intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; McDonald, Shelley R; Bales, Connie W

    2014-04-01

    Many frail older adults are thin, weak, and undernourished; this component of frailty remains a critical concern in the geriatric field. However, there is also strong evidence that excessive adiposity contributes to frailty by reducing the ability of older adults to perform physical activities and increasing metabolic instability. Our scoping review explores the impact of being obese on physical frailty in older adults by summarizing the state of the science for both clinical markers of physical function and biomarkers for potential underlying causes of obesity-related decline. We used the 5-stage methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley to conduct a scoping review of randomized trials of weight loss and/or exercise interventions for obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) in older adults (aged >60 years), examining the outcomes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid accumulation in muscle, as well as direct measures of physical function. Our initial search yielded 212 articles; exclusion of cross-sectional and observational studies, cell culture and animal studies, disease-specific interventions, and articles published before 2001 led to a final result of 21 articles. Findings of these trials included the following major points. The literature consistently confirmed benefits of lifestyle interventions to physical function assessed at the clinical level. Generally speaking, weight loss alone produced a greater effect than exercise alone, and the best outcomes were achieved with a combination of weight loss and exercise, especially exercise programs that combined aerobic, resistance, and flexibility training. Weight loss interventions tended to reduce markers of inflammation and/or oxidative damage when more robust weight reduction was achieved and maintained over time, whereas exercise did not change markers of inflammation. However, participation in a chronic exercise program did reduce the oxidative stress induced by an acute bout of exercise

  4. Adult Children of Divorce and Intimate Relationships: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Brooks, Morgan C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research specific to the effects of parental divorce on adults in terms of relationship issues. Specific purposes of this review are to (a) explore research specific to intimacy and marital attitudes in adult children of divorce, (b) inform couple and family counselors of effects of parental divorce, and (c) relay implications for…

  5. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1,217 studies were…

  6. Long-term psychosocial impact reported by childhood critical illness survivors: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Joseph C; Hemingway, Pippa; Redsell, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    Aim To undertake a qualitative systematic review that explores psychological and social impact, reported directly from children and adolescents at least 6 months after their critical illness. Background Significant advances in critical care have reduced mortality from childhood critical illness, with the majority of patients being discharged alive. However, it is widely reported that surviving critical illness can be traumatic for both children and their family. Despite a growing body of lite...

  7. Literature and Practice: A Critical Review of MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe-Laverde, Andres; Hine, Nicolas; Martínez-Silva, Jose Andres

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on a review of both literature and practical experiences concerning MOOCs. The literature analyzed was published in peer-reviewed journals between 2007 and 2013. 268 items were selected for this study, of which 100 were analyzed in detail. The issues raised by this analysis were used as the criteria for the analysis of 10…

  8. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  9. A critical review of predefined diet quality scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers, P.M.C.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ocke, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The literature on predefined indexes of overall diet quality is reviewed. Their association with nutrient adequacy and health outcome is considered, but our primary interest is in the make-up of the scores. In total, twenty different indexes have been reviewed, four of which have gained most attenti

  10. Year in review 2006: Critical Care--Resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Marcus J; Kuiper, Michael; Spronk, Peter E; Vroom, Margreeth B; Gajic, Ognjen

    2007-01-01

    As health care resources become increasingly constrained, it is imperative that intensive care unit resources be optimized. In the years to come, a number of challenges to intensive care medicine will need to be addressed as society changes. Last year's Critical Care papers provided us with a number of interesting and highly accessed original papers dealing with health care resources. The information yielded by these studies can help us to deal with issues such as prognostication, early detection and treatment of delirium, prevention of medical errors and use of radiology resources in critically ill patients. Finally, several aspects of scientific research in critically ill patients were investigated, focusing on the possibility of obtaining informed consent and recall of having given informed consent. PMID:17764592

  11. Year in review 2006: Critical Care – resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Marcus J; Kuiper, Michael; Spronk, Peter E; Vroom, Margreeth B; Gajic, Ognjen

    2007-01-01

    As health care resources become increasingly constrained, it is imperative that intensive care unit resources be optimized. In the years to come, a number of challenges to intensive care medicine will need to be addressed as society changes. Last year's Critical Care papers provided us with a number of interesting and highly accessed original papers dealing with health care resources. The information yielded by these studies can help us to deal with issues such as prognostication, early detection and treatment of delirium, prevention of medical errors and use of radiology resources in critically ill patients. Finally, several aspects of scientific research in critically ill patients were investigated, focusing on the possibility of obtaining informed consent and recall of having given informed consent. PMID:17764592

  12. Review of the critical ionization velocity effect in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown under a variety of conditions that when a neutral gas passes through a magnetized plasma with a relative velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field that is greater than a critical velocity, anomalously high ionization of the neutrals occurs. The conditions under which the same effect is to be expected in space plasmas is still unclear. The experimental evidence for the occurrence of the critical ionization velocity effect in space is summarized, and various areas in which it has been proposed that the effect should be significant are discussed.

  13. A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivey Adam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This systematic review examines critically the scientific basis for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Active Living for adults. Particular reference is given to the dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature all-cause mortality and seven chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. The strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated critically. Literature was obtained through searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, cross-referencing, and through the authors' knowledge of the area. For inclusion in our systematic review articles must have at least 3 levels of physical activity and the concomitant risk for each chronic disease. The quality of included studies was appraised using a modified Downs and Black tool. Through this search we identified a total of 254 articles that met the eligibility criteria related to premature all-cause mortality (N = 70, cardiovascular disease (N = 49, stroke (N = 25, hypertension (N = 12, colon cancer (N = 33, breast cancer (N = 43, type 2 diabetes (N = 20, and osteoporosis (N = 2. Overall, the current literature supports clearly the dose-response relationship between physical activity and the seven chronic conditions identified. Moreover, higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk for premature all-cause mortality. The current Canadian guidelines appear to be appropriate to reduce the risk for the seven chronic conditions identified above and all-cause mortality.

  14. Increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review Health Maintenance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschwitz, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Health Maintenance System. It includes information on the carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture removal system (CMRS), the variable oxygen system,rendevous station panels, and the crew contamination protection kit (CCPK).

  15. Review of David Kovacs' Euripidea (Euripidean testimonia and textual criticism)

    OpenAIRE

    Mastronarde, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    Review discussion of a collection of ancient indirect evidence for the life and artistry of Euripides, with comments on text and translation of the citations, together with discussion of some textually difficult passages in Euripides' Cyclops, Alcestis, and Medea.

  16. Critical review of strategic planning research in hospitality and tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Paul A.; Moutinho, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Strategic planning remains one of the most popular management tools, but theoretical and empirical developments in the academic literature have been a slow burn. This paper addresses this gap and provides an up-to-date review of hospitality and tourism strategic planning research. We review strategic planning research from 1995 to 2013 in seven leading tourism academic journals, and adopt a modern and broad conceptualization of strategic planning. While there is some awareness of effective to...

  17. Critical Review of Research Findings on Information Technology in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Markauskaite, Lina

    2003-01-01

    This article analyses the field of research on information and communication technology (ICT) in education. It reviews the results of ICT researches carried out in the world. First, the article presents the retrospective of researches on ICT implementation into education. Summarizing them, it reviews main research findings in five areas of ICT implementation: 1) the impact of ICT use on students achievements and attitudes; 2) the impact of ICT use on teachers; 3) the effect of teachers' facto...

  18. Budget-Impact Analyses: A Critical Review of Published Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Orlewska; Laszlo Gulcsi

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews budget-impact analyses (BIAs) published to date in peer-reviewed bio-medical journals with reference to current best practice, and discusses where future research needs to be directed. Published BIAs were identified by conducting a computerized search on PubMed using the search term 'budget impact analysis'. The years covered by the search included January 2000 through November 2008. Only studies (i) named by authors as BIAs and (ii) predicting financial consequences of a...

  19. Adult Education Literacy Instruction: A Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruidenier, John R.; MacArthur, Charles A.; Wrigley, Heide S.

    2010-01-01

    The Adult Literacy Research Working Group (ALRWG), a panel of experts on adult reading research and practice, was established by the National Institute for Literacy (NIFL) in collaboration with the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL). It was part of the Institute's efforts to provide educators, parents and others…

  20. Critical Factors in Mobile Learning: A Quasi-Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sergio Assis; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pereira; Arnaud, Lucas; de Souza, Jano Moreira

    2013-01-01

    The advance of mobile industry and research has expanded e-learning in order to support an efficient and effective educational process. However, the promised benefits are as much attractive as the existing difficulties and barriers. In this paper, we intend to identify and summarize the critical factors in mobile learning through a…

  1. Year in review 2006: Critical Care – respirology

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez, Daniela; Singh, Jeffrey M; Ferguson, Niall D

    2007-01-01

    The present article summarises and places in context original research articles from the respirology section published in Critical Care in 2006. Twenty papers were identified and were grouped by topic into those addressing acute lung injury and ventilator-induced lung injury, those examining high-frequency oscillation, those studying pulmonary physiology and mechanics, those assessing tracheostomy, and those exploring other topics.

  2. Theoretical approaches to social innovation – A critical literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzin, A.; Davis, A.; Domanski, D.; Dhondt, S.; Howaldt, J.; Kaletka, C.; Kesselring, A.; Kopp, R.; Millard, J.; Oeij, P.; Rehfeld, D.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Schwartz, M.; Scoppetta, A.; Wagner-Luptacik, P.; Weber, M.

    2014-01-01

    The SI-DRIVE report “Theoretical approaches to Social Innovation – A Critical Literature Review” delivers a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of theoretically relevant building blocks for advancing a theoretical understanding of social innovation. It collects different theoretical appro

  3. Assessment for learning: a critical review of a contested territory

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, Liz; Sambell, Kay; Davison, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research seminar is to engage in a critical exploration of Assessment for Learning (AfL), situated within the higher education research literature. This is timely because AfL is generating significant interest as a way to improve student learning.

  4. Treatment Outcomes for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicole R.; Beamish, Patricia M.

    2007-01-01

    Counselors in the 21st century must not only respond to the pressures of managed care but also support the best interests of their clients. Criticism from consumers and professionals about the lack of empirical evidence of the efficacy of counseling as well as pressure from managed care companies have prompted a focus on evaluating treatment…

  5. A Review on Developing Critical Thinking Skills through Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraini Ahmad Shukri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010. As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the arguments of others and of their own, coming to well-reasoned resolutions to any complex problems and to be able to resolve conflicts encountered in their daily lives. Critical thinking requires them to be actively involved in their own learning process as they attempt to individually understand and apply the information they are exposed to during the classroom interaction (Landsberger, 1999; Tung & Chang, 2009. The many advantageous and feasibility of teaching instruction that incorporates the study of literature in the ESL classroom which suggests that literature texts, if correctly chosen and instructed, can prove to be beneficial to ESL students’ overall level of literacy and critical thinking skills. Numerous empirical researches also asserted that literary texts that are authentic, enjoyable, and motivating would naturally increase both their knowledge of the target language patterns and cultural awareness.Keywords: Critical thinking, ESL classroom, literature, literary text

  6. A Critical Review of Qualitative Interviews in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article asks what applied linguistics can learn from related disciplines with regard to the collection, analysis and representation of qualitative interviews. It assesses the contributions of qualitative sociology, anthropology, discursive psychology and outlines four "discourse dilemmas" which might provide the basis for a more critical and…

  7. Adult type granulosa cell tumor in adult testis: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Song

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors can be classified into juvenile and adult types and more commonly occur in ovaries. Adult testicular granulosa cell tumors are extremely rare and only 29 cases of adult type have previously been reported. We report here a 28-year-old Caucasian man with a left testicular adult type granulosa cell tumor. The tumor measured 2.6 x 2.6 x 2.5 cm and was mitotically active (10/10 HPF. Immunohistochemical stains showed the tumor diffusely positive for inhibin and vimentin, and negative for epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratins, synaptophysin, HMB-45, OCT-4, placental-like alkaline phosphatase and lymphoid markers . The reported granulosa cell tumors in adult testis were briefly reviewed.

  8. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management for community-living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; McKey, Colleen; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged internationally that chronic disease management (CDM) for community-living older adults (CLOA) is an increasingly complex process. CDM for older adults, who are often living with multiple chronic conditions, requires coordination of various health and social services. Coordination is enabled through interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among individual providers, community organizations, and health sectors. Measuring IPC is complicated given there are multiple conceptualisations and measures of IPC. A literature review of several healthcare, psychological, and social science electronic databases was conducted to locate instruments that measure IPC at the team level and have published evidence of their reliability and validity. Five instruments met the criteria and were critically reviewed to determine their strengths and limitations as they relate to CDM for CLOA. A comparison of the characteristics, psychometric properties, and overall concordance of each instrument with salient attributes of IPC found the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool to be the most appropriate instrument for measuring IPC for CDM in CLOA. PMID:27026190

  9. Ketamine in adult cardiac surgery and the cardiac surgery Intensive Care Unit: An evidence-based clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazzeffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a unique anesthetic drug that provides analgesia, hypnosis, and amnesia with minimal respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Because of its sympathomimetic properties it would seem to be an excellent choice for patients with depressed ventricular function in cardiac surgery. However, its use has not gained widespread acceptance in adult cardiac surgery patients, perhaps due to its perceived negative psychotropic effects. Despite this limitation, it is receiving renewed interest in the United States as a sedative and analgesic drug for critically ill-patients. In this manuscript, the authors provide an evidence-based clinical review of ketamine use in cardiac surgery patients for intensive care physicians, cardio-thoracic anesthesiologists, and cardio-thoracic surgeons. All MEDLINE indexed clinical trials performed during the last 20 years in adult cardiac surgery patients were included in the review.

  10. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1217 studies were reviewed, only 13 met inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were single case studies or non-randomized controlled trials, and most focused on applied b...

  11. A review of critical in-flight events research methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.; Smith, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Pilot's cognitive responses to critical in-flight events (CIFE's) were investigated, using pilots, who had on the average about 2540 flight hours each, in four experiments: (1) full-mission simulation in a general aviation trainer, (2) paper and pencil CIFE tests, (3) interactive computer-aided scenario testing, and (4) verbal protocols in fault diagnosis tasks. The results of both computer and paper and pencil tests showed only 50 percent efficiency in correct diagnosis of critical events. The efficiency in arriving at a diagnosis was also low: over 20 inquiries were made for 21 percent of the scenarios diagnosed. The information-seeking pattern was random, with frequent retracing over old inquiries. The measures for developing improved cognitive skills for CIFE's are discussed.

  12. Von Glaserfeld`s Radical Constructivism: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Michael D.

    We explore Ernst von Glaserfelds radical constructivism, its criticisms, and our own thoughts on what it promises for the reform of science and mathematics teaching. Our investigation reveals that many criticisms of radical constructivism are unwarranted; nevertheless, in its current cognitivist form radical constructivism may be insufficient to empower teachers to overcome objectivist cultural traditions. Teachers need to be empowered with rich understandings of philosophies of science and mathematics that endorse relativist epistemologies; for without such they are unlikely to be prepared to reconstruct their pedagogical practices. More importantly, however, is a need for a powerful social epistemology to serve as a referent for regenerating the culture of science education. We recommend blending radical constructivism with Habermas theory of communicative action to provide science teachers with a moral imperative for adopting a constructivist epistemology.

  13. The estressors in patients critical: literature review study

    OpenAIRE

    Renata da Silva Vasconcelos, Elaine Antunes Cortez

    2009-01-01

    Objective: to identify the generating factors of stress in the critical customers of the Unit of Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) that they are not sedated or in coma. Methods: descriptive, exploratory research and qualitative, carried through by means of a survey of the scientific production in periodic in the databases of the Lilacs, Medline and Scielo of last the ten years, where 10 publications had been selected. Results: with the technological development, as for example, mechanical devices ...

  14. A Review on Developing Critical Thinking Skills through Literary Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Noraini Ahmad Shukri; Jayakaran Mukundan

    2015-01-01

    Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010). As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the ar...

  15. Genetically modified organisms and sustainable crop production: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Mozumdar, Lavlu; Islam, Mohammad; Saha, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Fighting against global hunger in the adverse climatic condition is a major concern of the governments around the globe. The pace of population growth is overwhelmingly defeating the growth in crop production. In this context, introduction of GMO is emerging as a probable solution for sustainable crop production. However, such developments are not beyond criticism. This paper assesses and evaluates the prospects and challenges of introduction of GMO in a global perspective. Experiences of GM ...

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Critically Ill Children: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maria José Solana García; Jesús López-Herce Cid; César Sánchez Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in children due to immaturity of the antireflux barrier. In critically ill patients there is also a high incidence due to a partial or complete loss of pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter though other factors, such as the use of nasogastric tubes, treatment with adrenergic agonists, bronchodilators, or opiates and mechanical ventilation, can further increase the risk of GER. Vomiting and regurgitation are the most common manifestations in in...

  17. Theoretical approaches to social innovation – A critical literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Butzin, A.; Davis, A.; Domanski, D.; Dhondt, S.; Howaldt, J.; Kaletka, C.; Kesselring, A.; Kopp, R.; Millard, J; Oeij, P.; Rehfeld, D.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Schwartz, M.; Scoppetta, A.; Wagner-Luptacik, P.

    2014-01-01

    The SI-DRIVE report “Theoretical approaches to Social Innovation – A Critical Literature Review” delivers a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of theoretically relevant building blocks for advancing a theoretical understanding of social innovation. It collects different theoretical approaches which are conducive to a deeper understanding of social innovation. The chapters, focusing on (1) Theories of Social Change, (2) Social Innovation Studies and (3) Innovation and Management St...

  18. Relationship Between Learning Styles and Critical Thinking- AGeneral Review

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Guven; Dilruba Kurum

    2006-01-01

    “Information society†requires individuals to have many diverse qualifications. These qualifications include knowing and applying various ways of thinking, such as researching, problem solving, and creative and critical thinking. Educating individuals with such qualifications is only possible by making students become more active in learning-teaching process and this requires adaptation of education to different students with different learning styles. “Learning style†is the sum of cha...

  19. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Critically Ill Children: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana García, Maria José; López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Sánchez Sánchez, César

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in children due to immaturity of the antireflux barrier. In critically ill patients there is also a high incidence due to a partial or complete loss of pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter though other factors, such as the use of nasogastric tubes, treatment with adrenergic agonists, bronchodilators, or opiates and mechanical ventilation, can further increase the risk of GER. Vomiting and regurgitation are the most common manifestations in infants and are considered pathological when they have repercussions on the nutritional status. In critically ill children, damage to the esophageal mucosa predisposes to digestive tract hemorrhage and nosocomial pneumonia secondary to repeated microaspiration. GER is mainly alkaline in children, as is also the case in critically ill pediatric patients. pH-metry combined with multichannel intraluminal impedance is therefore the technique of choice for diagnosis. The proton pump inhibitors are the drugs of choice for the treatment of GER because they have a greater effect, longer duration of action, and a good safety profile. PMID:23431462

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux in critically ill children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana García, Maria José; López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Sánchez Sánchez, César

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in children due to immaturity of the antireflux barrier. In critically ill patients there is also a high incidence due to a partial or complete loss of pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter though other factors, such as the use of nasogastric tubes, treatment with adrenergic agonists, bronchodilators, or opiates and mechanical ventilation, can further increase the risk of GER. Vomiting and regurgitation are the most common manifestations in infants and are considered pathological when they have repercussions on the nutritional status. In critically ill children, damage to the esophageal mucosa predisposes to digestive tract hemorrhage and nosocomial pneumonia secondary to repeated microaspiration. GER is mainly alkaline in children, as is also the case in critically ill pediatric patients. pH-metry combined with multichannel intraluminal impedance is therefore the technique of choice for diagnosis. The proton pump inhibitors are the drugs of choice for the treatment of GER because they have a greater effect, longer duration of action, and a good safety profile. PMID:23431462

  1. Severe imported falciparum malaria: a cohort study in 400 critically ill adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Bruneel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large studies on severe imported malaria in non-endemic industrialized countries are lacking. We sought to describe the clinical spectrum of severe imported malaria in French adults and to identify risk factors for mortality at admission to the intensive care unit. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective review of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes according to the 2000 World Health Organization definition and requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Data were collected from medical charts using standardised case-report forms, in 45 French intensive care units in 2000-2006. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Data from 400 adults admitted to the intensive care unit were analysed, representing the largest series of severe imported malaria to date. Median age was 45 years; 60% of patients were white, 96% acquired the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and 65% had not taken antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Curative quinine treatment was used in 97% of patients. Intensive care unit mortality was 10.5% (42 deaths. By multivariate analysis, three variables at intensive care unit admission were independently associated with hospital death: older age (per 10-year increment, odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.28-2.32; P = 0.0004, Glasgow Coma Scale score (per 1-point decrease, OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.20-1.45; P<0.0001, and higher parasitemia (per 5% increment, OR, 1.41; 95%CI, 1.22-1.62; P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In a large population of adults treated in a non-endemic industrialized country, severe malaria still carried a high mortality rate. Our data, including predictors of death, can probably be generalized to other non-endemic countries where high-quality healthcare is available.

  2. Crosswords to computers: a critical review of popular approaches to cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Amy J; Seelye, Adriana M; Jurick, Sarah M

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive enhancement strategies have gained recent popularity and have the potential to benefit clinical and non-clinical populations. As technology advances and the number of cognitively healthy adults seeking methods of improving or preserving cognitive functioning grows, the role of electronic (e.g., computer and video game based) cognitive training becomes more relevant and warrants greater scientific scrutiny. This paper serves as a critical review of empirical evaluations of publically available electronic cognitive training programs. Many studies have found that electronic training approaches result in significant improvements in trained cognitive tasks. Fewer studies have demonstrated improvements in untrained tasks within the trained cognitive domain, non-trained cognitive domains, or on measures of everyday function. Successful cognitive training programs will elicit effects that generalize to untrained, practical tasks for extended periods of time. Unfortunately, many studies of electronic cognitive training programs are hindered by methodological limitations such as lack of an adequate control group, long-term follow-up and ecologically valid outcome measures. Despite these limitations, evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training has the potential to positively impact one's sense of social connectivity and self-efficacy. PMID:23423553

  3. Critical success factors for competitiveness of construction companies: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Abdul Ghafur; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Making progress basically, a fundamental issue for the construction companies to get by in a highly competitive industry. From time to time, industry players are facing stiff and tough competition due to large number of players, whether existing or new players involved from various background and track record. Furthermore, the large numbers of component deciding the competitiveness of contractors, whose organization structures and governance have turned out to be more muddled. Different construction companies have their own unique criteria which may differ from one to another. The enormous amount of issues needs to bring down to manageable numbers so that measures can be identified and scrutinized to enhance competitiveness. This paper discusses the result from the critical investigation from past studies in the Asian countries, namely China, India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Several fundamental factors have been identified as CSFs in construction companies in respective country. Also highlighted a critical survey based upon various literatures written on this subject where critical success factors (CSFs) as a yardstick to gauge the relationship among CSFs in various construction companies in the Asian region. Far reaching estimation of an organization's performance and resulting input to its supervision is crucial for business change. Estimation additionally empowers organizations to be contrasted from one another on the premise of institutionalized data, permitting best practices to be distinguished and connected more widely. Different countries have their own set of critical success factors (CSFs) which may differ in term of priority and at the same time share common elements of success factor in accomplishment as a construction companies. The study, which is exploratory in nature, embraced the content investigation and inductive technique to accomplish its objectives.

  4. Phase and Sex Effects in Pain Perception: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolkasian, Paula

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the literature in pain perception to clarify the influence of sex and menstrual phase on the phenomenon of pain. The appropriateness of the measures of pain threshold, pain tolerance, discrimination accuracy, and of response bias to the study of pain are discussed. (Author)

  5. Cartoon Violence and Children's Aggression: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapkiewicz, Walter G.

    This paper reviews ten studies on the effects of television cartoon violence on aggressive behavior in children and discusses possible reasons for the inconsistent results. Methodology and results of field and laboratory studies are compared, and study limitations are noted. The impact of cartoons is discussed in terms of human vs. animal…

  6. Studying plasmid horizontal transfer in situ: a critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Bailey, Mark; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg;

    2005-01-01

    This review deals with the prospective, experimental documentation of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and its role in real-time, local adaptation. We have focused on plasmids and their function as an accessory and/or adaptive gene pool. Studies of the extent of HGT in natural environments have...

  7. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  8. Leadership in Higher Education: A Critical Review of Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Sandra F.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews research on: (1) women's roles as worker and wife/mother; (2) women's career and socialization patterns; (3) characteristics of women in business organizations; (4) characteristics of women in higher education administration; and (5) general characteristics of male and female college presidents. Also discusses methodological issues in such…

  9. Progress in electrical energy storage system:A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Chen; Thang Ngoc Cong; Wei Yang; Chunqing Tan; Yongliang Li; Yulong Ding

    2009-01-01

    Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed.Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage,compressed air energy storage,battery,flow battery,fuel cell,solar fuel,superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor,and thermal energy torage.Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteris-tics,applications and deployment status.

  10. Critical Review of Research Findings on Information Technology in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina MARKAUSKAITE

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the field of research on information and communication technology (ICT in education. It reviews the results of ICT researches carried out in the world. First, the article presents the retrospective of researches on ICT implementation into education. Summarizing them, it reviews main research findings in five areas of ICT implementation: 1 the impact of ICT use on students achievements and attitudes; 2 the impact of ICT use on teachers; 3 the effect of teachers' factors and instructional methods on ICT efficiency; 4 the influence of infrastructure and organizational factors on ICT efficiency; 5 the effect of specific software design features. Then, the paper reviews the main recent and future directions of researches on ICT in education, in the world. Finally, it shortly reviews the most important future directions of ICT research and development in Lithuania. The article concludes that in spite of numerous ICT studies worldwide the national research and experiments have to be carried out in order to implement ICT in an appropriate for Lithuania and efficient way.

  11. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Chemistry Program: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a request from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry has reviewed OHER's Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). This report contains the committee's evaluation and critique arising from that review. The review process included a two-day symposium held at the National Academy of Sciences on September 25 and 26, 1990, that focused on presenting the ACP's current components, recent scientific accomplishments, and scientific plans. Following the symposium, committee members met in a one-day executive session to formulate and outline this report. In undertaking this review, OHER and ACP management requested that the committee attempt to answer several specific questions involving the program's technical capability and productivity, its leadership and organization, and its future direction. These questions are given in the Appendix. This report represents the committee's response to the questions posed in the Appendix. Chapter I explores the committee's view of the role that atmospheric chemistry could and should assume within the DOE and its prospective National Energy Strategy. Chapter 2 assesses the current ACP, Chapter 3 presents recommendations for revising and strengthening it, and Chapter 4 restates the committee's conclusions and recommendations

  12. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  13. Cerebral tuberculoma:critical review of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Agrawal; Sameer Singhal; SRJoharapurkar; SJVagha; Bhushan Wani

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system tuberculosis can have protean manifestations.We review the clinical and radiological findings in two cases of cerebral tuberculoma in immuoncompetent patients.These two cases represent the spectrum of variations of clinical and radiological features of cerebral tuberculoma and highlight the controver-sies in the approach to diagnosis and management.

  14. Critical Readiness Review EHS Water Quality and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Presentation reviews the status in reference to the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) of the water quality and microbiology for the International Space Station. It includes information about crew training, hardware delivery, and those items that will be returned for study.

  15. Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence. PMID:25399408

  16. A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U

    2010-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care......A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care...

  17. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  18. The geomorphological unit hydrograph – a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Shamseldin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the geomorphological unit hydrograph (GUH is examined critically and it is shown that the inherent assumption that the operation of the drainage network may be modelled by a corresponding network of linear reservoirs so restricts the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH shape that the effects of further restrictions, reflecting the constraints imposed by the geomorphological laws of the channel network, cannot easily be identified. Without such identification, the geomorphological unit hydrograph theory is untestable and must remain only a plausible hypothesis providing an indication of a two-parameter IUH whose shape and scale factors must still be related empirically to appropriate catchment characteristics.

  19. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  20. Software Reliability Modeling using Soft Computing Techniques: Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh Kaswan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Software reliability models assess the reliability by predicting faults for the software. Reliability is a real world phenomenon with many associated real-time problems. To obtain solutions to problems quickly, accurately and acceptably, a large number of soft computing techniques have been developed, but it is very difficult to find out which one is the most suitable and can be used globally. In this paper, we have provided an overview of existing soft computing techniques, and then critically analyzed the work done by the various researchers in the field of software reliability. Further to this, we have also compared soft computing techniques in terms of software reliability modeling capabilities.

  1. Critical Success Factors of Total Quality Management Implementation In Higher Education Institution: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Norhayati Zakuan; Shalini Muniandy; Muhamad Zameri Mat Saman; Mohd. Shoki Md. Ariff; Sapiah Sulaiman; Rozita Abd Jalil

    2012-01-01

    This paper determines the research area of critical success factors of total quality management (TQM) implementation in higher education institutions which has potential to be explored and generate new knowledge, to improve the total quality management practices and outcome especially in higher education institutions. This paper has reviewed all the literature which is relevant to critical success factors of total quality management (TQM) and its implementation in various areas. The review is...

  2. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching Critical Reading to Adult College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Sabrina; Davis, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of postsecondary programs for working adults is not surprising, given the importance of a bachelor's degree to employment and higher earnings. However, the demographics of adult learners have changed significantly over the past 30 years, when degrees for adults targeted a middle-class population. Adults now return to college…

  3. REVIEW: South & East Asian Adult Education: Chronologies in Commonwealth Countries

    OpenAIRE

    SHARMA, Reviewed By Dr. Ramesh C.

    2002-01-01

    The major aim of this international research project was to record and analyze the chronological development of adult education in the country members of the commonwealth. It traces the developments in the area of adult education since early 1900s to the very latest as for 1999. This project was supported by the Commonwealth of Learning; the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto; the Commonwealth Association for the Education and Training of Adults; and the United ...

  4. Devil in the Details: A Critical Review of "Theoretical Loss".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Matthew A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2016-09-01

    In their review of Internet gambling studies, Auer and Griffiths (J Gambl Stud 30(4), 879-887, 2014) question the validity of using bet size as an indicator of gambling intensity. Instead, in that review and in a response (Auer and Griffiths, J Gambl Stud 31(3), 921-931, 2015) to a previous comment (Braverman et al., J Gambl Stud 31(2), 359-366, 2015), Auer and Griffiths suggested using "theoretical loss" as a preferable measure of gambling intensity. This comment extends and advances the discussion about measures of gambling intensity. In this paper, we describe previously identified problems that Auer and Griffiths need to address to sustain theoretical loss as a viable measure of gambling intensity and add details to the discussion that demonstrate difficulties associated with the use of theoretical loss with certain gambling games. PMID:26670791

  5. Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Cifra, Michal; Nerudová, Michaela; Kučera, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Biological samples continuously emit ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, or "biophotons") which stems from electronic excited states generated chemically during oxidative metabolism and stress. Thus, UPE can potentially serve as a method for non-invasive diagnostics of oxidative processes or, if discovered, also of other processes capable of electron excitation. While the fundamental generating mechanisms of UPE are fairly elucidated together with their approximate ranges of intensities and spectra, statistical properties of UPE is still a highly challenging topic. Here we review claims about nontrivial statistical properties of UPE, such as coherence and squeezed states of light. After introduction to the necessary theory, we categorize the experimental works of all authors to those with solid, conventional interpretation and those with unconventional and even speculative interpretation. The conclusion of our review is twofold; while the phenomenon of UPE from biological systems can be considered experimentally...

  6. A Critical Review of Online Consumer Behavior: Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Christy M.K. Cheung; Gloria W.W. Chan; Moez Limayem

    2005-01-01

    Empirical research on online consumer theory has been examined under diverse contexts over the years. Although researchers from a variety of business disciplines have made significant progress over the past few years, the scope of these studies is rather broad, the studies appear relatively fragmented and no unifying theoretical framework is found in this area. In view of this, this study attempts to provide an exhaustive review of prior theoretical literature and to provide an integrative mo...

  7. A CRITICAL REVIEW ON AYURVEDIC DRUG KAPARDIKA (CYPRAEA MONETA LINN.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulshrestha Mayank Krishna; Karbhal Kamleshwar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Kapardika (Cypraea moneta Linn.) are the choice of drug for many indications in Ayurvedic practice. These are the sea products and obtained from seacoast. These were once used for playing purpose by children, ornamental purpose by women and used as money unit since ancient time. Literatures of ancient science and current available materials are reviewed to highlight the importance of Kapardika. This literary information may serve as an evidence to establish current research in ancient Ayurve...

  8. A Critical Review Syd Barrett: A Very Irregular Head

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This Literature Review contextualises the work I undertook for „Syd Barrett: A Very Irregular Head,‟ (1) a 140,000 word biography based on the life of the musician Syd Barrett, lead guitarist, vocalist, and principal songwriter in the original line up of Pink Floyd. The book is based on two and a half years of focussed research, carried out between January 1997 and August 2009. During this time I interviewed family, friends, schoolmates, fellow college students, musicians, a...

  9. Oral transit time: a critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    SOARES, Thais Jacóe; MORAES, Danielle Pedroni; de Medeiros, Gisele Chagas; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral transit time is one of the parameters observed during the clinical assessment of the swallowing function. The importance of this parameter is due to its impact on the total duration of a meal, whose consequence can be an unfavorable nutritional prognostic. Objective To document scientific papers that measure oral transit time in healthy subjects. Method The review followed the steps proposed by the Cochrane Handbook. The search was done via the PubMed database through the us...

  10. Genetic Health Technology and Economic Evaluation: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    James Jarrett; Miranda Mugford

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the review is to establish whether, on the basis of previous published evidence, current accepted guidance for health economic evaluation needs to be adapted to evaluate healthcare based on use of genetic information. Online literature search strategies were designed (using PubMed and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database [NHS EED], among others) to gather papers carrying out or discussing economic evaluation and genetics. Papers meeting the inclusion criteria were obtained and revi...

  11. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sheets, Larry P.; Li, Abby A.; Minnema, Daniel J.; Collier, Richard H.; Creek, Moire R.; Peffer, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood–brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of a...

  12. Electroless nickel, alloy, composite and nano coatings - A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Sudagar, Jothi; Lian, Jianshe; Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The development of metal deposition processes based on electroless nickel, alloy and composite coatings on various surfaces has witnessed a surge in interest among researchers, with many recent applications made possible from many excellent properties. In recent years, these coatings have shown promising corrosion and wear resistance properties and large number of newer developments became most important from macro to nano level applications. After a brief review of the fundamental aspects un...

  13. Brain Drain and Economic Growth: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Monteleone

    2011-01-01

    Does the brain drain have negative or positive effect on the development and growth of those left behind? This paper shows the empirical and theoretical relevance of the phenomenon and reviews both the traditional literature and recent contributions on the effects of the brain drain. The first generation models considered the brain drain harmful for the country of origin, underlining effects on wages, employment and growth, whilst the more recent literature shows positive effects on the popul...

  14. Critical review of water based radiant cooling system design methods

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Interests in radiant cooling systems have increased in recent years. There is, however, no standardized method for radiant system design that is broadly accepted by the building industry. Through literature review, twelve surveys and eight interviews with leading practitioners, this paper summarizes the design methods documented in the guidelines, assesses the state of the industry, and identifies potential gaps and limitations in current design practice. The findings include: 1) design guide...

  15. Modelling inflation dynamics : a critical review of recent research

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Karl; Rudd, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, a broad academic consensus has arisen around the use of rational expectations sticky-price models to capture inflation dynamics. These models are seen as providing an empirically reasonable characterization of observed inflation behavior once suitable measures of the output gap are chosen; and, moreover, are perceived to be robust to the Lucas critique in a way that earlier econometric models of inflation are not. We review the principal conclusions of this literature conce...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in entomology: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, A.G.; Bowtell, R W; Köckenberger, W; Wenseleers, T.; Ratnieks, F.L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables in vivo imaging of organisms. The recent development of the magnetic resonance microscope (MRM) has enabled organisms within the size range of many insects to be imaged. Here, we introduce the principles of MRI and MRM and review their use in entomology. We show that MRM has been successfully applied in studies of parasitology, development, metabolism, biomagnetism and morphology, and the advantages and disadvantages relative to other imaging technique...

  17. Critical reviews of fiber-optic communication technology Optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapron, F. P.

    The review begins with brief highlights of the history of fiber optics, followed by a discussion of the attributes of shortwave and longwave transmission. This leads to an investigation of various fiber types, short-haul considerations, and then single-mode aspects. Specialty fiber is briefly covered, followed by a survey of several research trends today that will lead to new systems capabilities in the future. No references are given, since hundreds would be necessary to make the list even partially complete.

  18. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption. PMID:25244705

  19. Sleep and perinatal mood disorders: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lori E.; Murray, Brian J.; Steiner, Meir

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are recognized as times of vulnerability to mood disorders, including postpartum depression and psychosis. Recently, changes in sleep physiology and sleep deprivation have been proposed as having roles in perinatal psychiatric disorders. In this article we review what is known about changes in sleep physiology and behaviour during the perinatal period, with a focus on the relations between sleep and postpartum “blues,” depression and psychosis and on sleep-...

  20. Analytical approaches for arsenic determination in air: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Campa, Ana M Sánchez; Alsioufi, Louay

    2015-10-22

    This review describes the different steps involved in the determination of arsenic in air, considering the particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous phase. The review focuses on sampling, sample preparation and instrumental analytical techniques for both total arsenic determination and speciation analysis. The origin, concentration and legislation concerning arsenic in ambient air are also considered. The review intends to describe the procedures for sample collection of total suspended particles (TSP) or particles with a certain diameter expressed in microns (e.g. PM10 and PM2.5), or the collection of the gaseous phase containing gaseous arsenic species. Sample digestion of the collecting media for PM is described, indicating proposed and established procedures that use acids or mixtures of acids aided with different heating procedures. The detection techniques are summarized and compared (ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ET-AAS), as well those techniques capable of direct analysis of the solid sample (PIXE, INAA and XRF). The studies about speciation in PM are also discussed, considering the initial works that employed a cold trap in combination with atomic spectroscopy detectors, or the more recent studies based on chromatography (GC or HPLC) combined with atomic or mass detectors (AFS, ICP-MS and MS). Further trends and challenges about determination of As in air are also addressed. PMID:26526905

  1. Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifra, Michal, E-mail: cifra@ufe.cz [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Brouder, Christian [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, CNRS UMR7590, Paris (France); Nerudová, Michaela [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Circuit Theory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Kučera, Ondřej [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-15

    Biological samples continuously emit ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, or “biophotons”) which stems from electronic excited states generated chemically during oxidative metabolism and stress. Thus, UPE can potentially serve as a method for non-invasive diagnostics of oxidative processes or, if discovered, also of other processes capable of electron excitation. While the fundamental generating mechanisms of UPE are fairly elucidated together with their approximate ranges of intensities and spectra, the statistical properties of UPE are still a highly challenging topic. Here, we review claims about nontrivial statistical properties of UPE, such as coherence and squeezed states of light. After the introduction to the necessary theory, we categorize the experimental works of all authors to those with solid, conventional interpretation and those with unconventional and even speculative interpretation. The conclusion of our review is twofold; while the phenomenon of UPE from biological systems can be considered experimentally well established, no reliable evidence for the coherence or nonclassicality of UPE has actually been achieved up to now. Furthermore, we propose perspective avenues for the research of statistical properties of biological UPE. - Highlights: • We review statistical properties of biological ultra-weak photon emission. • Claims of coherence and squeezed states are assessed. • Perspective work in statistical properties of biological photon emission is sketched.

  2. Current status of treatments for dyslexia: critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ann W; Slinger-Constant, Anne-Marie

    2004-10-01

    The acquisition of reading is a complex neurobiologic process. Identifying the most effective instruction and remedial intervention methods for children at risk of developing reading problems and for those who are already struggling is equally complex. This article aims to provide the clinician with a review of more current findings on the prevention and remediation of reading problems in children, along with an approach to considering the diagnosis and treatment of a child with dyslexia. The first part of the review describes interventions targeted at preventing reading difficulties in the at-risk younger child. The second part of the review discusses the efficacy of approaches to treat the older, reading-disabled child ("intervention studies"). Factors that impact the response to treatment are also discussed, as are neuroimaging studies that offer insight into how the brain responds to treatment interventions. With appropriate instruction, at-risk readers can become both accurate and fluent readers. In contrast, although intensive, evidence-based remedial interventions can markedly improve reading accuracy in older, reading-disabled children, they have been significantly less effective in closing the fluency gap. Owing to the dynamic course of language development and the changes in language demands over time, even after a child has demonstrated a substantial response to treatment interventions, his or her subsequent progress should be carefully tracked to ensure optimal progress toward the development of functional reading and written language skills. PMID:15559890

  3. Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological samples continuously emit ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, or “biophotons”) which stems from electronic excited states generated chemically during oxidative metabolism and stress. Thus, UPE can potentially serve as a method for non-invasive diagnostics of oxidative processes or, if discovered, also of other processes capable of electron excitation. While the fundamental generating mechanisms of UPE are fairly elucidated together with their approximate ranges of intensities and spectra, the statistical properties of UPE are still a highly challenging topic. Here, we review claims about nontrivial statistical properties of UPE, such as coherence and squeezed states of light. After the introduction to the necessary theory, we categorize the experimental works of all authors to those with solid, conventional interpretation and those with unconventional and even speculative interpretation. The conclusion of our review is twofold; while the phenomenon of UPE from biological systems can be considered experimentally well established, no reliable evidence for the coherence or nonclassicality of UPE has actually been achieved up to now. Furthermore, we propose perspective avenues for the research of statistical properties of biological UPE. - Highlights: • We review statistical properties of biological ultra-weak photon emission. • Claims of coherence and squeezed states are assessed. • Perspective work in statistical properties of biological photon emission is sketched

  4. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Wrong waste land estimates for jatropha has failed Biodiesel Mission. ► No redressal of technological problems with biodiesel usage. ► Present estimated costing of jatropha biodiesel is Rs. 46.45 per liter. ► Promotion of any biofuel needs central government assistance to the states. ► Targets under National Biofuel Policy are also unlikely to be met.

  5. A critical review of social and structural conditions that influence HIV risk among Mexican deportees

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, José Luis; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2014-01-01

    Mexican migrants who are deported from the US may be at elevated risk for HIV infection. Deportations of Mexican migrants by the US have reached record numbers. We critically reviewed existing literature to assess how social and structural conditions in post-deportation settings can influence Mexican deported migrants' HIV risk. We also identify critical research gaps and make research recommendations.

  6. Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Bruce Eric

    This document reviews research concerning the factors affecting premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. Trends in the literature prior to 1980 are discussed briefly together with summaries of literature reviews from the decades of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Studies from 1980 to the present are reviewed in some…

  7. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Smith-Osborne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.

  8. Multifunctional Materials Used in Automotive Industry: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonitis, Konstantinos; Pandremenos, John; Paralikas, John; Chryssolouris, George

    Nowadays, advanced materials and related processes in the automotive industry, are more widely used, leading to an effort towards reducing weight and fuel consumption. The use of such advanced materials and technologies tends to increase the cost. Multifunctional materials (MFMs) and related processing technologies aim at overcoming this increase of cost by exploiting the high level of functional integration. MFMs are designed so as to meet specific requirements through tailored properties. The use of such materials, in the automotive body construction, can help reduce produced parts, lightweight design, high level of integration of functionalities, advancements in mechanical properties of structures etc. In the current study, there is a clear definition of MFMs, and a critical view of such materials used both in the automotive body construction and in other industrial applications.

  9. A critical review of lexical analysis and Big Five model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Richaud de Minzi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the idea has resurfaced that traits can be measured in a reliable and valid and this can be useful inthe prediction of human behavior. The five-factor model appears to represent a conceptual and empirical advances in the field of personality theory. Necessary orthogonal factors (Goldberg, 1992, p. 26 to show the relationships between the descriptors of the features in English is five, and its nature can be summarized through the broad concepts of Surgency, Agreeableness, Responsibility, Emotional Stability versus neuroticism and openness to experience (John, 1990, p96 Furthermore, despite the criticisms that have been given to the model, represents a breakthrough in the field of personality assessment. This approach means a contribution to the study of personality, without being the integrative model of personality.

  10. Hypnosis for Acute Procedural Pain: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Cassie; Sliwinski, Jim; Yu, Yimin; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William; Kekecs, Zoltán; Elkins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of acute procedural pain was critically evaluated based on reports from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Results from the 29 RCTs meeting inclusion criteria suggest that hypnosis decreases pain compared to standard care and attention control groups and that it is at least as effective as comparable adjunct psychological or behavioral therapies. In addition, applying hypnosis in multiple sessions prior to the day of the procedure produced the highest percentage of significant results. Hypnosis was most effective in minor surgical procedures. However, interpretations are limited by considerable risk of bias. Further studies using minimally effective control conditions and systematic control of intervention dose and timing are required to strengthen conclusions. PMID:26599994

  11. A critical review of propulsion concepts for modern airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Galina; Páscoa, José; Dumas, Antonio; Trancossi, Michele

    2012-06-01

    After a few decades in which airships have been depromoted to the level of being only considered as a mere curiosity they seem now to reappear. The main reasons for this are related to the recent progress in technology of materials, aerodynamics, energy and propulsion. Airships are also presenting themselves as green friendly air vehicles, in particular if solar powered airships are considered. Their ability to remain aloft for long time periods have also expanded the range of mission profiles for which they are suited. Herein we have concentrated on a critical overview of propulsion mechanisms for airships. These include a detailed overview of past, present, and future enabling technologies for airship propulsion. Diverse concepts are revisited and the link between the airship geometry and flight mechanics is made for diverse propulsion system mechanisms.

  12. Research in Review: Driving Critical Care Practice Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Elizabeth; McNeill, Margaret; Munro, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    During the past year, studies were published that will lead to practice change, address challenges at the bedside, and introduce new care strategies. This article summarizes some of this important work and considers it in the context of previous research and practice. Examples of research-based practice changes include the performance and assessment of septic shock resuscitation, and the integration of tourniquets and massive transfusions in civilian trauma. Care challenges addressed include ethical considerations in light of the Ebola epidemic, infection prevention associated with chlorhexidine bathing, bedside alarm management, evidence to enhance moral courage, and interventions to mitigate thirst in critically ill patients. Research that portends future care includes a discussion of fecal microbiota transplant for patients with refractory infection with refractory infection with Clostridium difficile. PMID:26724298

  13. Defining Small and Medium Enterprises: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentrit Berisha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The OECD estimates that small and medium enterprises account for 90% of firms and employ 63% of the workforce in the world (Munro: 2013. Small and medium enterprises account for that amount of businesses thatit is senseless the arbitrariness with which they are defined. Language mainly used for definition is numbers, but it is difficult to find two institutions, statistical agencies or countries who speak the same language in terms of small and medium enterprises. Academics, authors, policy makers apply SMEdefinitions in terms of dichotomy between universality and standardization of a unique definition and relativity and sectored specialization. Although qualitative criteria-characteristics of SMEs easily distinguish them from large businesses, quantitative criteria are mainlyused for their dimensional classification. This paper deals with a critical approachto the definition of small and medium enterprises, inconsistencies in criteria and various proposed approaches to the definition towards universal acceptance.

  14. Critical Review of Dual Diagnosis Training for Mental Health Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pernille Pinderup; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-01-01

    patient level showed mixed results. Training mental health professionals in dual diagnosis treatment may have a positive effect on professional competencies and clinical practice. Any conclusion regarding the overall training effect is premature due to limitations in study designs. Future studies on the......To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training...... effects of dual diagnosis training programs for mental health professionals should involve control groups, validated measures, follow-ups, and patient outcomes....

  15. Floristic inventory and diversity assessment - a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jayakumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Floristic inventory and diversity assessments are necessary to understand the present diversity status and conservation of forest biodiversity. Although, inventory and diversity studies are taken up at different levels all over the world by various research groups with available resources and to fill the gap in the biodiversity knowledge, there are variations in sampling methods/techniques, sample size, measurements taken in the field that hinder the compilation and comparison of results. This review discusses the problems and pitfalls in different sampling techniques, which are being followed in floristic inventory and diversity measurements.

  16. Tunneling times in semiconductor heterostructures: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Section 2 we introduce the standard results for the tunneling time. In particular, we shall define phase time, dwell time, Buettiker-Landauer time, Larmor time, and complex interaction times. We do not repeat the detailed derivations, which are adequately given in the original papers, but rather outline the physical assumptions that lie behind them. In Section 3 we compare the above mentioned times, contrasting their relative merits and restrictions, and also mention some of their generalizations. In the final section we review recent proposals for measuring the tunneling time, and discuss the obtained results. (orig./WL)

  17. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries. PMID:24915400

  18. Reviewing METI: A Critical Analysis of the Arguments

    CERN Document Server

    Gertz, John

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate pertaining to the question of whether Earth should initiate intentional and powerful radio transmissions to putative extra-terrestrial (ET) civilizations in the hope of attracting ET's attention. This practice is known as METI (Messaging to ET Intelligence) or Active SETI. The debate has recently taken on a sense of urgency, as additional proponents have announced their intention to commence de novo transmissions as soon as they become funded and acquire the needed time on a powerful transmitter such as Arecibo. Arguments in favor of METI are reviewed. It is concluded that METI is unwise, unscientific, potentially catastrophic, and unethical.

  19. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  20. Use of recycled plastics in concrete: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay

    2016-05-01

    Plastics have become an essential part of our modern lifestyle, and the global plastic production has increased immensely during the past 50years. This has contributed greatly to the production of plastic-related waste. Reuse of waste and recycled plastic materials in concrete mix as an environmental friendly construction material has drawn attention of researchers in recent times, and a large number of studies reporting the behavior of concrete containing waste and recycled plastic materials have been published. This paper summarizes the current published literature until 2015, discussing the material properties and recycling methods of plastic and the influence of plastic materials on the properties of concrete. To provide a comprehensive review, a total of 84 studies were considered, and they were classified into sub categories based on whether they dealt with concrete containing plastic aggregates or plastic fibers. Furthermore, the morphology of concrete containing plastic materials is described in this paper to explain the influence of plastic aggregates and plastic fibers on the properties of concrete. The properties of concretes containing virgin plastic materials were also reviewed to establish their similarities and differences with concrete containing recycled plastics. PMID:26970843

  1. Noninvasive Brain Physiology Monitoring for Extreme Environments: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiles, Laura A; Donoviel, Dorit B; Bershad, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Our ability to monitor the brain physiology is advancing; however, most of the technology is bulky, expensive, and designed for traditional clinical settings. With long-duration space exploration, there is a need for developing medical technologies that are reliable, low energy, portable, and semiautonomous. Our aim was to review the state of the art for noninvasive technologies capable of monitoring brain physiology in diverse settings. A literature review of PubMed and the Texas Medical Center library sites was performed using prespecified search criteria to identify portable technologies for monitoring physiological aspects of the brain physiology. Most brain-monitoring technologies require a moderate to high degree of operator skill. Some are low energy, but many require a constant external power supply. Most of the technologies lack the accuracy seen in gold standard measures, due to the need for calibration, but may be useful for screening or monitoring relative changes in a parameter. Most of the technologies use ultrasound or electromagnetic radiation as energy sources. There is an important need for further development of portable technologies that can be operated in a variety of extreme environments to monitor brain health. PMID:25811362

  2. Bioethical considerations about water fluoridation: a critical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Quinteros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the oral pathologies with greater burden of disease in the Chilean population. Fluoridation of drinking water has been used as a caries prevention strategy. However, its application as a public policy has been questioned since its implementation. The aim of this article is to analyze whether fluoridation of drinking water is a justified measure in reducing the incidence and prevalence of caries from the perspective of bioethics, taking into account the current evidence on its effectiveness. The arguments reviewed are based on the belief that water fluoridation is effective and, in general terms, ethically acceptable. A recent systematic review concludes that there is not enough evidence to support fluoridation as a public policy. There is a gap of knowledge that ought to be closed so that public health authorities can assess the significance of the intervention and make a democratic decision on its continuation or suspension based on scientific evidence. This decision should be informed and disseminated within the community.

  3. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. PMID:25770440

  4. School Uniforms: A Critical Review of the Literature. From Inquiry to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    The debate surrounding the effectiveness of school-uniform policies, as well as discussions concerning when and how to implement them, is rooted in anecdote. This review summarizes anecdotal literature on which the current debate is based and critically reviews the empirical literature, including theoretical underpinnings, findings, and…

  5. Interdisciplinary Care Planning and the Written Care Plan in Nursing Homes: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a critical review of the history, research evidence, and state-of-the-art technology in interdisciplinary care planning and the written plan of care in American nursing homes. Design and Methods: We reviewed educational and empirical literature. Results: Interdisciplinary care planning and the written care plan are…

  6. A Study of Critical Attitude across English and Spanish Academic Book Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana I.; Suarez, Lorena

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s cross-cultural studies of academic genres are becoming increasingly relevant. One genre that has recently attracted cross-cultural attention is the academic book review. The aim of the present paper is to provide insight into what is expected in terms of overall critical attitude towards the books under review when writing in this…

  7. Peer-to-Peer Teaching in Higher Education: A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigmar, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of my critical literature review is to identify studies where students are engaged as partners in teaching in higher education and to analyze how tutors and tutees benefit from peer teaching. Thirty studies were included for review. Thirteen countries are represented and two thirds of the studies conducted in the United States of America…

  8. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  9. Academic book reviews in English and Spanish: critical comments and rhetorical structure

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Ana I; Suárez, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    Moreno, A.I. & Suárez, L. (forthcoming). Academic book reviews in English and Spanish: critical comments and rhetorical structure, in Hyland, K. and G. Diani (eds). Academic Evaluation: Review Genres in University Settings. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave-Macmillan.-- Expected publication date: 2009-08-28.

  10. Tablet Use in Schools: A Critical Review of the Evidence for Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haßler, B.; Major, L.; Hennessy, S.

    2016-01-01

    The increased popularity of tablets in general has led to uptake in education. We critically review the literature reporting use of tablets by primary and secondary school children across the curriculum, with a particular emphasis on learning outcomes. The systematic review methodology was used, and our literature search resulted in 33 relevant…

  11. Equity impact of interventions to promote physical activity in older adults: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lehne, Gesa; Bolte, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background Public health strategies to promote physical activity among older adults are increasingly being implemented. However, it is not known whether these interventions are equally effective among all social groups of the older adult population. The objectives of the proposed systematic review are to (1) describe the extent to which effects on social inequalities are considered in studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among older adults, (2) de...

  12. (Cost)effectiveness of life review for Older Adults: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Onrust Simone; Melenhorst Anne-Sophie; Pot Anne; Bohlmeijer Ernst T

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression in older adults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for older adults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. Methods/design This manuscript describes the design of a study evaluating 'Looking for Meaning', a newly developed prevention course for older adults with depressive symptoms, based on life-review. Both clinical and economic effectiveness are evaluat...

  13. The association between child abuse and adult obesity : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Dan; 佟丹

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adult obesity is a major public health issue for both developed and developing countries. Apart from diet and physical activity, evidence suggests that child abuse may also be a possible risk factor associated with the adult obesity. Methods: The objectives in this review are to systematically identify from 2 electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) and investigate the association between child abuse and adult obesity. The impact of using different self-reported questi...

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenin, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder which is characterized by recurrent upper closure with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. OSA increases the risk of vascular disorders in the form of stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and hypertension. The mechanisms underlying the vascular disorders are several and include intermittent hypoxia with release of cytokines, angiogenic inhibitors, free radicals, and adhesion molecules. During apneas, arterial blood pressure gradually rises and surges abruptly after the termination of apnea. Two thirds of patients with OSA will ultimately have diurnal hypertension. This review discusses the literature supporting the significant role of OSA in hypertension and the effect of OSA treatment on blood pressure. PMID:25139780

  15. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. PMID:26776150

  16. China's Total Emission Control Policy: a Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Chazhong; Chen Ji; Wang Jinnan; Long Feng

    2009-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive environmental management system, many countries establish emission control targets for mass emissions of a pollutant.Such targets are often the key objective of an environmental policy, such as an emission trading program.In China, however, it is more than just an objective of one particular policy; it has become a concept that has influenced many national environmental policies and activities.The objective of this article is to review the implementation of the total emission control policy in the past 10 years and explore emerging issues in its implementa-tion.The article has three sections: a summary of the implementa-tion experience, issues with the design and implementation of the policy, and policy recommendations.

  17. A critical review of physiological bubble formation in hyperbaric decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Eckersley, Robert J; Balestra, Costantino; Karapantsios, Thodoris D; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2013-05-01

    Bubbles are known to form in the body after scuba dives, even those done well within the decompression model limits. These can sometimes trigger decompression sickness and the dive protocols should therefore aim to limit bubble formation and growth from hyperbaric decompression. Understanding these processes physiologically has been a challenge for decades and there are a number of questions still unanswered. The physics and historical background of this field of study is presented and the latest studies and current developments reviewed. Heterogeneous nucleation is shown to remain the prime candidate for bubble formation in this context. The two main theories to account for micronuclei stability are then to consider hydrophobicity of surfaces or tissue elasticity, both of which could also explain some physiological observations. Finally the modeling relevance of the bubble formation process is discussed, together with that of bubble growth as well as multiple bubble behavior. PMID:23523006

  18. [Schema therapy for personality disorders. A critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, E; Zarbock, G

    2015-01-01

    In the 10 years since schema therapy was first recognized in Germany it has become widespread among practitioners and has taken a place among the so-called third wave therapies. The overall goal of schema therapy is conceptualizing and treating personality disorders or traits reinforcing axis I disorders. Early maladaptive schemas result from a child's unmet emotional core needs. In a limited reparenting therapy relationship these interpersonal situations are re-experienced and rescripted under the therapist's control. Schema therapy integrates elements of existing models and techniques into a consistent case conceptualization as the bedrock for understanding and changing maladaptive coping behavior. This review article gives a comprehensive overview about the model, the therapy relationship and the application of the experiential techniques in relation to already developed approaches (including the current evidence). The strengths and weaknesses are briefly discussed. PMID:24676551

  19. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging for Brainnetome: A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nianming Zuo; Jian Cheng; Tianzi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that the human brain is a highly self-organized system that shows attributes of smallworldness,hierarchy and modularity.The "connectome" was conceived several years ago to identify the underpinning physical connectivities of brain networks.The need for an integration of multi-spatial and -temporal approaches is becoming apparent.Therefore,the "Brainnetome" (brain-net-ome) project was proposed.Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)is a non-invasive way to study the anatomy of brain networks.Here,we review the principles of dMRI,its methodologies,and some of its clinical applications for the Brainnetome.Future research in this field is discussed.

  20. Therapeutic trials in digital osteoarthritis. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trêves, R; Maheu, E; Dreiser, R L

    1995-06-01

    Although common, hand osteoarthritis is controversial and rarely used as a model for clinical trials in osteoarthritis. We found only 13 therapeutic trials conducted in digital or trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis between 1983 and 1994. Eleven of these trials were published. Seven were on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs given either per os (two trials, meclofenamate and ibuprofen) or percutaneously (one trial each on etofenamate, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen gel, and two trials on niflumic acid gel), three were on symptomatic slow-acting drugs (glycosaminoglycanes in two trials and chondroitin sulfate in one), and three were on miscellaneous agents (the muscle relaxant idrocilamide, as a gel; the antisubstance P agent capsaicin, also as a gel; and a spa treatment). We have reviewed the methodology and findings of these trials with the goal of determining the optimal approach to realize better standardized trials in the next future for identifying symptomatic slow-acting drugs and/or "chondroprotective" agents with beneficial effects in digital osteoarthritis. PMID:7583181

  1. NSSS aging review: critical systems operating measures and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How long the nuclear plants can get. In this question we can find three main aspects: Economic - Licensing - and Technical ones. The final answer to this question will include compulsory elements coming from these three areas, each of them being a deciding factor. The presentation is focused on the technical aspect; but before a few comments are done on economic and licensing factors. Then, some particular technical items dealing with aging or life time of our nuclear plants are reviewed: electrical equipment, heat exchangers (steam generators), wear: primary pump, embrittlement: Reactor Pressure Vessel (Austeno-ferritic parts), fatigue (Thermo-hydraulic transients). By the way, some information about how this problem is handled, at the present time, explicitely or implicitely in France are given

  2. Assessing proprioception:A critical review of methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Han; Gordon Waddington; Roger Adams; Judith Anson; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    To control movement, the brain has to integrate proprioceptive information from a variety of mechanoreceptors. The role of proprioception in daily activities, exercise,and sports has been extensively investigated, using different techniques, yet the proprioceptive mechanisms underlying human movement control are still unclear. In the current work we have reviewed understanding of proprioception and the three testing methods: threshold to detection of passive motion, joint position reproduction, and active movement extent discrimination, all of which have been used for assessing proprioception. The origin of the methods, the different testing apparatus, and the procedures and protocols used in each approach are compared and discussed. Recommendations are made for choosing an appropriate technique when assessing proprioceptive mechanisms in different contexts.

  3. A Critical Review on Superchilling Preservation Technology in Aquatic Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chun-hua; YUan Chun-hong; YE Xing-qian; HU Ya-qin; CHEn Shi-guo; and LiU Dong-hong

    2014-01-01

    aquatic product, known as one of the good resources for white meat, has been widely accepted by the consumers due to its high protein, low fat, especially low cholesterol. With the fast development of living standards around the world, the consumer demands for high quality, nutrition, safety and freshness of ifshery food are increasing. Thus, high efifcient preservation technologies for aquatic products become particularly important. Superchilling is one of the controlled-temperature preservation technologies for seafood. Aquatic products can be kept in better quality under superchilling conditions. This review introduced the principle and development of superchilling process, mainly focusing on research progresses and technical dififculties of superchilling. The growth mechanism of ice crystals and the feasibility of application of computational lfuid dynamics in analyzing the temperatures variation and ice crystals during superchilling progress were also discussed, which will provide theoretical foundation for its improvement and application.

  4. Deep Response in Multiple Myeloma: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Fulciniti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel and more effective treatment strategies against multiple myeloma (MM have significantly prolonged patients’ survival and raised interest in the depth of response and its association with clinical outcome. Minimal residual disease (MRD has emerged as one of the most relevant prognostic factors in MM and should be included in a new definition of complete response (CR. Although further standardization is still required, MRD monitoring should be applied in prospective clinical trials as a sensitive tool to compare and evaluate the efficacy of different treatment strategies, particularly in the consolidation and maintenance settings, and implement individualized therapy-monitoring approaches. Here, we review current definition of deep response in MM, advantages and limitations of current MRD assessment assays, clinical evidences for MRD monitoring as a prognostic tool for therapeutic decisions in MM, and challenges to develop uniform criteria for MRD monitoring.

  5. Mechanochemical destruction of halogenated organic pollutants: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnetta, Giovanni; Robertson, John; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Kunlun; Yu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Many tons of intentionally produced obsolete halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), are stored worldwide in stockpiles, often in an unsafe manner. These are a serious threat to the environment and to human health due to their ability to migrate and accumulate in the biosphere. New technologies, alternatives to combustion, are required to destroy these substances, hopefully to their complete mineralization. In the last 20 years mechanochemical destruction has shown potential to achieve pollutant degradation, both of the pure substances and in contaminated soils. This capability has been tested for many halogenated pollutants, with various reagents, and under different milling conditions. In the present paper, a review of the published work in this field is followed by a critique of the state of the art of POPs mechanochemical destruction and its applicability to full-scale halogenated waste treatment. PMID:27054668

  6. Sleep and perinatal mood disorders: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lori E.; Murray, Brian J.; Steiner, Meir

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are recognized as times of vulnerability to mood disorders, including postpartum depression and psychosis. Recently, changes in sleep physiology and sleep deprivation have been proposed as having roles in perinatal psychiatric disorders. In this article we review what is known about changes in sleep physiology and behaviour during the perinatal period, with a focus on the relations between sleep and postpartum “blues,” depression and psychosis and on sleep-based interventions for the treatment and prevention of perinatal mood disorders. The interaction between sleep and perinatal mood disorders is significant, but evidence-based research in this field is limited. Studies that measure both sleep and mood during the perinatal period, particularly those that employ objective measurement tools such as polysomnography and actigraphy, will provide important information about the causes, prevention and treatment of perinatal mood disorders. PMID:16049568

  7. Management of polycythaemia vera: a critical review of current data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Mary F; Wilkins, Bridget S; Harrison, Claire N

    2016-02-01

    Polycythaemia vera (PV) is a chronic blood cancer; its clinical features are dominated by myeloproliferation (erythrocytosis, often leucocytosis and/or thrombocytosis) and a tendency for thrombosis and transformation to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukaemia. In the past 10 years the pathophysiology of this condition has been defined as JAK/STAT pathway activation, almost always due to mutations in JAK2 exons 12 or 14 (JAK2 V617F). In the same time period our understanding of the optimal management of PV has expanded, most recently culminating in the approval of JAK inhibitors for the treatment of PV patients who are resistant or intolerant to therapy with hydroxycarbamide. It has also been demonstrated that life expectancy for many patients with PV is not normal, nor is their quality of life. We critically explore these findings and discuss their impact. In addition, we highlight persisting gaps in our current management strategy; for example, what is the optimal first line cytoreductive therapy and, indeed, which patients need cytoreductive drugs. PMID:26492433

  8. The estressors in patients critical: literature review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Vasconcelos, Elaine Antunes Cortez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the generating factors of stress in the critical customers of the Unit of Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU that they are not sedated or in coma. Methods: descriptive, exploratory research and qualitative, carried through by means of a survey of the scientific production in periodic in the databases of the Lilacs, Medline and Scielo of last the ten years, where 10 publications had been selected. Results: with the technological development, as for example, mechanical devices of invasive monitorização, and fans, the ITU if had become highly modern, becoming the more frightening intensive cares for the customers. Conclusion: the factors, such as, to have pain, sleeplessness, absence of the familiar ones, to be tubed, the racket of the machineries, the difficulty of a communication and the dehumanization are the generating factors of stress. It is distinguished that it has controlled stress of it will allow to improve the physical and psychic condition, to promote an environment more humanized, and to assist in the planning of the nursing assistance more.

  9. The Critically Ill Kidney Transplant Recipient: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, Emmanuel; Zafrani, Lara; Azoulay, Élie

    2016-06-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most common solid organ transplantation performed worldwide. Up to 6% of kidney transplant recipients experience a life-threatening complication that requires ICU admission, chiefly in the late posttransplantation period (≥ 6 months). Acute respiratory failure and septic shock are the main reasons for ICU admission. Cardiac pulmonary edema, bacterial pneumonia, acute graft pyelonephritis, and bloodstream infections account for the vast majority of diagnoses in the ICU. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is the most common opportunistic infection, and one-half of the patients so infected require mechanical ventilation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus visceral infections in the era of preemptive therapy has dramatically decreased. Drug-related neutropenia, sirolimus-related pneumonitis, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome are among the most common immunosuppression-associated toxic effects. Importantly, the impact of critical illness on graft function is worrisome. Throughout the ICU stay, acute kidney injury is common, and about 40% of the recipients require renal replacement therapy. One-half of the patients are discharged alive and free from dialysis. Hospital mortality can reach 30% and correlates with acute illness severity and reason for ICU admission. Transplant characteristics are not predictors of short-term survival. Graft survival depends on pre-ICU graft function, disease severity, and renal toxicity of ICU investigations and treatments. PMID:26836919

  10. Treatment Options for GERD or Acid Reflux Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment Options for GERD or Acid Reflux Disease A Review of the Research for Adults Is This Information Right for Me? Yes, if: A doctor said that you have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a chronic disease that causes ongoing ...

  11. Adult Education Literacy Instruction. Appendix: Tables of Studies Included in the Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Included here are two appendixes to "Adult Education Literacy Instruction: A Review of the Research." Appendix A, "Adult Studies," contains: (1) Assessment Profiles; (2) Alphabetics; (3) Fluency; (4) Vocabulary; and (5) Comprehension. Appendix B, "Adolescent Studies," contains: (1) Alphabetics; (2) Fluency; (3) Vocabulary; and (4) Comprehension.…

  12. Systematic review: The relation between nutrition and nosocomial pneumonia: randomized trials in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Deborah; de Jonghe, Bernard; Heyland, Daren

    1997-01-01

    Objective To review the effect of enteral nutrition on nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients as summarized in randomized clinical trials. Study identification and selection Studies were identified through MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, bibliographies of primary and review articles, and personal files. Through duplicate independent review, we selected randomized trials evaluating approaches to nutrition and their relation to nosocomial pneumonia. Data abstraction I...

  13. The meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia: a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard;

    inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Qualitative data were extracted from the five papers and the findings were synthesized using JBI...... support groups provide a source for obtaining positive emotional support, venting negative feeling and gaining help to deal with the everyday life of caring for older adults with dementia. Dementia coordinators and primary health care nurses should play an active role as facilitators at the group meetings...

  14. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Kim E.; Terry Kit Selfe

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, in...

  15. The Process and Outcome of Life Review Psychotherapy With Depressed Homebound Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, Graham J.; Blixen, Carol E.; SUEN, LEE-JEN

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the process and outcomes of life review therapy provided by an advanced practice geropsychiatric nurse to older adults discharged from psychiatric hospitals to home health care. Eighty older adults over 65 years of age with a primary diagnosis of depression were treated at home for life review psychotherapy sessions (M = 13.24, SD = 8.65). Content analysis methods, both latent and manifest, were used to analyze the data and identify themes. Themes were...

  16. Metabolic syndrome and its associated risk factors in Iranian adults: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex clustering cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dylipedemia. It has been a growing health problem in Iranian adults in recent decade. The objective of this article was to review the prevalence of MetS and the corresponding risk factors among Iranian adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to extract the published articles regarding metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among Iranian adu...

  17. Judicial Performance Review in Arizona: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca White Berch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluations are a relatively new tool for assessing judges and providing information to voters to help them determine whether to retain judges in contested or retention elections. Arizona implemented its judicial evaluation program about 20 years ago, and since that time, the state has continually strived to improve its process. The result is that today Arizona has one of the most progressive and comprehensive judicial performance evaluation programs in the United States. This article takes a critical look at the strengths and weaknesses of Arizona’s program, keeping in mind two key values that the system seeks to protect: judicial accountability and judicial independence. Las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial son una herramienta relativamente nueva para evaluar a los jueces y ofrecer información a los votantes, que les ayude a decidir si quieren reelegir a los jueces en las elecciones. Arizona implementó su programa de evaluación judicial hace unos 20 años, y desde ese momento, el Estado se ha esforzado continuamente en mejorar el proceso. El resultado es que hoy en día, Arizona tiene uno de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial más progresistas e integrales de los Estados Unidos. Este artículo ofrece una mirada crítica a las fortalezas y debilidades del programa de Arizona, teniendo en cuenta dos valores clave que el sistema trata de proteger: la responsabilidad judicial y la independencia judicial. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533868

  18. A critical literature review of focused electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, W. F.; Hagen, C. W.

    2008-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the results from literature on electron beam induced deposition. Electron beam induced deposition is a complex process, where many and often mutually dependent factors are involved. The process has been studied by many over many years in many different experimental setups, so it is not surprising that there is a great variety of experimental results. To come to a better understanding of the process, it is important to see to which extent the experimental results are consistent with each other and with the existing model. All results from literature were categorized by sorting the data according to the specific parameter that was varied (current density, acceleration voltage, scan patterns, etc.). Each of these parameters can have an effect on the final deposit properties, such as the physical dimensions, the composition, the morphology, or the conductivity. For each parameter-property combination, the available data are discussed and (as far as possible) interpreted. By combining models for electron scattering in a solid, two different growth regimes, and electron beam induced heating, the majority of the experimental results were explained qualitatively. This indicates that the physical processes are well understood, although quantitatively speaking the models can still be improved. The review makes clear that several major issues remain. One issue encountered when interpreting results from literature is the lack of data. Often, important parameters (such as the local precursor pressure) are not reported, which can complicate interpretation of the results. Another issue is the fact that the cross section for electron induced dissociation is unknown. In a number of cases, a correlation between the vertical growth rate and the secondary electron yield was found, which suggests that the secondary electrons dominate the dissociation rather than the primary electrons. Conclusive evidence for this hypothesis has not been found. Finally

  19. Systematic Review of the Impact of Transition Interventions for Adolescents With Chronic Illness on Transfer From Pediatric to Adult Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Patricia Y; Maslow, Gary R; von Isenburg, Megan; Chung, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Transfer from pediatric to adult care is a critical component of a high-quality transition experience for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with chronic illness. To examine the current evidence regarding the effect of transition interventions on care transfer, we performed a systematic review of studies that evaluated the effect of transition interventions on the specific health services outcome of transfer. The Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies that evaluated 1) a discrete transition intervention for AYA, 2) included a comparison group, and 3) reported on the outcome of transfer from pediatric to adult healthcare. References were screened and reviewed separately by authors, and relevant study details were abstracted during the review process. Five studies from five different countries were included in the final analysis. All five studies were conducted in specialty care clinics, with three interventions involving a nurse practitioner or systems navigator and two interventions involving physicians. Four studies were retrospective observational studies, and one was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Three of the five studies found that the transition intervention was associated with increased rates of transfer while the other two showed no statistically significant effects. Overall, evaluation of transfer appears to be hindered by methodological challenges. Establishing clearer definitions and metrics of transfer and creating the infrastructure needed to monitor the transfer of patients more consistently are important goals. PMID:26209872

  20. A Critical Review of Chinese Ethnic Law Studies in 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunwu; Wang Jie; Liao Yanping

    2015-01-01

    I. Basic Theory of Ethnic Law Studies As a mature discipline,research on the basic theory of ethnic law studies is no longer the focus of research. Nonetheless,this does not deny that it is a research of reflection and transcendence. In 2014,there were also important achievements with regard to this aspect. Concerning theory within the discipline of ethnic law studies,Wu Zongjin made a review on the development process of this disci ̄pline,and stated that the in-depth implementation of ethnic regional autonomy, the design of ethnic law institutions,the guarantee of ethnic rights legis ̄lation,and legal administration on ethnic work,etc. are still the responsibility of this discipline. Con ̄cerning the theory of the rule of law in ethnic are ̄as,it seems that a breakthrough was difficult. In 2014,Li Chao and Wang Huaju proposed a thor ̄ough evaluation of the rule of law in ethnic areas, but stated that this evaluation is facing problems due to the lack of local knowledge and lack of an efficient evaluation methodology and scientific su ̄pervision system. Hence,a concept for a scientific evaluation should be constructed, and local ethnic law resources should be found,and members of the various ethnic groups should participate.

  1. Existing approaches to tight rock laboratory petrophysics: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the existing methods for tight rock porosity, saturation, and permeability determination was performed taking into account that these methods should be applicable for Bazhenov formation evaluation. The following methods were considered: Archimedes mercury immersion; mercury displacement; caliper; helium pycnometry on crushed samples; nuclear magnetic resonance; modified retort method; modified Dean-Stark extraction; pulse decay method; and pressure decay test on crushed samples. The applicability of the pressure decay test on a crushed sample for Bazhenov formation evaluation is checked experimentally with the SMP-200 commercial permeameter. All the above listed methods were combined into five protocols for tight rock petrophysical evaluation. These protocols were analyzed and compared according to the following criteria: accuracy of the results; usage experience; time of measurements; easiness of interpretation; reliability and safety; price. The obtained results revealed that the most effective protocol is the one that includes pressure pulse on a core plug for permeability determination, He pycnometry and modified retort analysis on crushed samples for porosity and saturation determination. As there were cases when the proposed protocol was less effective vs. other protocols, a special scheme was suggested in order to choose the most effective protocol for tight rock petrophysical properties evaluation in definite conditions

  2. Immunopathogenic mechanisms in tourette syndrome: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Davide; Dale, Russell C; Gilbert, Donald L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Leckman, James F

    2009-07-15

    Tourette syndrome (TS) has a multifactorial etiology, in which genetic, environmental, immunological and hormonal factors interact to establish vulnerability. This review: (i) summarizes research exploring the exposure of TS patients to immune-activating environmental factors, and (ii) focuses on recent findings supporting a role of the innate and adaptive immune systems in the pathogenesis of TS and related disorders. A higher exposure prior to disease onset to group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections in children with tics and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms has been documented, although their influence upon the course of disease remains uncertain. Increased activation of immune responses in TS is suggested by changes in gene expression profiles of peripheral immune cells, relative frequency of lymphocyte subpopulations, and synthesis of immune effector molecules. Increased activity of cell-mediated mechanisms is suggested by the increased expression of genes controlling natural killer and cytotoxic T cells, increased plasma levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines which correlate with disease severity, and increased synthesis of antineuronal antibodies. Important methodological differences might account for some inconsistency among results of studies addressing autoantibodies in TS. Finally, a general predisposition to autoimmune responses in TS patients is indicated by the reduced frequency of regulatory T cells, which induce tolerance towards self-antigens. Although the pathogenic role of immune activation in TS has not been definitively proven, a pathophysiological model is proposed to explain the possible effect of immunity upon dopamine transmission regulation and the generation of tics. PMID:19353683

  3. Wearable Electronics and Smart Textiles: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Stoppa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Textiles (e-textiles are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible of becoming tangled or snagged by surrounding objects. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to fast changes in the computational and sensing requirements of any specific application, this one representing a useful feature for power management and context awareness. The vision behind wearable computing foresees future electronic systems to be an integral part of our everyday outfits. Such electronic devices have to meet special requirements concerning wearability. Wearable systems will be characterized by their ability to automatically recognize the activity and the behavioral status of their own user as well as of the situation around her/him, and to use this information to adjust the systems’ configuration and functionality. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of Smart Textiles and pays particular attention to the materials and their manufacturing process. Each technique shows advantages and disadvantages and our aim is to highlight a possible trade-off between flexibility, ergonomics, low power consumption, integration and eventually autonomy.

  4. Decolorization of mixture of dyes: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water plays a vital and essential role in our ecosystem. This natural resource is becoming scarce, making its availability a major social and economic concern. Use of a large variety of synthetic dyes in textile industries has raised an hazardous environmental alert. About 17 - 20% of freshwater pollution is caused by textile effluents. These effluents are recalcitrant to biodegradation and cause acute toxicity to the receiving water bodies, as these comprised of various types of toxic dyes, which are difficult to remove. Decolorisation of textile wastewater is therefore important before releasing it into the nearby local waterways. It therefore becomes essential to degrade the toxic chemicals of textile wastewater, so as to avoid the hazardous environmental effects. Several treatment methods have been employed to embark upon the problem of dye removal but degradation becomes further more difficult for effluents containing dye matrix.  The review study has been an attempt to present the different diversified attempts used for decolorisation of a mixture of dyes.

  5. Embryo Donation in Iranian Legal System: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati-Ardakani, Zohreh; Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi; Milanifar, Alireza; Masrouri, Roudabeh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments and newly-discovered methods for infertility treatment including in vitro fertilization and third party reproduction raise many questions and challenges with different ethical, legal, sociological and psychological dimensions. In Islamic countries, despite great developments in using this technology, the questions concerned with recognition of IVF methods and third party reproduction and legalization of this method are still the challenging ones. The approach of a few Shiite clerics to this issue has facilitated the legalisation of infertility treatment in Iran. The Iranian Parliament, with reference to Shiite clerics' opinions (Fatwa), enacted the Act concerning Embryo Donation to Infertile Couples and its bylaw which can be considered as a successful example of legalization of third party reproduction in an Islamic country. The aforementioned Act permits embryo donation through artificial insemination from legally married couples to infertile couples. However, many of the legal aspects of this event are not specified in this Act and in many cases it added several uncertainties. This uncertainty, especially regarding the rights and duties of recipients and the child, causes important problems which generate more concerns. This article aimed to review the advantages and flaws of the Act. It is believed that the enactment of the aforementioned Act is an important step but an insufficient measure in this field. Important issues have been left unanswered and unclear in this Act which should be considered by legislators in any future revision of it. PMID:26913231

  6. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna B. Lovati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution.

  7. Dietary transition difficulties in preterm infants: critical literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lucchi Pagliaro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the scientific literature on dietary changes in preterm children during the first years of life. DATA SOURCE: The PubMed database was used for article selection. The texts were analyzed according to their objectives, research design, and research group characteristics. The following were selected to comprise the criteria: (1 publications in the period from 1996 to 2014; (2 participation of infants and children from birth to 10 years of age; (3 development of oral motor skills necessary for feeding; (4 development of the feeding process; and (5 feeding difficulties during childhood. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There were 282 studies identified, of which 17 were used in the review, and five more articles were identified through the reference list of selected articles, totaling 22 references. CONCLUSION: Very low birth weight preterm newborns are more likely to have feeding problems in early postnatal stages and during childhood when compared with full-term infants. Monitoring the feeding of these infants after hospital discharge is strictly recommended in an early intervention program aiming at better development of feeding skills.

  8. Synaesthesia and learning: A critical review and novel theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Robert Watson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning and synaesthesia are profoundly interconnected. On the one hand, the development of synaesthesia is clearly influenced by learning. Synaesthetic inducers—the stimuli that evoke these unusual experiences—often involve the perception of complex properties learned in early childhood, e.g. letters, musical notes, numbers, months of the year and even swimming strokes. Further, recent research has shown that the associations individual synaesthetes make with these learned inducers are not arbitrary, but are strongly influenced by the structure of the learnt do- main. For instance, the synaesthetic colours of letters are partially determined by letter frequency and the relative positions of letters in the alphabet. On the other hand, there is also a small, but growing, body of literature which shows that synaesthesia can influence or be helpful in learning. For instance, synaesthetes appear to be able to use their unusual experiences as mnemonic de- vices and can even exploit them while learning novel abstract categories. Here we review these two directions of influence and argue that they are interconnected. We propose that synaesthesia arises, at least in part, because of the cognitive demands of learning in childhood, and that it is used to aid perception and understanding of a variety of learned categories. Our thesis is that the structural similarities between synaesthetic triggering stimuli and synaesthetic experiences are the remnants, the fossilized traces, of past learning challenges for which synasethesia was helpful.

  9. Perineal talc use and ovarian cancer: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Joshua E; Huncharek, Michael S

    2008-04-01

    Talc, like asbestos, is a silicate that has been studied in relation to cancer risk. Several studies conducted over the past 25 years found an association between perineal talc powders and ovarian cancer. The summary relative risk is about 1.3 (95% confidence intervals 1.2-1.5) and these data have been interpreted as supporting a causal role. In this review article, we discuss the chemical and morphological features of talc and asbestos, and explain why despite their similar chemical classification talc does not possess asbestos-like carcinogenic properties. The heterogeneity in the perineal dusting studies has raised important concerns over the validity of the exposure measurements, and the lack of a consistent dose-response effect limits making causal inferences. Perhaps more importantly, whereas it is unknown whether external talc dust enters the female reproductive tract, measures of internal talc exposure such as talc-dusted diaphragms and latex condoms show no relationship with ovarian cancer risk. In addition, the therapeutic use of high dose cosmetic grade talc for pleurodesis has not been shown to cause cancer in patients receiving these treatment modalities. Talc is not genotoxic. Mechanistic, pathology and animal model studies have not found evidence for a carcinogenic effect. In summary, these data collectively do not indicate that cosmetic talc causes ovarian cancer. PMID:18287871

  10. Strategic learning and information and communication technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Monerero Font

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 93 514 USAL 4 1 606 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This article presents an outline of a learning strategy redefinition, based on recent contributions from learning technologies. This new definition addresses the question of how technological affordances of the software, of the technological tools, or an educational environment, allow a learner or a group of learners develop a new ways to perform a strategic learning action. We review how different characteristics of learning strategy definition have been transformed because of introduction of ICT into education. Finally, the article points toward conceptual challenges and future research questions.

  11. Characterisation and determination of fullerenes: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astefanei, Alina; Núñez, Oscar; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2015-07-01

    A prominent sector of nanotechnology is occupied by a class of carbon-based nanoparticles known as fullerenes. Fullerene particle size and shape impact in how easily these particles are transported into and throughout the environment and living tissues. Currently, there is a lack of adequate methodology for their size and shape characterisation, identification and quantitative detection in environmental and biological samples. The most commonly used methods for their size measurements (aggregation, size distribution, shape, etc.), the effect of sampling and sample treatment on these characteristics and the analytical methods proposed for their determination in complex matrices are discussed in this review. For the characterisation and analysis of fullerenes in real samples, different analytical techniques including microscopy, spectroscopy, flow field-flow fractionation, electrophoresis, light scattering, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have been reported. The existing limitations and knowledge gaps in the use of these techniques are discussed and the necessity to hyphenate complementary ones for the accurate characterisation, identification and quantitation of these nanoparticles is highlighted. PMID:26043086

  12. A Critical Review of Forecasting Models to Predict Manpower Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting manpower requirements has been useful for economic planners, policy makers and training providers in order to avoid the imbalance of skills in the labour market. Although reviews of the manpower planning models have been conducted previously, with the accumulated experience and the booming of advanced statistical techniques and computer programs, the study of forecasting practices has undrgone considerable changes and achieved maturity during the past decade. This paper assesses the latest employment and manpower dmand estimating methods by examining their rationale, strength and constraints. It aims to identify enhancements for further development of manpower forecasting model for the construction industry and compare the reliability and capacity of different forecasting metodologies. It is cocluded that the top-down forecasting approach is the dominant methodology to forecast occupational manpower demand. It precedes other methodologies by its dynamic nature and sensitivity to aa variety of factors affecting the level and structure of employment. Given the improvement of the data available, advanced modelling techniques and computer programs, manpower planning is likely to be more accessible with improved accuracy at every level of the society.  

  13. Future Materials for Wind Turbine Blades - A Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbine industry is continuously evaluating material systems to replace the current thermoset composite technologies. Since turbine blades are the key component in the wind turbines and the size of the blade is increasing in today’s wind design, the material selection has become crucial focu...... higher performance under severe environmental conditions. The current article reviews various material alternatives and demonstrates the advantageous and disadvantageous for future wind turbine blade developments.......Wind turbine industry is continuously evaluating material systems to replace the current thermoset composite technologies. Since turbine blades are the key component in the wind turbines and the size of the blade is increasing in today’s wind design, the material selection has become crucial...... focusing several factors like less weight, less price, higher performance, longer life, ease of processing, and capability of recycling. In the present market scenario, wind industry needs to improve their business for onshore and for off-shore applications demonstrating the new blade designs and stating...

  14. Amiodarone-Associated Optic Neuropathy: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passman, Rod S.; Bennett, Charles L.; Purpura, Joseph M.; Kapur, Rashmi; Johnson, Lenworth N.; Raisch, Dennis W.; West, Dennis P.; Edwards, Beatrice J.; Belknap, Steven M.; Liebling, Dustin B.; Fisher, Mathew J.; Samaras, Athena T.; Jones, Lisa-Gaye A.; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E.; McKoy, June M.

    2011-01-01

    Although amiodarone is the most commonly prescribed antiarrhythmic drug, its use is limited by serious toxicities, including optic neuropathy. Current reports of amiodarone associated optic neuropathy identified from the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FDA-AERS) and published case reports were reviewed. A total of 296 reports were identified: 214 from AERS, 59 from published case reports, and 23 from adverse events reports for patients enrolled in clinical trials. Mean duration of amiodarone therapy before vision loss was 9 months (range 1-84 months). Insidious onset of amiodarone associated optic neuropathy (44%) was the most common presentation, and nearly one-third were asymptomatic. Optic disc edema was present in 85% of cases. Following drug cessation, 58% had improved visual acuity, 21% were unchanged, and 21% had further decreased visual acuity. Legal blindness (< 20/200) was noted in at least one eye in 20% of cases. Close ophthalmologic surveillance of patients during the tenure of amiodarone administration is warranted. PMID:22385784

  15. Executive functioning in adult ADHD: a meta-analytic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, A.M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several theoretical explanations of ADHD in children have focused on executive functioning as the main explanatory neuropsychological domain for the disorder. In order to establish if these theoretical accounts are supported by research data for adults with ADHD, we compared neuropsychological executive functioning and non-executive functioning between adults with ADHD and normal controls in a meta-analytic design. Method: We compared thirteen studies that 1) included ...

  16. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklett, Emily J; Kadell, Andria R.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specific...

  17. Abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis in adults: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal manifestations of disease are present in most adults with cystic fibrosis. Radiologists are familiar with the classical imaging characteristics of end-stage pulmonary disease and the radiological findings of meconium ileus in neonates. As most patients now live into adulthood, recognition of the imaging appearances of abdominal disease is important to enable prompt diagnosis and treatment. Accordingly, this article presents typical imaging appearances of the adult gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Event-related potential studies of post-traumatic stress disorder: a critical review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javanbakht Arash

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the sparseness of the currently available data, there is accumulating evidence of information processing impairment in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Studies of event-related potentials (ERPs are the main tool in real time examination of information processing. In this paper, we sought to critically review the ERP evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD. We also examined the evidence supporting the existence of a relationship between ERP abnormalities and symptom profiles or severity in PTSD patients. An extensive Medline search was performed. Keywords included PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder, electrophysiology or EEG, electrophysiology, P50, P100, N100, P2, P200, P3, P300, sensory gating, CNV (contingent negative variation and MMN (mismatch negativity. We limited the review to ERP adult human studies with control groups which were reported in the English language. After applying our inclusion-exclusion review criteria, 36 studies were included. Subjects exposed to wide ranges of military and civilian traumas were studied in these reports. Presented stimuli were both auditory and visual. The most widely studied components included P300, P50 gating, N100 and P200. Most of the studies reported increased P300 response to trauma-related stimuli in PTSD patients. A smaller group of studies reported dampening of responses or no change in responses to trauma-related and/or unrelated stimuli. P50 studies were strongly suggestive of impaired gating in patients with PTSD. In conclusion, the majority of reports support evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD diagnosis. The predominance of evidence suggests presence of mid-latency and late ERP components differences in PTSD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Heterogeneity of assessment methods used contributes to difficulties in reaching firm conclusions regarding the nature of these differences. We suggest

  19. The cutting of cocaine and heroin: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The illicit drug cutting represents a complex problem that requires the sharing of knowledge from addiction studies, toxicology, criminology and criminalistics. Therefore, cutting is not well known by the forensic community. Thus, this review aims at deciphering the different aspects of cutting, by gathering information mainly from criminology and criminalistics. It tackles essentially specificities of cocaine and heroin cutting. The article presents the detected cutting agents (adulterants and diluents), their evolution in time and space and the analytical methodology implemented by forensic laboratories. Furthermore, it discusses when, in the history of the illicit drug, cutting may take place. Moreover, researches studying how much cutting occurs in the country of destination are analysed. Lastly, the reasons for cutting are addressed. According to the literature, adulterants are added during production of the illicit drug or at a relatively high level of its distribution chain (e.g. before the product arrives in the country of destination or just after its importation in the latter). Their addition seems hardly justified by the only desire to increase profits or to harm consumers' health. Instead, adulteration would be performed to enhance or to mimic the illicit drug effects or to facilitate administration of the drug. Nowadays, caffeine, diltiazem, hydroxyzine, levamisole, lidocaïne and phenacetin are frequently detected in cocaine specimens, while paracetamol and caffeine are almost exclusively identified in heroin specimens. This may reveal differences in the respective structures of production and/or distribution of cocaine and heroin. As the relevant information about cutting is spread across different scientific fields, a close collaboration should be set up to collect essential and unified data to improve knowledge and provide information for monitoring, control and harm reduction purposes. More research, on several areas of investigation, should be

  20. A critical review of the German Paleolithic hominin record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Martin; Terberger, Thomas; Orschiedt, Jörg

    2006-12-01

    We review the hominin fossil record from western Central Europe in light of the recent major revisions of the geochronological context. The mandible from Mauer (Homo heidelbergensis), dated to circa 500,000 years ago, continues to represent the earliest German hominin and may coincide with the occupation of Europe north of the high alpine mountain chains. Only limited new evidence is available for the Middle Pleistocene, mostly in the form of skull fragments, a pattern that may relate to taphonomic processes. These finds and their ages suggest the gradual evolution of a suite of Neandertal features during this period. Despite new finds of classic Neandertals, there is no clear proof for Neandertal burial from Germany. Alternatively, cut marks on a skull fragment from the Neandertal type site suggest special treatment of that individual. New Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates of previous finds leave little reliably dated evidence for anatomically modern humans (AMH) in Europe before 30,000 BP; the remains from Hahnöfersand, Binshof-Speyer, Paderborn-Sande, and Vogelherd are now of Holocene age. Thus, a correlation of AMH with the Aurignacian remains to be proven, and the general idea of a long coexistence of Neandertals and AMH in Europe may be questioned. In western Central Europe, evidence of Gravettian human fossils is also very limited, although a new double grave from lower Austria may be relevant. The only dated burial from the German Upper Paleolithic (from Mittlere Klause) falls into a time period (circa 18,600 BP) represented by only a few occupation sites in western Central Europe. A number of human remains at Magdalenian sites appear to result from variable (secondary) burial practices. In contrast, the Final Paleolithic (circa 12,000-9600 cal. BC) yields an increase of hominin finds, including multiple burials (Bonn-Oberkassel, Neuwied-Irlich), similar to the situation in western and southern Europe. PMID:17014890

  1. A critical review on toxicological safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Soo-Jeong; Jin, Young-Bae; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Gang-Sung; Marchioni, Eric

    2014-10-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are known as unique radiolytic products generated from the major fatty acids and triglycerides in food through only irradiation. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively with synthetic compounds. Mutagenicity tests of 2-ACBs on the microorganisms reviewed in this study clearly indicate that no evidence was observed, while several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs through cell death. Moreover, the genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested as DNA strand breaks were observed. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because genotoxicity may result from cytotoxicity, which causes DNA damage or from cell membrane destruction and indirect oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of genotoxic effects is needed. With regards to the suggestion of Raul et al. (2002) who showed the promoting effect of colon cancer by the administration of 2-ACBs, further studies are needed to correct some experimental design errors. Moreover, an in-vivo experiment that evaluated the metabolism of 2-ACBs has revealed that 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted through fecal discharge. In conclusion, it is considered that the ingestion of 2-ACBs through irradiated foods is unlikely to affect the human health. However, more specific studies are required to identify the fate of 2-ACBs in body and the LD50 values. The determination of chronic toxicity by long-term exposure to low concentrations of 2-ACBs has to be evaluated more clearly to determine if these compounds are safe to human.

  2. A critical review on toxicological safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are known as unique radiolytic products generated from the major fatty acids and triglycerides in food through only irradiation. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively with synthetic compounds. Mutagenicity tests of 2-ACBs on the microorganisms reviewed in this study clearly indicate that no evidence was observed, while several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs through cell death. Moreover, the genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested as DNA strand breaks were observed. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because genotoxicity may result from cytotoxicity, which causes DNA damage or from cell membrane destruction and indirect oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of genotoxic effects is needed. With regards to the suggestion of Raul et al. (2002) who showed the promoting effect of colon cancer by the administration of 2-ACBs, further studies are needed to correct some experimental design errors. Moreover, an in-vivo experiment that evaluated the metabolism of 2-ACBs has revealed that 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted through fecal discharge. In conclusion, it is considered that the ingestion of 2-ACBs through irradiated foods is unlikely to affect the human health. However, more specific studies are required to identify the fate of 2-ACBs in body and the LD50 values. The determination of chronic toxicity by long-term exposure to low concentrations of 2-ACBs has to be evaluated more clearly to determine if these compounds are safe to human. - Highlights: • Mutagenicity 2-ACBs on the microorganisms was not observed. • Several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs. • Genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested, but elucidation of the mechanism is needed. • 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted in feces. • Further studies for toxicity of 2-ACBs following

  3. Landfill mining: a critical review of two decades of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas; Eklund, Mats

    2012-03-01

    Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research papers published during the period 1988-2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space and local pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources, mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementation involves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying the conditions for realization and developing standardized frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance from a systems perspective. In order to address these challenges, a combination of applied and theoretical research is required. PMID:22083108

  4. Stress ulcer prophylaxis versus placebo or no prophylaxis in critically ill patients. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the effects of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) versus placebo or no prophylaxis on all-cause mortality, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and hospital-acquired pneumonia in adult critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We performed a systematic review using...... meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing proton pump inhibitors or histamine 2 receptor antagonists with either placebo or no prophylaxis. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. The Cochrane...... finding. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review using meta-analysis and TSA demonstrated that both the quality and the quantity of evidence supporting the use of SUP in adult ICU patients is low. Consequently, large randomised clinical trials are warranted....

  5. Meat Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dave

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Extremely perishable meat provides favorable growth condition for various microorganisms. Meat is also very much susceptible to spoilage due to chemical and enzymatic activities. The breakdown of fat, protein and carbohydrates of meat results in the development of off-odors, off-flavor and slim formation which make the meat objectionable for human consumption. It is, therefore, necessary to control meat spoilage in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. Approach: A comprehensive literature review was performed on the spoliage mechanisms of meat and meat products and preservation techniques. Results: Historical data reveals that salting, drying, smoking, fermentation and canning were the traditional methods used to prevent meat spoilage and extend its shelf life. However, in order to prevent wholesomeness, appearance, composition, tenderness, flavor, juiciness and nutritive value, new methods were developed. These included: cooling, freezing and chemical preservation. Wide range of physical and chemical reactions and actions of microorganisms or enzymes are responsible for the meat spoilage. Microbial growth, oxidation and enzymatic autolysis are three basic mechanisms responsible for spoilage of meat. Microbial growth and metabolism depends on various factors including: pre-slaughter husbandry practices, age of the animal at the time of slaughtering, handling during slaughtering, evisceration and processing, temperature controls during slaughtering, processing and distribution, preservation methods, type of packaging and handling and storage by consumer. Microbial spoilage causes pH change, slime formation, structural components degradation, off odors and appearance change. Autoxidation of lipids and the production of free radicals are natural processes which affect fatty acids and lead to oxidative deterioration of meat and off-flavour development. Lipid hydrolysis can take

  6. Infertility and psychological distress: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, A L

    1997-12-01

    This essay reviews the literature on the social psychological impact of infertility, paying special attention to the relationship between gender and the infertility experience. It is convenient to divide the literature into articles which explore the possibility that infertility may have psychological causes (Psychogenic Hypothesis) and those which examine the psychological consequences of infertility (Psychological Consequences Hypothesis). The psychogenic hypothesis is now rejected by most researchers, but a related hypothesis, which states that stress may be a causal factor in infertility, is worthy of exploration. The descriptive literature on the psychological consequences of infertility presents infertility as a devastating experience, especially for women. Attempts to test the psychological consequences hypothesis have produced more equivocal results. In general, studies which look for psychopathology have not found significant differences between the infertile and others. Studies which employ measures of stress and self-esteem have found significant differences. The psychological consequences literature is characterized by a number of flaws, including over sampling of women, small sample size, non-representative samples, failure to study those who have not sought treatment, primitive statistical techniques, and an over-reliance on self-reports. Studies on infertility and psychological distress need to take into consideration both the duration of infertility and the duration of treatment. Finding an appropriate set of "controls" is a particularly intractable problem for this area of research. In general, the psychological distress literature shows little regard for the social construction of infertility. By taking what should be understood as a characteristic of a social situation and transforming it into an individual trait, the literature presents what is essentially a medical model of the psycho-social impact of infertility. Most researchers conclude that

  7. Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We analyze two decades of landfill mining research regarding trends and topics. ► So far landfill mining has mainly been used to solve waste management issues. ► A new perspective on landfills as resource reservoirs is emerging. ► The potential of resource extraction from landfills is significant. ► We outline several key challenges for realization of resource extraction from landfills. - Abstract: Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research papers published during the period 1988–2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space and local pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources, mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementation involves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying the conditions for

  8. Extraction and Purification of Collagenase Enzymes: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said M. Daboor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Enzymes have vital roles in several industrial processes (foods, cosmetics, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals due to their highly selective nature and high activity at very low concentrations. Recent efforts to identify new sources of useful enzymes have been concentrated on the marine environment because of the potential to make use of processing wastes. About 35-50% of the mass of the fish caught is a waste that is disposed off at sea or in landfills. The extraction of enzymes from fish processing waste can reduce environment problems and improve the economics of the fish industry. Collagenases are a group of enzymes that can be extracted from fish waste. Approach: Comprehensive reviews of the literature on the extraction, purification, characterization and use of collagenases was carried out. Results: Collagenases have different molecular weights based on their types and sources. They have the ability to break down the peptide bonds in collagen at physiological pH. They are classified into two types: serine and metallocollagenase. Collagenolytic activities have been shown at a wide range of temperatures (20-40°C and pH (6-8. Many activators can be used to achive collagenase activity including 4-Aminophenylmercuric Acetate (APMA, trypsin, potassium or sodium thiocyanate, iodoacetamide and potassium iodide. Dithiothreitol (DTT, mercaptoethanol, ethylendiaminetetracetic acid, o-phenanthroline and cysteine inactivate the enzyme. Collagenases enzymes can be extracted with a variety of techniques using different buffering systems (tris-HCl, sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride and cacodylate. All techniques involve the use of ammonium sulphate fractionation and centrifugation to precipitate the enzyme. Collagenases are normally purified using chromatographic techniques such as gel-filtration, ion-exchange and affinity column chromatography. Collagenase can be assayed with a number of methods, including: colorimetric absorbance

  9. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk. PMID:26689218

  10. Behavioral treatments for children and adults who stutter: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomgren M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Blomgren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent training and differ primarily in their focus on reducing demands on the child (multifactorial or in their use of response contingent stimulation (operant conditioning. Speech restructuring and anxiolytic approaches are used with adults who stutter. Speech restructuring approaches focus on the mechanics of speech production, and anxiolytic treatments tend to focus on the symptoms and social and vocational challenges of stuttering. The evidence base for these different approaches is outlined. Response contingent therapy (for children and speech restructuring therapy (for adults have the most robust empirical evidence base. Multifactorial treatments for children and stuttering management approaches for adults are popular but are based on theoretical models of stuttering; the evidence base is not robust and tends to be inferred from work in areas such as cognitive behavior therapy and desensitization. Comprehensive, or holistic, approaches to treating stuttering are also discussed. Comprehensive approaches for treating stuttering in adults address both improved speech fluency and stuttering management. Keywords: stuttering, treatment, stuttering management, speech restructuring, cognitive restructuring

  11. The Role and Impact of Critical Review as Perceived by an Implementer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality and success of a nuclear waste management programme is based on the amalgamation of the interests of a wide number of stakeholders, integration of many different scientific disciplines, and merging of scientific, technical, ethical and social issues. In this process, a broad and structured review of all aspects of the program is necessary and we find the process with submission and review by stakeholders, regulators and government every third year very useful. High-quality critical review of is always a real benefit to the implementer - as it gives the implementer the possibility to see where improvements can be made. However, a close dialogue and a dynamic reviewing process, where questions are raised throughout the process, are essential in order to optimize the quality of the final applications. Naturally, critical review should not be used for pushing specific general research interests or issues that belong to the political arena rather than nuclear waste management itself. Moreover, critical review provides additional insight and promotes confidence by the general public. However, sometimes the public might be confused and have difficulties in judging the importance and relevance of critical comments. The implementer and regulatory authorities have a special duty to provide an overall perspective of safety-related issues. Even if critical review is valuable, the implementer can not only rely on this. The implementers' own internal quality assurance practise, internal review process as well as its overall safety culture is all crucial. Indeed, a successful management of radio-active waste, including operational aspects as well as siting process, starts with the implementers' own wish to perform state-of-the art-work both in terms of technology and overall approach

  12. Nutrition and Cognition in Older Adults With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mara W; Traylor, Abigail C; Bratzke, Lisa C

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive impairment is commonly observed in older adults with heart failure; nutrition is a possible contributing factor. The purpose of the current systematic review is to examine the relationship between nutrition and cognition in older adults with heart failure. A literature review was performed through August 2015 that examined published, peer-reviewed studies from PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Four articles were selected for inclusion. Findings revealed that poorer nutritional habits were associated with poorer attention, executive functioning, and memory in older adults with heart failure. Nutritional biomarkers, including anemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and hypoalbuminemia, were also associated with cognitive impairment. More research is needed to explore the relationship between nutrition and cognition in this population. Descriptive studies will inform scientists as they design and test nutritional interventions to optimize cognitive function in older adults with heart failure. PMID:26505248

  13. Adult Wilms' tumour: a case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda KM Srinivasa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wilms' tumor is the commonest primary malignant renal tumor in childhood. Rarely, it may present in the adult age group. Case presentation We report a 48-year-old male presenting with flank pain and haematuria. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a right renal mass measuring 11 × 10 cms, and a clinical diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma was made. Nephrectomy was performed, and a final diagnosis of adult Wilms' tumor was made based on the criteria proposed by Kilton et al. Conclusion The possibility of an adult Wilms' tumor should be considered when a patient presents with pain in the flank and a renal mass. Rarity of the tumor favors documentation in literature.

  14. Adult medulloblastoma: A rare case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faried, Ahmad; Pribadi, Muhammad A.; Sumargo, Sheila; Arifin, Muhammad Z.; Hernowo, Bethy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant embryonal tumor which commonly arises in the cerebellum. It is relatively rare and accounts for less than 2% of all primary brain tumors. The tumor primarily occurs in childhood; however, rarely, it may be found in adult population. In addition, medulloblastoma in adult population shows features which are quite distinct from the pediatric group. Case Description: We report the case of a 33-year-old man who presented to our institution with a history of blurred vision of both eyes for 5 months preceded by intermittent headache since the previous year. Preoperative investigation suggested a posterior fossa mass and we suspected an ependymoma. The patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt and craniotomy tumor removal, followed by radiotherapy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination were performed, and the results showed a diagnosis of medulloblastoma. Conclusion: This case is exceptional because adult medulloblastoma occurrence in our center is extremely rare, and the diagnosis can only be established through histopathological and immunohistochemical studies.

  15. Yu Hua’s Brothers in and out of China:A Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全瑜彬

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the existing evaluation of Brothers,both the Chinese and English texts,focused on reviews of the English translation,through which the reception of the novel is examined.It is found that unlike the heated controversy over the novel in China,Brothers received warm critical reception in the English-speaking world,though also with criticism.However,there are still insufficient reviews of the English version,concerning its translation quality and style.Thus,"translator’s invisibility"is still a common phenomenon.It is therefore concluded that a sociological analysis of its production,circulation and reception in the target culture is both significant and worthwhile to shed new light on the mechanism by which Chinese literature can be successfully exported.

  16. Yu Hua’s Brothers in and out of China:A Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全瑜彬

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the existing evaluation of Brothers,both the Chinese and English texts,focused on reviews of the English translation,through which the reception of the novel is examined.It is found that unlike the heated controversy over the novel in China,Brothers received warm critical reception in the English-speaking world,though also with criticism.However,there are still insufficient reviews of the English version,concerning its translation quality and style.Thus,“translator’s invisibility” is still a common phenomenon.It is therefore concluded that a sociological analysis of its production,circulation and reception in the target culture is both significant and worthwhile to shed new light on the mechanism by which Chinese literature can be successfully exported.

  17. Older adults' participation in the development of smart environments: an integrated review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Hanson, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Smart environments are being developed to support older adults aging in place. However, the design contributions of the older users have not been explicated. The purpose of this review of literature was to determine how older adults' ideas are being incorporated into the design of smart environments. Twenty-one research articles, incorporating older adults' preferences into the design and evaluation of smart environments are presented. Although only one study was found that used findings from older adult focus groups in the design and development of their system, the findings indicate that older adults are open to living in technically advanced environments if doing so would improve their quality of life and help them stay in their own homes, and that incorporating older adults ideas about smart environments improve the desirability of smart homes. PMID:23276642

  18. A review of phenomenological models for predicting critical heat flux in flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a water cooled nuclear reactor, fuel clad surface operates at a temperature close to the saturation temperature of water. Maximum heat flux levels are invariably very high. At the design stage, it has to be confirmed that under any likely situation, the heat flux does not exceed critical heat flux. To understand the phenomenon of critical heat flux, many phenomenological models have been developed and are reviewed in this paper. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs

  19. Cognitive Functioning in Middle and Old Age Adults. A Review of Research Based on Piaget's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, D. E.; Bielby, D. Del Vento

    1974-01-01

    A review of literature on Piagetian cognitive functioning generally noted lower levels of functioning for elderly subjects than for comparison groups of adults. Several possible interpretations for these age differences were offered. The effects of certain demographic variables on performance were also reviewed and inconsistent results were noted.…

  20. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    We review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in and promise of work on distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the…

  1. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmody J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John Carmody1, Raghunath P Misra1,2, Marlyn P Langford1, William A Byrd1, Lauren Ditta1, Bryan Vekovius1, Donald E Texada11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a "starry sky" appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients.Keywords: B-cells, Burkitt lymphoma, cancer, diabetes, eye, Epstein–Barr virus, orbit, tumor

  2. Review of criticality safety assessments for transport packages by the German competent authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, the criticality safety assessment of a transport package for fissile material is reviewed by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz as the competent authority for package design approvals, in close cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, which is the German competent authority for the mechanical and thermal testing of the packages. The review of the criticality safety assessment covers the whole chain starting from the problem basic data and the method of the analysis, including the modelling assumptions for the cases required by the regulations, the creation of numerical models and the calculations with these models and finishing with the interpretation of the results of the study. (author)

  3. [Formula: see text]Cognitive training programs for childhood cancer patients and survivors: A critical review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Katie; Sands, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    A robust literature has developed documenting neurocognitive late effects in survivors of leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors, the most frequent cancer diagnoses of childhood. Patterns of late effects include deficits in attention and concentration, working memory, processing speed, and executive function, as well as other domains. As childhood cancer survivors are living longer, ameliorating deficits both in broad and specific neurocognitive domains has been increasingly recognized as an endeavor of paramount importance. Interventions to improve cognitive functioning were first applied to the field of pediatric oncology in the 1990s, based on strategies used effectively with adults who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compilation and modification of these techniques has led to the development of structured cognitive training programs, with the effectiveness and feasibility of such interventions currently an active area of research. Consequently, the purpose of this critical review is to: (1) review cognitive training programs intended to remediate or prevent neurocognitive deficits in pediatric cancer patients and survivors, (2) critically analyze training program strengths and weaknesses to inform practice, and (3) provide recommendations for future directions of clinical care and research. PMID:26070928

  4. Trials in adult critical care that show increased mortality of the new intervention: Inevitable or preventable mishaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James A; Williams, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Several promising therapies assessed in the adult critically ill in large, multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were associated with significantly increased mortality in the intervention arms. Our hypothesis was that there would be wide ranges in sponsorship (industry or not), type(s) of intervention(s), use of DSMBs, presence of interim analyses and early stopping rules, absolute risk increase (ARI), and whether or not adequate prior proof-of-principle Phase II studies were done of RCTs that found increased mortality rates of the intervention compared to control groups. We reviewed RCTs that showed a statistically significant increased mortality rate in the intervention compared to control group(s). We recorded source of sponsorship, sample sizes, types of interventions, mortality rates, ARI (as well as odds ratios, relative risks and number needed to harm), whether there were pre-specified interim analyses and early stopping rules, and whether or not there were prior proof-of-principle (also known as Phase II) RCTs. Ten RCTs (four industry sponsored) of many interventions (high oxygen delivery, diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin, growth hormone, methylprednisolone, hetastarch, high-frequency oscillation ventilation, intensive insulin, NOS inhibition, and beta-2 adrenergic agonist, TNF-α receptor) included 19,126 patients and were associated with wide ranges of intervention versus control group mortality rates (25.7-59 %, mean 29.9 vs 17-49 %, mean 25 %, respectively) yielding ARIs of 2.6-29 % (mean 5 %). All but two RCTs had pre-specified interim analyses, and seven RCTs were stopped early. All RCTs were preceded by published proof-of-principle RCT(s), two by the same group. Seven interventions (except diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin and the NOS inhibitor) were available for use clinically at the time of the pivotal RCT. Common, clinically available interventions used in the critically ill were associated with increased mortality in large

  5. Treatment of a giant congenital melanocytic nevus in the adult: review of the current management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jeannie J; Chang, Daniel K; Mailey, Brian; Gosman, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMNs) create cosmetic disfigurements and pose risk for malignant transformation. Adult GCMN cases are uncommon because most families opt for surgical treatment during childhood. We review the current literature on GCMN and present an interesting case of an adult with a GCMN encompassing the entire back with painful nodules exhibiting gross involvement of his back musculature, without pathologic evidence of malignancy. Surgical management was deferred in childhood because of parental desires to allow the patient to make his own decision, and treatment in adulthood was pursued on the basis of the significant impairment of the patient's quality of life and self-esteem due to the massive size and deforming nature of the nevus. The treatment strategy used for this young adult male patient involved a massive en bloc excision of the GCMN with partial resection of the latissimus dorsi, followed by a 5-week staged reconstructive process using dermal regenerative matrices and split-thickness skin grafting. Because of the shift in GCMN management from early surgical management to more conservative management, we may see an increase in adult cases of GCMN. Thus, it is critical to better understand the controversy surrounding early versus delayed management of GCMN. PMID:25664413

  6. Outcomes of Pediatric Laparoscopic Fundoplication: A Critical Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Kathryn; Deshaies, Catherine; Emil, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common procedures performed in children. A critical literature review was performed to evaluate the level and quality of evidence supporting the efficacy of this procedure.METHODS: Systematic reviews of the EMBASE, PubMed and CENTRAL databases were conducted to retrieve all articles published over a 15-year period (1996 to 2010) reporting medium- to long-term outcomes (minimum six m...

  7. Glucose monitoring as a guide to diabetes management. Critical subject review.

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, B.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To encourage a balanced approach to blood glucose monitoring in diabetes by a critical review of the history, power and cost of glucose testing. DATA SOURCES: The Cambridge Data Base was searched and was supplemented by a random review of other relevant sources, including textbooks, company pamphlets, and laboratory manuals. STUDY SELECTION: Keywords used were "glucosuria diagnosis," "blood glucose self-monitoring," "glycosylated hemoglobin," and "fructosamine" for the 10-year period...

  8. Coxiella burnetii associated reproductive disorders in domestic animals-a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Agerholm Jørgen S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The bacterium Coxiella burnetii has been detected in the fetal membranes, birth fluids and vaginal mucus, as well as in the milk and other excretions of several domestic mammals. The finding of C. burnetii in association with abortion, parturition and in the postpartum period has led to the hypothesis that C. burnetii causes a range of reproductive diseases. This review critically evaluates the scientific basis for this hypothesis in domestic mammals. The review demonstrates a solid ...

  9. Human Resource Management in Sports: A Critical Review of its Importance and Pertaining Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Weerakoon Ranjan Kumara

    2016-01-01

    This paper will illustrate the meaning and importance of human resource management (HRM), human resource planning, and strategic human resource management, which are critically important for an organization’s effectiveness and must be effectively managed (Doherty, 1998). This study used the literature review method to acquire its final results. The relevant HRM literature review was done according to the purpose of the study. It used the purposive random sample method for selecting relevant l...

  10. Ground Filtering Algorithms for Airborne LiDAR Data: A Review of Critical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiguang Zhao; Nate Currit; Xuelian Meng

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews LiDAR ground filtering algorithms used in the process of creating Digital Elevation Models. We discuss critical issues for the development and application of LiDAR ground filtering algorithms, including filtering procedures for different feature types, and criteria for study site selection, accuracy assessment, and algorithm classification. This review highlights three feature types for which current ground filtering algorithms are suboptimal, and which can be improved upon...

  11. Explaining differences in age at autism spectrum disorder diagnosis: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Amy M; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism is often delayed, which translates into a missed opportunity to provide treatment during a critical developmental period. This study reviews studies that assessed factors associated with age at autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and provides recommendations on future research, programs, and policies to improve early detection. A search for all peer-reviewed articles containing the words autism, age, and diagnosis in either the title or abstract was performed. A total o...

  12. The domestic benefits of tropical forests : a critical review emphasizing hydrological functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chomitz, Kenneth M.; Kumari, Kanta

    1996-01-01

    The authors critically review the literature on the net domestic (within-country) economic benefits of protecting tropical forests, focusing on hydrological benefits and the production of nontimber forest products. (The review does not consider other important classes of benefits, including global benefits of all kinds, ecological benefits which do not have instrumental economic value, and the existence value of forests.) Their main conclusions: (1)The level of net domestic benefits from fore...

  13. Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

  14. Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke

    2016-01-01

    Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition associated with high disability and frequent comorbidity. Current standard pharmacotherapy (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) improves ADHD symptoms in the short-term, but poor data were published about long-term treatment. In addition a number of patients present partial or no response to methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Research into the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of alternative pharmacological approaches in adult ADHD patients. Among alternative compounds, amphetamines (mixed amphetamine salts and lisdexamfetamine) have the most robust evidence of efficacy, but they may be associated with serious side effects (e.g. psychotic symptoms or hypertension). Antidepressants, particularly those acting as noradrenaline or dopamine enhancers, have evidence of efficacy, but they should be avoided in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. Finally metadoxine and lithium may be particularly suitable in case of comorbid alcohol misuse or bipolar disorder. PMID:26693882

  15. The Psychosocial Effects of Adult Strabismus - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Durnian, Jonathan M; Noonan, Carmel P; Marsh, Ian B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Summary Correction of adult strabismus is not a cosmetic procedure but one that restores normality to an individual?s appearance that has been altered by a disease process. Two fundamental principles underpinning facial attractiveness are symmetry and averageness ? manifest strabismus effects both of these giving an unconscious signal of poor genetic history. The presence of manifest strabismus adversely affects many aspects of patients? lives including finding a ...

  16. Intussusception of the bowel in adults: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Marinis, Athanasios; Yiallourou, Anneza; Samanides, Lazaros; Dafnios, Nikolaos; Anastasopoulos, Georgios; Vassiliou, Ioannis; Theodosopoulos, Theodosios

    2009-01-01

    Intussusception of the bowel is defined as the telescoping of a proximal segment of the gastrointestinal tract within the lumen of the adjacent segment. This condition is frequent in children and presents with the classic triad of cramping abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and a palpable tender mass. However, bowel intussusception in adults is considered a rare condition, accounting for 5% of all cases of intussusceptions and almost 1%-5% of bowel obstruction. Eight to twenty percent of cases a...

  17. Behavioral treatments for children and adults who stutter: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Blomgren M

    2013-01-01

    Michael Blomgren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent t...

  18. Endotracheal suction in intubated critically ill adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation: a systematic review Aspiración endotraqueal en pacientes adultos con veía aérea artificial: revisión sistemática Aspiração endotraqueal em pacientes adultos com via aérea artificial: revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Oliveira Favretto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: identify and analyze in the literature the evidence of randomized controlled trials on care related to the suctioning of endotracheal secretions in intubated, critically ill adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. METHOD: the search was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL and LILACS databases. From the 631 citations found, 17 studies were selected. RESULTS: Evidence was identified for six categories of intervention related to endotracheal suctioning, which were analyzed according to outcomes related to hemodynamic and blood gas alterations, microbial colonization, nosocomial infection, and others. CONCLUSIONS: although the evidence obtained is relevant to the practice of endotracheal aspiration, the risks of bias found in the studies selected compromise the evidence's reliability.OBJETIVO: identificar y analizar evidencias oriundas de ensayos clínicos controlados y hechos aleatorios sobre las atenciones relacionados a la aspiración de secreciones endotraqueales en pacientes adultos, en estado crítico, intubados y bajo ventilación mecánica. MÉTODO: la busca fue realizada en las bases de datos PUBMED, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL y LILACS. De las 631 referencias encontradas, 17 estudios fueron seleccionados. RESULTADOS: se identificaron evidencias en cuanto a seis categorías de intervenciones relacionadas a la aspiración endotraqueal, las cuales fueron analizadas según los resultados referentes a alteraciones hemodinámicas y de los gases sanguíneos, colonización microbiana, infección nosocomial, entre otros. RESULTADOS: las evidencias logradas son relevantes para la práctica de la aspiración endotraqueal, mientras, los riesgos de bies de los estudios seleccionados comprometen su confiabilidad.OBJETIVO: identificar e analisar evidências oriundas de ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados sobre os cuidados relacionados à aspiração de secreções endotraqueais em pacientes adultos, em estado cr

  19. Safety review, assessment and inspection on research reactors, experimental reactors, nuclear heating reactors and critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA organized mainly in 1999 to complete the verification loop in core of the high flux experimental reactor with the 2000 kW fuel elements, the re-starting of China Pulsed Reactor, review and assessment on nuclear safety for the restarting of the Uranium-water critical Facility and treat the fracture event with the fuel tubes in the HWRR

  20. A critical review of cost-effectiveness analyses of vaccinating males against human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yiling; Gauthier, Aline; Postma, Maarten J.; Ribassin-Majed, Laureen; Largeron, Nathalie; Bresse, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    A critical review of cost-effectiveness analyses of HPV vaccination in males was conducted and nine studies were identified in different countries. Due to the heterogeneity among these studies in terms of modeling approach, vaccination strategies, health outcomes considered, assumptions and paramete

  1. The Reasons Requirement in International Investment Arbitration: Critical Case Studies (book review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2008-01-01

    3. In the article, the Researcher reviews the work of Professors Guillermo A. Alvarez and W. Michael Reisman from Yale Law School, regarding the mechanisms of international investment arbitration and their importance for developing countries. The article provides a critical perspective on the aut...

  2. How Do Virtual World Experiences Bring about Learning? A Critical Review of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Swee-Kin

    2015-01-01

    While students do learn real-world knowledge and skills in virtual worlds, educators have yet to adequately theorise how students' virtual world experiences bring about this learning. This paper critically reviewed theories currently used to underpin empirical work in virtual worlds for education. In particular, it evaluated how applicable these…

  3. Psychoanalysis and Humanism: A Review and Critical Examination of Integrationist Efforts with Some Proposed Resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Critically reviews efforts at theoretical integration of psychoanalysis and humanism along the lines of F. Pine's (1990) four psychologies of psychoanalysis. Concludes that psychoanalysis and humanism have certain compatible features, but that they generally represent opposing vantage points in the study of subjectivity. Provides recommendations…

  4. Metaphor and Metonymy in ASD Children: A Critical Review from a Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to critically review the experimental research in the domain of metaphor and metonymy competencies in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) children. After providing some basic definitions of metaphor and metonymy, we consider some major points emerging from studies on metaphorical and metonymical competencies in…

  5. Toward More Critical Reviewing and Analysis of CD-ROM User Software Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Criticizes reviews of library CD-ROM products as being uncritical of the user interface and advocates a more rigorous evaluation, not only to aid potential buyers, but as a way to influence manufacturers. Congressional Information Services' Masterfile 2 is evaluated in the context of Heckel's "Principles of Friendly Software Design." (24…

  6. A Critical Review of International Students' Adjustment Research from a Deleuzian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Gene

    2016-01-01

    The author in this paper critically reviews recent literature on international student language and adjustment to Western Anglophone universities. Two streams of research are discussed: the problem-solving approach guided largely by positivist epistemologies and quantitative methodologies contrasted to the post-structuralist language and identity…

  7. The Evaluation of Physical Learning Environments: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Fisher, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    This article critically reviews the methodologies and methods that have been used for the evaluation of physical learning environments. To contextualize discussion about the evaluation of learning spaces, we initially chart the development of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) for non-domestic buildings. We then discuss the recent evolution of POE…

  8. A critical review of "internet addiction" criteria with suggestions for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Rooij (Antonius); N. Prause (Nicole)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAims: In the last 5 years a deluge of articles on the topic of Internet addiction (IA) has proposed many candidate symptoms as evidence of this proposed disease. We critically reviewed the current approach to the measurement and identification of this new excessive behavior syndrome. Met

  9. Investigating Architectural Quality Theories for School Evaluation: A Critical Review of Evaluation Instruments in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygt, Erland

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of instruments used to evaluate compulsory schools in Sweden and is part of a doctoral programme project investigating the relationship between school architecture and learning. In Sweden, as in many countries, evaluation instruments are used both to improve school quality and as a means to provide…

  10. Stress and the Higher Education Student: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, David; Julian, Claire

    2006-01-01

    The available research indicates that the prevalence of stress is increasing among students studying in higher education. Issues such as student retention and student progression are becoming increasingly important for all universities. There are a significant number of studies that have examined stress and this paper critically reviews that…

  11. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  12. Critical Perspectives on Women's Literacy Education in Latin America. Essay Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther

    2001-01-01

    Reviews works on women's literacy education in Latin America by Fink (1992), Purcell-Gates and Waterman (2000), Stromquist (1995, 1997), and van der Westen (1994). Discusses the Latin American context, critical feminist approach to literacy, implementation of Freirean pedagogy, outcomes and benefits, and gaps in the literature. (Contains 17…

  13. Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Higher Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Niu, Lian

    2011-01-01

    The authors reviewed 42 empirical studies of teaching of critical thinking skills in postsecondary education published between 1994 and 2009. The instructional intervention, test measure, and research design of the studies were analyzed. Study results suggest that: (1) the same instructional interventions can lead to different results, depending…

  14. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet. PMID:25352031

  15. Educational interventions aimed at improving the oral health conditions of workers: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Paloma Perez Castro; Sônia Cristina Lima Chaves; Luísa Silva Lima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify studies describing the educational and/or health-promoting interventions and strategies used in various programs of oral healthcare conducted in populations of industrial workers. A review of the Science, MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO databases was performed for the period between 1980 and 2009. The criteria for a publication to be in- cluded were: 1) the population had to consist of adult workers; and 2) the educational and/or health-promoting interventi...

  16. The use of periodization in exercise prescriptions for inactive adults: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley Strohacker; Daniel Fazzino; Breslin, Whitney L.; Xiaomeng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Periodization of exercise is a method typically used in sports training, but the impact of periodized exercise on health outcomes in untrained adults is unclear. Purpose: This review aims to summarize existing research wherein aerobic or resistance exercise was prescribed to inactive adults using a recognized periodization method. Methods: A search of relevant databases, conducted between January and February of 2014, yielded 21 studies published between 2000 and 2013 that a...

  17. Systematic literature review of determinants of sedentary behaviour in older adults: a DEDIPAC study

    OpenAIRE

    Chastin, Sebastien; Buck, Christoph; Freiberger, Ellen; Murphy, Marie; Brug, Johannes; Cardon, Greet; O'Donoghue, Grainne; Pigeot, Iris; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults are the most sedentary segment of society and high sedentary time is associated with poor health and wellbeing outcomes in this population. Identifying determinants of sedentary behaviour is a necessary step to develop interventions to reduce sedentary time. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify factors associated with sedentary behaviour in older adults. Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science were searched for articles published...

  18. The Urban Built Environment and Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rosso, Andrea L.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Michael, Yvonne L

    2011-01-01

    Mobility restrictions in older adults are common and increase the likelihood of negative health outcomes and premature mortality. The effect of built environment on mobility in older populations, among whom environmental effects may be strongest, is the focus of a growing body of the literature. We reviewed recent research (1990–2010) that examined associations of objective measures of the built environment with mobility and disability in adults aged 60 years or older. Seventeen empirical art...

  19. Treatment options for adult AD/HD. : A review of evidence based literature on selected traditional and alternative methods

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Treatment options for adult AD/HD. A review of evidence based literature on selected traditional and alternative methods. Background: The purpose of this review, is to evaluate the empirical data behind treatment options for adult AD/HD . In addition, the article includes facts about adult AD/HD. Method: This review is based on search in Pubmed and The Cochrane Library. Randomized controlled studies (RCT´s) and meta- analysis were the preferred study designs. Other study designs and ...

  20. Motivating and Assisting Adult, Online Chemistry Students: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannier, Betsy J.

    2010-06-01

    While comprehensive texts, articles, and literature reviews presenting research in the singular arenas of motivation, help-seeking, and online science learning are relatively easy to find, syntheses and interactions between these constructs are lacking. Part I of this review addresses this knowledge gap by drawing together key research from the domains of educational psychology and adult education, addressing the constructs of motivation, self-efficacy, adult learning, and help-seeking. Part II of this review extends and applies the motivation and help-seeking discussion to the emerging and exciting field of online chemistry education. The result is a comprehensive synthesis of the strengths and limitations of the currently existing body of knowledge related to the motivation and help-seeking behaviors of adult, online chemistry students.

  1. Adolescent but not adult-born neurons are critical for susceptibility to chronic social defeat

    OpenAIRE

    Greer S Kirshenbaum; Sophie Rose Lieberman; Tamara J Briner; Eduardo David Leonardo; Alex eDranovsky

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in regulating behavioral and physiologic responses to stress. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs across the lifespan, however the rate of cell birth is up to 300% higher in adolescent mice compared to adults. Adolescence is a sensitive period in development where emotional circuitry and stress reactivity undergo plasticity establishing life-long set points. Therefore neurogenesis occurring during adolescence may be particularly important ...

  2. Review: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012 Buchbesprechung: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Faye Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 Seiten

  3. Review: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012) Buchbesprechung: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Faye Tran

    2013-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 Seiten

  4. Compliance in children and adults: review of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, J T

    1988-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed medication, or patient compliance, was studied over a period of several years in 3 populations with seizure disorders: 2 pediatric (n = 90, n = 211), and 1 adult population (n = 177). Compliance was assessed in several different ways: self-reports and serum levels analyzed for the level/dose ratio as well as the coefficient of variation for each patient. Correlates studied included Health Belief Model variables as well as internal locus of control, social support, knowledge about seizures and other variables. The assessed extent of compliance ranged from 54% to 82% in the various groups. Overall, compliance was related to motivation, value of illness threat reduction, and probability that compliant behavior will reduce the threat. Also related to compliance were some measures of the following types of variables: demographic, structural, attitudinal, provider/patient interaction, social support, experience with the regimen, internal control, and knowledge. A group discussion intervention designed to enhance compliance was implemented and evaluated effectively in the pediatric seizure population. In the adult population, compliance and seizure control both increased over a 2 year follow-up period, but were not significantly related. PMID:3072190

  5. Intussusception of the bowel in adults: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athanasios Marinis; Anneza Yiallourou; Lazaros Samanides; Nikolaos Dafnios; Georgios Anastasopoulos; Ioannis Vassiliou; Theodosios Theodosopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Intussusception of the bowel is defined as the telescoping of a proximal segment of the gastrointestinal tract within the lumen of the adjacent segment. This condition is frequent in children and presents with the classic triad of cramping abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and a palpable tender mass. However, bowel intussusception in adults is considered a rare condition, accounting for 5% of all cases of intussusceptions and almost 1%-5% of bowel obstruction. Eight to twenty percent of cases are idiopathic, without a lead point lesion. Secondary intussusceptionis caused by organic lesions, such as inflammatory bowel disease,postoperative adhesions,Meckel's diverticulum, benign and malignant lesions, metastatic neoplasms or even iatrogenically, due to the presence of intestinal tubes, jejunostomy feeding tubes or after gastricsurgery. Computed tomography is the most sensitive diagnostic modality and can distinguish between intussusceptions with and without a lead point. Surgery is the definitive treatment of adult intussusceptions. Formal bowel resection with oncological principles is followed for every case where a malignancy is suspected. Reduction of the intussuscepted bowel is considered safe for benign lesions in order to limit the extent of resection or to avoid the short bowel syndrome in certain circumstances.

  6. Critical Adult Learning of Asian Immigrant Workers: A Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mosung; Madyun, Na'im

    2008-01-01

    This study reveals how the social networks of immigrant workers play a key role in mediating critical learning towards a particular political attitude. Theoretical relationships between critical learning and political attitudes were set up and four types of political attitudes were identified. A "resistant political attitude" was conceptually…

  7. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Susan; Benson-Davies, Sue; Earthman, Carrie P; Frankenfield, David C; Gradwell, Erica; Lee, Peggy S P; Piemonte, Tami; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    When measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Evidence Analysis process described by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was followed. The Ovid database was searched for papers published between 2003 and 2012 using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered (1980 to 2003), and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group. Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music. RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than 140 minutes and 240 minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown. Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II. One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the

  8. Tuberculous Meningitis in Adults: A Review of 160 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Pehlivanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging features of 160 adult patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM according to “Thwaites’ diagnostic index.” Methods. The subjects of this retrospective study are the patients with TBM who were followed up between years 1998 and 2009 in a tertiary referral hospital. Diagnosis of TBM was based on clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging signs and Thwaites’ diagnostic index. Results. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from CSF in 59 of 148 patients. Seventeen percent of the patients died, 71% recovered completely, and 13% recovered with neurological sequel at the end of the sixth month. Conclusions. Despite new developments in laboratory or neuroimaging techniques, the diagnosis of TBM is still based on clinical features with the help of laboratory. Early diagnosis by suspecting TBM may prevent therapy delay and may result in decrease in the mortality and morbidity.

  9. Pathways of Knowing: Integrating Citizen Science and Critical Thinking in the Adult ELL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, Melody

    This action research study examines what common perceptions and constructs currently exist in educating adult immigrants in Arizona and considers how might the integration of citizen science with the current English curriculum promote higher order thinking and educational equity in this population. A citizen science project called the Mastodon Matrix Project was introduced to a Level 2 ELAA (English Language Acquisition for Adults) classroom and aligned with the Arizona Adult Standards for ELAA education. Pre and post attitudinal surveys, level tests, and personal meaning maps were implemented to assess student attitudes towards science, views on technology, English skills, and knowledge gained as a result of doing citizen science over a period of 8 weeks.

  10. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in young adults: a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a disease of middle-aged to elderly adults. However, an increased incidence of HNSCC in young people under 45 years of age has been reported recently. In the present review, we focused on the epidemiology and aetiology of HNSCC in adults under 45 years of age. We reviewed literature related to HNSCC in adult patients less than 45 years of age and discussed current treatment options and prognosis. HNSCC in young adults is associated with a higher incidence rate in nonsmokers, lower female-to-male ratio, a higher percentage of oral cavity and oropharynx tumours, and fewer second primary tumours. However, aside from traditional risk factors of tobacco and alcohol exposure, the causes of these cancers in young adults remain unclear. Agents that might contribute to risk include infection with high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes as well as genetic factors or immunodeficiency status. The expected increase in incidence and mortality of the young with HNSCC may become a major public health concern if current trends persist, particularly lifestyle habits that may contribute to this disease. Given the younger age and potential long-term adverse sequelae of traditional HNSCC treatments, young adults should be treated on a case-by-case basis and post-therapy quality of life must be considered in any treatment-decision making process

  11. Effect of low intensity exercise on physical and cognitive health in older adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Andy C. Y.; Wong, Thomson W. L.; Lee, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well known that physical exercise is important to promote physical and cognitive health in older population. However, inconsistent research findings were shown regarding exercise intensity, particularly on whether low-intensity exercise (1.5 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) to 3.0 METs) can improve physical and cognitive health of older adults. This systematic review aimed to fill this research gap. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the effecti...

  12. Why a Focus on Adult Women Is Critical to the Higher Education System and Our Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Present-day adult women students will not be the only ones to gain from a college degree. Generations for decades to come will benefit. In fact, the Shriver Report indicates that "parental education attainment is now more important than family income in predicting a child's future opportunity." According to U.S. Census figures, 76…

  13. Critical analysis of the current treatment guidelines for complex PTSD in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, A. de; Resick, P.A.; Zoellner, L.A.; Minnen, A. van; Lee, C.W.; Monson, C.M.; Foa, E.B.; Wheeler, K.; Broeke, E. ten; Feeny, N.; Rauch, S.A.M.; Chard, K.M.; Mueser, K.T.; Sloan, D.M.; Gaag, M. van der; Rothbaum, B.O.; Neuner, F.; Roos, C.J.A.M. de; Hehenkamp, L.M.J.; Rosner, R.; Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2016-01-01

    According to current treatment guidelines for Complex PTSD (cPTSD), psychotherapy for adults with cPTSD should start with a "stabilization phase". This phase, focusing on teaching self-regulation strategies, was designed to ensure that an individual would be better able to tolerate trauma-focused tr

  14. The Contribution of Critical Theory to Our Understanding of Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Habermas' critical theory focuses on how social structures, organizations, and institutions define, construct, and oppress learning. His theory of communicative action leads to emancipatory, learner-centered educational practice. (SK)

  15. Safety review, assessment and inspection on research reactors, experimental reactors, nuclear heating reactors and critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, the NNSA organized to complete the nuclear safety review on the test loop in-reactor operation of the High-flux Engineering Experimental Reactor (HFEER) and the re-operation of the China Pulsed Reactor and the Uranium-water Criticality Facility. The NNSA conducted the nuclear safety review on the CP application of the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) and the siting of China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), and carried out the construction supervision on HTR-10, and dealt with the event about the technological tube breakage of HWRR and other events

  16. A Review on Learning Styles and Critically Thinking Disposition of Pre-Service Science Teachers in Terms of Miscellaneous Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to review learning styles and critical thinking disposition of pre-service science teachers in terms of sex, grade and age, and to address the relationship between their learning styles and critical thinking disposition. It used Kolb's Inventory of Learning Styles and California Scale of Critical Thinking…

  17. Eating Disorders in Adult Women: The Sexual Abuse Connection. A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Catherine; Butler, Scott

    1992-01-01

    Literature review examines several areas repeatedly addressed concerning prevalence of eating disorders and child sexual abuse (CSA): psychological profiles of eating-disordered adult women who may have experienced CSA; psychosocial aftereffects of CSA; familial dynamics of survivors of CSA; studies connecting eating disorders and CSA; and studies…

  18. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  19. Promoting Engagement with Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles in Adult ESL Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Marilyn L.; Rossiter, Marian J.; Hatami, Sarvenaz

    2015-01-01

    Engagement with current research is essential for the implementation of evidence-informed instructional practices in adult English as a second language classrooms. We explored Canadian administrators' and instructors' engagement with peer-reviewed research articles, perceptions of their impact, and ways in which stakeholders could enhance…

  20. Nursing Support of the Spiritual Needs of Older Adults Living With Dementia: A Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Kristiina; Stolt, Minna; Suhonen, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Across this literature review (n = 10), supporting spirituality in the nursing care of older adults with dementia is concerned with supporting religious activity, enabling connections, nurses' reflections on their own spirituality, and nonverbal communication. The benefits from the support of spirituality were seen to be reciprocal and to occur in everyday nursing. PMID:26263290

  1. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  2. The Sexual Functioning of Adult Women Molested as Children: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julie Lynn

    This paper reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1991 that addresses long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult women's sexual functioning. Frequently reported long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are noted, including both sexual dissatisfaction and sexual dysfunction. In terms of sexual dysfunction, it is noted that adult…

  3. Teaching Community Survival Skills to Mentally Retarded Adults: A Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews research on training mentally retarded adults in the following community survival skills: travel training, money management, meal preparation, clothing and personal care, telephone skill, housekeeping, self-medication, leisure skills, social skills, and conversation. Results are said to indicate the value of behavioral…

  4. Mild cognitive impairment in adult: A neuropsychological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Yanhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. This is clinically relevant as overt dementia can be prevented if treatment strategies are devised for MCI. Neuropsychological deficits in this condition are very common and are important clinically for treatment and outcomes. We aimed to review various neuropsychological deficits in MCI. Further, we have presented the current evidence for nosological status, neuroanatomical basis, and clinical outcome of this heterogeneous construct. All published papers on the topic of neuropsychological deficits in MCI on Medline and other databases were reviewed. A wide range of memory and executive function deficits are common in MCI patients. However, several studies are limited by either improper designs or inadequate sample sizes. Several neuropsychological impairments like memory function and executive functions can be diagnosed in MCI. The evidence base for the exact neuroanatomical basis of MCI is not robust yet. However, given the wide range of outcomes, controversies and debates exist regarding the nosological significance of the deficits. Hence, more studies are needed to specifically localise the impairments and further delineate the construct of MCI.

  5. School effectiveness research: a review of criticisms and some proposals to address them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sandoval-Hernandez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Lakato’s notion of research programmes, the paper analyses the structure of the School Effectiveness Research (SER programme and reviews the main criticisms that have arisen, stressing those regarding its objectivity and theoretical limitations. Then, some proposals are made to address these criticisms, namely: to adopt a critical realist approach to the study of SE and an Abductive Theory of Scientific Method that lead to the development of sound theory in the field. Based on this analysis the paper concludes that, in terms of Lakatos, a movement towards a new research programme is needed in order to ensure that the main objectives originally set for SER can be eventually reached.

  6. Treatment of Bulbar Urethral Strictures. A Review, with Personal Critical Remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Willem Oosterlinck

    2003-01-01

    This is a review article on treatment of bulbar urethral strictures with personal critical remarks on newer developments. As a treatment of first intention there exists 4 options : dilatation, urethrotomy, end to end anastomosis and free graft, open urethroplasty. Success rate of dilatation and visual urethrotomy after 4 years is only 20 en 40 % respectively. Laser urethrotomy could not fulfill expectations. End to end anastomosis obtains a very high success rate but is only applicable for sh...

  7. Comparing Turkey and Iran in Political Science and Historical Sociology: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    HAZIR, Agah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing comparative literature on Iran and Turkey in terms of their approaches, themes and findings. It extracts and critically analyses two dominant trends in this literature; Comparative Analyses of Cultures and Comparative Analyses of Modernizations. This paper argues that, these two common lines of approaching have serious limitations since they carry the traces of orientalist and ethnocentric assumptions. New literature on this topic however, offers new avenues of r...

  8. Teaching paraphrase as a communication strategy: a critical review and a proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsuka, Shigenobu

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates how paraphrase can be taught as a communication strategy (CS) to help learners to cope with problems they encounter in speech production. By critically reviewing the literature on practical and empirical approaches to teaching paraphrase, it reveals that the notion of paraphrase in those studies has been very limited. It then investigates what it means to paraphrase by analyzing paraphrastic expressions used in a Inonolingual dictionary and a pedagogical grammar book. ...

  9. The Effect of Ambient Scent on Consumers’ Perception, Emotions and Behaviour – a Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Teller, C; Charles, D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of olfactory stimuli on consumer behaviour has received little attention in marketing and retailing literature compared to other atmospheric cues. Researchers report ambiguous findings and shortcomings of measurement approaches. Based on a critical literature review, a field experiment in a regional shopping mall investigates the effectiveness of ambient scent. Before-and-after surveys of randomly selected shoppers in experimental and control groups were conducted and different exp...

  10. Update on the natural history of intracranial atherosclerotic disease: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Komotar, Ricardo J.; Kellner, Christopher P.; Raper, Daniel M; Strozyk, Dorothea; Higashida, Randall T.; Meyers, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) contributes to a significant number of ischemic strokes. There is debate in the recent literature concerning the impact of the location of stenosis in ICAD on outcome. Some reports have suggested that disease processes and outcomes vary by vessel location, potentially altering the natural history and indications for intervention. Here we have performed a comprehensive, critical review of the natural history of ICAD by vessel in an attempt to assess ...

  11. A critical review of recent progress in mid-range wireless power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, W; Hui, SYR; Lee, CK

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Tesla’s principles of wireless power transfer a century ago, this critical review outlines recent magneto-inductive research activities on wireless power transfer with the transmission distance greater than the transmitter coil dimension. It summarizes the operating principles of a range of wireless power research into (i) the maximum power transfer and (ii) the maximum energy efficiency principles. The differences and the implications of these two approaches are explained in te...

  12. Patient experiences with oral mucositis caused by chemo-/radiotherapy: a critical qualitative literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Zanolin; Christine Widmer; Eva-Maria Panfil

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis is one of the most common side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In order to develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the management of tumor therapy-induced-oral mucositis, it was necessary to capture the patients’ perspective. Therefore the aim of this critical literature review was to explore the experience of patients with therapy-induced-oral mucositis. Searches were carried out using a systematic search strategy in CINAHL and Medline. Qualitative studi...

  13. Drug interactions among commonly used medications. Chart simplifies data from critical literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Crowther, N. R.; Holbrook, A. M.; Kenwright, R.; Kenwright, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To simplify risk assessment, we have developed a way to present critically appraised drug interaction information through a chart. DATA SOURCES: Fifty drugs most frequently prescribed by Canadian family physicians and 16 drugs and substances that frequently interact with these drugs were the basis for a literature review. Drug interaction textbooks and MEDLINE (from 1966 to 1994) were searched for documented interactions. Reports of additive effects and animal or in vitro studies w...

  14. A critical review of clarifier modelling:State-of-the-art and engineering practices

    OpenAIRE

    Plósz, Benedek; Nopens, Ingmar; Rieger, Leiv; Griborio, Alonso; Clercq, Jeriffa De; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Daigger, Glen T.; Takacs, Imre; Wicks, Jim; Ekama, George A.

    2012-01-01

    This outline paper aims to provide a critical review of secondary settling tank (SST) modelling approaches used in current wastewater engineering and develop tools not yet applied in practice. We address the development of different tier models and experimental techniques in the field with a particular emphasis on works published since the reference work by Ekama et al. (1997). We give insight into the current engineering practice, identify how recent developments can be transferred to engine...

  15. A critical review and meta-analysis of the association between overt hyperthyroidism and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Green, Anders; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    Overt hyperthyroidism has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias, hypercoagulopathy, stroke, and pulmonary embolism, all of which may increase mortality. Some, but not all, studies show an increased mortality in patients with hyperthyroidism. This inconsistency may be due to differences in study...... design, characteristics of participants, or confounders. In order to test whether hyperthyroidism influences mortality, we performed a critical review and statistical meta-analysis....

  16. Investigating the Impact of Firm Size on Small Business Social Responsibility: a Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lepoutre, J.; A. HEENE

    2006-01-01

    The impact of smaller firm size on corporate social responsibility is ambiguous. Some contend that small businesses are socially responsible by nature, while others argue that a smaller firm size imposes barriers on small firms that constrain their ability to take responsible action. This paper critically analyses recent theoretical and empirical contributions on the size – social responsibility relationship among small businesses. More specifically, it reviews the impact of firm size on four...

  17. Review of Nuclear Criticality Safety Requirements Implementation for Hanford Tank Farms Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1999, the Deputy Secretary of the Department of Energy directed a series of actions to strengthen the Department's ongoing nuclear criticality safety programs. A Review Plan describing lines of inquiry for assessing contractor programs was included. The Office of River Protection completed their assessment of the Tank Farm Contractor program in May 2000. This document supports that assessment by providing a compliance statement for each line of inquiry

  18. Women's experiences of coping with pain during childbirth: A critical review of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Gucht, Natalie; Lewis, Kiara

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify and analyse qualitative literature exploring women׳s experiences of coping with pain during childbirth. Design Critical review of qualitative research. Findings Ten studies were included, conducted in Australia, England, Finland, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran and Sweden. Eight of the studies employed a phenomenological perspective with the remaining two without a specific qualitative methodological perspective. Thematic analysis was used as the approach for s...

  19. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Romero, Raquel; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Lienemann, Charles Philippe; Mermet, Jean Michel

    2013-01-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decompositio...

  20. A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ellen T.; Boffetta, Paolo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S.

    2014-01-01

    To inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate cancer risk. Articles evaluated include 11 studies of three cohorts, four case–control or cross-sectional studies, a...