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Sample records for adult women findings

  1. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

  2. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

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    Grant W Edmonds

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (LTL shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02. Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  3. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Grant W; Côté, Hélène C F; Hampson, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02). Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  4. Effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index change among adult women in India: findings from a follow-up study.

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    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index (BMI) change in a follow-up study of 325 women (aged 15-49 years) in Delhi, systematically selected from the 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey samples who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information was collected on height, weight, dietary habits, and sedentary lifestyle through face-to-face interviews. Overall, a 2.0-point increase in mean BMI was found among women in just 4 years. Every second normal-BMI woman, two in five overweight women, and every fourth obese woman experienced a > 2.0-point increase in her mean BMI. High sedentary lifestyle (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.29-5.35) emerged as the main predictor of a > 2.0-point increase in mean BMI in adjusted analysis, but there was weak evidence of association with the dietary covariates. Our findings suggest that a high sedentary lifestyle is a determinant of weight gain among adult women in urban India.

  5. Women in Adult Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of adult basic education (ABE) program directors in five states revealed that most ABE teachers are women and work part-time without benefits while most ABE administrators are men who are employed full-time. Concludes that women employed in ABE are victims of discrimination. (EM)

  6. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

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    ... record, you can search for evidence of your vaccination history. Look in places where you might find other important documents. Here are some tips: Ask parents or other caregivers if they have records of your childhood immunizations. Look through baby books or other saved documents ...

  7. Smoking cessation in women: findings from qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study is to describe the experience of successful smoking cessation in adult women. The convenience sample included 10 women, ages 25 to 42, who had abstained from smoking for at least 6 months but not longer than 3 years. A semistructured interview format was used to elicit descriptions of the experience of successful smoking cessation from these subjects. The interview format explored the experience, including initial contemplation, the process of quitting, and maintenance of smoking abstinence. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and then analyzed using methods outlined by Miles and Huberman [1]. Four themes emerged from the data: evolving commitment to health and personal growth, being stigmatized, changing conceptualization of smoking, and smoking cessation as a relational phenomenon. These findings were consistent with Pender's Health Promotion Model and have implications for nurse practitioners who counsel women on smoking cessation.

  8. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

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    Mohan B. Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20–59 years and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006. Study design. Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Results. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively. Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. Conclusion. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  9. Moyamoya disease: difference of MR findings between children and adults

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    Kim, Jong Deok; Seo, Chang Hae [College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate whether there are any differences in MR findings between the childhood and the adult moyamoya disease. We compared the brain MR findings in 22 children (13 boys and 9 girls, 2-18 years of age) who had moyamoya disease with 15 adult patients (7 men and 8 women, 19-55 years of age). The MR findings were classified as parenchymal-(infarctions and intracranial hemorrhages) and vascular abnormalities (intracranial vascular patency and moyamoya vessels). The difference in each of these MR findings was analyzed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test (two-tailed). Out of 22 children, two children with normal MR finding were excluded from the statistical analysis. Moyamoya diseases were diagnosed angiographically in all adult patients. In children, they were diagnosed by MR imaging, MR angiography(6), and/or conventional cerebral angiography(18). In children, cerebral infarctions were observed in 20 of 22 patients (91%) (cortex 86%, periventricular white matter/centrum semiovale 32%, basal ganglia 10%). In two patients, there was no parenchymal abnormality. Intracranial hemorrhages were not demonstrated in any patients. In adults, intracranial hemorrhages (intracerebral hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, alone or combined) were demonstrated in 10 of 15 patients(67%). Cerebral infarctions with or without intracranial hemorrhage were detected in 10 of 15 patients(67%) (cortex 40%, periventricular white matter/centrum semiovale 53%, basal ganglia 20%). The difference in parenchymal abnormalities between the childhood and the adult moyamoya disease was statistically significant ({rho} = 0.000164). There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the occlusive changes of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries or to moyamoya vessels ({rho} > 0.01). This study could prove the fact that the principal clinical symptoms in the childhood moyamoya disease were due to cerebral infarction and those in the adult cases were

  10. Adult Jewish Education and Participation among Reform Jewish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…

  11. Most Women Stop Drinking After Positive Pregnancy Test, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164006.html Most Women Stop Drinking After Positive Pregnancy Test, Study Finds Researchers 'pleasantly surprised' by fact that most quickly made the healthy choice To use the ...

  12. Grameen Bank women borrowers’ non-formal adult learning transformation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Abdur Rouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grameen Bank (GB is a micro credit organization established to address poverty to empower the poor women in Bangladesh. GB targets adult women who were illiterate. GB’s adult learning information has ‘Sixteen Decisions’ (inculcate the socio-economic messages aimed at improving the social, economic, health, and well-being of GB borrowers. This Sixteen Decision adult learning campaign empowers GB women borrowers in their familial and communal life. It is important to know the efficacy of adult learning strategies that has used by GB to create this paradigm shift and transformation in local communities. How does the Grameen Bank adult learning process enables GB’s women borrowers to mobilize group solidarity, leadership development and apply the sixteen decisions in their daily life? The study finds 87% GB women borrowers were able to make better family decision on behalf of the entire family. 25% of women vice-chairs won in local in Upzilla counsels in 2009 election in Bangladesh. This statistics indicate that gender changes are happening as women are becoming successful in representing their family and holding public offices in patriarchal Bangladesh. Exponential improvements in literacy is happening, (100% of GB borrowers are able to sign their names on the documents which show signs of achievements in adult learning. However, if GB non-formal adult learning strategies could streamline, this would generate more socio-economic consciousness and environmental awareness and social justice reforms to improve the life of GB women borrowers in Bangladesh.

  13. Sexual violence in women's lives. Findings from the Women's Safety Project, a community-based survey.

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    Randall, M; Haskell, L

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a community-based study, which aims to determine the interconnections between women's experiences of sexual abuse in childhood, sexual assault in adulthood, and physical assault in intimate relationships in Toronto, Canada. An in-depth face-to-face interview was conducted with 420 women who comprised the random sample of the women living in Toronto, Canada. Findings on the prevalence and effects of various forms of sexual abuse and violence revealed that 97.6% of the woman interviewed reported that they personally experienced some form of sexual violation. Sexual abuse in childhood (including incest), sexual assault, sexual harassment, and physical assault in intimate relationships were documented. Among the findings were that one-fourth of the women in the sample were physically assaulted by a male intimate, one-half of the women reported being raped or almost raped, and nearly half of the respondents reported experiencing some kind of sexual abuse before reaching age 16.

  14. Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: CT and MRI findings in eight cases

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    Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de; Bertoldi, Guilherme A. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Radiologia Diagnostica]. E-mail: arnolfo.carvalho@avalon.sul.com.br; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Secao de Radiologia Diagnostica; Ono, Sergio E. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Gomes, Andre F. [Diagnostico Avancado Por Imagem (DAPI), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-06-01

    Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of neuro epithelial origin, which represents 15 to 30% of all pediatric brain tumors, and less than 1% of CNS adult neoplasms. We report the imaging findings of 8 adult patients with medulloblastoma. The mean age was 35 years, ranging from 20 to 65 years, and the male:female rate was 3:5. The tumors were predominantly lateral (63%), hyperdense on CT scans (83%), and on the MRI, hypointense on T1 (100%) and hyperintense on T2 (80%) weighted images. It was seen intratumoral necrosis and cysts in six cases and calcifications in three. Hydrocephalus was observed in 5 cases and brain stem invasion in four. The imaging findings of medulloblastomas in adults are different of those in child, and also nonspecific. Although these tumors are uncommon in adults, they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar masses in the posterior fossa of this age group. (author)

  15. Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women.

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    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women.

  16. Anterior Segment Findings in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Karaca Adıyeke, Seda; Karaca, Ibrahim; Yıldırım, Suna; Adıyeke, Mehmet; Uyar, İbrahim; Türe, Gamze

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anterior segment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to compare them with those of healthy reproductive-age female volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 right eyes of 50 women with PCOS (group 1) and 50 right eyes of 50 healthy women (group 2). Intraocular pressure, Schirmer’s test, tear film break-up time and central corneal thickness were evaluated in all subjects. Correlations between serum hormone (estradiol and testosterone) levels and observed findings were also investigated. Results: Mean central corneal thickness values were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p=0.001). The mean intraocular pressures values were similar between the two groups (p=0.560). Schirmer’s test results and tear film break-up time values were significantly lower in the PCOS group (p=0.001 and p=0.001 respectively). Serum estradiol levels were moderately positively correlated with mean central corneal thickness (r=0.552), weakly positively correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.351) and weakly negatively correlated with tear film break-up time (r=-0.393). Serum free testosterone levels were weakly correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.342) and central corneal thickness (r=0.303), and showed weak negative correlations with Schirmer’s test results (r=-0.562) and tear film break-up time (r=-0.502). Conclusion: PCOS leads to physiological and structural changes in the eye. Dry eye symptoms were more severe and central corneal thickness measurements were greater in patients with PCOS. Those are correlated serum testosterone and estradiol levels. PMID:28182154

  17. Anterior Segment Findings in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Seda Karaca Adıyeke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anterior segment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and to compare them with those of healthy reproductive-age female volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 right eyes of 50 women with PCOS (group 1 and 50 right eyes of 50 healthy women (group 2. Intraocular pressure, Schirmer’s test, tear film break-up time and central corneal thickness were evaluated in all subjects. Correlations between serum hormone (estradiol and testosterone levels and observed findings were also investigated. Results: Mean central corneal thickness values were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p=0.001. The mean intraocular pressures values were similar between the two groups (p=0.560. Schirmer’s test results and tear film break-up time values were significantly lower in the PCOS group (p=0.001 and p=0.001 respectively. Serum estradiol levels were moderately positively correlated with mean central corneal thickness (r=0.552, weakly positively correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.351 and weakly negatively correlated with tear film break-up time (r=-0.393. Serum free testosterone levels were weakly correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.342 and central corneal thickness (r=0.303, and showed weak negative correlations with Schirmer’s test results (r=-0.562 and tear film break-up time (r=-0.502. Conclusion: PCOS leads to physiological and structural changes in the eye. Dry eye symptoms were more severe and central corneal thickness measurements were greater in patients with PCOS. Those are correlated serum testosterone and estradiol levels.

  18. Clinical Finding and Thyroid Function in Women with Struma Ovarii

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    Ali Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Struma ovarii (SO is a variant of dermoid tumors which completely or mainly composed of thyroid tissues. Objective. We report our experience in the diagnosis and thyroid function of patients with SO in our hospital and also review the management and treatment option of this tumor. Materials and Methods. Between 2000 and 2012, 15 consecutive females with SO who were presented to our hospital were fully assessed. All women had histologically confirmed struma ovarii. The medical records of all patients including presenting symptoms, CT scan finding, and hormonal levels were collected for final analysis. Results. Average patient age was 36.6 years (ranging from 21 to 69. The mean ± SDs of serum TSH, T4, and T3 were  mUI/mL,  ng/dL, and  ng/dL, respectively. The value of TSH was lower than normal value in 26.7%. Also, antithyroglobulin and anti-TPO were positive in 2 and one cases, respectively. Conclusion. Based on our data, it is more likely to see a disturbance in serum values of thyroid function test in women with SO.

  19. The Women's Movement, Adult Education and Globalization: Women's Agencies in Zimbabwe.

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    Mpofu, Stanley T.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that in Zimbabwe, women's agencies pursue practical, strategic, and interagency gender interests consistent with adult education practice. However, they also manifest the globalizing tendencies of pluralism, cultural homogenization, and the coalescence of transnational and domestic processes and structures. (SK)

  20. Androgenic Hormone Profile of Adult Women with Acne

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    Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga da; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Machado Filho, Carlos D'apparecida Santos

    2013-01-01

    Acne in adult women is a hard-to-manage frequent disease with many relapse cases. It mostly interferes with quality of life and causes major social and metabolic losses for patients. This is a transversal retrospective study and the aim was to standardize the research on circulating androgenic hormone levels and to detect hyperandrogenic states early, showing the frequency and the pattern of the altered hormones, useful resources to correctly evaluate each patient. in this study 835 women abo...

  1. Audiological findings from an adult with thin cochlear nerves

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    Prabhu, Prashanth; Shivaswamy, Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Reported here are audiological findings from an adult with thin cochlear nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that he had a thinner cochlear nerve in the left ear than in the right ear. He had a higher degree of hearing loss in the left ear and poor speech recognition scores for both ears. He had normal middle ear and cochlear functioning. The auditory brainstem response and acoustic reflexes were absent, indicating a retrocochlear pathology. Long latency responses (LLR) revealed normal cortical functioning. Hence, implantation of an auditory brainstem implant might be an option, but the patient would need to be aware of its limitations. This case highlights the importance of MRI in evaluating congenital malformations of the cochlear nerve when audiological findings indicate a retrocochlear pathology. PMID:28357188

  2. Anal endosonographic findings in women after vaginal delivery

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    Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona, E-mail: iwsud@ciop.pl [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Stefanski, Robert [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Panorska, Anna K. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Nevada, Reno (United States); Gardyszewska, Agnieszka [Second Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warsaw (Poland); Krasnodebski, Ireneusz [Department of General and Gastroenterological Surgery and Nutrition, Medical University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    Objective: To estimate a frequency of obstetric anal sphincters defects in women after vaginal delivery. Methods: The study included 102 women, aged from 16 to 40 years (mean age 28.6 years). 28 women had perineal lacerations of 3rd and 4th degree. 22 women had instrumental delivery. Anal endosonography was performed on all participants using BK Medical scanner Pro focus with a 3D endoprobe during the first week after delivery. Starck's classification was used to score sphincters defects. Results: The endosonographic images were abnormal in 8 out of 102 women (7.8%). Follow-up examinations after 6 weeks confirmed defects in 6 out of 102 women (5.8%). Five women had external anal sphincter torn, and 1 woman had both sphincters, internal and external, defected. Discordance between endosonographic diagnosis of defect and clinical assessment of sphincters continuity was demonstrated in 6 (5.9%) out of 8 initially found, including 2 (1.9%) false endosonographic results and 4 (3.9%) false clinical diagnosis (occult sphincter defects). The endosonography sensitivity and accuracy in sphincter defect diagnostic amounted to 100% and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: (1) Anal sphincters' tears in symptomatic women are not as frequent as it was believed. (2) The defect diagnosis in the first week after delivery should be verified by a follow-up endosonography in 6 weeks, after regression of the edema and hematoma.

  3. Survey Finds that Few Women Are Teaching in PR Programs.

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    Lance, Elizabeth P.

    1986-01-01

    Presents results of a survey indicating that although nearly 70 percent of undergraduate public relations majors are women, these students have few female role models teaching them. Indicates that those women currently teaching public relations carry heavy teaching and student contact responsibilities, primarily because of their beginning faculty…

  4. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

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    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  5. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

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    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  6. The Experiences and Development of Undergraduate Adult Black Women

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    Clark, Joni Denise Dent

    2012-01-01

    Just as there are reasons why Black American women decide not to attend college or to dropout of college when they are young, there are reasons why they choose to enter or reenter college as adults. Among those reasons are self-fulfillment, career aspirations, financial incentives offered by employers, and military benefits (Parr, 2000; Richardson…

  7. Motivators of Adult Women Enrolled in a Community College

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    Johnston, Connie Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe what motivates adult women enrolled in a community college to pursue higher education. Utilizing profile analysis and multiple regression analyses, this study investigated the extent to which gender, English as a first language, and age predicted the seven factors of the Education Participation Scale (A-form)…

  8. State-Run Enterprises Find New Posts for Women Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    WHEN the market economy took the place of the planned economy, Chinese society entered a stage of transformation. This transformation brought about the reform of the labor management system. And with it, the contradiction hidden within the old mode of "full employment for women" was exposed. Market competition is doomed to be a competition of talent. A considerable number of women factory workers who can’t adapt to a competitive workforce have been sifted out. These women who had immersed themselves in their jobs for many years and had gotten used to connecting their individual lives with the destiny of the enterprise couldn’t accept this reality. Chinese women have made tremendous efforts to leave their homes in favor of working in factories;

  9. Neurotological Findings at a Health Unit for Adults with Cervicalgia

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    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The cervical spine is a flexible link between the sensory platform of the skull and torso. The fundamental principle of its operation is due to the balance between muscle strength and flexibility, and any dysfunction of this balance causes neck pain, known as cervicalgia. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze the most prevalent neurotological findings in adults with neck pain. Method A cross-sectional study in which 33 adults from 50 to 83 years of age with neck pain were evaluated and underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, as well as ENT, audiological, and vestibular exams. Results The most evident neurotological symptoms were dizziness (75.7%, tinnitus, neck cracking, tingling in the extremities, and auditory problems (36.3% for each. The most frequently reported clinical symptoms were related to cardiovascular (69.7%, endocrine-metabolic (48.5%, and rheumatic (30.3% systems. In the audiological assessment, 30 subjects (91.0% presented hearing impairment in at least one ear, with sensorineural impairment being the most prevalent (88.0%. In the vestibular assessment, there were alterations in 13 subjects (39.0% found in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alterations in the peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Conclusion Neurotological complaints were frequent in this population, verifying the importance of these tests in the dysfunctions of the cervical region or the craniocervical junction.

  10. Finding common ground: redefining women's work in Colombia.

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    Donaldson, J K

    1992-01-01

    Colombia's women's organizations which help household workers are profiled. In Bogota the Asociacion de Mujeres Trabajadoras del Hogar (AMUTRAHOGAR) provides legal counseling, educational courses, and a friendly gathering place. The experiences of several women are highlighted, e.g., Emma Ojeda comes to the weekly meetings for legal and moral support. AMUTRAHOGAR is an alliance of unskilled and largely rural workers and professional and urban women who are concerned with the joint recognition of the importance of domestic service. The stigma is by gender, social rank, and sometimes race. This informal economy does not have very accurate figures on workers. The estimate is half a million of mostly rural migrants. Another important organization is the Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poplacion (ACEP) which is a nongovernmental organization in Bogota begun in 1981. The aim was to review existing labor laws and evaluate how well the code was meeting women's needs. Magdalena Leon has been a research sociologist studying women's issues for 20 years through ACEP. ACEP has worked with the Sindicato de Trabajadoras del Servicio Domesticao (SINTRASEDOM) which represents and lobbies for household workers. Violation of the law on live-ins, wages, and time off duty was discovered a common occurrence. In the application of the law, employers found loopholes, and, for instance, subtracted food, clothing, and shelter which left little pocket money. The ACEP program was expanded to other cities in 1983. Program expansion included informal courses on citizenship, sexuality, and the role of women in Colombian society. When the social security code was reformed in 1977, household workers became eligible for benefits, but many employers were unaware of it. The law also excluded those with wages under the minimum wage. A public campaign was begun in 1985 by ACEP and SINTRASEDOM to inform people about the law. Community action was disrupted by unrelated political violence and

  11. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function : Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Levin, Roy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim. To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing sexu

  12. Lipoid pneumonia in adults: findings on high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology]. E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Araujo Neto, Cesar [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Irion, Klaus L. [The Cardiothoracic Centre NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Rodrigues, Rosana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF); Mancano, Alexandre Dias [Hospital Regional de Taguatinga, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Capone, Domenico [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Fialho, Suzane Mansur [Centro Nuclear da Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Carolina Althoff [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at describing the findings on high-resolution computed tomography in patients with exogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to mineral oil aspiration. Materials and methods: Eight adult patients - four men and four women - with mean age of 69.4 years were studied. All of the patients were users of mineral oil for treating intestinal constipation. High-resolution computed tomography studies of these patients were blindly evaluated by two radiologists. Results: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density and crazy paving pattern were the most frequent findings. The lesions were bilateral in six cases and unilateral in two. Conclusion: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density, associated with a clinical history of mineral oil ingestion virtually indicates a diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. (author)

  13. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function: Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L

    2010-01-01

    sexual arousal and orgasm. Methods.  A broad-based literature review of current knowledge of the psychological and biologic physiology aspects of women's sexual functioning. Results.  A comprehensive understanding of the anatomical, neurobiological, and psychological mechanisms behind sexual function......Introduction.  Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim.  To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing...... and responses is of paramount importance. A biopsychological paradigm was considered when reviewing currently available data, thus considering aspects of: (i) sexual differentiation of the brain, which is critical for sex differentiation in behavior; (ii) central neurobiology of sexual function, highlighting...

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women of Nepal

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    Mandira Shahi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of the study was to explore the prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women of Ramkot VDC (Village Development Committee, Kathmandu district of Nepal. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to explore the prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women of age group between 20 to 59 years old. Five wards were selected randomly on the lottery drawn and quota sampling basis. 22 samples were drawn from each selected wards. There were 110 sample sizes. A questionnaire guided interview method. BMI was calculated by following formula: weight in kg/height in m2. Findings The prevalence of obesity and overweight is 24.5 and 1.8% respectively and there is no association between BMI with caste, education and age. 81.7% of respondents, who consumed fruits more than five times a week had low BMI, whereas 44% of respondents, who consumed fruits less than once a week in their diet had high BMI indicating overweight and obesity. The significance difference of taking fruits daily or not, was showed by the chi square (p value i.e. 0.013. Conclusion The finding of this study shows that the prevalence of overweight among women was 24.5% and prevalence of obesity was 1.8%. Overweight and obesity of women was not associated with physical activities, whether women were vegetarian or non-vegetarian and frequency of food they usually took. But the women who took fruits frequently in their diet had low body mass index than women who took fruits less frequently. In other word, overweight and obesity among women was associated with fruits intake less frequently.

  15. Life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia

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    NN Shifiona

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems with women in peri-urban Namibie are faced with are multi-dimensional.Like women in other communities they face the pressure of having a number of responsibilities, namely working, being a wife and mother, taking care of their families and perhaps caring for aging parents. Sometimes the pressure can be too overwhelming to manage. As a result, many women become depressed. Studies on depression among black African women in Namibia could not be traced. It was therefore considered to find out how women suffering from depression from this part of the world tell their life stories. The purpose of the study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore and describe the life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia, and secondly to use the information obtained to describe guidelines for psychiatric nurses working with these patients at psychiatric outpatient clinics as well as in the community. A qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature was used. The researcher approached the subjects and their experiences with an open mind. Ten depressed adult women between 21-55 years were involved in the research. The researcher strived to adhere to the principles of trustworthiness. To ensure this Guba’s model (in Krefting, 1991: 217 of trustworthiness was adopted. All the interviews were analysed following Tesch’s method (Creswell, 1994: 154-55. The services of an independent coder were obtained. The results indicated that impaired interpersonal interactions and stressful life events have a negative influence on the daily life of women leading to the development of depressive symptoms. Guidelines to support psychiatric nurses working with depressed women were drawn up.

  16. Heterogeneity of income and lifestyle determinants of body weight among adult women in Mexico, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M A; Sosa-Rubí, S G

    2012-07-01

    In Mexico, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican women increased from 64% in 2000 to 72% in 2006. In this paper, we report our findings on the relation of women's body mass index (BMI) with income and lifestyles choices using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006. The two following approaches were executed. First, we estimated a two-stage least-squares regression to control for the potential endogeneity of income stratified by urban or rural residency. The second approach was aimed at exploring whether the determinants of weight varied among different weight levels using latent class models. Our findings from the two-stage least-squares regression show a positive non-significant association between income and BMI in the overall and urban samples but a significant positive relationship among rural women. Our results suggest that one unit increase in income is associated with 4.1% increase in body weight in rural areas. Estimates from the latent class model (LCM) show a positive but marginally significant association between income and BMI in the overall sample only in the class where there is a greater likelihood that women have normal weight or overweight compared to the class with a higher probability of being obese, but we also found a large association in rural areas for both classes. Lifestyle choices were associated with BMI. Results from the two-stage least-squares regressions reveal that more hours sitting per day and a higher percentage of expenditures in sugary beverages were associated with higher BMI levels. In the LCM, for women who eventually belong to the higher body weight class, lifestyles seem to matter more. Findings from this research suggest that policies to tackle the obesity epidemic among adult women should be different for women living in urban and rural areas and women with different weight levels.

  17. Radiologic findings of adult pelvis and appendicular skeletal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in nine patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, You Seon; Lee, In Sook; Kim, Do Kyung [Pusan National University Hospital, Medical Research Institute, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jae Hyuck [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kil Ho [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jong Woon [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the radiologic findings of adult pelvis and appendicular skeletal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), emphasizing the CT and MR findings. The images of nine patients with pathologically proven LCH (five men and four women; mean age, 37.11 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging analysis was confined to the long and flat bones. CT scans were performed in five patients and MR imaging was performed in eight. Images were assessed for the following features on CT and MRI: the location and number of lesions; the presence of cortical destruction, endosteal scalloping, and a periosteal reaction on CT or MRI; the margin of soft tissue masses, the presence of bone marrow edema, and a ''budding'' appearance on MRI; and the presence of sclerotic margins or septations on CT. The involved skeletal sites were the pelvis (seven), femurs (five), humeri (two), tibias (two), fibula (one), clavicle (one), scapula (one), and sternum (one). Endosteal scalloping, a periosteal reaction, and a budding appearance were common on MRI or CT images. Although cortical destruction and the soft tissue lesion formation were rare, soft tissue masses had well-defined margins. Endosteal scalloping and a budding appearance with a periosteal reaction on CT and MRI may be helpful signs for differentiation of LCH from malignant tumors in adults. (orig.)

  18. Recurrent group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in adult women: family epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D; Funaro, Deana; Kaplan, Edward L

    2007-03-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) vulvovaginitis has been reported in prepubertal girls. In adult women, a vaginal carrier state has been described, but vulvovaginitis is rarely reported. We describe 2 cases of recurrent GAS vulvovaginitis in women whose husbands were gastrointestinal carriers of GAS. Characterization of the isolated strains demonstrated that identical emm types of GAS were shared by partners. Treatment of both partners resulted in resolution of vaginitis. On the basis of negative vaginal culture results obtained after treatment of each individual episode of vaginitis, we believe that the female patients were reinfected as a result of exposure to their husbands, with shedding likely to have occurred in bed. These cases reiterate the necessity for adequate screening of the patient's family and contacts in cases of recurrent GAS infection by culturing all potential areas of GAS carriage.

  19. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  20. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  1. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  2. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  3. Androgenic hormone profile of adult women with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Machado, Carlos D Aparecida S

    2013-01-01

    Acne in adult women is a hard-to-manage frequent disease with many relapse cases. It mostly interferes with quality of life and causes major social and metabolic losses for patients. This is a transversal retrospective study and the aim was to standardize the research on circulating androgenic hormone levels and to detect hyperandrogenic states early, showing the frequency and the pattern of the altered hormones, useful resources to correctly evaluate each patient. In this study 835 women above 15 years of age, with acne or aggravation cases, were analyzed. The aim was to verify the percentage of androgen examinations with levels above normal. The levels of the hormones dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydrotestosterone, androstenedione and total testosterone were measured in all patients. The evaluation of the hormone profile showed that 54.56% of the patients had hyperandrogenism, and the levels of DHEA were most frequently elevated. Therefore, in the face of the importance of hyperandrogenism in the pathogenesis of acne, standardizing the research of the hormone profile is paramount for the treatment and control of relapses in case of a surge of acne breakouts during a woman's adult life.

  4. Chest HRCT findings in acute transformation of adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fumito; Sato, Haruka; Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Ono, Asami; Tokuyama, Kouhei; Ando, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Akira; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yufu, Oita (Japan); Ogata, Masao; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Takano, Kuniko [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Yufu, Oita (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    To assess chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with acute transformation of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). We retrospectively identified 72 consecutive patients at our institution with ATLL between October 2000 and March 2014. The cases included acute type (n = 20), lymphoma type (n = 21), smouldering type (n = 24) and chronic type (n = 7). Sixteen (7 men, 9 women; aged 36-85 years, mean 63.3 years) of 31 patients (24 with smouldering and seven with chronic type; 51.6 %) developed acute transformation of ATLL, and had undergone chest HRCT examinations. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, pericardial effusion, pleural effusion and skin lesions were evaluated on HRCT. Chest HRCT of 15 of the 16 patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n = 8), consolidation (n = 5), interlobular septal thickening (n = 5) and nodules (n = 5). Pleural effusion was found in five patients, lymph node enlargement in 10 patients and multiple skin thickening in two patients. Almost all patients with acute transformation of ATLL had abnormal findings on chest HRCT, which consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement, GGO, interlobular septal thickening, nodules and bilateral pleural effusions. (orig.)

  5. Why do adult women in Vietnam take iron tablets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yun

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting iron supplementation programs has been a major strategy to reduce iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. However, only a few countries have reported improvements in the anemia rate at a national level. The strategies used for control of nutrition problems need regular review to maintain and improve their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors in compliance with taking iron tablets, where daily doses of iron (60 mg and folic acid (400 μg were distributed in rural Vietnamese communes. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Nghe An province, Vietnam in January, 2003. The study population was adult women aged less than 35 years who delivered babies between August 1st 2001 and December 1st 2002 (n = 205, of which 159 took part in the study. Data for the study were collected from a series of workshops with community leaders, focus group discussions with community members and a questionnaire survey. Results Improvements in the rate of anemia was not given a high priority as one of the commune's needs, but the participants still made efforts to continue taking iron tablets. Two major factors motivated the participants to continue taking iron tablets; their experience of fewer spells of dizziness (50%, and their concern for the health of their newborn baby (54%. When examining the reasons for taking iron tablets for at least 5–9 months, the most important factor was identified as 'a frequent supply of iron tablets' (OR = 11.93, 95% CI: 4.33–32.85. Conclusion The study found that multiple poor environmental risk factors discouraged women from taking iron tablets continuously. The availability (frequent supply of iron tablets was the most effective way to help adult women to continue taking iron tablets.

  6. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  7. Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. DESIGN: Six areas were selected according to the geographical regions in China. In each of these areas, we selected 4 distinct groups of subjects (children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in regions where the coverage rate of iodised salt was more than 95% and the levels of iodine and fluoride in drinking water were less than or equal to 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. We tested the iodine content of salt, urinary iodine (UI, free thyroxin (FT4, thyrotropin (TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab and antimicrosomal antibody (TM-Ab in the 4 groups, and examined the thyroid volume in children. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine (MUI concentrations were 271.4 μg/L, 260.2 μg/L, 205.9 μg/L and 193.9 μg/L in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively; MUI in children and adults were more than adequate. The goitre prevalence (GP in children was 6.70%. The odds ratios (OR of subclinical hypothyroidism in the Tg-Ab- or TM-Ab-positive groups were 3.80, 7.65, 2.01 and 7.47 for children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively, compared with the negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in children and adults is above the requirement, we should reduce their iodine intake. Subclinical hypothyroidism easily occurs in the Tg-Ab or TM-Ab positive groups.

  8. Insomnia is a frequent finding in adults with Asperger syndrome

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    von Wendt Lennart

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while there is scarcity of reports concerning adulthood of AS subjects despite the lifelong nature of this syndrome. In children with Asperger syndrome the initiation and continuity of sleep is disturbed because of the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS. It is probable that sleep difficulties are present in adulthood as well. Our hypothesis was that adults with AS suffer from difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep and nonrestorative sleep (insomnia. Methods 20 AS without medication were compared with 10 healthy controls devoid of neuropsychiatric anamnesis. Clinical examination, blood test battery and head MRI excluded confounding somatic illnesses. Structured psychiatric interview for axis-I and axis-II disorders were given to both groups as well as Beck Depression Inventory and Wechsler adult intelligence scale, revised version. Sleep quality was assessed with sleep questionnaire, sleep diary during 6 consecutive days and description of possible sleep problems by the participants own words was requested. Results compared with controls and with normative values of good sleep, AS adults had frequent insomnia. In sleep questionnaire 90% (18/20, in sleep diary 75% (15/20 and in free description 85% (17/20 displayed insomnia. There was a substantial psychiatric comorbidity with only 4 AS subject devoid of other axis-I or axis-II disorders besides AS. Also these persons displayed insomnia. It can be noted that the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses in AS subjects was virtually similar to that found among patient with chronic insomnia. Conclusions the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS predispose both to insomnia and to anxiety and mood disorders. Therefore a careful assessment of sleep quality should be an

  9. Women in Adult Education: An Analysis of Perspectives in Major Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Smith, Letitia

    To clarify dominant perspectives on women in adult education publications, ethnographic content analysis was used to examine 112 journal articles in 4 major adult education journals. Articles analyzed were from two North American journals ("Adult Education"/"Adult Education Quarterly" and "Adult…

  10. Childhood factors associated with mammographic density in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Moreno, María Pilar; Vidal, Carmen; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Ascunce, Nieves; Román, Isabel González; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, María Carmen; Carrete, Jose Antonio Vázquez; Collado-García, Francisca; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Ederra, María; Ruiz-Perales, Francisco; Peris, Mercé; Abad, Soledad; Cabanes, Anna; Pollán, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Growth and development factors could contribute to the development of breast cancer associated with an increase in mammographic density. This study examines the influence of certain childhood-related, socio-demographic and anthropometric variables on mammographic density in adult woman. The study covered 3574 women aged 45-68 years, participating in breast cancer-screening programmes in seven Spanish cities. Based on a craniocaudal mammogram, blind, anonymous measurement of mammographic density was made by a single radiologist, using Boyd's semiquantitative scale. Data associated with the early stages of life were obtained from a direct survey. Ordinal logistic regression and generalised linear models were employed to estimate the association between mammographic density and the variables covered by the questionnaire. Screening programme was introduced as a random effects term. Age, number of children, body mass index (BMI) and other childhood-related variables were used as adjustment variables, and stratified by menopausal status. A total of 811 women (23%) presented mammographic density of over 50%, and 5% of densities exceeded 75%. Our results show a greater prevalence of high mammographic density in women with low prepubertal weight (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02-1.36); marked prepubertal height (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97-1.60) and advanced age of their mothers at their birth (>39 years: OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60); and a lower prevalence of high mammographic density in women with higher prepubertal weight, low birth weight and earlier menarche. The influence of these early-life factors may be explained by greater exposure to hormones and growth factors during the development of the breast gland, when breast tissue would be particularly susceptible to proliferative and carcinogenic stimulus.

  11. Adults' Participation in Informal Learning Activities: Key Findings from the Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Horng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Li, Ai-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the informal learning experiences expressed by Taiwanese adults (aged from 16 to 97) and examined their involvement related to selected socio-demographic characteristics. Data of the 2008 Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan and Fujian Area were used to look at different variables of adults' demographic…

  12. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L;

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  13. Evaluation of Skin Findings in Adult Obese Dermatology Outpatients

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    Hilal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between systemic diseases and obesity is well-known, but the dermatological effects of obesity are ignored. In the literature, a few articles have appeared concerning the skin findings related to obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the skin findings in obese patients who applied to dermatology outpatient clinic and to compare obese and non-obese outpatients. Material and Method: A total 640 patients (300-in study group, 340-in control group were included in the study. All subjects were asked questions about socio-demographic features and presence of coexisting systemic diseases. Body mass index was calculated, dermatologic examination was performed, and diagnosis was recorded. Data were evaluated statistically. Results: Three-hundred obese patients (study group; 229 females, 71 males, mean age: 45.89 years and 340 non-obese outpatients (control group; 160 females, 180 males, mean age: 38.99 years were included in our study. There were more females in the study group and the mean age was higher than the control group. Most common skin findings of obese patients were: Skin tag (53.3%, plantar hyperkeratosis (29.6%, fungal infections (25.3%, striae (20.3% and acanthosis nigricans (15.3%. Fungal infections, intertrigo, varicose veins and keratosis pilaris were more common in females than males in the study group. Within the study group, patients with skin tag, acanthosis nigricans and plantar hyperkeratosis had higher BMI.Conclusion: Skin tag, plantar hyperkeratosis, fungal infections, striae and acanthosis nigricans were found to be the most common skin diseases in obese patients in our study. Studies related with pathophysiologic features of the skin of obese patients will give more information about the development and treatment of these diseases. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 184-7

  14. MR imaging findings of acetabular dysplasia in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Steven; Connell, David [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Radiology Department, London, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Miocevic, Miranda; Malara, Frank; Pike, Jonathan [Victoria House Hospital, Radiology Department, Melbourne (Australia); Young, David [Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, Orthopaedic Surgery, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in the identification of labral and articular cartilage lesions in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Pre-operative MR imaging was performed on 27 hips in 25 consecutive patients (16 males, 9 females, age range 19-52 years, mean age 31.2 years) with radiographic evidence of acetabular dysplasia (centre-edge angle of Wiberg <20 degrees). The average duration of symptoms was 16.2 months. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed MR images in consensus for the presence of abnormality involving the acetabular labrum and adjacent acetabular articular cartilage. A high resolution, non-arthrographic technique was used to assess the labrum and labral chondral transitional zone. Surgical correlation was obtained in all cases by a single surgeon experienced in hip arthroscopy and ten patients with normal hip MRI were included to provide a control group. The acetabular labra in the dysplastic hips demonstrated abnormal signal intensity, and had an elongated appearance when compared with the control group (mean length 10.9 mm vs 6.4 mm). Morphological appearances in the labra included surface irregularity, fissures and cleft formation. MR imaging correctly identified the severity of chondral abnormality in 24 of 27 hips (89%) when compared with arthroscopic findings. MR imaging demonstrates an elongated labrum, focal intra-substance signal change and irregularity and fissuring of the margins in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Abnormality is also identified at the labral chondral transitional zone, where fissuring, focal clefts, chondral deficiency and subchondral cyst formation may be apparent. A high-resolution, non-arthrographic technique can provide an accurate preoperative assessment and evaluate the presence of premature osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  15. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening.

  16. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in adults: clinical and radiological findings in diffuse and focal forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loffroy, R. [Department of Radiology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France)]. E-mail: loffroy.romaric@neuf.fr; Guiu, B. [Department of Radiology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France); Watfa, J. [Department of Urology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France); Michel, F. [Department of Urology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France); Cercueil, J.P. [Department of Radiology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France); Krause, D. [Department of Radiology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France)

    2007-09-15

    Aim: To describe the clinical and radiological features of focal and diffuse xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) in adults. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the clinical data, laboratory findings, imaging features, and surgical treatment of 13 cases of histologically proven XGP diagnosed between January 1993 and December 2005 was undertaken. There were 10 women and three men with a mean age of 55.2 years (range 30-87 years). All patients underwent both sonography and computed tomography (CT) of the kidneys. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in two patients. Results: XGP was diffuse in 11 patients and focal in two patients. Fever, anorexia and weight loss, urinary symptoms, and flank pain were the most common manifestations. Urinary tract infection was found in eight patients. Sonography and CT showed diffuse kidney enlargement in seven cases and atrophy in five cases; a solitary solid mass was found in two patients. Hydronephrosis was noted in nine cases, staghorn calculus in six, and extensive pararenal disease in six. MRI failed to provide the preoperative diagnosis in the two patients with focal XGP. Total or partial nephrectomy was performed without postoperative complications. Conclusion: Although rare, XGP is the main differential diagnosis of malignant renal neoplasia. The definitive diagnosis depends on histological examination of the operative specimen. Preoperatively, the diagnosis can often be suspected based on imaging studies, primarily CT.

  17. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies. METHODS: Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit. RESULTS: Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  18. Personal Strength and Finding Meaning in Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults: A Four-Year Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hyun; Kjervik, Diane; Belyea, Michael; Choi, Eun Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the patterns and mechanisms of the development of personal strength of bereaved older adults over a 4-year period after spousal death. The findings showed that while bereaved older adults, on average, experienced a moderate level of personal strength at 6 months post-spousal death with a slight increase over a…

  19. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  20. Vitamin D status of Irish adults: findings from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Muldowney, Siobhan; McNulty, Breige; Nugent, Anne; FitzGerald, Anthony P; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert

    2013-04-14

    Previous national nutrition surveys in Irish adults did not include blood samples; thus, representative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data are lacking. In the present study, we characterised serum 25(OH)D concentrations in Irish adults from the recent National Adult Nutrition Survey, and determined the impact of vitamin D supplement use and season on serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Of the total representative sample (n 1500, aged 18+ years), blood samples were available for 1132 adults. Serum 25(OH)D was measured via immunoassay. Vitamin D-containing supplement use was assessed by questionnaire and food diary. Concentrations of serum 25(OH)D were compared by season and in supplement users and non-users. Year-round prevalence rates for serum 25(OH)D concentration 125 nmol/l. These first nationally representative serum 25(OH)D data for Irish adults show that while only 6.7 % had serum 25(OH)D Institute of Medicine as being inadequate for bone health. These prevalence estimates were much higher during winter time. While vitamin D supplement use has benefits in terms of vitamin D status, at present rates of usage (17.5 % of Irish adults), it will have only very limited impact at a population level. Food-based strategies, including fortified foods, need to be explored.

  1. Type of snack influences satiety responses in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furchner-Evanson, Allison; Petrisko, Yumi; Howarth, Leslie; Nemoseck, Tricia; Kern, Mark

    2010-06-01

    The effect of different snack foods on satiety and plasma glucose and hormone responses was assessed. Nineteen fasted adult women (mean age: 39.2 + or - 0.7 years, mean BMI: 26.1 + or - 0.8 kg/m(2)) consumed test foods including dried plums, low-fat cookies, white bread and water only on separate days. The test foods (with the exception of water) provided 238 kcal and were similar in total carbohydrate, fat and protein content but differed in fiber and sugar content. Subjects rated their feelings of hunger using satiety index scales prior to snack consumption and again every 15 min for 2h following initiation of intake. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min following intake. At the end of the 120-min test period, subjects were presented with a meal to be consumed until satisfied. The satiety index AUC was greater for the dried plum trial versus the low-fat cookie trial (p hunger relative to a low-fat cookie as evidenced by lower glucose and/or satiety-regulating hormone concentrations.

  2. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women.

  3. Patterns and distribution of HIV among adult men and women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Perkins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While the estimated prevalence of HIV in India experienced a downward revision in 2007, the patterning and distribution of HIV in the population remains unclear. We examined the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India as well as the patterning of other individual demographic and behavioral determinants of HIV status. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted logistic regression models accounting for the survey design using nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 100,030 women and men from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health survey which, for the first time, provided objective assessments of HIV seroprevalence. Although there was a weak relationship between household wealth and risk of being HIV-positive, there was a clear negative relationship between individual education attainment and risk of being HIV-positive among both men and women. A 1000 Rupee change in the per capita net state domestic product was associated with a 4% and 5% increase in the risk for positive HIV status among men and women, respectively. State-level income inequality was associated with increased risk of HIV for men. Marital status and selected sexual behavior indicators were significant predictors of HIV status among women whereas the age effect was the most dominant predictor of HIV infection among men. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the prevalence of HIV in India is low, the lack of strong wealth patterning in the risk of HIV suggests a more generalized distribution of HIV risk than some of India's high-risk group HIV prevention policies have assumed. The positive association between state economic development and individual risk for HIV is intriguing and requires further scrutiny.

  4. Self-Reported Empathy in Adult Women with Autism Spectrum Disorders - A Systematic Mini Review.

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    Francien M Kok

    Full Text Available There is limited research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD in females. Although the empathy construct has been examined thoroughly in autism, little attention has been paid to empathy in adult women with this condition or to gender differences within the disorder.Self-reported empathy in adult women with ASD was examined and compared to that of typically developed men and women as well as to men with this condition.Online databases were searched for articles investigating self-reported empathy among adult women with ASD. Only six studies comparing women to men were identified.All studies found women with an ASD to report lower levels of empathy than typically developed women, and typically developed men, but similar levels to men with this condition.The self-reported empathic ability of women diagnosed with ASD resembles that of their male counterparts most closely; they show a hypermasculinisation in empathy. This is particularly surprising considering the large gender difference in empathy in the general population.One of the limitations of this review is that the current diagnostic criteria for ASD are oriented towards male-specific behaviour and fail to integrate gender specific characteristics. Hence, women diagnosed with ASD are likely to be at the male end of the continuum. The suggested hypermasculinisation of women on the spectrum, as evident from this review, may therefore be exaggerated due to a selection bias.

  5. Finding sex partners on-line: a new high-risk practice among older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strombeck, Rita

    2003-06-01

    By the year 2004, it is estimated that more than 34 million older Americans will be Internet users. The revolution in mass communication has changed the way people of all ages interact. Studies indicate that love and romance rate very high among the concerns of older adults using the Internet, and older adults are using it to meet other people. Numerous web sites targeting older adults include channels for developing personal relationships. Although studies suggest that individuals who seek out sex partners on the Internet may be at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases, very little is known about the attitudes and behaviors of older adults who seek and find sexual partners on-line. Because the number of older Internet users is predicted to grow exponentially as baby boomers age, research is needed about the Internet attitudes and practices of older adults.

  6. Applying Erikson's wisdom to self-management practices of older adults: findings from two field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tam E; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia; Hassevoort, Luke

    2015-04-01

    According to Erik Erikson's theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson's theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This article presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving and (2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed.

  7. Adult Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Mimicking a Cortical Brain Tumor: MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Weon, Young Cheol; Suh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young; Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. Although a PMA is generally a tumor of early childhood and typically occurs in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region, it can mimic cortical tumors, especially in adults. We report the MR findings of a PMA presenting as a cortical brain tumor in an adult with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

  8. Mammographic density in asymptomatic menopausal women: correlation with clinical and sonographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Regina Alvares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mammographic breast density in asymptomatic menopausal women in correlation with clinical and sonographic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mammograms and clinical and sonographic findings of 238 asymptomatic patients were retrospectively reviewed in the period from February/2022 to June/2006. The following variables were analyzed: mammographic density patterns, sonographic findings, patients' age, parity, body mass index and use of hormone replacement therapy. RESULTS: Age, parity and body mass index showed a negative correlation with breast density pattern, while use of hormone replacement therapy showed a positive correlation. Supplementary breast ultrasonography was performed in 103 (43.2% patients. Alterations which could not be visualized at mammography were found in 34 (33% of them, most frequently in women with breast density patterns 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that breast density patterns were influenced by age, parity, body mass index and time of hormone replacement therapy. Despite not having found any malignant abnormality in the studied cases, the authors have observed a predominance of benign sonographic abnormalities in women with high breast density patterns and without mammographic abnormalities, proving the relevance of supplementary ultrasonography to identify breast lesions in such patients.

  9. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. METHODS: We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set. RESULTS: Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  10. Study of Mammographic Findings of Breast Cancer in Women under 35 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Brest cancer is the second reason of mortality due to cancer in women and according to its high prevalence and psychosociophysical complications, immediate diagnosis is always under consideration. In most cases diagnosis of breast cancer in young women in reproductive ages is difficult. The objective of this study was report mammographic findings of breast cancer in women under 35 years old."nPatients and Methods: In this study the present files in storage room of radiology ward of Imam Reza, Qaem, and Omid Hospitals (1995-2004. In Mashad university of Medical sciences related to women under 35 years with breast cancer were assessed. Specific goals in this study were specification the clinical signs, mammographic findings, the pathology of breast cancer and also family history."nResults: A total of 2570 patients with breast cancer during 10 years period refered to these centers that 231 patients (9% were ≤35 years. Sixty two patients (51.3% had positive family history. The most common cancer according to the history was breast cancer in 30 cases (48.4%. The most common chief complain in these patients was a mass in 74 cases (80.4%.The most common mammographic pattern was mass with microcalcification in 37 cases (33.9%. Identifying a mass alone in mammography was seen in 17 cases (15.6%. The tumors were in the left breast in 114 cases (49%, and the most common site was supralateral quadrant (50.8%. The most common pathology was ductal carcinoma invasive in 200 cases (86.6%."nConclusion: Breast cancer in young women have poor prognosis. It may be difficult to detect breast cancer in mammography and the other modalities are usually helpful. Masses which discovered by patients themselves must be considered strictly and diagnostic procedures must be performed due to that, immediate treatment would be effective.

  11. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  12. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

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    Duvigneaud Nathalie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ≥ 94 cm (men or ≥ 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are

  13. "You're Always First a Girl": Emerging Adult Women, Gender, and Sexuality in the Israeli Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli army drafts both men and women, and most Israelis complete their military service during their emerging adulthood years. This study examined Israeli women's experiences as soldiers in the army. Twenty-three women (18 emerging adults, 5 young adults) were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed about how they experienced…

  14. An overview of the predictors of depression among adult Pakistani women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidie, Aysha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2013-08-01

    Diseases of women that are due to their gender specific roles and responsibilities result from cultural and social factors prevalent in the environs. World Health Organization has put special emphasis on research need regarding gender related factors for diseases disproportionately affecting women in developing countries. The objective of this write up was to determine the prevalence of depression and the associated risk factors among adult women in Pakistan. PubMed was searched using key words depression, risk factors, women and Pakistan. Out of 20 initially retrieved articles, 12 were directly related to depression and its risk factors among Pakistani women within Pakistani geographical context. Women in Pakistan are vulnerable to poor mental health due to marriage related issues, domestic violence, verbal or physical abuse by in-laws, stressful life and poor social conditions. Women in their perinatal period are more at risk of depression due to pregnancy related concerns.

  15. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  16. Dialogical Feminism: Other Women and the Challenge of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Academic feminism is now largely concerned with abstract theory and a discourse which distances it from the lived reality of working class women. This paper explores, through the concept and approach of dialogical feminism, ways in which feminists in the academy can re-connect with 'other women' in working towards social transformation for all…

  17. Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Women Treated with Toremifene for Premenstrual Mastalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksa, S. (Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori (Finland)); Parkkola, R. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Turku, Turku (Finland)); Luukkaala, T.; Maeenpaeae, J. (Medical School, Univ. of Tampere, Tampere (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    Background: Toremifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been shown to be effective in alleviating premenstrual breast pain. However, the exact mechanism by which toremifene and related compounds work in premenstrual mastalgia is poorly understood. Purpose: To find out if the effect of toremifene on breast would be detectable with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: This randomized, double-blind crossover study was performed on women suffering from marked premenstrual mastalgia. Ten women were randomized to receive either toremifene (20 mg) or placebo from cycle day 15 until next menstruation for three menstrual cycles. After a washout period, the treatment was crossed over for three additional cycles. The MRI evaluations were performed premenstrually at the end of each treatment phase. Breast pain and quality-of-life scores were collected from one baseline cycle and from all the treatment cycles. Results: Nine patients were evaluable for this analysis. Both the enhancement ratio and the maximum slope of enhancement tended to be smaller during the toremifene cycles as compared to placebo. On the left side, the difference in the maximum slope of enhancement between toremifene and placebo was statistically significant (median 5.150 [range 3.7-6.7] and 6.500 [range 4.9-9.5], respectively; P=0.047). T2 relaxation times as well as breast pain and quality-of-life scores were inconsistent. Conclusion: Use of toremifene is associated with measurable changes in dynamic breast MRI findings in women with cyclic breast pain

  18. The lived experience of women with cancer: phenomenological findings expressed through poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lynne; Aquino-Russell, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Cancer rates for Canadian women between the ages of 22 and 44 are increasing. Improved survival times and more treatment choices, however create new challenges. Little research has been done to uncover the lived experience of long-term survival. This pilot study describes the meaning of living with cancer for three Canadian women who were diagnosed more than four years ago. The process of inquiry was Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method for analysis-synthesis of a general structural description (the meaning of the experience). The findings have been interpreted creatively through poetry in an effort to enhance understanding of the experience of living with cancer Each section of the poem is discussed in relation to the literature to encourage nurses and other health professionals to consider the importance of understanding patients' lived experiences and the meanings they ascribe, in order to provide quality, holistic, and individualized care.

  19. Evaluation of early atherosclerotic findings in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Afshin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women of childbearing age, and it seems better to consider it as an ovarian manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the current study was to evaluate early atherosclerotic findings in patients with PCOS. Methods We enrolled 46 women with PCOS and 45 normal control subjects who were referred to our hospital's endocrinology outpatient clinic. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD were performed in both cases and matched controls. Results Patients with PCOS showed an increased mean CIMT (0.63 ± 0.16 mm when compared with the control subjects (0.33 ± 0.06 mm. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001. The mean FMD in young patients with PCOS was 10.07 ± 1.2%, while it was 6.5 ± 2.06% in normal subjects. This difference was also statistically significant (p = 0.001. Conclusion Our findings suggest that PCOS is related with early atherosclerotic findings.

  20. Threat is in the sex of the beholder: men find weapons faster than do women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulikowski, Danielle; Burke, Darren

    2014-10-29

    In visual displays, people locate potentially threatening stimuli, such as snakes, spiders, and weapons, more quickly than similar benign stimuli, such as beetles and gadgets. Such biases are likely adaptive, facilitating fast responses to potential threats. Currently, and historically, men have engaged in more weapons-related activities (fighting and hunting) than women. If biases of visual attention for weapons result from selection pressures related to these activities, then we would predict such biases to be stronger in men than in women. The current study reports the results of two visual search experiments, in which men showed a stronger bias of attention toward guns and knives than did women, whether the weapons were depicted wielded or not. When the weapons were depicted wielded, both sexes searched for them with more caution than when they were not. Neither of these effects extended reliably to syringes, a non-weapon-yet potentially threatening-object. The findings are discussed with respect to the "weapons effect" and social coercion theory.

  1. Threat is in the Sex of the Beholder: Men Find Weapons Faster than do Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Sulikowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In visual displays, people locate potentially threatening stimuli, such as snakes, spiders, and weapons, more quickly than similar benign stimuli, such as beetles and gadgets. Such biases are likely adaptive, facilitating fast responses to potential threats. Currently, and historically, men have engaged in more weapons-related activities (fighting and hunting than women. If biases of visual attention for weapons result from selection pressures related to these activities, then we would predict such biases to be stronger in men than in women. The current study reports the results of two visual search experiments, in which men showed a stronger bias of attention toward guns and knives than did women, whether the weapons were depicted wielded or not. When the weapons were depicted wielded, both sexes searched for them with more caution than when they were not. Neither of these effects extended reliably to syringes, a non-weapon—yet potentially threatening—object. The findings are discussed with respect to the “weapons effect” and social coercion theory.

  2. Radiologic Findings of Reversed Intestinal Rotation in Adults: 3 Cases Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Hyeon Seok; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon; Kim, Kum Rae [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Kyu [Suh Joo Mir Radiologic Clinic, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Yeol [Gumi CHA University Medical Center, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Most anomalies of intestinal rotation are detected during the postneonatal period. In adults, the diagnosis and treatment of patients with a congenital anomaly of the midgut can be difficult because of their extremely rarity. Based on embryology, anomalies of intestinal rotation can be divided into non-rotation, reversed rotation and malrotation. Reversed rotation of the midgut is the rarest of all anomalies of intestinal rotation. Although this anomaly is rare, it can be diagnosed by a detailed knowledge of embryology and anatomy. We report three adult patients with reversed intestinal rotation and review the embryology, clinical presentation and radiographic findings of this disorder

  3. CT findings of swyer-james-macleod syndrome in adults: are there any different findings with aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Joung Sook; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jae Hyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jeong Joo [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We wanted to evaluate whether there is any different finding on CT with aging for the patients suffering with adult Swyer-James-MacLeod Syndrome (SJMS). We included 11 patients (7 males and 4 females) who underwent chest CT scan among 18 patients who were suspected of suffering with SJMS on chest radiographs. The range of age was from 28 to 85 years (mean: 58.5). We evaluated the diameter of both the main pulmonary artery (MPA) with its ratio, and the diameter of the pulmonary trunk (PT) to evaluate the possibility of pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the presence or absence of bronchiectasis. We also evaluated the relationships between these findings and aging. SJMS affected the left lung in 10 of 11 patients. The mean diameter of the main pulmonary artery of the normal lung was 2.5 cm and it was 1.6 cm in the involved site. The mean ratio of the normal MPA diameter to the involved one was 1.6 and this did not correlate with age ({rho} > 0.1). The mean diameter of the pulmonary trunk was 2.8 cm and this increased with age ({rho} < 0.05). There was bronchiectasis in 6 of 11 patients, and the ratio of bronchiectasis did not correlate with age ({rho} > 0.5). SJMS absolutely affected the left lung much more than right lung. All the patients demonstrated about 1.6 times the compensatory hypertrophy of MPA of the normal lung compared with that of the affected lung on chest CT, which was irrespective of age. The presence or absence of bronchiectasis has no correlation with age.

  4. CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 variants and level of neuroticism in young adult Mexican American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, José R; Gizer, Ian R; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-01

    A lifetime history of alcohol dependence has been associated with elevations in neuroticism in Mexican American young adults. The identification of genetic markers associated with neuroticism and their influence on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) may contribute to our understanding of the relationship between personality traits and the increased risk of AUD in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neuroticism and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α5-subunit (CHRNA5) and α3-subunit (CHRNA3) genes in young adult Mexican American men and women. Participants were 465 young adult Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Neuroticism was assessed using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The minor alleles of four CHRNA5 polymorphisms (rs588765, rs601079, rs680244 and rs555018) and three CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776, rs6495307 and rs3743078) showed associations with neuroticism. Several of these SNPs also displayed nominal associations with DSM-IV alcohol and nicotine dependence, but tests of mediation suggested that these relations could be partially explained by the presence of co-occurring neuroticism. These findings suggest that genetic variations in nicotinic receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism, which in turn is involved in the development of AUDs and nicotine dependence in Mexican American young adults.

  5. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  6. Designing Curriculum and Technology for Women's Adult Education Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Rajkumari

    1980-01-01

    In dealing with the problem of illiteracy among women, the author feels that educational programs should form part of the large framework of integrated rural development and should combine education with work. Gives practical hints, and suggests how indigenous methods can be effective in the teaching-learning process. (CT)

  7. Counseling Adult Women Who Experienced Incest in Childhood or Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Christine A.; Watts, Deborah L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the definition and incidence of incest, counseling needs of incest victims, and strategies for working with women who experienced incest in childhood or adolescence. Identifies techniques and resources for individual and group counseling. Suggests counselors expand their knowledge about incest in order to offer appropriate services.…

  8. Women's Rights to Adult Education as a Means to Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental reason for the advocacy of women's literacy is its contribution to the attainment of citizenship, that is the claiming and use of public space and power. Following a presentation of basic trends and public policies in literacy, this article reviews the diverse theoretical understandings of literacy. It discusses normative arguments…

  9. Gynecological manifestations, histopathological findings, and schistosoma-specific polymerase chain reaction results among women with Schistosoma haematobium infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma...

  10. Sustaining advocacy and action on women's participation and gender equality in adult education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-08-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE) observed that a gender gap in the participation in adult learning and education still persisted in 2009. This is especially remarkable with regard to the impact of CONFINTEA V in 1997, because it focused on the issue of women's participation and gender equality. A review of the CONFINTEA VI programme elements and the national reports prepared by UNESCO Member States in 2008 reveals that gender issues have to some extent moved from the centre of attention to the periphery. This article therefore tries to explore how gender principles are acknowledged in CONFINTEA VI and its follow-up.

  11. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine M. McLeod; Johnson, C. Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES) evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and heal...

  12. The Effects of Vaccine Characteristics on Adult Women's Attitudes about Vaccination: A Conjoint Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Melissa S; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Sturm, Lynne A; Mays, Rose M; Bair, Rita M; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    The number of current and future vaccines for adults has been steadily increasing. Yet, vaccine coverage rates for adult vaccinations have historically been low, and less is known about how adults in the mid-adult age range make vaccine decisions for themselves. The purpose of this study was to assess which vaccine characteristics affect vaccine decision-making among mid-adult women. Adult women, aged 27–55 (n=258) rated 9 hypothetical vaccine scenarios, each of which was defined along 4 dimensions: mode of transmission (STI or non-STI), severity of infection (curable, chronic, or fatal), vaccine efficacy (50%, 70%, or 90%), and availability of behavioral methods for prevention (available or not available). Ratings ranged from 0 to 100. Conjoint analysis was used to assess the effect of relative preferences for the vaccine scenario characteristics on participant ratings of scenarios. The mean vaccine scenario rating was 78.2. Nearly half (40%, n =104) of participants rated all nine scenarios the same, with the majority of those (84%) holding strongly positive views. Conjoint analysis of the other 154 participants who discriminated between scenarios indicated that the main drivers for vaccine acceptability were severity of the disease and the efficacy of the vaccine to prevent the disease. Mode of transmission and availability of a preventative behavioral measure did not play a significant role. Future studies should further assess how women's understanding of severity of the disease and efficacy of the vaccine to prevent disease may be useful for increasing vaccine acceptability. PMID:21527303

  13. Exploring Baseline Food-Media Literacy of Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tina L.

    2012-01-01

    Many media education researchers have identified the importance of adult media literacy but few have studied it. Such literacy is becoming increasingly important with regard to the growing category of food media--advertisements, television programs, and print media among them. Using two focus groups and guided by Primack and Hobbs' (2009) AA, RR,…

  14. Influence of strength training on adult women's flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Walace David; Simão, Roberto; Polito, Marco Doederlein; Santana, Cleves Araújo; Chaves, Rogério Batista; Bezerra, Ewerton; Fleck, Steven J

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks of strength training on the flexibility of sedentary middle-aged women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to either a strength training group (n = 10; age, 37 +/- 1.7 years; body mass, 65.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height, 157.7 +/- 10.8 cm; and body mass index, 25.72 +/- 3.3 kg x m(-2)) or a control group (n = 10; age, 36.9 +/- 1.2 years; body mass, 64.54 +/- 10.18 kg; height, 158.1 +/- 8.9 cm; and body mass index, 26.07 +/- 2.8 kg x m(-2)). The strength training program was a total body session performed in a circuit fashion and consisted of 7 exercises performed for 3 circuits of 8 to 12 repetitions maximum (RM), except for the abdominal exercise which was performed for 15 to 20 RM. Flexibility measurements were taken for 10 articulation movements pre and post training: shoulder flexion and extension, shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction, elbow flexion, hip flexion and extension, knee flexion, and trunk flexion and extension. Pre and post training, 10 RM strength significantly increased (p training. The control group showed no significant change in any of the flexibility measures determined. In conclusion, weight training can increase flexibility in previously sedentary middle-aged women in some, but not all joint movements.

  15. Prevalence of abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance (MR examinations in adult participants of brain docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketomi-Takahashi Ayako

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence of abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance (MR examinations in adult participants of brain docking in order to assess its usefulness. Methods We analyzed screening brain MR examinations for 1113 adults (age, 52.6+/-8.5 years; range, 22–84; 761 male and 352 female performed during 6-year period from April 1998 to March 2004. All participants voluntarily sought a brain MR examination at their own expense. All subjects were studied using the same 1.0-T MR scanner, on axial T1-weighted spin echo (SE images, proton-density-weighted and T2-weighted fast SE images, and intracranial MR angiography (MRA. All abnormal findings were classified into three basic categories: (1 findings with no referral necessary; (2 findings not requiring further evaluation, but which needed to be reported to the referring physician; (3 findings requiring further evaluation. Results Participants with abnormal MR findings requiring further evaluation accounted for 1.3 %, but five of seven suspected intracranial aneurysms were not confirmed by other imaging modalities (false positive. No malignant tumors or other life-threatening pathology was detected, and only three participants (0.27 % with abnormalities underwent surgical treatment. No participant groups were identified from our data as being high risk for MR abnormal findings requiring further evaluation. Conclusion Brain-docking participants had a variety of abnormalities on brain MR examinations, but only a small percentage of these findings required further evaluation. The usefulness of the brain docking with MRI and MRA has yet to be proven, and at this time we cannot approve this screening procedure.

  16. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes-the role of glucose and other factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmidt, Lone;

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values.......We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values....

  17. Breast imaging findings in women with BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.J.; Evans, A.J. E-mail: aevans@ncht.trent.nhs.uk; Wilson, A.R.M.; Scott, N.; Cornford, E.J.; Pinder, S.E.; Khan, H.N.; Macmillan, R.D

    2004-10-01

    AIM: To document the breast imaging findings of women with BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated breast carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Family history clinic records identified 18 BRCA1 and 10 BRCA2 cases who collectively were diagnosed with 27 invasive breast carcinomas and four ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. All underwent pre-operative imaging (29 mammogram and 22 ultrasound examinations). All invasive BRCA-associated breast carcinoma cases were compared with age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma. RESULTS: Within the BRCA cases the age range was 26-62 years, mean 36 years. Two mammograms were normal and 27 (93%) abnormal. The most common mammographic features were defined mass (63%) and microcalcifications (37%). Thirty-four percent of women had a dense mammographic pattern, 59% mixed and 7% fatty. Ultrasound was performed in 22 patients and in 21 (95%) indicated a mass. This was classified as benign in 24%, indeterminate in 29% and malignant in 48%. Mammograms of BRCA1-associated carcinomas more frequently showed a defined mass compared with BRCA2-associated carcinomas, 72 versus 36% (73% control group) whilst mammograms of BRCA2-associated carcinomas more frequently showed microcalcification, 73 versus 12% (8% control group; p<0.001). Thirty-six percent of the BRCA2-associated carcinomas were pure DCIS while none of the BRCA1 associated carcinomas were pure DCIS (p=0.004). Of those patients undergoing regular mammographic screening, 100% of BRCA2-associated carcinomas were detected compared with 75% of BRCA1-associated carcinomas. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the imaging findings of BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated carcinomas differ from each other and from age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma.

  18. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes--the role of glucose and other factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine D Clausen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2003-2005 cognitive function was assessed in a cohort of 18-27 year old offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 153 and offspring from the background population (n = 118. The main outcome measure was global cognitive score derived from Raven's Progressive Matrices and three verbal subtests from the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale. Maternal fasting- and 2-hour blood glucose values from the diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test were used as exposure variables. RESULTS: Offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus had a lower global cognitive score, than offspring from the background population (93.1 vs. 100.0, P<0.001. However, when adjusted for maternal age at delivery, parity, smoking during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy overweight, family social class, parental educational level, gender, birth weight, gestational age, perinatal complications and offspring age at follow-up, the difference was no longer statistically significant. Offspring global cognitive score decreased significantly with increasing maternal fasting glucose (β = -4.5, 95% CI -8.0 to -0.9, P = 0.01 and 2-hour glucose (β = -1.5, -2.9 to -0.2, P = 0.03 in univariate general linear models, but not when adjusted for family social class and parental educational level. CONCLUSIONS: Lower cognitive test scores in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes were explained by well known predictors of cognitive function, but not by maternal hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. We find it reassuring that mild intrauterine hyperglycaemia does not seem to have adverse effect on offspring cognitive function.

  19. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berube, Jean-Christophe; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Madore, Anne-Marie; Pare, Peter D.; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Laviolette, Michel; Laprise, Catherine; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bosse, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study

  20. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  1. Self-reported empathy in adult women with Autism Spectrum Disorders : A systematic mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Francien M; Groen, Yvonne; Becke, Miriam; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is limited research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in females. Although the empathy construct has been examined thoroughly in autism, little attention has been paid to empathy in adult women with this condition or to gender differences within the disorder. OBJECTIVE: Self-rep

  2. Inspiration from Home: Understanding Family as Key to Adult Women's Self-Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Lovell, Cheryl D.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of nontraditional-age students grows on college campuses, it is essential for higher education practitioners to understand if and how older students, especially women, become and remain engaged in their education. A review of the educational engagement literature reveals images of disengaged adult learners whose work and family…

  3. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  4. The Sexual Functioning of Adult Women Molested as Children: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julie Lynn

    This paper reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1991 that addresses long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult women's sexual functioning. Frequently reported long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are noted, including both sexual dissatisfaction and sexual dysfunction. In terms of sexual dysfunction, it is noted that adult…

  5. Systematic review of structural and functional neuroimaging findings in children and adults with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodalbail, Divya G; Reiser, Kathryn A; Detre, John A; Schultz, Robert T; Herrington, John D; Davatzikos, Christos; Doshi, Jimit J; Erus, Guray; Liu, Hua-Shan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L; Hooper, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    CKD has been linked with cognitive deficits and affective disorders in multiple studies. Analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging in adults and children with kidney disease may provide additional important insights into the pathobiology of this relationship. This paper comprehensively reviews neuroimaging studies in both children and adults. Major databases (PsychLit, MEDLINE, WorldCat, ArticleFirst, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE) were searched using consistent search terms, and studies published between 1975 and 2012 were included if their samples focused on CKD as the primary disease process. Exclusion criteria included case reports, chapters, and review articles. This systematic process yielded 43 studies for inclusion (30 in adults, 13 in children). Findings from this review identified several clear trends: (1) presence of cerebral atrophy and cerebral density changes in patients with CKD; (2) cerebral vascular disease, including deep white matter hyperintensities, white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds, silent cerebral infarction, and cortical infarction, in patients with CKD; and (3) similarities in regional cerebral blood flow between patients with CKD and those with affective disorders. These findings document the importance of neuroimaging procedures in understanding the effect of CKD on brain structure, function, and associated behaviors. Results provide a developmental linkage between childhood and adulthood, with respect to the effect of CKD on brain functioning across the lifespan, with strong implications for a cerebrovascular mechanism contributing to this developmental linkage. Use of neuroimaging methods to corroborate manifest neuropsychological deficits or perhaps to indicate preventive actions may prove useful to individuals with CKD.

  6. Sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To describe the sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities, and to determine the usefulness of sonohysterography (SH) for predicting endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease(PCOD). 82 patients with PCOD who had vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickening and lesion mass on baseline transvaginal sonography were prospectively examined with SH. The SH findings were evaluated for endometrial thickness, the presence of endometrial thickening and lesion mass, echogenicity and surface contour, distensibility of the endometrial cavity, and disruption of endometrial-myometrial interface. These findings were compared with the pathologic findings and the diagnostic accuracy of SH for predicting endometrial abnormalities was assessed. Endometrial abnormalities were identified in 47 (57.3%) of 82 PCOD patients, and their pathologic diagnosis included endometrial carcinoma in 7 cases, hyperplasia in 19 cases (atypical hyperplasia, n=5), and polyp in 21 cases. Of the 35 patients who did not have endometrial abnormalities, there was disordered proliferative endometrium in 18 cases and normal proliferative or secretory endometrium in 17 cases. The SH findings of endometrial carcinoma were endometrial thickening in 5 cases, endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness ranged from 6 mm to 15 mm (mean 9.5 mm). They were characterized as a diffuse polyploid endometrial thickening or a sessile endometrial mass with irregular surface, homogeneous hyperechogenicity, and obliteration of the endometrial cavity. Endometrial hyperplasia appeared as endometrial thickening in 14 cases, endometrial lesion mass in 3 cases, and endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness was between 6.5-10.7 mm (mean 8.2 mm). They showed a diffuse uniform endometrial thickening or a polyploid endometrial lesion mass with homogeneous hyperechogenicity and a regular surface. Endometrial polyps appeared as

  7. A Retrospective Analysis of Radiographic Jaw Findings in Young Women; Prevalence and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khateeb, Sara M.; Abu-Hammad, Osama; Fadel, Hani; Dar-Odeh, Najla

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence and types of jaw pathologic findings as detected in panoramic radiographs of a sample of young women attending a teaching hospital in Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia, and to determine the most important factors that predict the occurrence of jaw pathologic findings. Materials and Methods: The electronic clinical files of a representative sample of female patients who attended the outpatient dental clinics were retrieved. Patients were aged 18 to 25 years. Types of pathologic radiographic jaw findings and their prevalence were determined through screening of panoramic radiographs. Data were analyzed using the statistical analysis software [SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp.)]. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the significance of some types of dental lesions as predictor variables for the occurrence of jaw pathologic findings. Results: A total of 190 patients (mean age, 22.4 ± 2.46 years) were included in the study. Periapical lesions, retained roots, and alveolar bone loss were detected in 53.6%, 24.8%, and 17.4% of the participants, respectively. Other odontogenic abnormalities such as supernumerary and impacted teeth (6.4% and 33.7%, respectively) were also detected. Patients' age was found to be a good predictor for alveolar bone loss and number of periapical lesions (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: A high prevalence of periapical lesions, retained roots, and alveolar bone loss was found among a sample of young female dental attendees, as shown by their panoramic radiographs. Further studies are needed to explore potential risk factors for such a noticeable trend of poor oral health, and the needed strategies to counteract this trend. PMID:28316945

  8. A preliminary profile of Australian women accessing doula care: findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Amie; Frawley, Jane; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon

    2013-12-01

    Despite growing interest and controversy regarding the value of doulas in contemporary maternity care, little is known about the profile of women who choose to involve a doula in their care team. This preliminary analysis indicates that women's attitudes towards maternity care may influence their use of a doula more so than demographic factors. Further research examining these issues in more detail is needed for all those involved in maternity care to ensure safe maternal and fetal outcomes.

  9. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.

  10. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to urinary tract infections in adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Hawn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although behavioral risk factors are strongly associated with urinary tract infection (UTI risk, the role of genetics in acquiring this disease is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor (TLR pathway genes are associated with susceptibility to UTIs, we conducted a population-based case-control study of women ages 18-49 years. We examined DNA variants in 9 TLR pathway genes in 431 recurrent cystitis (rUTI cases, 400 pyelonephritis cases, and 430 controls with no history of UTIs. In the Caucasian subgroup of 987 women, polymorphism TLR4_A896G was associated with protection from rUTI, but not pyelonephritis, with an odds ratio (OR of 0.54 and a 95% confidence interval (CI of 0.31 to 0.96. Polymorphism TLR5_C1174T, which encodes a variant that abrogates flagellin-induced signaling, was associated with an increased risk of rUTI (OR(95%CI: 1.81 (1.00-3.08, but not pyelonephritis. Polymorphism TLR1_G1805T was associated with protection from pyelonephritis (OR(95%CI: 0.53 (0.29-0.96. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of associations of TLR5 and TLR1 variants with altered risks of acquiring rUTI and pyelonephritis, respectively. Although these data suggest that TLR polymorphisms are associated with adult susceptibility to UTIs, the statistical significance was modest and will require further study including validation with independent cohorts.

  11. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Petersen, Mette H; Larsen, Tine B;

    2014-01-01

    analysed by systematic text condensation influenced by Giorgi's phenomenological method and supplemented by elements from narrative analysis. FINDINGS: The analysis revealed three concepts: solution to an unbearable problem, learning new boundaries and hopes of normalization. These revelatory concepts were...

  12. Sex differences in the Kimchi-Palmer task revisited: Global reaction times, but not number of global choices differ between adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuringer, Andrea; Pletzer, Belinda

    2016-10-15

    Research, directly assessing sex-dependent differences in global versus local processing is sparse, but predominantly suggesting that men show a stronger global processing bias than women. Utilizing the Kimchi-Palmer task however, sex differences in the number of global choices can only be found in children, but not in adults. In the current study 52 men and 46 women completed a computerized version of the Kimchi Palmer task, in order to investigate whether sex-differences in global-local processing in the Kimchi-Palmer task are reflected in choice reaction times rather than choices per se. While no sex differences were found in the number of global choices, we found that especially women are faster in making local choices than men, while men are faster in making global choices than women. We did not find support for the assumption that this sex difference was modulated by menstrual cycle phase of women, since the difference between reaction times to global and local choices was consistent across the menstrual cycle of women. Accordingly there was no relationship between progesterone and global-local processing in the Kimchi-Palmer task. However, like in studies utilizing the Navon task, testosterone was positively related to the number of global choices in both men and women. To our knowledge, this is the first study including reaction times as outcome measure in a Kimchi Palmer paradigm and also the first study demonstrating sex differences in the Kimchi Palmer task in adults.

  13. An Adult Case of Unicommissural Unicuspid Aortic Valve Diagnosed Based on the Intraoperative Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Tetsuo; Fukatsu, Toru; Ichinohe, Yoshimaro; Komatsu, Hirotaka; Seki, Masahiro; Sasaki, Kenichi; Takai, Hideaki; Kunihara, Takashi; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    We herein report an adult case of unicommissural unicuspid aortic valve (UAV). A 59-year-old man, who was noted to have a cardiac murmur at 31 years of age, was admitted to our hospital due to acute heart failure. Severe calcification in the aortic valve with severe low-flow/low-gradient aortic stenosis and moderate aortic regurgitation was observed and thought to be the cause of heart failure, however, the etiology of aortic valve dysfunction was not clear. Aortic valve replacement was subsequently performed, and unicommissural UAV was diagnosed according to the intraoperative findings. UAV is very rare congenital aortic valve disease which is rarely diagnosed preoperatively.

  14. MR findings of synovial disease in children and young adults: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Merrow, Arnold C.; Emery, Kathleen H. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-One [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Synovial diseases in children can be classified into normal structures as potential sources of pathology (synovial folds: plicae, infrapatellar fat pad clefts); noninfectious synovial proliferation (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, hemophilic arthropathy, lipoma arborescens, synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, reactive synovitis), and infectious synovial proliferation, deposition disease, vascular malformations, malignancy (including metastasis) and intra-articular/periarticular cysts and cyst-like structures (ganglia). Familiarity with characteristic MR imaging findings of synovial diseases in children and young adults will enable a more confident diagnosis for earlier intervention and directed therapy. The first part of this paper will cover potential pathology of normal synovial structures as well as noninfectious synovial proliferation. (orig.)

  15. Nasal symptoms and clinical findings in adult patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, Staffan; Mani, Maria; Lundberg, Kristina; Holmström, Mats

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-experienced nasal symptoms among adults treated for UCLP and the association to clinical findings, and to evaluate whether palate closure in one-stage or two-stages affected the symptoms or clinical findings. All people with UCLP born between 1960-1987, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, were considered for participation in this cross-sectional population study with long-term follow-up. Eighty-three patients (76% participation rate) participated, a mean of 37 years after the first operation. Fifty-two patients were treated with one-stage palate closure and 31 with two-stage palate closure. An age-matched group of 67 non-cleft controls completed the same study protocol, which included a questionnaire regarding nasal symptoms, nasal inspection, anterior rhinoscopy, and nasal endoscopy. Patients reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms compared with the control group, e.g., nasal obstruction (81% compared with 60%) and mouth breathing (20% compared with 5%). Patients also rated their nasal symptoms as having a more negative impact on their daily life and physical activities than controls. Nasal examination revealed higher frequencies of nasal deformities among patients. No positive correlation was found between nasal symptoms and severity of findings at nasal examination. No differences were identified between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure regarding symptoms or nasal findings. Adult patients treated for UCLP suffer from more nasal symptoms than controls. However, symptoms are not associated with findings at clinical nasal examination or method of palate closure.

  16. Gender role across development in adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dominique N; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the degree of femininity and masculinity at different developmental stages in a group of adult women, some of whom were exposed to elevated prenatal adrenal androgens as a result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21 hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency. Women who had presented to the Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for treatment of CAH due to 21-OH deficiency were included. The control group consisted of sisters of CAH participants and women referred for evaluation of polycystic ovary syndrome. Study participants were given a questionnaire asking them to indicate their degree of masculinity and femininity during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In addition, participants were asked questions related to their play behavior during childhood, including playmate preferences, toy preferences, and admiration of male or female characters during fantasy play. Across participant groups, self-reported femininity decreased in a dose response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure. For all groups, femininity increased through developmental stages. Women with salt-losing CAH remained less feminine than controls into adulthood. Conversely, self-reported masculinity increased in a dose-response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure, across participant groups. Women with CAH showed a decrease in masculinity across developmental stages, such that by adulthood, there were no significant differences in masculinity between controls and the women with CAH. Women with salt-losing CAH were more likely to recall preferences for boy playmates, male-typical toys, and admiration for male characters during childhood than other study participants. Our data support the effect of both prenatal androgen exposure and socialization on gender role behavior in adult women with CAH due to 21-OH deficiency.

  17. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2016-01-01

    characteristic; female participants’ attitudes were more positive than male participants’ attitudes, and all participants’ attitudes were generally more positive toward bisexual women than bisexual men. While recent population data suggest a marked shift in more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women in the general population of the U.S., the largest proportions of participants in our study reported a relative lack of agreement or disagreement with all affective-evaluative statements in the BIAS scales. Findings document the relative lack of positive attitudes toward bisexual individuals among the general population of adults in the U.S. and highlight the need for developing intervention approaches to promote more positive attitudes toward bisexual individuals, targeted toward not only heterosexual but also gay/lesbian individuals and communities. PMID:27783644

  18. A risk score for predicting coronary artery disease in women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris.

  19. MRI Features of Intracranial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors in Adults:Comparing with Histopathological Findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石浩军; 孔祥泉; 徐海波; 徐丽莹; 刘定西

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The MRI appearances of 7 adult patients with pathologically proven intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) were retrospectively analyzed. The MRI features were compared with findings in pathology and surgery. In this group, the tumor masses were most commonly found in the semisphere of cerebrum and in the vermis of cerebellum. They were relatively large and 4 were in lobulated shape. All of them had well-defined margins. MR images showed the tumors to be mildly or obviously hypointense on Ti-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Most masses had heterogeneous appearances with some cystic and necrotic areas. Intratumoral haemorrhage and focal calcification were occasionally seen. Mostly, there was no or only mild surrounding edema. Marked inhomogeneous contrast enhancement on MRI was seen in 6 cases except one. Two patients with multiple intracranial metastases were revealed on MR images. In this series, there was good correlation between MRI features and findings in pathology and surgery.These results showed that certain MRI features might suggest the diagnosis of intracranial PNET in adults. MRI is an effective technique to detect these tumors and is helpful to treatment planning and follow-up.

  20. Lower genital tract infections in women: comparison of clinical and epidemiologic findings with microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Averous, S; Bauriaud, R; Blanc, C; Bertrand, M A; Lareng, M B

    1988-01-01

    We screened 392 women attending the Laboratory of Microbiology of Toulouse Purpan Hospital for symptoms of lower genital tract infection for six microorganisms. Rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida albicans, Mycoplasma hominis, and Gardnerella vaginalis were 1%, 7.7%, 29.8%, 23.8%, and 37.5%, respectively. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by direct examination in specimens from 3.1% of patients. Another goal of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of these microorganisms in relation to clinical and epidemiologic findings. C. trachomatis was isolated significantly more often from patients under 25 year old (P less than 0.001), from those who use oral contraceptives (P less than 0.01), from those who have a male sexual partner with symptoms of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.001), and from those who present signs of cervicitis (P less than 0.05). Isolation of C. albicans was significantly associated with vulvar pruritus (P less than 0.01), vulvitis (P less than 0.01), and vaginitis (P less than 0.001). G. vaginalis and M. hominis are significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (P less than 0.001). This syndrome was diagnosed clinically in 27.2% of our study population and was highly correlated with use of an intrauterine device (P less than 0.05).

  1. Environmental Noise Annoyance and Mental Health in Adults: Findings from the Cross-Sectional German Health Update (GEDA Study 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hammersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The health implications of environmental noise, especially cardiovascular effects, have been studied intensively. Research on associations between noise and mental health, however, has shown contradictory results. The present study examined associations between individual levels of noise annoyance due to noise from various sources in the living environment and mental health of adults in Germany. It evaluated whether these associations persisted after adjusting for potential covariates. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional “German Health Update” study 2012 (GEDA 2012, a national health interview survey among adults in Germany conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 19,294. Noise annoyance questions referred to overall noise and that from road traffic, neighbours, and air traffic. Mental health was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Bivariate analysis showed associations between high levels of noise annoyance and impaired mental health for all noise sources except air traffic. After adjusting for covariates (sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, and social support, both men and women who reported high overall noise annoyance showed more than doubled odds of impaired mental health compared to those who were not annoyed. The odds of impaired mental health in the highest noise annoyance category from road traffic and neighbours were also significantly increased. These findings indicate that high noise annoyance is associated with impaired mental health and that this association can vary with the source of environmental noise. Further research on covariates of this association is necessary. Particularly, longitudinal data are required to establish the direction of associations and to address questions of causality.

  2. Profiles and experiences of women undergoing genital fistula repair: findings from five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Evelyn; Frajzyngier, Vera; Ruminjo, Joseph; Asiimwe, Frank; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Bello, Abubakar; Danladi, Dantani; Ganda, Sanda Oumarou; Idris, Sa'ad; Inoussa, Maman; Kanoma, Bashir; Lynch, Maura; Mussell, Felicity; Podder, Dulal Chandra; Wali, Abba; Mielke, Erin; Barone, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data from 1354 women from five countries who participated in a prospective cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2010. Women undergoing surgery for fistula repair were interviewed at the time of admission, discharge, and at a 3-month follow-up visit. While women's experiences differed across countries, a similar picture emerges across countries: women married young, most were married at the time of admission, had little education, and for many, the fistula occurred after the first pregnancy. Median age at the time of fistula occurrence was 20.0 years (interquartile range 17.3-26.8). Half of the women attended some antenatal care (ANC); among those who attended ANC, less than 50% recalled being told about signs of pregnancy complications. At follow-up, most women (even those who were not dry) reported improvements in many aspects of social life, however, reported improvements varied by repair outcome. Prevention and treatment programmes need to recognise the supportive role that husbands, partners, and families play as women prepare for safe delivery. Effective treatment and support programmes are needed for women who remain incontinent after surgery.

  3. Engaging parliamentarians as advocates for women's health: findings from Kenya and Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, P; Weiss, E; Wood, L; Connor, E; Orza, L; Trasi, R

    2009-01-01

    Members of parliament (MPs) are well placed to promote national health policies that improve women's access to quality health care, including HIV services. To catalyse political will and leadership, the International Centre for Research on Women, Centre for the Study of AIDS at the University of Pretoria, International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS and Realising Rights: The Ethical Globalization Initiative, conducted the Parliamentarians for Women's Health project in select African countries. This paper focus on participatory community assessments - a methodology used by the project to improve MPs' understanding of women's health issues, particularly HIV/AIDS, and to increase their engagement with civil society in order to better represent women's health needs and concerns. In-depth interviews with eight MPs from Kenya and Namibia highlight the value of the assessments in identifying women's health problems and service gaps. The MPs reported that they undertook various activities after the assessments, including gathering more information about women's health from local communities, pushing for new parliamentary committees to be a platform for health issues, using the information from the assessments to inform policy, more carefully reviewing budget allocations and establishing relationships with civil society. Participatory methods can be used to meet political leaders' needs for information and communities' needs to influence policymaking that affects their lives.

  4. No going back. Mexican women find opportunity and obstacles in a changing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, E

    1994-01-01

    An overview was provided of some of the economic and social changes in Mexico that impact on women. At the Colegio de Postgraduados, an ongoing project will examine women's work roles in an agricultural setting. The Ford Foundation has funded research studies at Mexican universities. One such study will examine women workers in foreign-owned factories producing duty free export goods; another study involves interviews with street vendors in the informal sector. Jose Alonso is a specialist on the Mexican garment industry, teaches at the University of the Americas, and advises at the Autonomous Technological Institute of Mexico. He contends that the process of development can best be understood by examining the informal sector. There is no Mexican tradition of a business class. Scholars at the Colegio de Postgraduados' Center for Rural Development are exploring income generation schemes, and building a master's degree program specializing in gender and rural development. The program would train professionals with an understanding of the needs of rural women and appropriate strategies for improving women's social and economic conditions. Crises have precipitated major shifts in work patterns in Mexico. During the 1980s, inflation and unemployment rapidly increased and income declined to 1970s levels. Mass movement of women into the labor force occurred. For many women, the dual role in long paid work hours and family and domestic care has produced independence with a big price tag. Manufacturing jobs along the free trade border areas have provided work opportunities for women, who hold 70% of the jobs. These jobs have moved from low paid menial tasks to higher skilled and better paid positions with training, but only for some women. There are few unions, and the government Confederation of Mexican Workers does not include women. Notwithstanding working conditions, women confront other problems with housing and the lack of basic amenities such as electricity, tap water

  5. Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and genetics may play a role. Why congenital heart disease resurfaces in adulthood Some adults may find that ... in following adults with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy Women with congenital heart disease who ...

  6. Women and autonomy: using structural analysis of social behavior to find autonomy within connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, S; Johnson, C G

    1989-02-01

    In their work to construct psychological theories about women's development, Carol Gilligan and Jean Baker Miller both highlight the centrality of interpersonal connections in women's lives. As they describe how women's senses of self and morality are organized around relationships, Gilligan and Miller tend to contrast affiliation with autonomy. The message that readers often take from this view is that autonomy has no meaning for women--is somehow beneath them, beyond them, or unnatural to them. Although Miller and Gilligan dichotomize affiliation and autonomy, they also provide numerous examples in which women's feelings of worth, ability, and self-consideration enhance relatedness. We argue that autonomy can be understood as a sense of freedom and personal integrity that encompasses these same characteristics, and we use the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior to clarify how autonomy makes critical contributions to interpersonal connections.

  7. Perceptions of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: findings from the REVIVE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions.

  8. Physical activity and energy expenditure: findings from the Ibadan Pregnant Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Ade F; Ogwumike, Omoyemi O

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity, if there are no medical caveats, is beneficial to all people including pregnant women. This study examined the level of physical activity in a group of pregnant Nigerian women. Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess the physical activity of 453 pregnant women. The mean age of participants was 30.89 +/- 4.44 years, 222 (49.0%) were sedentary, and only 46 (10.2%) presented with moderate activity level. The highest amount of energy (75.9 MET-h x wk(-1)) was expended on household activities. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy had more than three times the risk of being sedentary (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.11-4.56) but the risk reduced by 58% in gravid > or = 5 women. Most of the pregnant women recorded physical activity that was lower than the recommended level, which could lead to unfavourable health outcomes for mother and child. Efforts to promote physical activity in pregnant women in this environment are desirable.

  9. Phasic or terminal detrusor overactivity in women: age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To search for relationships between phasic (P and terminal (T DO with age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior during involuntary detrusor contraction in woman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urodynamic studies (triple lumen catheter 7F, seated position of 164 successive women referred for LUTS with diagnosis of DO were reviewed. Patients were stratified in 4 sub-groups: pre- (18-44y, peri- (45-54 y, post-menopause (55-74 y and oldest old (≥ 75 y. The urethral sensor was positioned at the level of the maximum urethral closure pressure for sphincter behavior analysis. A variation of at least 5 cmH2O in pressure (detrusor or urethra was chosen to assert DO or sphincter response. Sphincter response was classified as relaxation (re before or during DO, or steady (st. RESULTS: Occurrence of P and TDO was similar: 77 P and 87 T. The PDO group was significantly younger (p = 0.0003. TDO was more frequent in patients with a history of neurological disease. The percentage of PDO remained almost constant in age groups, while that of TDO increased with age from 6.7% to 23.2% (p = 0.0013. Uninhibited contraction occurred at a smaller bladder volume in the P group: 149 ± 95 vs. 221 ± 113 mL (p < 0.0001. Steady sphincter predominated in the TDO subgroup: 45.9% vs. 32.1% and increased significantly in each DO sub-group of ³ 75y. CONCLUSION: Steady sphincter during both P and TDO, and occurrence of TDO appear as specific of aging. The last result could be related to structural changes in the detrusor muscle with aging.

  10. C-reactive protein by pregnancy and lactational status among Filipino young adult women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.; Borja, Judith; McDade, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Pregnancy and lactation involve adaptations in immune regulation, but little is known about cross-cultural variation in inflammatory changes during pregnancy or lactation. Here we report concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large cross-sectional sample of healthy Filipino women who vary in parity, gestational and lactational status, and who come from a population previously described as having low CRP. Methods Fasting plasma CRP was measured among female participants (ages 20.8-22.4 years) in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (n=822). Results Median CRP was 0.2 mg/L in nulliparous women and peaked at 2.0 mg/L in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Parous but post-partum women had higher CRP compared to nulliparous women, which was largely explained by body composition differences as reflected in waist circumference and skinfold measures. Among post-partum women with infants, CRP was similar in women who were currently breastfeeding compared to those who were not. Conclusions At Cebu, women late in gestation have 10-fold higher C-reactive protein compared to nulliparous women, with no evidence that lactation is inflammatory. These population-based findings are similar with findings from prior clinic-based studies and are consistent with the maternal immunological adaptations initiated during pregnancy. The tendency of human females to spend more time than females of other great apes in gestation rather than lactation suggests that the human life history strategy involved increased time spent by reproductively aged females in a pro-inflammatory state. PMID:23180717

  11. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Madore, Anne-Marie; Paré, Peter D; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Laviolette, Michel; Laprise, Catherine; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study (n = 1035). Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P = 7.90E - 10). The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients.

  12. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Bérubé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL mapping study (n=1035. Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P=7.90E-10. The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients.

  13. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Madore, Anne-Marie; Paré, Peter D.; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Laviolette, Michel; Laprise, Catherine; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study (n = 1035). Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P = 7.90E − 10). The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients. PMID:27445529

  14. Relationship TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in adult women by nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Belén

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ratio assessment TG/HDL-C is an indicator of LDL size, facilitating the detection of individuals with increased atherogenic risk. Estimating the size of the LDL becomes important, especially in patients with TG values near the upper limit of normal values of reference and HDL-C. The objective of the study is to estimate the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance (IR by nutritional status in adult women attending the Foundation for Endocrine Metabolic Diseases Research and Applied Clinical Research (FIEEM.Material and methods: Design Cross-sectional, non-pregnant adult women, apparently healthy, older than 30 years old, attending FIEEM in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Dependent variable: TG/HDL-C ≥ 3.0 considered high value. Independent variables: IR by homeostatic model index HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 categorizing the sample into two groups: with and without IR, and controlled by nutritional status using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (CC. SPSS Statistics 15.0, calculating X2 or Fisher exact test, OR with confidence intervals of 95% and establishing logistic regression p value < 0.05.Results: We evaluated a purposive sample of 104 women (31.4% and 26% IR with TG/HDL-C high. 84.6% were overweight or obese and 88.5% increased CC. Women with BMI had significantly increased 0.15-fold increased risk (95% CI = 0.01 to 1.26 for TG/HDL-C high (p = 0.04 than the control women. There was no significance with increased CC. The ratio TG/HDL-C high IR was significantly correlated (r = 0.30 p = 0.002.Conclusions: Body weight was significantly associated with IR and the ratio TG/HDL-C increased. This ratio correlated significantly with IR in apparently healthy women.

  15. Pertussis seroprevalence in adults, post-partum women and umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallo, Aurelia; Manonelles, Gabriela; Hozbor, Daniela; Lara, Claudia; Huespe, Miguel; Mazzeo, Silvina; Canle, Oscar; Galas, Marcelo; López, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease that affects people of all ages. Young adults who have lost their immunity to pertussis are the major source of infection in infants. Given the steady increase of pertussis cases, new prevention strategies are required. Objective. To assess pertussis seroprevalence in adult blood donors, post-partum women, and umbilical cords. Metod. Measurement of total titers of anti-Bordetella spp. (Bordetella) antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum samples from 103 donors, 101 post-partum women and 100 umbilical cords were analyzed. Titers <80 were considered of low impact against the disease. The assessment included transplacental transfer of antibodies and the umbilical cord/maternal ratio of antibody titers. Results. Donors mean age was: 28 ± 6 years old. Mediananti-Bordetella titers: 320; interquartile range (IQR):160-320; 10% had titers <80. Post-partum women mean age was: 26 ± 6 years old. Median anti-Bordetella titers:160 (IQR:80-320), with titers significantly lower than in female donors (p= 0.00002). Titers <80 were found in 30% of post-partum women. Median anti-Bordetella titers in umbilical cords: 160 (IQR: 80-160). Titers <80 were more frequently found in umbilical cords than in mothers (44% versus 30%, p= 0.04). Transplacental transfer was 0.83. Umbilical cord titers were equal to maternal titers in 54% of cases, lower in 37%, and higher only in 8%. Conclusion. Titers of anti-Bordetella antibodies in post-partum women were significantly lower than in female blood donors. Titers <80 were found in 30% of post-partum women and 44% of umbilical cords. These data may account for the high rates of pertussis in young infants who have not yet completed their vaccination schedule.

  16. The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia

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    Sidik Sherina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013, ethnicity (p = 0.001, religion (p = 0.002, schooling (p = 0.020, educational level (p = 0.016, marital status (p = 0.001 and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.

  17. Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meintjes Graeme

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presentation and causes of adult meningitis in South Africa have changed substantially as a result of HIV. Knowledge of aetiology and laboratory findings in patients presenting with meningitis are important in guiding management. We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town. Methods Patients undergoing lumbar punctures between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2008 at a public sector referral hospital were studied. Cases were classified by microbiological diagnosis, or in the absence of definitive microbiology as 1 normal CSF (neutrophils ≤ 1 × 106/L, lymphocytes ≤ 5 × 106/L, protein ≤ 0.5 g/dL, glucose ≥1.5 mmol/L, 2 minor abnormalities (neutrophils 2-5, lymphocytes 6-20, protein 0.51-1.0, glucose 1.0-1.49 or 3 markedly abnormal (neutrophils>5, lymphocytes>20, protein>1.0, glucose Results 5578 LPs were performed on 4549 patients, representing 4961 clinical episodes. Of these, 2293 had normal CSF and 931 had minor abnormalities and no aetiology identified. Of the remaining 1737, microbiological diagnoses were obtained in 820 (47%. Cryptococcus accounted for 63% (514 of microbiological diagnoses, TB for 28% (227, bacterial meningitis for 8% (68. Of the remaining 917 who had marked abnormalities, the majority (59% had a sterile lymphocytic CSF. Of note 16% (81 patients with confirmed Cryptococcus, 5% (12 with TB and 4% (3 with bacterial meningitis had normal CSF cell-counts and biochemistry. Conclusions Cryptococcal and tuberculous meningitis are now the commonest causes of adult meningitis in this setting. TB meningitis is probably underdiagnosed by laboratory investigation, as evidence by the large numbers presenting with sterile lymphocytic markedly abnormal CSFs.

  18. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  19. Report of findings: Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Womens Bay contaminant study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The potential for contaminant problems has existed for decades, and will likely increase in the future. Womens Bay has been and continues to be affected by...

  20. Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [BMI changes in adolescents and adults women between pregnancy and pospartum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi T, María Cecilia; Alonso, Rafael; Atalah S, Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    Te aim of the study was to evaluate pregnancy nutritional consequences in adolescent pregnant women and to identify factors which increase risk of an adverse postpartum nutritional result. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 742 adolescent and 779 adult pregnant women in Guatemala, Dominican Republic and Uruguay, assessing demographic, social, obstetric, weight gain and BMI at first prenatal control, and 4 +/- 1 month postpartum. BMI in adults was classified according to WHO recommendations and NCHS/WHO in adolescents. We assessed changes of BMI between the beginning and postpartum time and a logistic model analysis was applied about the risk of having low BMI at postpartum time. At the beginning of pregnancy the prevalence of low weight was higher in adolescent group and the overweight and obesity higher in adults (p nutritional BMI, except for low weighted. Adolescents had a significant change in their BMI at postpartum time, showing a tendency to increase weight and a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (p nutritional status was not damaged after pregnancy. The strongest variable associated with postpartum low BMI was BMI which mothers begin pregnancy as equal of adult mothers.

  2. The degree of satisfaction of women undergoing surgical repair of prolapse, compared with clinical and urodynamic findings

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    Carlo Vecchioli-Scaldazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obiective: To assess the degree of satisfaction of women undergoing surgical repair of prolapse, compared with the clinical and urodynamic findings. Materials and Methods: 72 women hospitalized for pelvic organ prolapse (POP were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients underwent clinical evaluation and urodynamic study before and 4 months after POP repair. Women were assessed for urinary symptoms by micturition diary and patient perception of intensity of urgency scale. Women were also questioned about defecation and sexual life. POP repair was performed in all cases without the use of a mesh. Subjective evaluation was performed by patient global impression of improvement questionnaire. Results: 56 women were evaluable. Improvements were found in all micturition symptoms and in particular in voiding symptoms. Feeling of vaginal bulging disappeared in all patients. A slight improvement was found in constipation; 62% of patients had a normal sexual life but 27% refrained from sexual activity. Judgement of patients was between “much improved” and “very much improved”. Conclusions: Disappearance of the feeling of vaginal bulging was by far the best result. Improvements were found in most of the symptoms particularly in voiding symptoms and urodynamic findings.

  3. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 3: oral therapies.

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    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-12-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this 3-part series provided an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women and reviewed the role of proper skin care and topical therapies in this patient population. In Part 3, oral therapies including combination oral contraceptives, spironolactone, antibiotics, and isotretinoin are discussed along with important considerations that clinicians should keep in mind when selecting oral agents for management of AV in adult women.

  4. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

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    Andy R. Eugene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men.

  5. Ophthalmic findings in acute mercury poisoning in adults: A case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Lokman; Aslankurt, Murat; Bozkurt, Selim; Aksoy, Adnan; Ozdemir, Murat; Gizir, Harun; Yasar, Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report ophthalmic findings of acute mercury poisoning in 48 adults referred to emergency department. Full ophthalmologic examination including the best corrected visual acuity, external eye examination, reaction to light, a slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, intraocular pressure measurements, and visual field (VF) and color vision (CV) tests were performed at the presentation and repeated after 6 months. The parametric values of VF test, the mean deviation (MD), and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were recorded in order to compare patients and the 30 healthy controls. The mean parameter of color confusion index in patients was found to be statistically different than controls (p < 0.01). The MD and PSD in patients were different from controls statistically significant (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). There was no correlation between the ocular findings and the urine and blood mercury levels. Methyl mercury, held in the school laboratory for experimental purpose, may be a source of poisoning. In this case series, we showed that acute exposure to mercury had hazardous effect on the visual system, especially CV and VF. We propose that emphasizing the public education on the potential hazards of mercury is crucial for preventive community health.

  6. Neutropenic enterocolitis in children and young adults with cancer: prognostic value of clinical and image findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzatti, Marcelo; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; de Azevedo, Amilcar Cardoso; Pinheiro, Vitória Régia Pereira; Aguiar, Simone dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Intensive chemotherapy regimens can result in severe toxicities, particularly those that involve the digestive systems, leading to morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. Acute enterocolitis can be a frequent complication. The authors performed a retrospective review or patients treated at their institution to ascertain the prognostic value of the clinical symptoms and signs of acute enterocolitis, the corresponding abdominal ultrasonographic findings, and the impact of previous chemotherapy. Amongst 1159 patients with cancer treated at the Centro Infantil Boldrini from 2003 to 2007, 188 (16.2%) patients had 1 or more episode of enterocolitis. An intestinal wall thickness of >or=3 mm on ultrasound was considered diagnostic of enterocolitis. There were 231 episodes of enterocolitis with a death rate of 11.7%. Previous therapy with cytarabine and the presence of abdominal distention affected survival. An intestinal wall thickness of >or=10 mm in the ultrasonographic examination was associated with greater mortality. In multivariate analysis, age, gender, tumor type, degree of neutropenia, intestinal wall thickness, and number of intestinal segments were not statistically significant difference. In children and young adults with cancer and enterocolitis, the clinical findings of 4 or more symptoms and presence of abdominal distention were associated with higher risk of death. Use of cytarabine and an intestinal wall thickness of >or=10 mm were associated with a higher death rate.

  7. Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

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    Gross Karin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women.

  8. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  9. [Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of adult visceral leishmaniasis cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Serap; Kaptan, Figen; Sezak, Nurbanu; El, Sibel; Örmen, Bahar; Türker, Nesrin; Demirdal, Tuna; Vardar, İlknur; Özkan Çayıröz, Pınar; Çakalağaoğlu, Fulya

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a zoonotic infection caused by Leishmania species which are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmania infantum is the responsible species of VL in Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia regions of Turkey mainly observed sporadically in pediatric age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of adult patients with VL who were admitted to our hospital. A total of 10 patients (3 female, 7 male; age range: 18-67 years, mean age: 39.3 ± 16.51) followed in the infectious diseases clinic of the hospital between 2000 and 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The diagnosis of VL was based on the presence of appropriate clinical and physical examination, as well as biochemical findings, positive serological test results (indirect fluorescent antibody test, and rK39 rapid antigen test) and/or detection of amastigote forms of parasite in the bone marrow aspiration samples. Of the cases three were diagnosed with both bone marrow and serology positivity, five with bone marrow positivity and one of each only with liver biopsy and positive serology result. Time interval from onset of the symptoms until the establishment of the specific clinical diagnosis was ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. The most frequent initial symptoms were fever, fatigue and abdominal distension. None of the patients had immunosupressive conditions such as HIV infection, corticosteroid use, immunosupressive treatment, or transplantation. All the patients were from Aegean region and six were living in rural areas. In all cases, hepatosplenomegaly, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, albumin/globulin ratio inversion, anemia, leukopenia and among nine cases trombocytopenia were detected. In one case acute renal failure has been developed before treatment and the patient was admitted to dialysis program. Bacterial superinfection occurred in two cases. Patients were treated with

  10. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

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    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  11. Are young adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome slipping through the healthcare cracks?

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    Dokras, Anuja; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2014-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder often diagnosed in adolescence or early adulthood. In adolescence, the many similarities between normal features of puberty and symptoms of PCOS make it challenging to confirm the diagnosis. Even among adult women, the changing definitions of PCOS may lead to inaccurate diagnoses. Women may present with a variety of symptoms to different healthcare providers and may be treated only for the presenting symptoms without evaluation of the syndrome and its associated morbidities. Timely evaluations, accurate diagnosis, appropriate interventions, and multidisciplinary healthcare teams can be valuable because women with PCOS have an increased risk for obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, infertility, endometrial cancer, and anxiety and mood disorders. Appropriate transition of care for the adolescent from pediatric to adult healthcare providers should include education of the patient and her parents regarding the chronic nature of the syndrome and the need for continued follow-up. Girls with symptoms suggestive of PCOS who fail to fulfill diagnostic criteria should undergo prolonged observation. Early identification of PCOS at different entry points in the healthcare system will require physician education and improved access.

  12. American Indian Women and Screening Mammography: Findings from a Qualitative Study in Oklahoma

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    Tolma, Eleni; Batterton, Chasity; Hamm, Robert M.; Thompson, David; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue within the American Indian (AI) community in Oklahoma; however, there is limited information to explain the low screening mammography rates among AI women. Purpose: To identify the motivational factors affecting an AI woman's decision to obtain a mammogram. Methods: Through the use of…

  13. Circumstances Surrounding Male Sexual Assault and Rape: Findings from the National Violence against Women Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the…

  14. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.

  15. Self-reported drinking and driving amongst educated adults in Spain: The "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN cohort findings

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    de Irala Jokin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of alcohol as a risk factor for motor vehicle crashes is long known. Yet, reports on the prevalence of drinking and driving suggest values between 20%–30% when the adult driving population is interviewed. We wondered whether these values hold true among European educated citizens and whether there are any significant differences in prevalence by age, gender, type of profession and other lifestyle indicators. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data from a cohort of university graduates in Spain (SUN study. Answered questionnaires contained items on current drinking and driving practices, together with data on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. Chi square, Fisher test, and multivariate logistic regression were used to investigate the impact of several variables on drinking and driving practices. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results Almost 30% of the participants reported "sometimes" drinking and driving. This percent increased to 47% when "almost never" was also included as a positive answer to the drinking and driving practice question. These percentages varied significantly by gender, with up to 64% of men reporting "sometimes" or "almost never" vs. 36% of women doing so. Drinking and driving practices also differed by overall alcohol consumption habits, smoking, use of safety belts, and notably, type of profession. Conclusion Our findings are amongst the first on the high prevalence of drinking and driving among Spanish. Particularly worrisome is the fact that health professionals reported this habit even at higher rates. Multidisciplinary interventions (e.g., legal, educational, economic are needed to reduce this serious health risk.

  16. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery.

  17. Applying Erikson’s Wisdom to Self-Management Practices of Older Adults: Findings from Two Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tam E.; Hassevoort, Luke; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    According to Erik Erikson’s theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson’s theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This paper presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving; and 2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills, and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25651571

  18. Stressful Life Events Around the Time of Unplanned Pregnancy and Women's Health: Exploratory Findings from a National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Dalton, Vanessa K; Zochowski, Melissa; Johnson, Timothy R B; Harris, Lisa H

    2017-01-25

    Objective Little is known about how women's social context of unintended pregnancy, particularly adverse social circumstances, relates to their general health and wellbeing. We explored associations between stressful life events around the time of unintended pregnancy and physical and mental health. Methods Data are drawn from a national probability study of 1078 U.S. women aged 18-55. Our internet-based survey measured 14 different stressful life events occurring at the time of unintended pregnancy (operationalized as an additive index score), chronic disease and mental health conditions, and current health and wellbeing symptoms (standardized perceived health, depression, stress, and discrimination scales). Multivariable regression modeled relationships between stressful life events and health conditions/symptoms while controlling for sociodemographic and reproductive covariates. Results Among ever-pregnant women (N = 695), stressful life events were associated with all adverse health outcomes/symptoms in unadjusted analyses. In multivariable models, higher stressful life event scores were positively associated with chronic disease (aOR 1.21, CI 1.03-1.41) and mental health (aOR 1.42, CI 1.23-1.64) conditions, higher depression (B 0.37, CI 0.19-0.55), stress (B 0.32, CI 0.22-0.42), and discrimination (B 0.74, CI 0.45-1.04) scores, and negatively associated with ≥ very good perceived health (aOR 0.84, CI 0.73-0.97). Stressful life event effects were strongest for emotional and partner-related sub-scores. Conclusion Women with adverse social circumstances surrounding their unintended pregnancy experienced poorer health. Findings suggest that reproductive health should be considered in the broader context of women's health and wellbeing and have implications for integrated models of care that address women's family planning needs, mental and physical health, and social environments.

  19. Sexual Activity and Urological Morbidities Among Nigerian Menopausal Women: Findings from a Community Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, BO; Morhason-Bello, IO; Okonkwo, SN; Ojengbede, OA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Menopause represents the end of women reproductive career and it is at this time they begin to manifest morbidities such as urinary incontinence. Aim: To document proximate determinants of sexual activity and urological morbidities of menopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a community survey conducted among 254 menopausal women Mokola in Ibadan, Nigeria in 2008. Respondents were selected using cluster sampling technique. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to obtain information on their characteristics, pattern of urological and sexual activities. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable tests were performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0 (Chicago, IL USA) and statistical significance was set at P value less than 0.05. Results: The mean age of subjects was 60.3 (standard deviation = 10.2 years). About 33.5% (85/254) was still sexually active. About 68% (173/254) reported a reduction in sexual frequency since menopause while 31.5% (80/254) reported no change. The mean self-rated sexual performance score was 4.3 based on a numerical scale where 10 is the maximum obtainable. Significant predictors of reduction in sexual activity were age at menopause and education. Those between 45 and 49 years were less likely than those at 55 years or more (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21; 95% confidence interval OR = 0.05-0.87) while women with at least secondary education were thrice less likely than those with none to report a reduction in sexual activity after menopause. Less than a tenth reported urinary incontinence as a complaint. Urge incontinence was the most commonly reported followed by dysuria and stress incontinence. Less than a quarter of them had requested for a form of treatment. Conclusion: Sexual performance of Nigerian menopausal women is associated with age at menopause and education. Non-fistulous urinary incontinence is now being mentioned as a complaint contrary to the widely held view that it is part of the

  20. Comparison of HPV prevalence between HPV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated young adult women (20-26 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-01-01

    There is some concern about the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine among young adult women due to the risk of prior HPV infection. This study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012 data to evaluate the effectiveness of HPV vaccination among women 20-26 years of age who were vaccinated after 12 years of age. This cross-sectional study examined 878 young adult women (20-26 years) with complete information on HPV prevalence and HPV vaccination status from NHANES 2007-2012. Vaginal swab specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were used to compare type-specific HPV prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. A total of 21.4% of young adult women surveyed through NHANES between 2007 and 2012 received the HPV vaccine. Vaccinated women had a lower prevalence of vaccine types than unvaccinated women (7.4% vs 17.1%, prevalence ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88). The prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types was higher among vaccinated women than unvaccinated women (52.1% vs 40.4%, prevalence ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57), but this difference was attenuated after adjusting for sexual behavior variables (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.43). HPV vaccination was effective against all 4 vaccine types in young women vaccinated after age 12. However, vaccinated women had a higher prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types, suggesting that they may benefit from newer vaccines covering additional types.

  1. Intimate partner violence among speaking immigrant adult Portuguese women in Canada

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    Rafaella Queiroga Souto

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to understand the experiences of intimate partner violence among women from Portuguese-speaking countries living in the Greater Toronto Area. METHOD A social phenomenological study was conducted with ten Portuguese-speaking women who had experienced intimate partner violence who were selected by community centre leaders. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed by categories. RESULTS The consequences of violence included health problems, effects on children, and negative feelings among the victims. Factors preventing the women from leaving abusive partners included religious beliefs, challenging daily jobs, and the need to take care of their husband. Factors that encouraged them to leave included getting support and calling the police. Some women expressed hope for the future either with their husband. Others, desired divorce or revenge. Their plans to rebuild their lives without their husband included being happy, learning English, and being financially stable. CONCLUSION Using these findings can implicate in the improvement of care for these women.

  2. Can microcredit help improve the health of poor women? Some findings from a cross-sectional study in Kerala, India

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    Haddad Slim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines associations between female participation in a microcredit program in India, known as self help groups (SHGs, and women's health in the south Indian state of Kerala. Because SHGs do not have a formal health program, this provides a unique opportunity to assess whether SHG participation influences women's health via the social determinants of health. Methods This cross-sectional study used special survey data collected in 2003 from one Panchayat (territorial decentralized unit. Information was collected on women's characteristics, health determinants (exclusion to health care, exposure to health risks, decision-making agency, and health achievements (self assessed health, markers of mental health. The study sample included 928 non elderly poor women. Results The primary finding is that compared to non-participants living in a household without a SHG member, the odds of facing exclusion is significantly lower among early joiners, women who were members for more than 2 years (OR = 0.58, CI = 0.41–0.80, late joiners, members for 2 years and less (OR = 0.60, CI = 0.39–0.94, and non-participants who live in a household with a SHG member (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.32–0.90. We also found that after controlling for key women's characteristics, early joiners of a SHG are less likely to report emotional stress and poor life satisfaction compared to non-members (OR = 0.52, CI = 0.30–0.93; OR = 0.32, CI = 0.14–0.71. No associations were found between SHG participation and self assessed health or exposure to health risks. The relationship between SHG participation and decision-making agency is unclear. Conclusion Microcredit is not a panacea, but could help to improve the health of poor women by addressing certain issues relevant to the context. In Kerala, SHG participation can help protect poor women against exclusion to health care and possibly aid in promoting their mental health.

  3. Childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation: associations with sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Vujanovic, Anka A; Gilbert, Myani; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations among childhood maltreatment, difficulties in emotion regulation, and sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women reporting current involvement in committed, romantic relationships. A sample of 192 women (ages 18-25) completed self-report questionnaires as part of an Internet-based survey. It was hypothesized that severity of childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation would each independently and negatively predict (a) sexual satisfaction, (b) relationship intimacy, and (c) expression of affection within the context of the relationship. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that greater emotion regulation difficulties would moderate the effects of childhood maltreatment on these sexual and relationship variables (i.e., sexual satisfaction, relationship intimacy, and expression of affection). Findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation demonstrated an incremental effect with regard to sexual satisfaction, but not with intimacy and affection expression. In contrast to predictions, no significant interactive effects were documented. Clinical implications and future directions related to this line of inquiry are discussed.

  4. Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain in dysmenorrheic young adult women: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Mein; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chiu, Min-Huei; Hu, Hsou-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain (LBP) in dysmenorrheic young adult women. In all, 129 female students, who had been experiencing dysmenorrhea with LBP during menstruation and who scored more than 4 points on the visual analog scale for pain, were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (n = 65) received acupressure massage three times a week for 30 minutes on the sanyinjiao (SP6), ciliao (BL32), and taichong (Liver 3) acupoints. The control group (n = 64) received only a manual of menstrual health education without acupressure intervention. Data were collected at five time points: at baseline, 30 minutes, and 4, 8, and 12 months after the intervention. During the 12-month follow-up, the experimental group had significantly lower menstrual distress and LBP scores than the control group. Among 65 participants in the experimental group, 53 (82%) reported a moderate to high levels of menstrual distress, 51 (78%) reported moderate to high levels of LBP relief, and 49 (75%) reported moderate to high levels of satisfaction with acupressure. Our findings may serve as a reference for health care professionals and young women to improve self-care during menstruation and help further understand the therapeutic effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and LBP.

  5. Comparative study of the results of heel ultrasound screening and DXA findings (lumbar spine and left hip of postmenopausal women

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    Amila Jaganjac

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent and invisible disease of bone, great presence and is considered to suffer from osteoporosis at least 200 million women worldwide. The goal of this paper is to show average ageof postmenopausal respondents, values of anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI, anamnestic data on clinical symptoms, fractures of women in menopause, analysis of heel ultrasound screening results,analysis of lumbar spine DXA results, analysis of left hip DXA results.Methods: In retrospective study 61 respondents were involved, 33 to 79 years old, treated in u Center for Physical Medicine and Acupuncture “AD” in Sarajevo during the period from 01.01.2008 till 31.12.2009. Alldate are shown numerically and percentage account with calculation of mean value, expressed in the form of tables and charts.Results: Finding of heel ultrosound screening compared to T values of postmenopausal respondents indicates on osteoporosis in case of 17 (27,87%, in case of 44 (72,13% respondents osteopenia, while normalvalues were not found. T value with lumbar spine DXA method in postmenopausal female respondents correspond to 43 (70,5% respondents, in 15 respondents (24,6% finding corresponded to osteopenia, while 3 respondents (4,9% had physiological finding. Left hip DXA finding shows 36 (59% respondents corresponded osteoporosis, 19 (31,2% respondents corresponded osteopenia, while physiological finding was found in 6 respondents (9,8%. T value of lumbar spine DXA finding was - 2,71 ± 1,16; DXA finding of left hip -2,35 ±1,36; heel ultrasound screening -2,19 ± 0,54.Conclusion: Research results indicate that DXA finding in relation to the heel ultrasound screening confirms gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis.

  6. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

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    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating.

  7. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

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    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  8. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

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    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAXIMUM UNILATERAL SQUAT STRENGTH AND BALANCE IN YOUNG ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

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    Kevin McCurdy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help

  10. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women; Cross-sectional study on physical activity and sedentary behaviour

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    Azza Al-Habsi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour (SB. Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time was self-reported using the Domain- Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population.

  11. Inverse correlation between fibrinogen and bone mineral density in women: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Hemostatic factors may be involved in bone health. The present preliminary study investigated the association between plasma fibrinogen and bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal women. A significant inverse correlation between fibrinogen and BMD was observed (correlation coefficient = -0.42, p high level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein than in that with a low level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and in the subgroup with a high level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (an oxidative stress marker) than in that with a low level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites. Thus, fibrinogen may be a possible marker of BMD in this population. More studies on the associations among hemostasis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and bone metabolism are warranted in the clinical setting.

  12. Genome-Wide Identification of Epigenetic Hotspots Potentially Related to Cardiovascular Risk in Adult Women after a Complicated Pregnancy.

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    Cees Oudejans

    Full Text Available The physiological demands of pregnancy on the maternal cardiovascular system can catapult women into a metabolic syndrome that predisposes to atherosclerosis in later life. We sought to identify the nature of the epigenomic changes associated with the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adult women following pre-eclampsia.We assessed the genome wide epigenetic profile by methyl-C sequencing of monozygotic parous twin sister pairs discordant for a severe variant of pre-eclampsia. In the adult twin sisters at risk for CVD as a consequence of a complicated pregnancy, a set of 12 differentially methylated regions with at least 50% difference in methylation percentage and the same directional change was found to be shared between the affected twin sisters and significantly different compared to their unaffected monozygous sisters.The current epigenetic marker set will permit targeted analysis of differentially methylated regions potentially related to CVD risk in large cohorts of adult women following complicated pregnancies.

  13. Cognitive Function in Adult Offspring of Women with Gestational Diabetes–The Role of Glucose and Other Factors

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    Clausen, Tine D.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Lone Schmidt; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Torben Hansen; Jensen, Dorte M.; Peter Damm

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2003-2005 cognitive function was assessed in a cohort of 18-27 year old offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 153) and offspring from the background population (n = 118). The main outcome measure was global cognitive score derived from Raven's Progressi...

  14. Sexist Attitudes Among Emerging Adult Women Readers of Fifty Shades Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Lauren E; Carotta, Christin L; Bonomi, Amy E; Snyder, Anastasia

    2017-02-01

    Stereotypical sexist representations of men and women in popular culture reinforce rigid views of masculinity (e.g., males as being strong, in control, masterful, and aggressive) and femininity (e.g., women as being fragile and weak, unassertive, peaceful, irrational, and driven by emotions). The present study examined associations between the fictional series Fifty Shades-one popular culture mechanism that includes pervasive traditional gender role representations-and underlying sexist beliefs among a sample of 715 women ages 18-24 years. Analyses revealed associations between Fifty Shades readership and sexism, as measured through the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Namely women who reported reading Fifty Shades had higher levels of ambivalent, benevolent, and hostile sexism. Further, those who interpreted Fifty Shades as "romantic" had higher levels of ambivalent and benevolent sexism. Our findings support prior empirical studies noting associations between interacting with aspects of popular culture, such as television and video games, and individual beliefs and behaviors.

  15. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Findings of Candidiasis and Trichomoniasis in Women Supported by Selected Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran

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    Sehhatie-Shafaie Fahimeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vulvovaginitis candidiasis and trichomoniasis constitute at least 50% of infectious vaginitis cases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical findings of candidiasis and trichomoniasis in women supported by selected health centers of Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which 1000 women who had the study criteria were selected by random sampling. In addition, 12 health centers of Tabriz were selected for this study. A questionnaire was used to obtain their personal and reproductive information, checklist for clinical observations, and culture methods (sabouraud dextrose agar and diamond for diagnose vaginal infections. Results: The prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis were 25.2 and 9.2%, respectively. Findings showed that candidiasis infection, history of diseases, vaginal pH, number of coitus, number of delivery, and number of vaginal delivery, breast feeding status, method of last delivery, and contraceptive methods are risk factors for candidacies. Moreover, age at marriage, personal health, sexual hygiene, and vaginal pH are risk factors for trichomoniasis. A statistically significant relationship was observed between candidiasis and clinical findings, such as pruritus, pruritus during coitus, burning sensation with coitus, dysuria in woman and her husband, dyspareunia, low abdominal pain, urinal symptoms, vaginal status, amount of discharge, consistency appearance, and color of discharges. Furthermore, a significant relationship was observed between trichomoniasis and dysuria, and appearance and color of vaginal discharge. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of candidiasis, trichomoniasis infections, and infected women as asymptomatic carriers, it seems necessary to pay more attention to these infections and make efforts for their prevention.

  16. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 2: topical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-11-01

    In part 1 of this 3-part series, an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women was provided. Proper selection and integration of skin care products is important in the management of AV in this patient population. Part 2 of this series includes a discussion of over-the-counter and prescription topical therapies for adult women with AV. A summary of key randomized controlled trials also is provided. Further well-designed studies are needed, as data on the use of topical agents in this subpopulation are limited.

  17. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  18. Levels of diphtheria and tetanus specific IgG of Portuguese adult women, before and after vaccination with adult type Td. Duration of immunity following vaccination

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    Santos Maria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for tetanus toxoid decennial booster doses has been questioned by some experts. Several counter arguments have been presented, supporting the maintenance of decennial adult booster doses with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (adult formulation of the vaccine: Td. This study aimed to evaluate the use of Td in Portuguese adult women under routine conditions. For that purpose we selected a group of women 30+ years of age to which vaccination was recommended. We intended to know if pre-vaccination antibody concentrations were associated with factors as age at first and last vaccination, number of doses and time since last revaccination. We also intended to assess the serological efficacy of Td booster. Methods Following the Portuguese guidelines 100 women were vaccinated with Td. Antitetanus toxin IgG (ATT IgG and antidiphtheria toxin IgG (ADT IgG levels were measured (mIU/ml in 100 pre-vaccination and 91 post-vaccination sera. Detailed vaccination records were available from 88 participants. Results Twenty-two women (Group A began vaccination with DPT/DT in their early childhood and their pre-vaccination ATT IgG levels increased with the number of doses received (p = 0.022 and decreased with time since last vaccination (p = 0.016. Among the 66 women who began vaccination in adolescence and adulthood (Group B, with monovalent TT, ATT IgG levels decreased with age at first dose (p Conclusion Our study suggests that, to protect against tetanus, there is no need to administer decennial boosters to the Portuguese adults who have complied with the childhood/adolescent schedule (6 doses of tetanus toxoid. The adult booster intervals could be wider, probably of 20 years. This also seems to apply to protection against diphtheria, but issues on the herd immunity and on the circulation of toxigenic strains need to be better understood.

  19. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

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    Tiffany L. Carson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n=355 provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10, and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2 and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16 and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group. Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  20. Divorce potential and marital stability of adult women sexually abused as children compared to adult women not sexually abused as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelster, K L; Feinauer, L L

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if significant differences exist between women in marital therapy who had been sexually abused as children and women in marital therapy who had not been sexually abused as children on the parameters of marital satisfaction and divorce potential. The null hypothesis was tested. No differences were found between the two groups. Both groups of women and their husbands experienced moderate marital dissatisfaction. Divorce potential for both groups and their husbands was low. The sexually abused women had significantly higher psychoticism scores on the SCL-90R than the nonabused women, generally representing moderately withdrawn, isolated lifestyle patterns.

  1. Imaging findings in Langerhans` cell histiocytosis of the liver and the spleen in an adult

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    Mampaey, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium)]|[Dept. of Radiology, University of Antwerp (Belgium); Warson, F. [Dept. of Anatomopathology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Hedent, E. van [Dept. of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Schepper, A.M. de [Dept. of Radiology, University of Antwerp (Belgium)

    1999-02-01

    We present a case of Langerhans` cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the liver and spleen in an adult. The imaging features are different from those in the few previously reported cases of individual organ involvement by LCH. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 refs.

  2. Development of a Scale to Measure Adults' Perceptions of Health: Preliminary Findings

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    Diamond, James J.; Becker, Julie A.; Arenson, Christine A.; Chambers, Christopher V.; Rosenthal, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Given the national agenda on chronic disease self-management, the goal of the project described in this brief report was to develop a scale that measured adult perceptions about health but did not focus on a specific condition. The Perception of Health Scale (PHS) is based on earlier work that used the Health Belief Model as a focus. The 15-item…

  3. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  4. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  5. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

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    Wilsnack SC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharon C WilsnackDepartment of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1 age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2 groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3 heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4 one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention

  6. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Tooth Loss among Iranian Adults: Findings from a Large Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshteli, A. H.; Feizi, Awat; Savabi, Omid; Adibi, Peyman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the prevalence of tooth loss and different prosthetic rehabilitations among Iranian adults, as well as the potential determinants of tooth loss. Methods. In a cross-sectional community-based study conducted among 8094 Iranian adults living in Isfahan province, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess epidemiologic features of tooth loss. Results. Thirty-two percent of subjects had all their teeth, 58.6% had lost less than 6, and 7.2% of participants had lost more than 6 teeth. One hundred and sixty-nine individuals (2.2%) were edentulous. Among participants, 2.3% had single jaw removable partial denture, 3.6% had complete removable denture in both jaws, and 4.6% had fixed prosthesis. Others reported no prosthetic rehabilitation (89.5%). In the age subgroup analysis (≤35 and >35 years old) tooth loss was more prevalent among men than women (OR = 2.8 and 1.9, resp., P 35 years (adjusted OR = 1.29, P < 0.01). Conclusions. Tooth loss is highly prevalent in Iranian adult population. Community programs promoting oral health for prevention of tooth loss should be considered taking into account its major determinants including lower educational level, male gender, smoking, and metabolic abnormality. PMID:24228259

  7. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Tooth Loss among Iranian Adults: Findings from a Large Community-Based Study

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    Saber Khazaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the prevalence of tooth loss and different prosthetic rehabilitations among Iranian adults, as well as the potential determinants of tooth loss. Methods. In a cross-sectional community-based study conducted among 8094 Iranian adults living in Isfahan province, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess epidemiologic features of tooth loss. Results. Thirty-two percent of subjects had all their teeth, 58.6% had lost less than 6, and 7.2% of participants had lost more than 6 teeth. One hundred and sixty-nine individuals (2.2% were edentulous. Among participants, 2.3% had single jaw removable partial denture, 3.6% had complete removable denture in both jaws, and 4.6% had fixed prosthesis. Others reported no prosthetic rehabilitation (89.5%. In the age subgroup analysis (≤35 and >35 years old tooth loss was more prevalent among men than women (OR=2.8 and 1.9, resp., P35 years (adjusted OR=1.29, P<0.01. Conclusions. Tooth loss is highly prevalent in Iranian adult population. Community programs promoting oral health for prevention of tooth loss should be considered taking into account its major determinants including lower educational level, male gender, smoking, and metabolic abnormality.

  8. Childhood maltreatment, intervening variables, and adult psychological difficulties in women: an overview.

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    Briere, John; Jordan, Carol E

    2009-10-01

    This article reviews the complex relationship between child maltreatment and later psychosocial difficulties among adult women. Specifically addressed are (a) the various forms of childhood maltreatment, (b) the range of potential long-term psychological outcomes, and (c) important contextual variables that mediate or add to these maltreatment-symptom relationships. Among the latter are characteristics of the abuse and/or neglect; effects of impaired parental functioning; premaltreatment and postmaltreatment psychobiology; qualities of the parent-child attachment; abuse and/or neglect-related affect dysregulation that may lead to further symptomatology; the extent to which the child responds with significant emotional or behavioral avoidance; and whether later traumas are also present. Also relevant are sociocultural contributors to both child maltreatment and maltreatment effects, especially poverty and marginalization. Clinical and research implications are considered.

  9. Clinical and MRI findings of cerebellar agenesis in two living adult patients

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    Fazil Mustafa Gelal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar agenesis (CA is an extremely rare entity. We present two adult patients with CA. The 61-year-old man had ataxia, dysarthria, abnormalities in cerebellar tests, severe cognitive impairment, and moderate mental retardation. The 26-year-old woman had dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and dysarthria as well as mild cognitive impairment and mild mental retardation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed complete absence of the cerebellum with small residual vermis. Brainstem was hypoplastic and structures above tentorium were normal. Supratentorial white matter bundles were unaffected in diffusion tensor tractography. Only few adult patients with CA have so far been published. These cases show that patients with CA present with a variety of developmental, clinical, and mental abnormalities; and emphasize the role of the cerebellum in normal motor, language, and mental development.

  10. Correlation of the Y-Balance Test with Lower-limb Strength of Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between Y-balance test (YBT) distance and the lower-limb strength of adult women. [Subjects] Forty women aged 45 to 80 years volunteered for this study. [Methods] The participants were tested for maximal muscle strength of the lower limbs (hip extensors, hip flexors, hip abductors, knee extensors, knee flexors, and ankle dorsiflexors) and YBT distances in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the linear relationships between YBT distances and lower-limb strength. [Results] Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT anterior distance. Hip extensor, hip abductor, and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with the YBT posteromedial distance. Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT posterolateral distance. [Conclusion] There was a weak correlation between lower-limb strength (hip extensors, hip abductors, and knee flexors) and dynamic postural control as measured by the YBT.

  11. Adult BMI Change and Risk of Colon Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

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    Lyla Blake-Gumbs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We recently reported an association of adult BMI change with colon cancer risk. Here, we sought to further explore this association with respect to postmenopausal HRT use in a larger study population. Methods. We included 1,457 postmenopausal women participating in an ongoing population-based case-control study of colon cancer. Results. We confirmed a previously reported association of adulthood weight gain and increased risk of colon cancer: compared to those with 10 kg/m2 BMI changes since their 20s had OR estimates of 1.54 (95% CI = 1.09–2.19 and 1.45 (95% CI = 0.90–2.33, respectively (P for trend = 0.05. Stratified analyses showed that this association was limited to HRT nonusers: ORs were 1.77 (95% CI = 1.02–3.05 and 2.21 (95% CI = 1.09–4.45, respectively (P for trend = 0.03, for BMI changes occurring between the 20s decade and time of recruitment among non-users. Similar associations were observed for BMI changes since the 30s decade. There was no association among HRT users. Conclusion. Our results suggest early adulthood weight gain increases colon cancer risk in postmenopausal women who do not use HRT.

  12. Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project

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    Fernando Estévez-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of widespread chronic pain. People with fibromyalgia report lower levels of Positive Affect and higher levels of Negative Affect than non-fibromyalgia peers. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS–a widely used questionnaire to assess two core domains of affect; namely ‘Positive Affect’ and ‘Negative Affect’ –has a controversial factor structure varying across studies. The internal structure of a measurement instrument has an impact on the meaning and validity of its score. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the structural construct validity of the PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 442 adult women with fibromyalgia (age: 51.3 ± 7.4 years old from Andalusia (Southern Spain. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the factor structure of the PANAS. Results: A structure with two correlated factors (Positive Affect and Negative Affect obtained the best fit; S-B χ2 = 288.49, df = 155, p < .001; RMSEA = .04; 90% CI of RMSEA = (.036, .052; the best fit SRMR = .05; CFI = .96; CAIC = −810.66, respectively. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that both Positive Affect and Negative Affect are core dimensions of affect in adult women with fibromyalgia. A structure with two correlated factors of the PANAS emerged from our sample of women with fibromyalgia from Andalusia (Southern Spain. In this model, the amount of variance shared by Positive Affect and Negative Affect was small. Therefore, our findings support to use and interpret the Positive Affect and Negative Affect subscales of the PANAS as separate factors that are associated but distinctive as well.

  13. Validity of Self-reported Birth Weight by Adult Women: Sociodemographic Influences and Implications for Life-Course Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranifar, Parisa; Liao, Yuyan; Flom, Julie D.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Life-course epidemiologic studies frequently obtain data on perinatal and childhood factors through adult self-report. Data from a prospective US birth cohort of 262 women, born between 1959 and 1963 (average age at adult follow-up, 41.8 years), were used to assess the validity of self-reported birth weight category by sociodemographic characteristics. The effect of reporting error on the associations of birth weight with childhood and adult body mass index was evaluated by comparing the esti...

  14. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  15. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2012-01-01

    Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1) age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2) groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3) heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4) one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men. PMID:24474872

  16. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  17. Predictors of Weight Loss in Obese Older Adults: Findings from the USA and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Jackson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence and demographic predictors of clinically meaningful weight loss in community samples of obese older adults in the USA and the UK. Methods: Data were from obese older adults (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; age ≥ 52 years, free of a cancer diagnosis, from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n = 3398 and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; n = 998. Weight change was assessed from 2004 to 2008. Multivariable logistic regression tested whether age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, education, or BMI predicted ≥ 5% weight loss. Results: Over a quarter (28.7% of obese participants from HRS and 16.6% from ELSA lost ≥ 5% weight. Being female (odds ratio (OR = 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.11-1.54 and heavier (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.37-1.87 predicted weight loss in HRS. Trends were similar in ELSA (female: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.83-1.69; BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2: OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.85-1.82. ORs were increased in ≥ 65-year-olds in HRS (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.33-1.81, and reduced in married people in ELSA (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48-1.00. Neither education nor ethnicity predicted weight loss in either cohort. Conclusion: A high proportion of obese older adults experience clinically meaningful weight loss, but few demographic variables consistently predict weight loss in this population.

  18. Preliminary Findings of The Brief Everyday Activities Measurement (BEAM) in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharaga, Elyssa A.; Holtzer, Roee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Functional losses are common in healthy and cognitively impaired older adults. However, subtle declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are not always detected in self-reports. Performance IADL measurements are financially and time burdensome, restricting their use in varied settings. To address these limitations, we developed the Brief Everyday Activities Measure (BEAM), a short (speed. Conclusions Medication and finance management can be efficiently assessed within five minutes. The BEAM may be a valuable screening tool to evaluate these functional abilities. PMID:26482695

  19. Neurosciences and adult health behaviors: recent findings and implications for counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Dack, Stephanie L; Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2014-10-01

    The current review comprehensively examines recent advances in 2 innovative areas of neuroscience research on healthy adults regarding neuropsychosocial interactions on human cognition and behavior, as well as implications for counseling psychologists conducting research and in practice. Advances in how oxytocin influences prosocial behavior and the mitigation of social stress, and the influence of environmentally mediated gene expressions on the development of attachment disorders are surveyed and discussed in terms of how counseling psychologists might best integrate recent neuroscience research into a framework for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Hyperostosis frontalis interna – a find in women individual from Modern Times (St. Martin Cathedral, Spisska Kapitula, Slovakia

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    Eva Petrušová Chudá

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present find of skeletal remains from the St. Martin Cathedral from the 17th – 18th centuries which were excavated in year 2008. Especially of individual from grave no. 2/2008 – preserved cranium showed marks of endocranial hyperostosis (stage B according Hershkovitz et al. 1999. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI is an overgrowth of bony tissue on the inner plate of the frontal bone of the calvaria, the irregular thickening of the endocranium (may be 1 cm or thicker. It is typically bilateral and symmetrical, and may extend to involve the parietal bones. It was first described in 1765 by Morgagni and Santorini as an obesity and virilism associated with thickening of internal table of the frontal bone called hyperostosis frontalis interna. HFI appears more commonly in women than in men, with an estimated male:female ratio 1:9, usually in age 35 years and older women. In modern population this condition is most prevalent in postmenopausal females, with frequencies of 40 – 62% reported, in general population, composed of males and females of different ages HFI affects 3 – 15% of individuals. In contrast, HFI is rarely reported in an archeological context. Using an anthropomorphological and paleopathological examination of the skeletal remains we realized that this women was in age category adultus II (30 – 39 years or older, her stature was cca 151.875 cm and she also suffered from DISH, healed fracture of styloid process of right ulna, osteoarthrosis of humeral and femoral heads and spondylosis.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women with menopause symptoms: findings from a randomised controlled trial.

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    Päivi Kolu

    Full Text Available Menopause is a period that may predispose one to a decrease in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and quality of life. A study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women displaying symptoms of menopause. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on data from a six-month randomised controlled trial (n = 151. The women in the intervention group engaged in an unsupervised session of at least 50 minutes of physical activity four times a week. The control group continued their physical activity as before. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated in terms of maximal oxygen consumption, lean muscle mass, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained. A bootstrap technique was utilised to estimate uncertainty around the point estimate for ICER associated with the intervention. The mean total cost in the intervention group was €1,307 (SEM: €311 and in the control group was €1,253 (SEM: €279, p = 0.10 per person. The mean intervention cost was €208 per person. After six months of the behaviour-change intervention, the ICER was €63 for a 1 ml/kg/min improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, the additional cost per one-gram increase in lean muscle mass was €126, and the cost per QALY gained was €46. According to the findings, physical activity among menopausal women was cost-effective for cardiorespiratory fitness, for lean muscle mass, and for QALYs gained, since the intervention was more effective than the actions within the control group and the additional effects of physical activity were gained at a very low price. From the societal perspective, the intervention used may promote ability to work and thereby save on further costs associated with early retirement or disability pension if the physical-activity level remains at least the same as during the intervention.

  2. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  3. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

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    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    enhance bone formation or inhibit bone resorption in young adult women, as assessed by biochemical markers of bone metabolism. (2 Subsequent maintenance of a high protein intake for 10 days in these regularly-training, calcium-replete women also showed no effects on bone metabolism.

  4. The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Chinese older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area—Findings from the PINE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal disorders affect many older adults and are a major public health concern due to rising prevalence. However, there is a paucity of research regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in minority older adults, especially in older Chinese adults in the U.S. This study aims to provide an overall estimate on the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among Chinese older adults in the U.S. and examine the correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Data was collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above. Review of Systems (ROS was used to assess individual perceptions of musculoskeletal symptoms. We found 67% of participants experience musculoskeletal symptoms. Muscle or joint pain (55.3% and back pain (34.5% were the most prevalent types of symptoms. Being female (r = 0.18, having lower education (r = 0.15, living fewer years in the community (r = 0.05, having a lower overall health status (r = 0.22, and having a lower quality of life (r = 0.08 were all significantly correlated with reporting musculoskeletal symptoms. Our findings show that musculoskeletal symptoms are a common health concern among Chinese older adults, and that certain subsets of the population, related to sociodemographic factors, are more likely to experience these symptoms. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to determine causality as well as changes in musculoskeletal symptoms burden.

  5. Methylphenidate normalizes emotional processing in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzelmann, Annette; Woidich, Eva; Mucha, Ronald F; Weyers, Peter; Jacob, Christian P; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Pauli, Paul

    2011-03-24

    Emotional-motivational dysfunctions may significantly contribute to symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and sensation seeking could be the result of a search for reinforcers, and cognitive dysfunctions might be due to a low motivational drive. Emotional-motivational dysfunctions could also explain social dysfunctions in ADHD patients because they may lead to misinterpretations of emotional and social clues. Since methylphenidate (MPH) is the first choice as a pharmacological treatment in ADHD, we examined its influence on dysfunctional emotional processes. 13 adult ADHD patients were examined twice, without and after intake of MPH according to their personal medication regimen. The affect-modulated startle paradigm was used to assess physiological (affect-modulated startle response) and subjective (valence and arousal ratings) responses to pleasant, neutral and unpleasant visual stimuli. Healthy controls displayed affective startle modulation as expected, with startle attenuation and potentiation while watching pleasant and unpleasant pictures, respectively. In contrast, unmedicated ADHD patients displayed deficient responses to pleasant stimuli; no startle attenuation during the exposure to pleasant pictures was observed. However, MPH reinstated a normal affective startle modulation, as indicated by attenuation and potentiation associated with pleasant and unpleasant pictures, respectively. Valence and arousal ratings of patients were not affected by MPH. The data suggest that MPH as first choice treatment in ADHD has a positive impact on emotional processes in adult ADHD patients and points to the clinical relevance of emotional-dysfunctions in ADHD.

  6. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  7. Giant Choledochal Cyst Mimicking Massive Gallbladder Hydrops in an Adult Patient: Multi Detector Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Correlated to Gross and Histopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Il Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Choledochal cysts are uncommon congenital anomalies of the biliary tree, commonly presenting in infancy, generally in the 1 st year of life. Presentation in adult life is less common, accounting for 20% of cases. A 19-year-old female patient presented to the Emergency Department with severe abdominal distension, a palpable abdominal mass, mild jaundice and low grade fever. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen showed a massive septated cystic lesion filling the entire abdomen with a significant mass effect on surrounding structures. Origin of the lesion was unclear and diagnosis included a giant mesenteric or duplication cyst, massive gallbladder with hydrops, biliary cystadenoma and giant choledochal cyst, among others. Final diagnosis was a Type IA choledochal cyst with massive asymmetric cystic dilatation of the extra-hepatic segments of the left hepatic duct with asymmetric dilatation of the right hepatic duct. Patient had an uneventful recovery after resection of the entire extrahepatic cyst and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy at the level of the hilum. In this article, we correlate CT and MRI findings to gross and histopathological findings of this giant Todani′s Type IA choledochal cyst.

  8. Maternal history of depression is associated with enhanced theory of mind in depressed and nondepressed adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate Leslie; Washburn, Dustin; Theriault, Jordan Eugene; Lee, Lisa; Sabbagh, Mark Alan

    2011-08-30

    Theory of mind forms the basis of social cognition and develops on a stereotyped ontogenetic timetable. Yet, there are individual differences in theory of mind that may be transmitted through genetic and/or environmental mechanisms. In the current study we examined the relation of maternal history of depression to individual differences in theory of mind in a sample of adult women. Sixty-one depressed women (23% with a positive maternal history of depression) and 30 non-depressed women (33% with a positive maternal history of depression) completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task', a test of theory of mind decoding. Women with a maternal history of depression performed better on the Eyes task than those without. Further, the younger the mother's onset of depression, the better the current probands' Eyes task performance. These results are consistent with a broader literature linking hypersensitive social cognition and depression risk. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our results.

  9. Distinct Muscle Biopsy Findings in Genetically Defined Adult-Onset Motor Neuron Disorders.

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    Manu Jokela

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and compare muscle histopathological findings in 3 different genetic motor neuron disorders. We retrospectively re-assessed muscle biopsy findings in 23 patients with autosomal dominant lower motor neuron disease caused by p.G66V mutation in CHCHD10 (SMAJ, 10 X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA and 11 autosomal dominant c9orf72-mutated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9ALS patients. Distinct large fiber type grouping consisting of non-atrophic type IIA muscle fibers were 100% specific for the late-onset spinal muscular atrophies (SMAJ and SBMA and were never observed in c9ALS. Common, but less specific findings included small groups of highly atrophic rounded type IIA fibers in SMAJ/SBMA, whereas in c9ALS, small group atrophies consisting of small-caliber angular fibers involving both fiber types were more characteristic. We also show that in the 2 slowly progressive motor neuron disorders (SMAJ and SBMA the initial neurogenic features are often confused with considerable secondary "myopathic" changes at later disease stages, such as rimmed vacuoles, myofibrillar aggregates and numerous fibers reactive for fetal myosin heavy chain (dMyHC antibodies. Based on our findings, muscle biopsy may be valuable in the diagnostic work-up of suspected motor neuron disorders in order to avoid a false ALS diagnosis in patients without clear findings of upper motor neuron lesions.

  10. Distinct Muscle Biopsy Findings in Genetically Defined Adult-Onset Motor Neuron Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Manu; Huovinen, Sanna; Raheem, Olayinka; Lindfors, Mikaela; Palmio, Johanna; Penttilä, Sini; Udd, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize and compare muscle histopathological findings in 3 different genetic motor neuron disorders. We retrospectively re-assessed muscle biopsy findings in 23 patients with autosomal dominant lower motor neuron disease caused by p.G66V mutation in CHCHD10 (SMAJ), 10 X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and 11 autosomal dominant c9orf72-mutated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9ALS) patients. Distinct large fiber type grouping consisting of non-atrophic type IIA muscle fibers were 100% specific for the late-onset spinal muscular atrophies (SMAJ and SBMA) and were never observed in c9ALS. Common, but less specific findings included small groups of highly atrophic rounded type IIA fibers in SMAJ/SBMA, whereas in c9ALS, small group atrophies consisting of small-caliber angular fibers involving both fiber types were more characteristic. We also show that in the 2 slowly progressive motor neuron disorders (SMAJ and SBMA) the initial neurogenic features are often confused with considerable secondary “myopathic” changes at later disease stages, such as rimmed vacuoles, myofibrillar aggregates and numerous fibers reactive for fetal myosin heavy chain (dMyHC) antibodies. Based on our findings, muscle biopsy may be valuable in the diagnostic work-up of suspected motor neuron disorders in order to avoid a false ALS diagnosis in patients without clear findings of upper motor neuron lesions. PMID:26999347

  11. Distinct Muscle Biopsy Findings in Genetically Defined Adult-Onset Motor Neuron Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Manu; Huovinen, Sanna; Raheem, Olayinka; Lindfors, Mikaela; Palmio, Johanna; Penttilä, Sini; Udd, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize and compare muscle histopathological findings in 3 different genetic motor neuron disorders. We retrospectively re-assessed muscle biopsy findings in 23 patients with autosomal dominant lower motor neuron disease caused by p.G66V mutation in CHCHD10 (SMAJ), 10 X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and 11 autosomal dominant c9orf72-mutated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9ALS) patients. Distinct large fiber type grouping consisting of non-atrophic type IIA muscle fibers were 100% specific for the late-onset spinal muscular atrophies (SMAJ and SBMA) and were never observed in c9ALS. Common, but less specific findings included small groups of highly atrophic rounded type IIA fibers in SMAJ/SBMA, whereas in c9ALS, small group atrophies consisting of small-caliber angular fibers involving both fiber types were more characteristic. We also show that in the 2 slowly progressive motor neuron disorders (SMAJ and SBMA) the initial neurogenic features are often confused with considerable secondary "myopathic" changes at later disease stages, such as rimmed vacuoles, myofibrillar aggregates and numerous fibers reactive for fetal myosin heavy chain (dMyHC) antibodies. Based on our findings, muscle biopsy may be valuable in the diagnostic work-up of suspected motor neuron disorders in order to avoid a false ALS diagnosis in patients without clear findings of upper motor neuron lesions.

  12. Low nutrient intake among adult women and patients with severe tuberculosis disease in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mupere Ezekiel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information regarding dietary nutrient intake during tuberculosis disease is lacking. We established the relationship between disease severity or wasting during pulmonary tuberculosis and nutrient intake. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 131 adults with or without pulmonary tuberculosis were screened for human immune-deficiency virus (HIV, wasting, disease severity using 13 item validated clinical TBscore, and 24-hour dietary intake recall. Results Of the 131 participants, 61 were males and 70 females. Overall men and women had similar age. In average 24-hour nutrient intake, the following nutrients: energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin A, and folate were low among patients with severe tuberculosis disease. Patients with moderate-to-severe clinical TBscore had lower average energy intake than patients with mild TBscores (6.11 vs. 9.27 MJ, respectively (p Conclusions Findings suggest that severity of pulmonary tuberculosis and female gender had reduced nutrient intake. Early tuberculosis diagnosis and nutritional support may be important in management of tuberculosis patients.

  13. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

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    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  14. Can low serum levels of S100B predict normal CT findings after minor head injury in adults?: an evidence-based review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Romner, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether low levels of S100B in serum can predict normal computed tomography (CT) findings after minor head injury (MHI) in adults.......To determine whether low levels of S100B in serum can predict normal computed tomography (CT) findings after minor head injury (MHI) in adults....

  15. Charting a course for the future of women's health in the United States: concepts, findings and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobino, Donna M; Grason, Holly; Minkovitz, Cynthia

    2002-03-01

    The JHU Women's and Children's Health Policy Center, with the federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau, undertook a review of the health of women in the United States and invited experts to develop recommendations on health policy, programs, practices and research. The review included published research, program reviews, and policy reports on women's physical health, mental health, and health behaviors, and on the effects of health services, systems and financing on their health. Based on trends in age, ethnic background, education, labor-force participation, marriage and childbearing among women, the results of the reviews, and the experts' consultation, several recommendations were made for a forward looking agenda. They included the need: (1) to focus broadly on women's health, not just during pregnancy; (2) for comprehensive, integrated programs and services addressing women's unique needs; (3) for integrated programs and services across the lifespan; (4) for better provider training about women's unique health needs, the differential effects of particular problems on them, and the consequences of chronic health problems heretofore considered primarily male problems; (5) to eliminate social policies that single out women, particularly pregnant women, for punitive actions; (6) to promote social policies that ensure economic security for women; and (7) for vigorous public health leadership to shape the women's health agenda, recognizing the social and economic context of their lives. The social and economic trends among women in the US and the recommendations for a women's health agenda have relevance to other developed countries as well.

  16. Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of the Zika-related changes in neural stem cell numbers in mice. However, research with animals often doesn't translate to similar findings in humans. SOURCE: Cell Stem Cell , news release, Aug. 18, 2016 HealthDay Copyright ( ...

  17. Can tuberculosis case finding among health-care seeking adults be improved?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, F; Haraldsdottir, Thorny Linda; Mendes, M S

    2014-01-01

    SETTING: The Bandim Health Project study area in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential usefulness of predictors (elsewhere applied) and clinical scores (TBscore and TBscore II) based on signs and symptoms typical of tuberculosis (TB) in case finding. DESIGN: Observational...

  18. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms among Young Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Polak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increased interest in the role of vitamin D in depression; however, there have been few studies conducted in younger population groups. Our aim was to investigate the association between vitamin D status and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical young adult sample living in Dunedin, New Zealand. A cross-sectional sample of 615 young adults completed a questionnaire including demographics and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Height, weight and a blood sample for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was obtained. Serum 25(OHD was used to predict depression scores, adjusting for potential confounders including time spent outdoors for 13 consecutive days, BMI, age, sex and ethnicity. Prevalence of low vitamin D was high even in this age group, and serum 25(OHD was negatively associated with depression symptoms before and after adjustment. When investigating the relationship between the presence versus absence of depressive symptoms and quartiles of 25(OHD, participants in the lowest quartile were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared with those in the highest quartile. Although our findings suggest that vitamin D is a predictor of depression symptomatology, even when controlling for time spent outdoors, a randomised controlled trial in this young adult target group is needed to confirm the association.

  19. Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+ adults (n=78. We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population.

  20. Urban-Rural Comparison of Nutrient Intake by Adult Women in Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HARUo NAKATSUKA; MASAYUKI IKEDA; ZHANG ZUo-WEN; QU JtANc-BIN; GAO WEI- PIN; DENG YI-JUAN; SHINICHIRO SHIMBO; TaKAO WATANABE; NAOKO INOGUCHI-MATSUDA; KAE HIGASHIKAWA

    1999-01-01

    Triplet surveys were conducted in the city of Xi' an and two villages (one in the vicinity and the other at a distance) in Shaanxi Province in China in October-November (when agricultural activitis were low), 1997, to elucidate nutrient intakes with a focus on possible urban-rural differences. Total food duplicate samples were collected from non-smoking and non-habitually drinking adult healthy women (about 50 subjects per site and 149 in total). The nutrient intakes were estimated from the weight of food items in reference to national food composition tables. On average, the women took 1873 kcal energy, 54 g protein and 37 g lipid per day, with a lipid energy ratio of18.4%. Both excess and insufficient energy intake was observed as a result of food intake analysis and body mass index determination. With regard to minor nutrient intakes, insufficiency was serious in the case of calcium, vitamin A and vitamin B2, but not with iron. Whereas dependency on plant foods for sources of energy and protein was common to the three regions, Xi' an people consumed more animal foods than those in the villages. Intake of fish and shellfish was quite low throughout the three regions. Among the four types of cereals, wheat was consumed most substantially in the three regions and in three meals (except for the village where people essentially did not take lunch in reflection of low agricultural activities), whereas rice was consumed more in Xi' an than in the two villages. Maize consumption was higher in the two villages (especially for breakfast) than in the city.In contrast, foxtail millet (although in small amounts) was taken primarily in Xi'an and only at the time of breakfast.

  1. Arsenic methylation and skin lesions in migrant and native adult women with chronic exposure to arsenic from drinking groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong; Chai, Yuanqing; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Gao, Jianwei; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na

    2017-02-01

    In order to figure out the prevalence of skin lesions and methylation capacity for migrant and native adult women in an endemic area for arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia, China, 207 adult women were selected for study subjects. The results showed that the prevalence of skin lesions for the external group, provincial group and native group was 36.54, 26.15 and 35.56 %, respectively. The nail content of arsenic and urinary concentrations of dimethylarsenic (DMA), monomethylarsenic (MMA) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) were significantly higher in women with skin lesions than in those without skin lesions. The highest urinary concentrations of DMA, MMA and iAs were 213.93, 45.72 and 45.01 μg/L in the native group. The arsenic methylation capacity index revealed that the external group had the greatest capacity, while the native group had the lowest. The odds ratios of skin lesions in relation to arsenic metabolites and arsenic methylation capacity varied widely among the three groups. Urinary MMA and iAs concentrations were positively associated with risk of skin lesions in the three groups of adult women, while primary and secondary methylation capacities were negatively related to risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. The external group might be more susceptible to MMA and iAs, while the provincial and native groups were more tolerance to MMA and iAs. Lower primary and secondary arsenic methylation capacities increased the risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. Moreover, higher nail arsenic concentration increased the risk of skin lesions of adult women.

  2. Non-occupational lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Bangkok, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Shimbo, S. [Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyoto Women' s University, Kyoto (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Miyagi University of Education, Sendai (Japan); Srianujata, S. [Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Banjong, O.; Chitchumroonchokchai, C. [Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuthamonthon, Nakhonpathom (Thailand); Nakatsuka, H.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N. [Miyagi University, Taiwa-cho (Japan); Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-02-02

    This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to offer blood, spot urine, boiled rice and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Samples were wet-ashed, and then analyzed for Pb and Cd by ICP-MS. Geometric means for the levels in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B) and urine (Pb-U and Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), and also for dietary intake (Pb-F and Cd-F) were 32.3 {mu}g/l for Pb-B, 0.41 {mu}g/l for Cd-B, 2.06 {mu}g/g creatinine for Pb-U, 1.40 {mu}g/g creatinine for Cd-U, 15.1 {mu}g/day for Pb-F and 7.1 {mu}g/day for Cd-F. Rice contributed 30% and 4% of dietary Cd and Pb burden, respectively. When compared with the counterpart values obtained in four neighboring cities in southeast Asia (i.e. Nanning, Tainan, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur), dietary Pb burden of the women in Bangkok was middle in the order among the values for the five cities. Pb level in the blood was the lowest of the levels among the five cities and Pb in urine was also among the low group. This apparent discrepancy in the order between Pb-B (i.e. the fifth) and Pb-F (the third) might be attributable to recent reduction of Pb levels in the atmosphere in Bangkok. Regarding Cd exposure, Cd levels in blood and urine as well as dietary Cd burden of Bangkok women were either the lowest or the next lowest among those in the five cities. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Results of Chiari pelvic osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia in adults; Association with bone scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Nobuo; Ozono, Kenji; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Takaoka, Kunio; Ono, Hiroo (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    In an attempt to determine indications of Chiari pelvic osteotomy in acetabular dysplasia, postoperative outcome of hip joint (64 joints) was examined on the basis of findings of bone scintigraphy. The subjects were 61 patients with osteoarthrosis of hip joint who underwent preoperative bone scintigraphy. The follow-up period ranged from 2 years to 9 years and 7 months with a mean of 4 years and 9 months. According to X-ray findings, 37 osteoarthrosis joints were staged as early and 27 as progressive. Preoperative bone scintigraphic findings fell into three: (I) normal or slight hot type (33 joints), (II) hot type at the weighting part (16 joints), and (III) double hot type in the weighting part and inside part (15 joints). None of the patients had severe surgical complications such as deep-seated infection, neuroparalysis and pseudojoint. According to the clinical staging for hip joint function, 7 (47%) of 64 joints were judged as poor after osteotomy, belonging to type III. Deterioration of osteoarthrosis was seen in 11 joints (41%) on X-ray films. Of these, 9 had type III. In conclusion, Chiari pelvic osteotomy should not be indicated when type III is shown on bone scintigrams. (N.K.).

  4. Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2003-01-01

    A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (Pfood expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (Pfood sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake of iron and heavy workload may be the reasons for this high percentage of anaemia. Moreover, hookworm infections need to be analyzed, as its prevalence is very high in India and South Asia. One hundred percent anaemia among Munda women is also very alarming. The results suggest that

  5. Validation of case-finding algorithms derived from administrative data for identifying adults living with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Antoniou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to validate a case-finding algorithm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection using administrative health databases in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We constructed 48 case-finding algorithms using combinations of physician billing claims, hospital and emergency room separations and prescription drug claims. We determined the test characteristics of each algorithm over various time frames for identifying HIV infection, using data abstracted from the charts of 2,040 randomly selected patients receiving care at two medical practices in Toronto, Ontario as the reference standard. RESULTS: With the exception of algorithms using only a single physician claim, the specificity of all algorithms exceeded 99%. An algorithm consisting of three physician claims over a three year period had a sensitivity and specificity of 96.2% (95% CI 95.2%-97.9% and 99.6% (95% CI 99.1%-99.8%, respectively. Application of the algorithm to the province of Ontario identified 12,179 HIV-infected patients in care for the period spanning April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Case-finding algorithms generated from administrative data can accurately identify adults living with HIV. A relatively simple "3 claims in 3 years" definition can be used for assembling a population-based cohort and facilitating future research examining trends in health service use and outcomes among HIV-infected adults in Ontario.

  6. Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Susan A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Morrison, Diane M; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-09-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N=161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex - perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence - and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication.

  7. Stages of smoking cessation among Malaysian adults--findings from national health morbidity survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Ibrahim, Normala; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Tee, Eng Ong; Lai, Wai Yee; Nik Mohamad, Mohd Haniki; Sidek, Sherina Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.

  8. Effect of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on measures of satiety in normal-weight adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and dairy whey protein is thought to be more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be attributable to the presence of glycomacropeptide (GMP). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GMP in the satiating effect of whey protein. Isoenergetic (~1600 kJ) preload drinks contained GMP isolate (86% GMP, "GMP"), whey protein isolate (WPI) with 21% naturally occurring GMP, WPI with 2% naturally present GMP, or maltodextrin carbohydrate ("carbohydrate"). Satiety was assessed in 22 normal-weight adult women by determining the consumption of a test meal provided ad libitum 120 min following ingestion of a preload drink, and also by using visual analogue scales (VAS) for rating feelings of hunger, desire to eat, prospective consumption and fullness (appetite). The ad libitum test meal intake was significantly different between the preload drinks (p = 0.0003), with food intake following ingestion of both WPI preload drinks (regardless of the amount of GMP) being ~18% lower compared with the beverages enriched with carbohydrate or GMP alone. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the VAS-rated feelings of appetite among the four preload drinks. GMP alone did not reduce subsequent food intake compared with a drink enriched with carbohydrate, but whey protein had a greater satiating effect than carbohydrate. The presence of GMP in whey does not appear to be the cause of the observed effect of whey protein on satiety.

  9. Does Polyvictimization Affect Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Women Differently? An Exploration Into Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M

    2015-06-10

    In this study, we used data from life histories of 424 non-incarcerated (n = 266) and incarcerated (n = 158) women to examine the extent to which women are exposed to multiple forms of victimization, including child abuse, intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and traumatic life events. We assessed the effects of polyvictimization (e.g., multiple victimizations) on women's health-related outcomes (e.g., attempted suicide, drug and alcohol problems) as well as whether the prevalence rates and effects of victimization were significantly different between the subsamples of women. Results indicate that incarcerated women experience significantly more victimization than non-incarcerated women, and while polyvictimization was associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol problems, drug problems, and attempted suicide among non-incarcerated women, it was only marginally associated with an increased likelihood of alcohol problems among incarcerated women. Finally, low levels of polyvictimization affected alcohol and drug problems among incarcerated and non-incarcerated women differently.

  10. Preliminary findings of an adapted evidence-based woman-focused HIV intervention on condom use and negotiation among at-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.

  11. Thymic involvement in immune recovery during antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection in adults; comparison of CT and sonographic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Lilian; Strandberg, Charlotte; Dreves, Anne-Mette;

    2002-01-01

    In adult HIV-infected patients, thymic size evaluated from CT scans seems to be important to the degree of immune reconstitution obtainable during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To examine whether ultrasound is as reliable as CT for estimating thymic size...... and predicting immune recovery, CT and ultrasound scans were performed in 25 adult HIV-infected patients and 10 controls. CD4 counts and naive CD4 counts were measured in order to determine immune reconstitution. Furthermore, the CD4+ T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) frequency and T-cell receptor (TCR...... count (r = 0.083, p = 0.706), naive CD4 count (r = 0.067, p = 0.762), CD4 + TREC frequency (r = 0.028, p = 0.900) and CD4 + TCR repertoire (r = -0.057, p = 0.828). These findings show that CT remains superior for assessing thymic size in adults and is preferable to ultrasound when evaluating...

  12. Implementing intensified tuberculosis case-finding among street-connected youth and young adults in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkwarko, D; Mercer, T; Kimani, S; Braitstein, P; Buziba, N; Carter, E J

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Les jeunes et les adultes vivant dans la rue (SCY) souffrent d'une myriade de problèmes de santé. Au Kenya, les SCY ont un risque élevé de tuberculose (TB) à cause de la promiscuité de leur habitat. Le dépistage de la TB n'est pas mis en œuvre en routine parmi les SCY et il n'y a eu aucune littérature publiée sur le poids de la TB chez les SCY de l'ouest du Kenya.Description du programme : En 2011, le programme TB AMPATH, un programme de dépistage de TB expérimenté, a établi un partenariat avec le Tumaini Center, une organisation fiable de jeunes de la rue, afin de réaliser une recherche de cas intensifiée (ICF) de la TB pulmonaire parmi les SCY. Notre programme a eu pour but de rechercher le nombre de SCY qui présentaient des symptômes et ceux qui ont eu un diagnostic de TB pulmonaire à frottis positif, et enfin de mettre en contact les SCY avec un site de traitement de la TB.Résultats : De 116 SCY qui ont été dépistés, 114 (98%) ont remis un questionnaire positif, 104 (90%) ont fourni un échantillon de crachats, 39 (34%) un échantillon matinal et 111 (97%) ont fait état d'une toux de >2 semaines. Un jeune de la rue a eu un frottis positif pour la TB et a été traité avec succès.Conclusions: La mise en œuvre de l'ICF de TB est faisable dans un contexte de faibles ressources à travers une unique collaboration entre les programmes de soins de santé et les organisations communautaires. En plus d'identifier la TB à frottis positif, notre programme a révélé un lourd fardeau de symptômes respiratoires parmi les SCY d'Eldoret, au Kenya.

  13. [Ultrasound-guided central venous access in adults and children: Procedure and pathological findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiermann, P; Seeger, F H; Breitkreutz, R

    2010-01-01

    Central venous line placement is a standard procedure in critical care and peri-operative medicine. This procedure can be associated with severe complications. In contrast to the landmark technique, ultrasound-guided punctures can significantly reduce the rate of complications. Patients with a high risk for difficult vascular access include critical care and emergency patients as well as patients on anticoagulation medication and dialysis. Placement of central venous catheters can be difficult in ventilated patients and if there has been prior surgery in the puncture area. In children and small infants central venous access can also be challenging due to the anatomical relationship in the head and neck region. Puncture techniques are explained briefly by means of ultrasound anatomy. Typical ultrasonographic images visualize pathological findings in order to identify dangers and complications in central venous catheterization.

  14. Parent Drug-Use Problems and Adult Intimate Relations: Associations among Community Samples of Young Adult Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Rickards, Shannae

    1995-01-01

    Used community samples to determine the effects of childhood family support or dysfunction and the extent of parent drug-use problems on adult intimacy issues, such as sexual satisfaction. Results showed that parent drug-use predicted poor family support; family support correlated strongly with good adult intimate relations. (RJM)

  15. Sexual arousal and lubrication problems in women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Shifren, Jan; Parish, Sharon J; Segraves, R Taylor; Huang, Liyuan; Rosen, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    Sexual desire and arousal difficulties are often correlated in women. However, no studies have examined characteristics of women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) that increase the likelihood of co-occurring arousal difficulties. The authors examined combined HSDD and arousal/ lubrication problems using baseline cross-sectional data from the HSDD Registry for Women. Their analyses were restricted to women who could be classified with certainty as having arousal or lubrication difficulties by the Female Sexual Function Index (requiring sexually activity in the past 4 weeks). Results showed that among 426 premenopausal women with HSDD, 50.2% had arousal problems, 42.5% lubrication problems, 39.0% combination, and 46.2% neither. Among 174 postmenopausal women, prevalence percentages were 58.0% arousal, 56.9% lubrication, 49.4% combined, and 34.5% neither. The strongest predictor of combined arousal/lubrication problems was self-reported severity of HSDD. Among premenopausal women, race/ethnicity, depression, and lower relationship happiness were also associated with combined arousal/lubrication problems. Among postmenopausal women, surgical menopause and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were positively associated with arousal problems. Arousal and lubrication problems were present in approximately half of this subsample of HSDD Registry participants, with distinctions in prevalence and predictors by menopausal status and type of arousal difficulty (arousal vs. lubrication).

  16. How useful are skills acquired at adult non-formal education and training centres for finding employment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-10-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education with courses which foster access to opportunities for skills acquisition and employment and bring about social and economic inclusion. However, many adults who were facing long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. This paper reports on a study which investigated what constitutes favourable conditions ("internal enabling environments") for skills acquisition inside NFET centres leading to employment and how they can be improved to contribute to coordinated efforts of increasing NFET graduates' paid and/or self-employment capacities. The authors found that centres focusing on activities suitable for self-employment during training were more likely to create internal enabling environments for skills acquisition and income generation than centres offering courses designed for entering paid employment. The authors conclude that there appears to be a significant correlation between NFET centres' training programme objectives, financial resources, trainee selection criteria, the process of training needs assessment, and skills acquisition for successful employment outcomes of NFET graduates. Without these internal enabling factors, adult trainees are likely to continue finding it difficult to integrate into the labour market or participate in economic activities and hence break the cycle of poverty and social exclusion.

  17. Women's autonomy in negotiating safer sex to prevent HIV: findings from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteraya, Madhu Sudhan; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2014-02-01

    Women with greater autonomy have higher HIV-related knowledge and condom use. Inability to negotiate safer sex in high-risk situations might increase HIV infection. This study examined the relationship between women's autonomy and ability to negotiate safer sex practices among married women. The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data were used. The data were collected by two-stage stratified cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews. Autonomy was measured in Decision-Making Participation and Assets Ownership, while ability to negotiate safer sex consists of Refusal of Sex and Ask for Condom Use. Among 12,674 women of 15-49 years, married women were analyzed (n = 8,896). Women with greater autonomy in decision-making participation were more likely to negotiate safer sex. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, odds ratios (OR) for refusal of sex was 2.70 (95% CI [2.14, 3.40]) in women with the highest decision-making participation. These women showed higher OR for 'ask for condom use' in high risk situations (2.10, 95% CI [1.81, 2.44]). Assets ownership also demonstrated a positive statistical relationship with asking for a condom use (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.10, 1.56]). The results point to the importance of women's autonomy on sexual health. It emphasizes women's empowerment-based approach to curbing HIV/AIDS in developing countries.

  18. Hypothyroidism in adults. Levothyroxine if warranted by clinical and laboratory findings, not for simple TSH elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder due to inadequate thyroid hormone secretion. When a patient has signs and symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism, how is it determined whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy will have a favourable harm-benefit balance? How should treatment be managed? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are due to slow metabolism (constipation, fatigue, sensitivity to cold, weight gain, etc.) and to polysaccharide accumulation in certain tissues, leading to hoarseness, eyelid swelling, etc. A blood TSH concentration of less than 4 or 5 mlU/L rules out peripheral hypothyroidism. TSH levels increase with age. Between 30% and 60% of high TSH levels are not confirmed on a second blood test. In overt hypothyroidism, the TSH level is high and the free T4 (thyroxine) level is low. Most of these patients are symptomatic. So-called subclinical hypothyroidism, which is rarely symptomatic, is characterised by high blood TSH levels and normal free T4 levels. The natural history of hypothyroidism depends on its cause. In chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common form seen in rich countries, hypothyroidism generally worsens over time. However, other situations can lead to transient hypothyroidism that may last several weeks or months. Subclinical hypothyroidism, as the name implies, is usually asymptomatic. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is about 3% to 4% per year overall but increases with the initial TSH level. Treatment guidelines are mainly based on physiological and pharmacological considerations and generally recommend levothyroxine therapy. The adverse effects of levothyroxine are signs of thyrotoxicosis in case of overdose (tachycardia, tremor, sweating, etc.). Even a slight overdose carries a risk of osteoporotic fractures and atrial fibrillation, especially in the elderly. In young adults, levothyroxine is usually started

  19. High-resolution computed tomography findings from adult patients with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Zanetti, Glaucia [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: glauciazanetti@gmail.com; Hochhegger, Bruno [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: brunohochhegger@gmail.com; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D' OR Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: rosana.souzarodrigues@gmail.com; Fontes, Cristina Asvolinsque Pantaleao [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: cristinasvolinsque@gmail.com; Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Santa Catarina Federal University, Florianopolis (Brazil)], E-mail: luizfelipenobresc@gmail.com; Dias Mancano, Alexandre [Anchieta Hospital, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: alex.manzano1@gmail.com; Meirelles, Gustavo [Sao Paulo Federal University, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: gmeirelles@gmail.com; Irion, Klaus Loureiro [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital NHS, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: klaus.irion@btinternet.com

    2010-04-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings at presentation in patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia. Materials and methods: We reviewed the HRCT findings from 20 patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) and compared their HRCT scans with chest radiographs, obtained on the same day. The imaging studies were obtained 4-9 days after the onset of symptoms. The patients included 11 men and 9 women (ages 24-62 years; mean 42.7 years). All patients had a body temperature greater than 100.4 deg. F (>38 deg. C), tachypnea, and cough. Other common symptoms included diarrhea (60%) and sore throat (30%). The radiographs and HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The predominant HRCT findings consisted of bilateral ground-glass opacities (n = 12), bilateral areas of consolidation (n = 2), or a mixed bilateral pattern of ground-glass opacities and areas of consolidation (n = 6). The abnormalities were bilateral in all of the 20 patients, had a predominantly sub-pleural distribution in 13 patients, and had a random distribution in the remaining 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were consolidations. Normal radiographs were found in 4 out of the 20 patients. Conclusion: HRCT may reveal parenchymal abnormalities in patients with Influenza A (H1N1) infection who have normal findings on radiographs. The predominant HRCT findings were bilateral, peripheral, ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation. The patients who presented consolidations had more severe clinical course.

  20. Cognitive dysfunction and histological findings in adult rats one year after whole brain irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sato, Mitsuya; Takeda, Norio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.

    2001-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and histological changes in the brain were investigated following irradiation in 20 Fischer 344 rats aged 6 months treated with whole brain irradiation (WBR) (25 Gy/single dose), and compared with the same number of sham-irradiated rats as controls. Performance of the Morris water maze task and the passive avoidance task were examined one year after WBR. Finally, histological and immunohistochemical examinations using antibodies to myelin basic protein (MBP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) were performed of the rat brains. The irradiated rats continued to gain weight 7 months after WBR whereas the control rats stopped gaining weight. Cognitive functions in both the water maze task and the passive avoidance task were lower in the irradiated rats than in the control rats. Brain damage consisting of demyelination only or with necrosis was found mainly in the body of the corpus callosum and the parietal white matter near the corpus callosum in the irradiated rats. Immunohistochemical examination of the brains without necrosis found MBP-positive fibers were markedly decreased in the affected areas by irradiation; NF-positive fibers were moderately decreased and irregularly dispersed in various shapes in the affected areas; and GFAP-positive fibers were increased, with gliosis in those areas. These findings are similar to those in clinically accelerated brain aging in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Binswanger's disease, and multiple sclerosis. (author)

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Low Vitamin B6 Status in Healthy Young Adult Women in Metro Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-ling Ho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low periconceptional vitamin B6 (B6 status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Given many pregnancies are unplanned; it is important for women to maintain an adequate B6 status throughout reproductive years. There is limited data on B6 status in Canadian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of B6 deficiency and predictors of B6 status in young adult women in Metro Vancouver. We included a convenience sample of young adult non-pregnant women (19–35 years; n = 202. Vitamin B6 status was determined using fasting plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP. Mean (95% confidence interval plasma PLP concentration was 61.0 (55.2, 67.3 nmol/L. The prevalence of B6 deficiency (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L was 1.5% and that of suboptimal B6 status (plasma PLP = 20–30 nmol/L was 10.9%. Body mass index, South Asian ethnicity, relative dietary B6 intake, and the use of supplemental B6 were significant predictors of plasma PLP. The combined 12.4% prevalence of B6 deficiency and suboptimal status was lower than data reported in US populations and might be due to the high socioeconomic status of our sample. More research is warranted to determine B6 status in the general Canadian population.

  2. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  3. Health-promoting aspects of a paid job: findings in a qualitative interview study with elderly women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssén, Annika S K; Carlstedt, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    This article is one aspect of a larger, qualitative interview study and deals with health-promoting aspects of gainful employment, as experienced by a group of elderly Swedish women. Through these interviews we demonstrate the central importance of outside employment for many of the women, although they belonged to a generation where outside work conflicted with societal norms. We will illustrate a wide variety of ways in which gainful employment can contribute to women's well-being and, ultimately, their health.

  4. Feedback Effects on the Performance and Self-Reinforcing Behavior of Elderly and Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Georgette; Hoyer, William J.

    1975-01-01

    A total of 64 college-aged and elderly women participated in an experimental study of the effects of noncontingent positive feedback on simple speeded performance, performance self-evaluations, and self-reinforcing behavior. Younger women self-reinforced more and held higher self-evaluations of their performance than elderly women. (Author)

  5. Early life factors associated with adult onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gibson Parks

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure early in life can influence adult disease and immunity, but the role of early life exposures in risk of SLE is not established.Methods: Women in a national cohort (ages 35-74 provided data on perinatal, maternal and sociodemographic factors, longest residence to age 14 and residential farm history of at least 12 months to age 18. Cases (N=124 reported SLE diagnosed age 16 years or older with use of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Non-cases (N=50,465 did not report lupus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by logistic regression adjusting for age and race/ethnicity. Results: SLE was associated with low birthweight (data on 84 cases and 36,477 non-cases; 4 weeks early vs. full-term; OR=3.4; 95%CI 1.6, 7.4. Considering longest childhood residence to age 14, SLE was associated with more frequent pesticide use (e.g., at least monthly OR=2.3; 95%CI 1.3, 4.1. SLE was associated with having an early and extended childhood farm residence (i.e., prenatal/maternal farm exposure and longest childhood farm residence; OR=1.8; 95%CI 1.1, 3.0 versus neither. In those with a childhood-only farm residence of 12+ months, agricultural pesticide use was associated with SLE, with the strongest associations for direct personal exposures. Conclusions: The association of SLE with premature birth is consistent with studies in other populations, and with an observed association with low birthweight. The associations of SLE with childhood exposure to residential and agricultural pesticides warrant further study.INTRODUCTIONSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune reactivity to multiple nuclear components and inflammation, resulting in diverse clinical features and multiple organ involvement. The causes of SLE are generally not known. Racial disparities and increased familial risk suggest a genetic predisposition. It is believed that environmental factors may contribute to

  6. Responses to and resources for intimate partner violence: qualitative findings from women, men, and service providers in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odero, Merab; Hatcher, Abigail M; Bryant, Chenoia; Onono, Maricianah; Romito, Patrizia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Turan, Janet M

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is reported by one in three women globally, but the prevalence is much higher in East Africa. Though some formal and informal resources do exist for women experiencing IPV, data suggest that disclosure, help seeking, and subsequent utilization of these resources are often hindered by sociocultural, economic, and institutional factors. This article explores actions taken by victims, available support services, and barriers to the utilization of available IPV resources by pregnant women in rural Nyanza, Kenya. Qualitative data were collected through nine focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews with pregnant women, partners or male relatives of pregnant women, and service providers. Data were managed in NVivo 8 using a descriptive analytical approach that harnessed thematic content coding and in-depth grounded analysis. We found that while formal resources for IPV were scarce, women utilized many informal resources (family, pastors, local leaders) as well as the health facility. In rare occasions, women escalated their response to formal services (police, judiciary). The community was sometimes responsive to women experiencing IPV but often viewed it as a "normal" part of local culture. Further barriers to women accessing services included logistical challenges and providers who were undertrained or uncommitted to responding to IPV appropriately. Moreover, the very sanctions meant to address violence (such as fines or jail) were often inhibiting for women who depended on their partners for financial resources. The results suggest that future IPV interventions should address community views around IPV and build upon locally available resources-including the health clinic-to address violence among women of childbearing age.

  7. Five-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among cardiovascular disease-free Greek adults: Findings from the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Demosthenes B Panagiotakos1, Christos Pitsavos2, Yannis Skoumas2, Yannis Lentzas2, Christodoulos Stefanadis21Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece; 2First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceObjective: We evaluated the 5-year incidence of diabetes in an adult population from Greece.Research design and methods: 3042 individuals (>18 years, free of cardiovascular disease, participated in the baseline examination (during 2001–2002. Of this sample, 1012 men and 1035 women were found alive at the time of follow-up, while 32 (2.1% men and 22 (1.4% women died during this period. The rest were lost to follow-up. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 1806 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline.Results: The age-adjusted 5-year incidence of diabetes was 5.5% (men, 5.8%; women, 5.2%. A linear trend was observed between diabetes incidence and age (5.6% increases in incidence per 1-year difference in age, p < 0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age (OR per 1 yr = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06, waist (OR per 1 cm = 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.003, physical activity (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.35–1.02 and family history of diabetes (OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.58–4.53, as well as fasting glucose levels (OR per 1 mg/dl = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.07, were the most significant baseline predictors for diabetes, after adjusting for various potential confounders. Additionally, presence of metabolic syndrome at baseline evaluation 2.95-fold the risk of diabetes (95% CI 1.89–4.61, and showed better classification ability than the model that contained the components of the syndrome (ie, correct classification rate: 94.5% vs. 92.3%.Conclusion: Our findings show that a 5.5% incidence rate of diabetes within a 5-year period, which suggests that the prevalence of this disorder in Greece is rising. Aging, heredity, and metabolic syndrome were the most significant

  8. Optimization of dose radiation and image quality on computed tomography of thorax in adult women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, G. R.; Casian C, G. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico, Av. IPN No. 5160, 07760 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gaona, E.; Franco E, J. G.; Molina F, N., E-mail: gaen1310@correo.xoc.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Calz. del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The objective of the study is the optimization of the dose (Dlp) and image quality in the exploration of adult women in studies of thorax with computed tomography (CT). The CT is a technique of exploration with high radiation doses to patients with an increase of the risk factors of developing cancer in the future, but X-rays are a very important medical diagnostic tool. We performed a retrospective survey of 50 female patients who had thorax tomography using the automatic protocol established by the manufacturer, a database of dose (Dlp), measures of patient A P and radiological parameters such as kV and m A was obtained. Subsequently, we carry out the prospective study with 30 patients with prescription of thorax tomography, scans were conducted with CT with reduced doses using manual techniques protocol of exploration while maintaining diagnostic image quality. The results show that the prospective study patients received doses lower than 30% on average. In general the dose patients were within the confidence interval of 95% of the levels of diagnostic reference (DRL) adopted by the European Community for CT and the most common value is 400 Dlp for thorax. Comparative image quality study was conducted using the protocol of the manufacturer and the manual protocol and image quality was diagnostic after dose reduction up to 30%. The reduction of radiation dose in female patients in studies of thorax CT helps to reduce risk factors of developing cancer later in life. A thorax tomography study includes the fibro-glandular tissue of the breast which is very sensitive to stochastic effects of radiation. (Author)

  9. Weight-Influenced Self-Esteem, Body Comparisons and Body Satisfaction : Findings among Women from The Netherlands and Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =

  10. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Kyung [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chul Woo [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  11. The predictive role of histopathological findings in renal insufficiency and complete remission in Iranian adults with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Taheri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to identify the histopathological findings that may act as possible predictors of complete remission or progression to chronic kidney disease in Iranian adults with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. Methods: In this historical cohort study, pathological findings of 50 patients with primary FSGS were reviewed by single renal pathologist without knowing about patient’s identities or outcomes. We divided the patients based on their histopathological findings, and compared the outcomes (renal insufficiency and complete remission among these groups. Results: There were significant differences in the complete remission in subject with and without mesangial hypercellularity (p<0.05, and in patients with and without hyalinosis (p<0.05. According to the cut off points based on ROC curve analysis for the quantitative data, there was significant difference in renal insufficiency between the patients with and without global scars more than 12% (p<0.05.Also multiple logistic regression analysis strongly suggest the association of mesangial hypercellularity and global scar with no complete remission and progression to renal insufficiency, respectively. Conclusion: In the studied patients, presence of mesangial hypercellularity and hyalinosis have been suggested as prognostic factors for lower remission rate. According to multivariate analysis, only the presence of mesangial hypercellularity and global scar were found as independent prognostic predictors to lower complete remission rate and progression to renal insufficiency in patients with FSGS, respectively.

  12. Diffuse Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma With Early Central Enhancement in an Adult: A Case Report of CT and MRI Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Aisheng; Dong, Hui; Zuo, Changjing; He, Tianlin

    2015-12-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) is the most common vascular tumor of the liver in infancy. Adult with IHH is extremely rare. We presented a diffuse IHH in an adult patient with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings.A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a 2-year history of abnormal liver function tests and a 7-day history of jaundice. Physical examination revealed enlarged liver. Unenhanced abdominal CT showed enlargement of the liver with diffuse hypodensity. Enhanced CT on the arterial phase revealed multiple centrally enhanced lesions diffusely involved the enlarged liver. The enhanced areas of the lesions became larger on the portal phase and all the lesions became homogeneous enhanced on the delayed phase. These lesions showed heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and early centrally enhanced on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI, with complete tumor enhancement after 180 s. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. IHH type 2 was confirmed by pathology. The patient died of tumor recurrence in the liver 4 months after transplantation.Unlike the previously described imaging appearances of IHH, this case showed diffuse nodules with early central enhancement on CT and MRI. Considering the importance of the ability to differentiate IHH from other hepatic tumors, radiologists should be aware of these imaging appearances to establish knowledge of the entire spectrum of IHH.

  13. Associations between adult attachment style and mental health care utilization: Findings from a large-scale national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl; Adams, G Camelia

    2015-09-30

    This study investigated the association between attachment style and the use of a range of mental health services controlling socio-demographic, physical and psychological risk factors. Using a large nationally representative sample from the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a total of 5645 participants (18+) were included. The majority of participants reported their attachment as secure (63.5%), followed by avoidant (22.2%), unclassified (8.8%), and anxious (5.5%). The percentages using different health services studied varied widely (1.1-31.1%). People with insecure (anxious and avoidant) attachment were more likely to report accessing a hotline, having had a session of psychological counselling or therapy, getting a prescription or medicine for mental and behavioural problems. Individuals with anxious attachment only were also more likely to report the use of internet support groups or chat rooms. This is a first analysis to explore relationships between self-reported adult attachment style and a wide range of health care services. Insecurely attached individuals were more likely to use a wide range of health care services even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, psychiatric disorders and chronic health conditions. These findings suggest that adult attachment plays an important role in the use of mental health care services.

  14. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  15. Aromatic DNA adducts and polymorphisms in metabolic genes in healthy adults: findings from the EPIC-Spain cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Antonio; Peluso, Marco; Sala, Núria; Capellá, Gabriel; Munnia, Armelle; Piro, Sara; Marín, Fátima; Ibáñez, Raquel; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, M José; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez, M José; González, Carlos A

    2009-06-01

    Aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arylamines and heterocyclic amines require metabolic activation to form metabolites able to bind to DNA, a process mediated by polymorphic enzymes. We measured aromatic DNA adducts in white blood cells by the (32)P-post-labelling assay in a sample of 296 healthy adults (147 men and 149 women) from five regions of Spain. We also analyzed functional polymorphisms in the metabolic genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 and SULT1A1. A significant increased level of DNA aromatic adducts was found related to the fast oxidation-hydrolysis phenotype defined by the polymorphism I462V in CYP1A1, the allele A in IVS1-154C>A of CYP1A2 and the combination Tyrosine-Arginine for Y113H and H139R of EPHX1. Geometric means (adducts per 10(-9) normal nucleotides) were 2.17, 4.04 and 6.30 for slow, normal and fast phenotypes, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Slow acetylation by NAT2 was associated with a significant decrease in adduct level; subjects with slow alleles *5A and *7A/B had in average 1.56 x 10(-9)adducts, as compared with 5.60 for those with normal NAT2 activity (P-value = 0.01). No association was seen with polymorphisms of other metabolic genes such as GSTM1, GSTT1 or SULT1A1. We concluded that the metabolic pathways of oxidation, hydrolysis and acetylation are relevant to the formation of bulky DNA adducts. This could suggest a potential involvement of aromatic compounds in the formation of such adducts; however, given lack of specificity of the post-labeling assay, a firm conclusion cannot be drawn.

  16. Influence of nutritional state on the disposal of orally and intramuscularly administered iodized oil to iodine repleted older children and adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Benitez, R; Sandoval-Valencia, H; Sevilla-Munoz, B; Rodriguez, E; Gualotuna, E; Fierro-Carrion, G; Pacheco-Bastides, V; Andrade, J; Wang, P H; Stanbury, J B

    1989-06-01

    Iodinated oil (Ethiodol, 1 or 2 ml) was administered po or by im administration to adult women and older children in rural highland Ecuador who were either well nourished or malnourished to determine the effect of nutritional status on the disposal rate of iodine. These subjects resides in a region previously severely deficient in iodine, but this had been corrected in these subjects by prior administration of iodinated oil or by use of iodized salt or both. Malnutrition as determined by the conventional standards of height for age was associated with a significantly shortened retention time of the administered iodine, whether given po or im. The half life of retention was approximately half in the malourished of that in the well nourished. If these findings can be extrapolated to chronically iodine deficient subjects, then malnourished populations in need of iodine supplementation should either receive higher dosages than those conventionally employed or more frequent dosage.

  17. Universal health coverage in emerging economies: findings on health care utilization by older adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The achievement of universal health coverage (UHC in emerging economies is a high priority within the global community. This timely study uses standardized national population data collected from adults aged 50 and older in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa. The objective is to describe health care utilization and measure association between inpatient and outpatient service use and patient characteristics in these six low- and middle-income countries. Design: Secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health Wave 1 was undertaken. Country samples are compared by socio-demographic characteristics, type of health care, and reasons for use. Logistic regressions describe association between socio-demographic and health factors and inpatient and outpatient service use. Results: In the pooled multi-country sample of over 26,000 adults aged 50-plus, who reported getting health care the last time it was needed, almost 80% of men and women received inpatient or outpatient care, or both. Roughly 30% of men and women in the Russian Federation used inpatient services in the previous 3 years and 90% of men and women in India used outpatient services in the past year. In China, public hospitals were the most frequently used service type for 52% of men and 51% of women. Multivariable regression showed that, compared with men, women were less likely to use inpatient services and more likely to use outpatient services. Respondents with two or more chronic conditions were almost three times as likely to use inpatient services and twice as likely to use outpatient services compared with respondents with no reported chronic conditions. Conclusions: This study provides a basis for further investigation of country-specific responses to UHC.

  18. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, Yasuji, E-mail: oshiro4211@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Okinawa Hospital, 20-14 Ganeko 3-chome, Ginowan city, Okinawa 901-2214 (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Ohta, Morio [Department of Surgery, Nakagami Hospital, 6-25-5 Chibana, Okinawa-city, Okinawa 904-2195 (Japan); Teruya, Takao [Second Department of Surgery, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung.

  19. The Utilization of Exercise to Decrease Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Caldwell, Charmaine; Shen, Yu-Pei

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent issue for women on college campuses. Undergraduate women participated in (a) an aerobic exercise class, (b) a weight-lifting class, or (c) a control group to determine the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms. Participants in the aerobic exercise group exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms.…

  20. Understanding Women in the Role of Caregivers for Older Adults in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Atsuko; Dahlen, Penny

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Japanese women in the role of caregivers of older family members. Cultural influence on women's identity, significance of the caregiver's role, and the struggles and rewards of being caregivers are discussed. Finally, ideas are provided for the use of arts in counseling and implications of their use are…

  1. Factors associated with nutritional status among adult women in urban India, 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    This study attempts to understand the factors associated with chronic energy deficiency (CED) and overweight/obesity together with change in CED and overweight/obesity among urban Indian women during 1998-2006. Both National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 1998-1999 and NFHS 2005-2006 data sets were used. The standard cutoff points for both CED (BMI women and women belonging to the poorest wealth quintile; on the other hand, the likelihood of being overweight/obese has increased among women with high school education and above and women belonging to the richest wealth quintile. Interventions to promote physical activities and nutritional awareness programs, which are effective in addressing nutritional problems, have been proposed.

  2. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system.

  3. Reproductive health and sexual violence among urban American Indian and Alaska Native young women: select findings from the National Survey of Family Growth (2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutman, Shira; Taualii, Maile; Ned, Dena; Tetrick, Crystal

    2012-12-01

    Existing data on American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) has indicated high rates of unintended pregnancy, high-risk sexual behavior, and experiences of sexual violence. This study from the first analysis to examine AI/ANs and the urban AI/AN subgroup in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) reports new findings of reproductive health and sexual violence among urban AI/AN young women. We examined 2002 NSFG data on urban AI/AN women ages 15-24 years for pregnancies/births, unintended pregnancy, sexual initiation and contraceptive use. We also examined non-voluntary first sexual intercourse among urban AI/AN women ages 18-44 years. Prevalence estimates and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. Findings include prevalence rates of risk factors among urban AI/AN women ages 15-24 years including unprotected first sex (38 %), first sex with much older partners (36 %), three or more pregnancies (13 %) and births (5 %) and unintended pregnancies (26 %). Seventeen percent of urban AI/ANs ages 18-44 years reported experiencing non-voluntary first sex. Sixty-one percent of urban AI/AN women ages 15-24 years were not using any method of contraception. Current contraceptive methods among those using a method included: injections/implants (23 %), contraceptive pills (32 %) and condoms (25 %). Findings describe reproductive health risk factors among young urban AI/AN women and highlight the need for enhanced surveillance on these issues. Those working to improve AI/AN health need these data to guide programming and identify resources for implementing and evaluating strategies that address risk factors for this overlooked population.

  4. Depressive symptoms and suicide risk in older adults: value placed on autonomy as a moderator for men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamonti, Patricia M; Price, Elizabeth C; Fiske, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Risk for suicide is elevated among older men. We examined whether value placed on autonomy amplifies the relation between depressive symptoms and suicide risk differently for older men and women. Participants were 98 community-dwelling older adults, M age 73.6 (SD = 8.6), 65.1% female, 93.1% White. Questionnaires measured suicide risk (SBQ-R), depressive symptoms (CESD), and value placed on autonomy (PSI-II autonomy). Among men, depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk only when PSI-II autonomy was elevated. Among women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk at all levels of PSI-II autonomy. Further research on attitudes toward autonomy is warranted.

  5. Insulin Resistance and Impaired Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Adult Offspring of Women With Diabetes in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2013-01-01

    Context:Offspring of women with diabetes during pregnancy have increased risk of glucose intolerance in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.Objective:We aimed to investigate effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia on insulin secretion and - action in adult offspring of mothers...... reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for GDM, but normo-glycemia during pregnancy (N=139) and offspring from the background population (N=128).Main outcome measures:Indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin release were calculated using insulin and glucose values from...... a standard oral glucose tolerance test (120 minutes, 75 gram glucose). Pancreatic beta-cell function taking the prevailing insulin sensitivity into account was estimated by disposition indices.Results:Both groups of offspring exposed during pregnancy to either maternal gestational diabetes or type 1 diabetes...

  6. Childhood Maltreatment Linked with a Deterioration of Psychosocial Outcomes in Adult Life for Southern Brazilian Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Rovaris, Diego Luiz; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Pasley, Andrew; Cupertino, Renata Basso; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-11-12

    A history of childhood maltreatment (HCM) has been associated with detrimental psychiatric outcomes. This is particularly true for transgender, for whom there is initial evidence that HCM may be associated with psychiatric morbidity. Our study aimed to further characterize the relationship between HCM and the development of mental disorder in adult life, based on a sample of Brazilian transgender women. Cross-sectional data were collected from a consecutive sample of 289 transgender women who attended the Hospital Clínicas clinic for gender dysphoria, in Porto Alegre, between 1998 and 2014. Our results demonstrated a greater risk of deteriorating mental health amongst participants who had experienced HCM. Given the disproportionally high rate of HCM in transgender persons, we advocate for greater assistance for transgender persons.

  7. SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES IN SELF-REPORTED HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FUNCTIONING IN ARGENTINA: FINDINGS FROM THE NATIONAL SURVEY ON QUALITY OF LIFE OF OLDER ADULTS 2012 (ENCaViAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Colantonio, Sonia E; Celton, Dora E

    2016-11-09

    This study aimed to evaluate educational and income inequalities in self-reported health (SRH), and physical functioning (limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL)/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)), among 60-year-old and older adults in Argentina. Using cross-sectional data from the Argentinian National Survey on Quality of Life of Older Adults 2012 (Encuesta Nacional sobre Calidad de Vida de Adultos Mayores, ENCaViAM), gender-specific socioeconomic inequalities in SRH and ADL and IADL limitations were studied in relation to educational level and household per capita income. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) - an index of the relative size of socioeconomic inequalities in health - was used. Socioeconomic inequalities in the studied health indicators were found - except for limitations in ADL among women - favouring socially advantaged groups. The results remained largely significant after full adjustment, suggesting that educational and income inequalities, mainly in SRH and IADL, were robust and somehow independent of age, marital status, physical activity, the use of several medications, depression and the occurrence of falls. The findings add to the existing knowledge on the relative size of the socioeconomic inequalities in subjective health indicators among Argentinian older adults, which are to the detriment of lower socioeconomic groups. The results could be used to inform planning interventions aimed at decreasing socioeconomic inequalities in health, to the benefit of socially disadvantaged adults.

  8. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV.

  9. A Swedish Population-based Study of Adverse Birth Outcomes among Pregnant Women Treated with Buprenorphine or Methadone: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurst, Keele E.; Zedler, Barbara K.; Joyce, Andrew R.; Sasinowski, Maciek; Murrelle, E. Lenn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Untreated opioid dependence in pregnant women is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Buprenorphine and methadone are options for opioid agonist medication-assisted treatment during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe adverse birth outcomes observed with buprenorphine or methadone treatment compared to the general population in Sweden. METHODS Pregnant women and their corresponding births during 2005–2011 were identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Data on stillbirth, neonatal/infant death, mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, Apgar score, growth outcomes, neonatal abstinence syndrome, and congenital malformations were examined. Frequencies were compared using two-sided Fisher’s exact tests. Unadjusted estimates of birth outcomes for women treated with buprenorphine or methadone were compared to the registered general population. RESULTS A total of 746,257 pregnancies among 538,178 unique women resulted in 746,485 live births. Among the 194 women treated with buprenorphine (N = 176) or methadone (N = 52), no stillbirths or neonatal/infant deaths occurred. Neonatal abstinence syndrome developed in 23.3% and 38.5% of infants born to mothers treated with buprenorphine and methadone, respectively. The frequency of the selected adverse birth outcomes assessed in women treated with buprenorphine as compared to the general population was not significantly different. However, a significantly higher frequency of preterm birth and congenital malformations was observed in women treated with methadone as compared to the general population. Compared with the general population, methadone-treated women were significantly older than buprenorphine-treated women, and both treatment groups began prenatal care later, were more likely to smoke cigarettes, and did not cohabitate with the baby’s father. CONCLUSIONS An increased frequency of the selected adverse birth outcomes was not observed with buprenorphine treatment

  10. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types 16, 18, and 45 in women with cervical intraepithelial changes: associations with colposcopic and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarienė, Kristina; Vaitkienė, Daiva; Bartusevičius, Arnoldas; Tvarijonavičienė, Eglė; Minkauskienė, Meilė; Nadišauskienė, Rūta; Kruminis, Valdemaras; Kliučinskas, Mindaugas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18, and 45 in women with cervical intraepithelial changes caused by high-risk HPV in relation to colposcopic and histological findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A prospective study of 393 women with cervical cytologic changes confirmed by the Papanicolaou test was undertaken from April 3, 2006, to April 3, 2007. The Hybrid Capture 2 assay was performed. HPV-positive women underwent genotyping for types 16, 18, and 45. Colposcopy and biopsy were performed in 317 (80.7%) and 249 women (63.4%), respectively. The results were analyzed by age groups. RESULTS. Of all the women with cervical intraepithelial changes, 59% were positive for HR HPV, and 62% were positive for HPV types 16, 18, and 45. HPV types 16, 18, and 45 were detected in 54.8% of women with ASC-US/AGUS/ASC-H, 50.0% of women with LSIL, and 75.6% of women with HSIL. After confirmation of any histological and colposcopic changes, HPV types 16, 18, and 45 were detected in 68.0% and 69.0% of women, respectively. Moreover, 84.2% of the women with HSIL and high-grade colposcopic changes, and 78.5% of the women with HSIL and CIN 2/CIN 2-3/CIN 3/carcinoma in situ were positive for HPV types 16, 18, and 45. The sensitivity of the Papanicolaou test together with the Hybrid Capture 2 test compared with the Papanicolaou test together with the HPV 16/18/45 test diagnosing CIN 2+ changes did not differ (96.7% vs. 97.1%), but the specificity was higher (40.3% vs. 8.0%). CONCLUSIONS. The majority of the cytologic, colposcopic, and histological changes were caused by HPV types 16, 18, and 45. Despite the high prevalence of HPV types 16, 18, and 45, testing for these genotypes together with the Papanicolaou test did not improve the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions.

  11. Short-term Natural History of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Mid-Adult Women Sampled Monthly (Short title: Short-term HPV Natural History in Mid-Adult Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tsung-chieh (Jane); Xi, Long Fu; Hulbert, Ayaka; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Hawes, Stephen E.; Koutsky, Laura A.; Winer, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing short-term HPV detection patterns and viral load may inform HPV natural history in mid-adult women. From 2011–2012, we recruited women aged 30–50 years. Women submitted monthly self-collected vaginal samples for high-risk HPV DNA testing for 6 months. Positive samples were tested for type-specific HPV DNA load by real-time PCR. HPV type-adjusted linear and Poisson regression assessed factors associated with 1) viral load at initial HPV detection and 2) repeat type-specific HPV detection. One-hundred thirty-nine women (36% of 387 women with ≥4 samples) contributed 243 type-specific HR HPV infections during the study; 54% of infections were prevalent and 46% were incident. Incident (versus prevalent) detection and past pregnancy were associated with lower viral load, whereas current smoking was associated with higher viral load. In multivariate analysis, current smoking was associated with a 40% (95%CI:5%–87%) increase in the proportion of samples that were repeatedly positive for the same HPV type, whereas incident (versus prevalent) detection status and past pregnancy were each associated with a reduction in the proportion of samples repeatedly positive (55%,95%CI:38%–67% and 26%,95%CI:10%–39%, respectively). In a separate multivariate model, each log10 increase in viral load was associated with a 10% (95%CI:4%–16%) increase in the proportion of samples repeatedly positive. Factors associated with repeat HPV detection were similar to those observed in longer-term studies, suggesting that short-term repeat detection may relate to long-term persistence. The negative associations between incident HPV detection and both viral load and repeat detection suggest that reactivation or intermittent persistence was more common than new acquisition. PMID:25976733

  12. Relationship of race and poverty to lower extremity function and decline: findings from the Women's Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland James; Kasper, Judith D; Szanton, Sarah L; Frick, Kevin D; Fried, Linda P; Simonsick, Eleanor M

    2008-02-01

    Race- and poverty-related disparities in physical function are well documented, though little is known about effects of race and poverty on functional decline and the progression of disability. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between race, poverty and lower extremity function using data from moderately to severely disabled women in the U.S. Women's Health and Aging Study. Severity of lower extremity functional limitation was determined from scaled responses of reported difficulty walking (1/4) mile, walking across a room, climbing stairs, and stooping, crouching or kneeling. Usual walking speed assessed over 4m was our objective measure of function. Of the 996 women who described themselves as black or white, 284 (29%) were black and 367 (37%) were living at or below 100% of the federal poverty level. Independent of demographic and health-related factors, among white women, the poor exhibited consistently worse lower extremity function than the non-poor; this association, however, was not observed in black women. Among the non-poor, black women had slower walking speeds, and reported more limitation in lower extremity function than their non-poor white counterparts, even after adjusting for demographic variables and health-related characteristics. After 3 years, accounting for baseline function, demographic and health-related factors, race and poverty status were unrelated to functional decline. Thus, while race and poverty status were associated with functional deficits in old age, they do not appear to impact the rate of functional decline or progression of disability over 3 years.

  13. Childhood conduct problems and young adult outcomes among women with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during childhood, in the context of 3 potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data came from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls With ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood, F(1, 118) change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069, and adolescent, F(1, 109) change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083, conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations.

  14. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, P; Viner, R M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity. This effect appears to be partially independent of childhood BMI. Earlier pubertal development appears to also be inversely correlated with risk of other cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular mortality. Further work is needed to examine potential mechanisms and the level at which interventions may be targeted.

  15. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  16. The Differential Effects of Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael P.; Leone, Janel M.

    2005-01-01

    Data from the National Violence Against Women Survey show that the two major forms of husband violence toward their wives (intimate terrorism and situational couple violence) have different effects on their victims. Victims of intimate terrorism are attacked more frequently and experience violence that is less likely to stop. They are more likely…

  17. Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination.

  18. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women.

  19. Obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and associated obesity risk among adult daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G B; Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Lundgren, Maria

    2015-11-13

    We examined changes in obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and assessed the effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) on the risk of overweight or obesity among adult daughters. This study covered an intergenerational retrospective cohort of 26,561 Swedish mothers and their 26,561 first-born daughters. There was a 4-fold increase in obesity rates, which rose from 3.1% among women entering pregnancy in 1982-1988 to 12.3% among their daughters in 2000-2008 (p pregnancy. The greater the maternal BMI, the greater the odds of overweight and/or obesity among daughters. Underweight mothers had half the odds of having an overweight or obese daughter in comparison to mothers of normal BMI (p obese mothers having obese daughters was 3.94 (p obesity and the risk of obesity among their first-born daughters. In addition, we observed a considerable increase in obesity rates across generations in mother-daughter pairs of Swedish women entering pregnancy. Thus, it is important to have preventative strategies in place to halt the worsening intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  20. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  1. Characteristics of pathological findings in women with chronic pelvic pain using conscious mini-laparoscopic pain mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-mei; ZHANG Na-wei; ZHANG Zhen-yu; LI Shu-hong; SHI Xiu-ting; LIU Chong-dong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common and disabling disorder of women that may have a significant impact on a woman's personal health and quality of life.Data have shown an annual prevalence of 3.8% in women 15 to 73 years of age, making its prevalence comparable to that of asthma (3.7%), back pain (4.1%), and migraines (2.1%). CPP in women is described as "intermittent or constant pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis of at least six months duration, not occurring exclusively with menstruation or intercourse and not associated with pregnancy". In addition, the condition is considered as a symptom, not a diagnosis. CPP is estimated to account for 10% of all referrals to gynecologists, 12% of all hysterectomies, and more than 40% of gynecologic diagnostic laparoscopies. The etiology is complex and may involve disorders of the reproductive tract,gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, musculoskeletal system, and psychoneurological system. The diagnosis is often difficult, especially when nothing positive is found on physical examimation and imaging studies. The optimal management is usually difficult due to the unknown etiology.

  2. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  3. Varying family planning strategies across age categories: differences in factors associated with current modern contraceptive use among youth and adult women in Luanda, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ndola Prata,1 Suzanne Bell,1 Karen Weidert,1 Benjamin Nieto-Andrade,2 Adelaide Carvalho,3 Isilda Neves3 1Bixby Center for Population, Health and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; 2Population Services International Angola, 3National Directorate of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Luanda, Angola Background: The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with current modern contraceptive use among Angolan women. By differentiating according to age groups (15–24 and 25–49 years, this study aimed to help family planning program planners better tailor interventions to improve utilization of modern contraception.Methods: A household survey was used to collect data from 1,545 women of reproductive age living in Luanda Province, Angola. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive behavior and intentions, contraceptive knowledge and use, and attitudes and beliefs regarding contraception and abortion were collected. The analyses were stratified based on age: 15–24 years (youth and 25–49 years (adult. Multivariate logistic regression models were built for each age group, adding different subsets of variables in groups to see how relationships changed across the models.Results: Common factors associated with modern contraceptive use among all ages include education level, perceived contraceptive accessibility, contraceptive knowledge, communication with partner about family planning in last year, and self-efficacy. Exposure to family planning information in the media in the last few months, perceived partner approval of family planning, and marital status were all positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among women aged 15–24 years. Meanwhile, receiving information about family planning from a pharmacy in the last year was uniquely associated with current modern contraceptive use among women aged 25–49 years.Conclusion: Young women in

  4. How Useful Are Skills Acquired at Adult Non-Formal Education and Training Centres for Finding Employment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education…

  5. Does an advantageous occupational position make women happier in contemporary Japan? Findings from the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE

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    Maki Umeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational position is one of the determinants of psychological health, but this association may differ for men and women depending on the social context. In contemporary Japanese society, occupational gender segregation persists despite increased numbers of women participating in the labour market, which may contribute to gender specific patterns in the prevalence of poor psychological health. The present study examined gender specific associations between occupational position and psychological health in Japan, and the potential mediating effects of job control and effort–reward imbalance in these associations. We used data obtained from 7123 men and 2222 women, aged between 18 and 65 years, who participated in an occupational cohort study, the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE, between 2011 and 2012. We used logistic regression to examine the association between occupational position and poor psychological health, adjusted for age, working hours, household income and education, as well as psychosocial work characteristics (job control and effort–reward imbalance. The prevalence of poor psychological health increased from manual/service occupations (23% to professionals/managers (38% among women, while it did not vary by occupational position among men. In women, the significant association between occupational position and psychological health was not explained by job control, but was attenuated by effort–reward imbalance. Our findings suggest that Japanese women in more advantaged occupational positions are likely to be at a greater risk for poor psychological health due to higher levels of effort–reward imbalance at work.

  6. Cytogenetic findings in adult secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML): frequency of favorable and adverse chromosomal aberrations do not differ from adult de novo AML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, Birgitte S; Bergman, Olav J; Friis, Lone S;

    2010-01-01

    During a 15-year period, 161 adult patients were diagnosed with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (s-AML) in the region of Southern Denmark. In 73 patients, the AML diagnosis was preceded by myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS-AML), in 31 patients by an antecedent hematologic disease, and in 57 patients...... (P = 0.01). We conclude that population-based cytogenetic studies of adult s-AML and age- and sex-matched de novo AML show comparable distributions of chromosome abnormalities....

  7. Radiological Findings of Extensively Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Non-AIDS Adults: Comparisons with Findings of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Sensitive Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ho Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Koh, Won Jung; Kwon, O Jung; Yi, Chin A; Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was designed to describe the radiological findings of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to compare the observed findings with findings of drug-sensitive (DS) and non-XDR multidrug- resistant (MDR) TB in non-AIDS patients. From September 1994 to December 2007, 53 MDR TB patients (M:F = 32:21; mean age, 38 years) and 15 XDR TB non-AIDS patients (M:F = 8:7; mean age, 36 years) were enrolled in the study. All of the MDR TB patients had received no treatment or less than one month of anti-TB treatment. In addition, all XDR TB patients received either no anti-TB treatment or only first-line anti-TB drugs. In addition, 141 consecutive DS TB patients (M:F = 79:62; mean age, 51 years) were also enrolled in the study for comparison. Chest radiograph, CT and demographic findings were reviewed and were compared among the three patient groups. For patients with XDR TB, the most frequent radiographic abnormalities were nodules (15 of 15 patients, 100%), reticulo-nodular densities (11 of 15, 73%), consolidation (9 of 15, 60%) and cavities (7 of 15, 47%) that were located mainly in the upper and middle lung zones. As seen on radiographs, significant differences were found for the frequency of nodules and ground-glass opacity lesions (all p < 0.001) (more frequent in DS TB patients than in MDR and XDR TB patients). For the use of CT, significant differences (more frequent in MDR and XDR TB patients) were found for the frequency of multiple cavities, nodules and bronchial dilatation (p = 0.001 or p < 0.001). Patients with MDR TB and XDR TB were younger as compared to patients with DS TB (p < 0.001). Imaging findings were not different between patients with MDR TB and XDR TB. By observation of multiple cavities, nodules and bronchial dilatation as depicted on CT in young patients with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive sputum, the presence of MDR TB or XDR TB rather than DS TB can be suggested. There is no significant difference in imaging

  8. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia in Turkey: a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Engin, Aynur; Altuntas, Emine Elif; Salk, İsmail; Kaya, Ali; Celik, Cem; Dokmetas, Ilyas; Bakir, Mehmet; Elaldi, Nazif

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings of both pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia. We also compared the therapeutic outcomes of patients who underwent surgical drainage of lymph nodes early or late during antibiotic therapy. A total of 68 patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, including 26 children and 42 adults, were enrolled in this study. The average duration between symptom onset and hospital admission was 20.8 days (4-60 days) in the pediatric group and 32.6 days (4-90 days) in the adult group (P = 0.009). The most frequently observed clinical symptoms were sore throat (100% and 100%), fever (96.2% and 90.5%), tonsillitis (69.2% and 78.6%), and rash (15.4% and 11.9%) in the pediatric and adult groups, respectively. However, the frequencies of erythema, tenderness, and fluctuant of enlarged lymph nodes were significantly higher in the adult group than in the pediatric group (P = 0.005, P = 0.029, and P = 0.041, respectively). Treatment failure was observed in 2 (7.7%) pediatric patients and 4 (9.5%) adult patients, for a total of 6 (8.8%) treatment failures in the study group. Similar clinical findings and treatment outcomes were observed in both groups. We concluded that a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia.

  9. Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, F; Enoch, M-A; Hodgkinson, C; Xu, K; Catena, M; Robin, R W; Goldman, D

    2008-03-01

    Women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Among male subjects, a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR, monoamine oxidase A linked polymorphic region) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) appears to moderate the effect of childhood maltreatment on antisocial behavior. Our aim was to test whether MAOA-LPR influences the impact of CSA on alcoholism and ASPD in a sample of 291 women, 50% of whom have experienced CSA; we also tested whether haplotypes covering the region where both MAOA and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) genes are located predict risk of alcoholism and ASPD better than the MAOA-LPR locus alone. Participants included 168 alcoholics (39 with ASPD (antisocial alcoholics) and 123 controls (no alcoholics, no ASPD). Antisocial behavior was also modeled as a continuous trait: ASPD symptoms count. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was associated with alcoholism (P=0.005), particularly antisocial alcoholism (P=0.00009), only among sexually abused subjects. Sexually abused women who were homozygous for the low activity allele had higher rates of alcoholism and ASPD, and more ASPD symptoms, than abused women homozygous for the high activity allele. Heterozygous women displayed an intermediate risk pattern. In contrast, there was no relationship between alcoholism/antisocial behavior and MAOA-LPR genotype among non-abused women. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found on three different haplotypes. The most abundant MAOA haplotype containing the MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found in excess among alcoholics (P=0.008) and antisocial alcoholics (P=0.001). Finally, a MAOB haplotype, which we termed haplotype C, was significantly associated with alcoholism (P=0.006), and to a lesser extent with antisocial alcoholism (P=0.03). In conclusions, MAOA seems to moderate the impact of childhood trauma on adult psychopathology in female subjects in the same way

  10. Predictors of overweight and obesity in adult women in Nairobi Province, Kenya

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    Mbochi Regina W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since obesity in urban women is prevalent in Kenya the study aimed to determine predictors of overweight and obesity in urban Kenyan women. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nairobi Province. The province was purposively selected because it has the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in Kenya. A total of 365 women aged 25–54 years old were randomly selected to participate in the study. Results Higher age, higher socio-economic (SE group, increased parity, greater number of rooms in the house, and increased expenditure showed greater mean body mass index (BMI,% body fat and waist circumference (WC at highly significant levels (p Conclusions The predictors of overweight and obesity showed that urbanization and the nutrition transition were well established in the sample of women studied in the high SE groups. They exhibited a sedentary lifestyle and consumed a diet high in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, and alcohol and lower in fibre and carbohydrate compared with those in the low SE groups.

  11. Sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder in adult women with severe mental illness: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli, Rebecca; H Brackley, Margaret; Williams, Gail B; Lesser, Janna

    2010-07-01

    Research indicates that women with serious mental illness (SMI) are vulnerable to sexual abuse, resulting in adverse health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the prevalence of undiagnosed PTSD among a cohort of 20 women with SMI and reporting past sexual abuse. Furthermore, the researcher sought to identify specific symptom manifestations of PTSD among women with SMI and sexual abuse histories. Finally, the feasibility of using specific data collection tools was examined. Results indicated that PTSD was not previously diagnosed or recognized in the study sample, in spite of the presence of a sexual trauma history. The screening tools were effective in identifying depression, guilt, emotional withdrawal, blunted affect, decreased psychomotor activity, suicidal ideations, sexual dysfunction, and substance abuse. Additionally, the data collection tools provided a framework for discussing sensitive issues related to sexual abuse. Implications of this pilot study suggest the need to evaluate all women with SMI and history of sexual abuse for PTSD.

  12. Social Learning Preferences of Adult Women Learners in a Competency-Based Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    In this study a post-assessment survey was analyzed to seek for social learning preferences among women in a competency-based online learning environment. The survey asked what learning resources students used to prepare for the assessment. Each learning resource was given a relative sociability rating. This rating acts as the weighting for a…

  13. HPV infection-associated anogenital cyto-colpo-histological findings and molecular typing in HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, F K; Rodrigues, C L L; Levi, J E; Mattosinho de Castro Ferraz, M G; Speck, N M G; Ribalta, J C L

    2015-12-21

    HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) coinfection is increasing, especially in the anal canal (AC) and cervico-vaginal regions. We identified anal epithelium abnormalities related to high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) lesions in the lower genital tracts (LGTs) of HIV-positive women, described the HPV genotypes identified, and assessed the expression of E6/E7 oncogenes in coinfected patients. Ninety-eight women were enrolled in groups combining HIV status and presence or absence of HPV in the LGT. Anal and cervical smears were collected for cytology and HR-HPV assays using Cobas(®) and/or PapilloCheck(®). Samples with highly oncogenic HPV genotypes were confirmed by NucliSENS EasyQ(®). Forty-two HIV-positive (25-52; mean age 39.5) and 56 HIV-negative (18-58; mean age 35.7) patients were included. E2 and C1 groups presented AC alterations (P = 0.002); altered images for high-resolution anoscopy were higher in E1 and C2 (P HIV-negative and 58.62% were HIV-positive (P HIV-positive patients accounted for 29% of the anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (P = 0.015). The Cobas(®) positive result frequency was higher in three AC groups than in the other groups. There was variation in the number of HPV types in the cervico-vaginal samples among the study groups (P HIV-positive patients with HPV in the LGT. HR-HPV anal infections by various genotypes are common and are associated with cervical infections in HIV-positive patients. E6/E7 expression is apparently more common in the AC of HIV-positive women.

  14. Snus use and smoking behaviors: preliminary findings from a prospective cohort study among US Midwest young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Naomi; Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The effect of snus use on smoking behaviors among US young adults is largely unknown. Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected in 2010 to 2011 and 2011 to 2012 (participants aged 20-28 years) showed that young adult nonsmokers who had tried snus were subsequently more likely than those who had not tried snus to become current smokers (n = 1696; adjusted odds ratio = 1.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 3.14). Snus use was not associated with subsequent smoking cessation or reduction among young adult current smokers (n = 488; P > .46).

  15. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril F M Marsaux

    Full Text Available Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet.Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD at baseline and were included in the present analyses.Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001. Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54-65% but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26-49%. Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day.We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study.

  16. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  17. Exceso de peso y patologías asociadas en mujeres adultas Overweight and associated pathologies in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Oviedo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El exceso de peso, representa un problema de salud de importancia en países desarrollados, por ser un factor de riesgo, de alta prevalencia, para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles del adulto, que afectan a ambos sexos, sobre todo al femenino. Objetivo: Asociar el grado de exceso de peso con la presencia de comorbilidades en mujeres adultas. Metodología: 130 mujeres, edad 25 a 70 años, eíndice de masa corporal (IMC > 25 kg/m². Se evaluó peso, talla, circunferencia de brazo, cintura, cadera, pliegues tricipital y subescapular. Se determinó IMC, índice cintura/cadera (IC/C y área grasa. El exceso de peso fue clasificado según la OMS; se evaluó la presencia de diabetes mellitus (DM; hipertensión arterial (HTA, dislipidemias y artropatías. Los datos fueron analizados mediante el programa estadístico SPSS versión 11.0. Resultados: El 24,6% (n = 32 presentó sobrepeso; 38,5% (n = 50 obesidad I; 23,8% (n = 31 obesidad II; 13,1% (n = 17 obesidad III. El 80,8% presentó alguna comorbilidad; 46,9% (n = 61 dislipidemia; 42,3% (n = 55 HTA; 33,1% (n = 43 artropatías; 16,2% (n = 21 DM. Los grupos con sobrepeso (SP y obesidad I, presentaron mayor frecuencia de dislipidemia, (56% y (52% respectivamente; mientras que en obesidad II (ObII y obesidad III (ObIII, el 38,7% y 47,1% presentó HTA, respectivamente. Hubo correlación positiva (Spearman entre DM, HTA y dislipidemia (p Overweight and obesity represent an important public health problem in the world, including developed and underdeveloped countries, as contributing factors for non transmissible chronic illnesses in the adult, affecting both sexes, but especially to women. Objective: To associate excess in weight to the presence of comorbidities in adult women. Methodology: 130 women, age 25 to 70 years with body mass index (BMI > 25 kg/m² were assessed. Weight, height, arm, waist and hip circumferences, tricipital and subescapular skinfolds. BMI, waist/hip ratio (W/H ratio and fatty

  18. Risk Factors for Chronic Disease Among Rural Vietnamese Adults and the Association of These Factors With Sociodemographic Variables: Findings From the WHO STEPS Survey in Rural Vietnam, 2005

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    Hoang Van Minh, MD, PhD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChronic diseases have emerged as a major health threat to the world’s population, particularly in developing countries. We examined the prevalence of selected risk factors for chronic disease and the association of these risk factors with sociodemographic variables in a representative sample of adults in rural Vietnam.MethodsIn 2005, we selected a representative sample of 2000 adults aged 25 to 64 years using the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. We measured subjects’ blood pressure, calculated their body mass index (BMI, and determined their self-reported smoking status. We then assessed the extent to which hypertension, being overweight (having a BMI ≥25.0, smoking, and various combinations of these risk factors were associated with subjects’ education level, occupational category, and economic status.ResultsMean blood pressure levels were higher among men than among women and increased progressively with age. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.9% among men and 13.7% among women. Sixty-three percent of men were current smokers, and 58% were current daily smokers; less than 1% of women smoked. Mean body mass index was 19.6 among men and 19.9 among women, and only 3.5% of the population was overweight. Education level was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertension among both men and women and with the prevalence of smoking among men. People without a stable occupation were more at risk of having hypertension than were farmers and more at risk of being overweight than were farmers or government employees. Hypertension was directly associated with socioeconomic status among men but inversely associated with socioeconomic status among women.ConclusionRural Vietnam is experiencing an increase in the prevalence of many risk factors for chronic diseases and is in urgent need of interventions to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors and to deal

  19. Long-Term Impact of Family Arguments and Physical Violence on Adult Functioning at Age 30 Years: Findings from the Simmons Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Angela D.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2009-01-01

    Family arguments by the age of 15 and family physical violence by the age of 18 is found to significantly compromise key domains of adult functioning at age 30. The findings are based on data from 346 participants whose psychosocial development has been followed since age 5.

  20. Substance Abuse Treatment in Adult and Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Mary Ellen, Ed.; Straw, Richard S., Ed.

    This report presents methodology and findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, which surveyed about 7,600 adult and juvenile correctional facilities to identify those that provide on-site substance abuse treatment to their inmates or residents. The survey assesses substance abuse treatment provided…

  1. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey E Gleason

    2015-06-01

    . However, because LME models make full use all available data, including data from women with missing data, 95.5% of participants were included in the final analysis (n = 662 in cognitive analyses, and n = 661 in mood analyses. To be included in analyses, women must have provided baseline data, and data from at least one post-baseline visit. The mean length of follow-up was 2.85 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.49 for cognitive outcomes and 2.76 (SD = 0.57 for mood outcomes. No treatment-related benefits were found on cognitive outcomes. For mood, model estimates indicated that women treated with o-CEE showed improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms over the 48 mo of treatment, compared to women on placebo. The model estimate for the depression subscale was -5.36 × 10(-2 (95% CI, -8.27 × 10(-2 to -2.44 × 10(-2; ES = 0.49, p < 0.001 and for the anxiety subscale was -3.01 × 10(-2 (95% CI, -5.09 × 10(-2 to -9.34 × 10(-3; ES = 0.26, p < 0.001. Mood outcomes for women randomized to t-E2 were similar to those for women on placebo. Importantly, the KEEPS-Cog results cannot be extrapolated to treatment longer than 4 y.The KEEPS-Cog findings suggest that for recently postmenopausal women, MHT did not alter cognition as hypothesized. However, beneficial mood effects with small to medium ESs were noted with 4 y of o-CEE, but not with 4 y of t-E2. The generalizability of these findings is limited to recently postmenopausal women with low cardiovascular risk profiles.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154180 and NCT00623311.

  2. Do women requesting only contraception find attendance at an integrated sexual health clinic more stigmatizing than attendance at a family planning–only clinic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer U

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Sauer,1 Arti Singh,2 Punam Rubenstein,1 Rudiger Pittrof3 1Department of Reproductive and Sexual Health Services, Enfield Community Services, London, UK; 2University Health Services, KNUST Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, 3Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Trust, London, UK Purpose: Both sexually transmitted infections and the genitourinary medicine clinics that patients attend for management of sexually transmitted infections are stigmatized by patients’ perceptions. The aim of this study was to assess whether women requesting contraception only find attendance at an integrated sexual health clinic (ISHC more stigmatizing than attendance at a family planning (FP–only clinic. Patients and methods: Women requesting contraception only were asked to complete a stigma assessment questionnaire in the waiting room of the clinic they attended. Ease of understanding was assessed for each item of the questionnaire prior to commencement of the survey. The questionnaire was given to women attending either an ISHC or a FP-only clinic. Results: One hundred questionnaires that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were returned. The users of FP-only services were generally older than the users of ISHCs and were more likely than the users of ISHCs to classify themselves as UK white. Stigma perception was significantly higher for the ISHC than the FP-only clinic. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate that among women who request contraception only, perceived stigma is higher when they attend an ISHC than when they attend a FP-only clinic. As this survey only enrolled clinic users, the authors were unable to assess whether integration generates sufficient stigma to deter some women from accessing contraception from integrated services. Of all stigma-related issues, disclosure concerns are likely to be the most important to the service user. Stigma is not an issue of overriding concern for most service users. Keywords: stigma, one-stop shop, sexually

  3. Growth in height in childhood and risk of coronary heart disease in adult men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Adult height is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but it is still unknown which phase of the human growth period is critical for the formation of this association. We investigated the association between growth in height from 7 to 13 years of age and the risk...

  4. Long-term effects of previous oxandrolone treatment in adult women with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freriks, K.; Sas, T.C.J.; Traas, M.A.F.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Heijer, M. den; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Wit, J.M.; Alfen-van der Velden, J. van; Otten, B.J.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Gotthardt, M.; Dejonckere, P.H.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Menke, L.A.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Short stature is a prominent feature of Turner syndrome (TS), which is partially overcome by GH treatment. We have previously reported the results of a trial on the effect of oxandrolone (Ox) in girls with TS. Ox in a dose of 0.03 mg/kg per day (Ox 0.03) significantly increased adult heig

  5. Lubiprostone for the treatment of adult women with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubra, Mahmoud; Schey, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) affects approximately 5% of the population in western countries. The majority of those afflicted are women. Symptoms are often detrimental to the individual's quality of life and incur high healthcare costs to society. There is no evidence to support changes in lifestyle, laxatives or over the counter supplements. Tegaserod appeared to have promising results but was promptly removed from the market due to adverse cardiovascular events. In 2008, lubiprostone (Amitiza) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of women with IBS-C. It is thought to selectively activate type 2 chloride channels in the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells leading to chloride secretion. As result, sodium and water are passively secreted generating peristalsis and laxation, without stimulating gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Several trials with predominantly female patients have shown it to be effective in the treatment of IBS-C. Overall lubiprostone was safe, well tolerated and associated with mostly benign side effects. Nausea and diarrhea were the most commonly reported. Though there are no head to head comparisons with other pharmacological agents, it is our opinion that lubiprostone should be tried as a first line pharmacotherapy for women with IBS-C at a dose of 8 μg BID. Thus far, lubiprostone offers a welcome approach to our narrow therapeutic armamentarium. Further understanding of its mechanism of action may provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of IBS-C.

  6. Effects of exercise on ankle proprioception in adult women during 16 weeks of training and eight weeks of detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Sun, Wei; Yu, Bing; Song, Qipeng; Mao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of training and detraining on ankle proprioception in terms of kinesthesia in adult women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Tai Chi and Brisk Walking Groups went through a 16-week training period followed by an eight-week detraining period. The ankle plantar-flexion, dorsal-flexion, inversion, and eversion kinesthesia were measured every four weeks. The ankle kinesthesia in plantar/dorsal flexion of both exercise groups decreased, but the Tai Chi Group decreased more and sooner than the Brisk Walking Group. The training effects of Tai Chi exercise were retained but diminished during the detraining. The training effects of Brisk Walking exercise were not retained. The kinesthesia of ankle inversion and eversion remained unchanged after training. The results suggest that Tai Chi exercise is more effective in training ankle proprioception in plantar and dorsal flexion and in retaining the training effects compared with Brisk Walking exercise.

  7. 孕妇的成人依恋与应对方式%Adult attachment and coping styles in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同归; 赵丽霞; 韩钦维; 冯颖; 王美军

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore attachment styles, coping styles of pregnant women and their relationship. Methods; Relationship questionnaire (RQ) , Experience of close relationships ( ECR) scale ( Chinese version) , and Coping style scale were used to survey 510 pregnant women. Results; The distributions of attachment styles in pregnant women: safe style ( 59. 9% ) , dismissing style (19. 0% ) , preoccupied style (1.4. 6% ) , and fearful style (6. 4% ) . There was no statistically significant difference in the scores of " active coping focused on the problems" and " denying the problem and mental disengagement" among fhe pregnant women with four kinds of attachment styles, but the scores of " seeking emotional support and venting of emotions" in the pregnant women with safe style and preoccupied style were (2. 67 ± 0. 35 ) and (2. 69 ± 0. 35 ) , respectively, which were statistically significantly higher than those in the pregnant women with dismissing style (2. 56 ±0.35) and fearful style (2.45 ±0.28) (F3.479 =5. 975 , P <0. 01) . The score of "avoiding the problem and shifting attention" in the pregnant women with safe style was (2. 06 ± 0. 46) , which was statistically significantly lower than that with fearful style (2. 29 ± 0. 55) (F3.479 =2. 63, P <0. 05) . There was a significant negative correlation between adult attachmenl avoidance and "active coping focused on the problems" (γ = - 0. 193 , P < 0. 01) , as well as between adult attachment avoidance and " seeking emotional support and venting of e-motions" (γ = -0. 213, P<0. 01) . There was a positive correlation between adult attachment avoidance, anxiety and "denying the problem and mental disengagement" , "avoiding the problem and shifting attention" , respectively (γ = 0. 207 - 0. 304, P < 0. 01) . Conclusion ; Conducting health education among the pregnant women had a certain reference significance, model - of - self and model - of - other should be established as possible for the pregnant women when

  8. Age at introduction of solid foods and feeding difficulties in childhood: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J L; Crozier, S R; Inskip, H M; Cooper, C; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether age at introduction of solid foods was associated with feeding difficulties at 3 years of age. The present study was carried out using data from the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS). Women enrolled in the SWS who subsequently became pregnant were followed-up during pregnancy and postpartum, and the offspring have been studied through childhood. Maternal socio-demographic and anthropometric data and child anthropometric and feeding data were collected through interviews and self-administered questionnaires. When the children were 3 years of age, mothers/carers rated six potential child feeding difficulty questions on a four-point Likert scale, including one general question and five specific feeding difficulty questions. Age at introduction of solids as a predictor of feeding difficulties was examined in 2389 mother-child pairs, adjusting for child (age last breast fed, sex, gestation) and maternal characteristics (parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, employment, parenting difficulties, diet quality). The majority of mothers/carers (61 %) reported some feeding difficulties (general feeding difficulty question) at 3 years of age, specifically with their child eating enough food (61 %), eating the right food (66 %) and being choosy with food (74 %). Children who were introduced to solids ≥6 months had a lower risk of feeding difficulties (RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·91, P=0·004) than children who were introduced to solids between 4 and 6 months. No other significant associations were found. There were few associations between feeding difficulties in relation to age at introduction of solid foods. However, general feeding difficulties were less common among infants introduced to solid foods ≥6 months of age.

  9. Dietary glycemic load and risk of cognitive impairment in women: findings from the EPIC-Naples cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Vittorio; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Camilla; Brighenti, Furio; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common cause of morbidity in the elderly. The relationship between dietary habits and cognitive impairment in a female population living in the metropolitan area of Naples, in the Mediterranean part of Italy, has been evaluated in the Naples EPIC prospective cohort study. The study cohort, enrolled between 1993 and 1997, is composed of 5062 women aged 30-69 years. At time of enrolment anthropometric measures were performed and information about socio-demographic details, clinical data, lifestyle and dietary habits were collected. During 2008 and 2009, women 65 years of age or older received a telephone interview to evaluate cognitive status (TICS); the derived score was used as proxy of cognitive impairment. Analyses were carried out on 1514 participants. Linear regression model showed negative association between TICS score and, respectively, age at baseline (β = -.31, 95% CI -.34, -.24), body mass index (BMI) (β = -.08, 95% CI -.16, -.01), and glycemic load (GL) (β = -.02, 95% CI -.03, -.01), whereas education level (β = 0.62, 95% CI .56, .69) showed positive association. A logistic regression model, used to evaluate determinants of the low cognitive score (TICS score ≤ 15, 1st tertile), confirmed association for previous variables [age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.08, 1.15); BMI (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.001, 1.07); GL (OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001, 1.011); education level (OR .82, 95% CI .79, .84)] with, in addition, type II diabetes (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.014, 3.4). This study indicates that GL may play a role in determining risk of cognitive impairment, besides age, BMI, education and diabetes.

  10. Life-course socio-economic position, area deprivation and Type 2 diabetes: findings from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A F; Carson, C; Watt, H C;

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether area deprivation influenced risk of Type 2 diabetes, fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance over and above the effect of individual socio-economic position (SEP) measured across the life course. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 4286 women aged 60 to 79......-course SEP. This association was robust to adjustment for adult health behaviours and physiological risk factors. Insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score] increased by 1.90% (95% CI 0.01, 3.82, n = 2526) per quintile of area deprivation after adjustment for individual SEP, while fasting...... blood glucose increased by 0.69% (95% CI 0.16, 1.22, n = 2875) after adjustment for individual SEP. Conclusions Area level deprivation independently influences diagnosed Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose. Examination of more specific characteristics of places is needed...

  11. Effect of Functional Beverage on Blood Pressure and Urinary Electrolytes (Na, K and Ca in Adult Women with Prehypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yuni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This study aimed to analyze the effect of intervention with functional beverage made from banana and soybean on blood pressure and urinary electrolytes’ concentrations in adult women with prehypertension. Subjects in this study were 24 adult women aged 25-59 years. They were assigned into two groups, the control group (n=10 that was given drinking water per day and the intervention group (n=13 that was given 300 ml of functional beverage and drinking water. The results showed that functional beverage consumption over a 14-day period without controlling sodium intake had a significant effect in increasing urinary potassium concentrations by 7.00 +7.55 mmol/24 hours (P<0.05, tended to decrease urinary calcium concentrations by 4.55 + 37.50 mg/24 hours, and tended to lower the systolic blood pressure by 4.77+ 10.87 mmHg and the diastolic blood pressure by 9.84+ 27.75 mmHg. In conclusion, intervention using functional beverage in people with prehypertension was proven to significantly increase urinary potassium concentrations, could control blood pressure and prevent hypertension. Industrial relevance. This study proved that the functional beverage, made from banana and soybeans, could increase the intake of natural potassium and control the blood pressure. This study is also useful as an alternative therapy for people with prehypertension, by using practical and ready-to-drink functional beverage product. Functional beverage is increasingly important nowadays because treatment of prehypertension with synthetic drugs will cause drug dependence and adverse negative effects. This study also provides information to the manufacturers to develop functional beverages, made from cheap and affordable raw ingredients. Therefore, the use of drugs in people with prehypertension can be avoided. Moreover, it is also safe to use to prevent hypertension in long-term. Keywords. blood pressure; functional beverage; prehypertension; urinary electrolytes

  12. Thymic involvement in immune recovery during antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection in adults; comparison of CT and sonographic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Lilian; Strandberg, Charlotte; Dreves, Anne-Mette;

    2002-01-01

    In adult HIV-infected patients, thymic size evaluated from CT scans seems to be important to the degree of immune reconstitution obtainable during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To examine whether ultrasound is as reliable as CT for estimating thymic size and predict......In adult HIV-infected patients, thymic size evaluated from CT scans seems to be important to the degree of immune reconstitution obtainable during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To examine whether ultrasound is as reliable as CT for estimating thymic size...... and predicting immune recovery, CT and ultrasound scans were performed in 25 adult HIV-infected patients and 10 controls. CD4 counts and naive CD4 counts were measured in order to determine immune reconstitution. Furthermore, the CD4+ T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) frequency and T-cell receptor (TCR...

  13. Good Ol' Boys, Mean Girls, and Tyrants: A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences and Survival Strategies of Bullied Women Adult Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedivy-Benton, Amy; Strohschen, Gabriele; Cavazos, Nora; Boden-McGill, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Bullying in higher education is an increasingly common phenomenon that negatively affects organizational climate, completed work's quality and quantity, and students' educational experiences. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the lived experiences of women adult educators who were targets of bullying. Six…

  14. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes: the role of intrauterine hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hansen, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The role of intrauterine hyperglycemia and future risk of type 2 diabetes in human offspring is debated. We studied glucose tolerance in adult offspring of women with either gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, taking the impact of both intrauterine hyperglycemia...

  15. Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hansen, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes Context: In animal studies exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease through only partly understood epigenetic mechanisms....... Human long-term follow-up studies on the same topic are few. Objective: To study the risk of overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, and additionally to study associations between estimates of maternal...... of women with type 1 diabetes (n=160) and offspring from the background population representing an un-exposed reference group (n=128). Follow-up rate was 56% (597/1,066). Main outcome measures: Overweight: body mass index (BMI) >/= 25kg/m(2). The metabolic syndrome: the International Diabetes Federation...

  16. RESPONSE OF MONONUCLEAR CELLS TO CANCER-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMORAL FACTORS OF IMMUNITY, AND PATHOHISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH GENITAL MALIGNANCIES CERVICAL EPITHELIAL DYSPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Autenshlus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In vitro response of blood mononuclear cells to cancer-associated antigens was studied in women with genital pathology, and these results were compared with serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors of immunity, like as with histological features of genital cancer and cervical epithelial dysplasia. In vitro cellular response was regarded as positive, if relative amounts of CD8-positive lymphocytes increased by > 15% following incubation of blood mononuclears with cancer-associated antigens. Positive reaction and elevated serum levels of anti-TNFα and anti-IFNγ antibodies were associated with lesser malignancy of tumor, as proven by histological findings in the women with genital cancer. A positive cellular reaction was associated with increased serum levels of IFNγ and anti-TNFα in women with grade II–III cervical epithelial dysplasia. It is concluded about potential applicability of testing mononuclears with fetal proteins, to determine a grade of malignancy for the female genital tumors, as well as a degree of regenerative disturbances of cervical epithelium.

  17. Prevalence of Psychotropic Drug Use in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Positive and Negative Findings from a Large Scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, John A.; Kim, Soh-Yule; Brown, W. Ted; Pettinger, Jill; Cohen, Ira L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of psychotropics by categories and the reason for their prescription was investigated in a large scale study of 4,069 adults with ID, including those with autism spectrum disorder, in New York State. Similar to other studies it was found that 58 % (2,361/4,069) received one or more psychotropics. Six percent received typical, 6 % received…

  18. Are Older Adults Prepared to Ensure Food Safety during Extended Power Outages and Other Emergencies?: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L.; Coppings, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters and other emergencies can cause an increased risk of foodborne illness. We conducted a nationally representative survey to understand consumers' knowledge and use of recommended practices during/after extended power outages and other emergencies. Because older adults are at an increased risk for foodborne illness, this paper…

  19. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  20. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake.

  1. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mariano da Rocha Silla

    Full Text Available This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years and women (14 to 30 years tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.

  2. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood.

  3. Brief self-compassion meditation training for body image distress in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Aubrey M; Craighead, Linda W

    2016-12-01

    Self-compassion interventions may be uniquely suited to address body image distress (BID), as change-based strategies may have limited utility in a cultural context that so highly values appearance. The current study evaluated a version of an Internet-based self-compassion training, which had previously shown promising results, but was limited by high attrition. The intervention period was reduced from three weeks to one week in the present study to improve retention. Eighty undergraduate women endorsing body image concerns were randomized to either self-compassion meditation training or a waitlist control group. Results suggest that brief exposure to the basic tenets of self-compassion holds promise for improving aspects of self-compassion and BID. Attrition was minimal, but compliance with meditation practice instructions during the week was low. Efforts are needed to improve engagement, but this approach has the potential to be an acceptable and cost effective method to reduce BID.

  4. The Relationship Between Body Image and Domains of Sexual Functioning Among Heterosexual, Emerging Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Quinn-Nilas, MA

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest important linkages between body image and sexual functioning constructs and indicates that interventions to improve body image could have concomitant benefits related to sexual experience.

  5. The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

    1978-02-01

    The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.

  6. The association between adult attachment style, mental disorders, and suicidality: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palitsky, Daniel; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Downs, A Craig; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-07-01

    Attachment theory categorically assesses how a person perceives and experiences interpersonal relationships. Attachment style is linked to numerous physical and psychological phenomena; however, there is a paucity of research examining its relationship to suicide ideation and attempt in adults. Our study addresses this and investigates the relationship of adult attachment style and mental disorders in a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N = 5692, aged >18 years), multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine these relationships. After adjusting for confounding variables, insecure attachment styles were associated with greater reporting of suicidal ideation, attempt, and all mental disorder categories analyzed (adjusted odds ratio range, 1.13-1.81). Secure attachment styles were associated with a decreased likelihood of reporting suicidal ideation, attempt, and any anxiety disorder (adjusted odds ratio range, 0.67-0.91). Clinicians should be aware of attachment issues in their patients to ensure better health outcomes and more effective physician-patient relationships.

  7. Neural activation during response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: preliminary findings on the effects of medication and symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Eliza; Altshuler, Lori L; Mumford, Jeanette A; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Sabb, Fred W; Ventura, Joseph; McGough, James J; London, Edythe D; Cannon, Tyrone D; Bilder, Robert M; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-04-30

    Studies of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have suggested that they have deficient response inhibition, but findings concerning the neural correlates of inhibition in this patient population are inconsistent. We used the Stop-Signal task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare neural activation associated with response inhibition between adults with ADHD (N=35) and healthy comparison subjects (N=62), and in follow-up tests to examine the effect of current medication use and symptom severity. There were no differences in Stop-Signal task performance or neural activation between ADHD and control participants. Among the ADHD participants, however, significant differences were associated with current medication, with individuals taking psychostimulants (N=25) showing less stopping-related activation than those not currently receiving psychostimulant medication (N=10). Follow-up analyses suggested that this difference in activation was independent of symptom severity. These results provide evidence that deficits in inhibition-related neural activation persist in a subset of adult ADHD individuals, namely those individuals currently taking psychostimulants. These findings help to explain some of the disparities in the literature, and advance our understanding of why deficits in response inhibition are more variable in adult, as compared with child and adolescent, ADHD patients.

  8. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001 and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001 who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.

  9. Sense of Community among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area: Findings from the PINE Study

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    Xinqi Dong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sense of community is a concept that has significant implications cross multiple disciplines, particularly in public health practice. However, there exists a knowledge gap in utilizing the sense of community in investigating the health of older immigrant populations. Objective: This study aimed to explore the perception of the sense of community among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were from the PINE study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above in the greater Chicago area. We administered the Sense of Community Index to measure the levels of sense of community. Socio-demographic information was also collected. Results: Our results suggest that Chinese older adults in this study sample reported a strong sense of community. In total, 86.7% of the participants reported satisfaction with the current neighborhood, and 78.4% expressed their desire to continue living in the community as long as possible. In addition, older age (r =0.11, having higher levels of income (r =0.08, being female (r =0.08, being unmarried (r =-0.06, living with fewer people (r =-0.22, having more children (r =0.11, having been in the U.S. for more years (r =0.12, longer residency in the community (r =0.15, higher overall health status (r =0.18, better quality of life (r =0.23, and improved health status in the past year (r =0.11 were significantly correlated with the higher levels of the sense of the community. Conclusions: The study investigation provided the basis for generating empirical knowledge for understanding the sense of community among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to delineate the mechanisms underlying sense of community and health in the increasingly diverse aging population.

  10. Family Planning Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Married Men and Women in Rural Areas of Pakistan: Findings from a Qualitative Need Assessment Study

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    Ghulam Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a qualitative assessment aimed at exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding family planning and factors that influence the need for and use of modern contraceptives. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted with married women and men aged between 15 and 40. Overall, 24 focus group discussions were conducted with male and female participants in three provinces of Pakistan. The findings reveal that the majority knew about some modern contraceptive methods, but the overall contraceptive use was very low. Knowledge and use of any contraceptive method were particularly low. Reasons for not using family planning and modern contraception included incomplete family size, negative perceptions, in-laws’ disapproval, religious concerns, side-effects, and lack of access to quality services. The majority preferred private facilities over the government health facilities as the later were cited as derided. The study concluded the need for qualified female healthcare providers, especially for long term family planning services at health facilities instead of camps arranged occasionally. Addressing issues around access, affordability, availability, and sociocultural barriers about modern contraception as well as involving men will help to meet the needs and ensure that the women and couples fulfill their childbearing and reproductive health goals.

  11. Women's adult romantic attachment style and communication by cell phone with romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S

    2012-08-01

    Cell phones have become important communication media for individuals in romantic relationships. The frequency of and methods used for communication may vary by adults' style of romantic attachment. Female university students (N = 31) currently in romantic relationships responded to a questionnaire. They estimated the frequency of calls and text messages received from and made to their romantic partners and completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised instrument, a measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance. Also, the participants reviewed their cell phones' memories and provided accurate frequency of communication to and from the romantic partner. Attachment anxiety was associated with more estimated text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners and actual text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners. Attachment avoidance was associated (r = -.38) with fewer estimated calls made to the romantic partners and fewer actual calls made to the romantic partners (r = -.34).

  12. Body mass index relates weight to height differently in women and older adults: serial cross-sectional surveys in England (1992–2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperrin, Matthew; Marshall, Alan D.; Higgins, Vanessa; Renehan, Andrew G.; Buchan, Iain E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) tends to be higher among shorter adults, especially women. The dependence of BMI–height correlation on age and calendar time may inform us about temporal determinants of BMI. Methods Series of cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey for England, 1992–2011. We study the Benn Index, which is the coefficient in a regression of log(weight) on log(height). This is adjusted for age, gender and calendar time, allowing for non-linear terms and interactions. Results By height quartile, mean BMI decreased with increasing height, more so in women than in men (P older adults and stronger in women than in men, with little change over calendar time. Conclusions Unlike early childhood, where taller children tend to have higher BMI, adults, especially women and older people, show an inverse BMI–height association. BMI is a heterogeneous measure of weight-for-height; height may be an important and complex determinant of BMI trajectory over the life course. PMID:26036702

  13. Desigualdades raciais na mortalidade de mulheres adultas no Recife, 2001 a 2003 Racial inequality in the mortality of adult women in Recife, 2001-2003

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    Sony Maria dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    of black and white adult women living in Recife, between 2001 and 2003. In this cross-sectional study, 2,943 deaths of women aged between 20 and 59 years were included, identified in the Mortality Information System of the National Health System (SUS, with race/skin color white or black (black + mestizo. Proportional mortality, mortality rates and ratios were obtained. The risk of dying was 1.7 times higher for black women compared to whites. Black women had higher risk of death in all age groups and higher proportion of deaths in public hospitals, of women who did not have a partner (single, widow or separated, who were housewives or worked as domestic servants, and who were less educated. Regarding the underlying causes, black women had a higher mortality rate for all chapters of the International Classification of Diseases and for specific causes of death, except for neoplasm in women aged 20 to 29 years and for breast cancer in women aged 30 to 39 and 50 to 59 years. As age decreases, a large difference between black and white women was found in the risk of deaths caused by external causes. Among black women, there was an increase in the risk of dying due to homicides, motor vehicle accidents, ischemic heart diseases, cerebral vascular and hypertensive diseases, diabetes, and tuberculosis. The findings showed inequality in health, with disadvantages for the black women, which are the expression of human rights violation that challenges social rise and the access to decent health conditions.

  14. Interactive effects of manganese and/or iron supplementation in adult women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.D.; Greger, J.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Evaluation of the practical significance of manganese-iron interactions has been hampered by the limited methodologies available to assess manganese status. Manganese status has not been monitored longitudinally in control studies with humans. Forty-eight women were recruited for a double blind 125-day supplementation study. After an initial 5-day baseline period, subjects were assigned to one of four treatments: placebo; 30 mg iron as ferrous fumarate daily; 15 mg manganese as an amino acid chelated manganese supplement daily or both the iron and manganese supplements daily. Dietary information, blood and 3-day urine samples were collected during the baseline period and after 20, 55, 85 and 120 days of consuming the supplements. Urinary manganese excretion ranged from 0.11 to 1.40 {mu}g/day. Serum manganese ranged from 0.16 to 1.92 {mu}g/l. Serum was also analyzed for iron, zinc, copper, ferritin and transferrin concentrations. Lymphocytes were isolated and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase activity was determined as a new method to assess manganese status. Plasma cholesterol ranged from 126 to 229 mg/dl and HDL cholesterol ranged from 31 to 84 mg/dl. Plasma triglycerides were determined and LDL cholesterol was calculated by difference.

  15. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: Implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20–64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors. PMID:25293869

  16. Trans-abdominal ultrasonic findings correlated with CD4+ counts in adult HIV-infected patients in Benin, Nigeria

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    B O-E Igbinedion

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to document the abdominal ultrasound findings in HIV infected patients and compare it with their CD4+ count. Patients and method: 300 confirmed HIV positive patients had abdominal ultrasonography done at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from November 2007 to January 2008. Each patient’s sonographic findings were correlated with their CD4+ category using the WHO’s HIV classification index. Result: Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, renomegaly, hyperechoic splenic parenchyma, increased renal echogenicity and lymphadenopathy are among the common sonographic findings. However, few of these findings correlated statistically with the CD4+ count. Conclusion: The versatile diagnostic tool, ultrasound, should continue to be an important imaging equipment in several impoverished communities. In the evaluation of HIV infected patients, its use is invaluable and should be promoted.

  17. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Of the 270 pregnant women studied, 101 (37.4%) had EPDS scores equal to or higher than nine. Depression was confirmed in 56 (20.7%) women. Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 from major depression. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.20-9.40; P=0.02), anxiety during pregnancy (OR = 9.38; 95% CI: 1.87-46.96; P=0.006), smoking (OR = 25.05; 95% CI: 1.77-353.07; P=0.01), unhappy with the fetal sex (OR = 8.53; 95% CI: 2.46-29.48; Pwomen studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex. Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal design of preventive measures against prenatal depression.

  18. The Epidemiology, Virology and Clinical Findings of Dengue Virus Infections in a Cohort of Indonesian Adults in Western Java.

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    Herman Kosasih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has emerged as one of the most important infectious diseases in the last five decades. Evidence indicates the expansion of dengue virus endemic areas and consequently the exponential increase of dengue virus infections across the subtropics. The clinical manifestations of dengue virus infection include sudden fever, rash, headache, myalgia and in more serious cases, spontaneous bleeding. These manifestations occur in children as well as in adults. Defining the epidemiology of dengue in a given area is critical to understanding the disease and devising effective public health strategies.Here, we report the results from a prospective cohort study of 4380 adults in West Java, Indonesia, from 2000-2004 and 2006-2009. A total of 2167 febrile episodes were documented and dengue virus infections were confirmed by RT-PCR or serology in 268 cases (12.4%. The proportion ranged from 7.6 to 41.8% each year. The overall incidence rate of symptomatic dengue virus infections was 17.3 cases/1,000 person years and between September 2006 and April 2008 asymptomatic infections were 2.6 times more frequent than symptomatic infections. According to the 1997 WHO classification guidelines, there were 210 dengue fever cases, 53 dengue hemorrhagic fever cases (including one dengue shock syndrome case and five unclassified cases. Evidence for sequential dengue virus infections was seen in six subjects. All four dengue virus serotypes circulated most years. Inapparent dengue virus infections were predominantly associated with DENV-4 infections.Dengue virus was responsible for a significant percentage of febrile illnesses in an adult population in West Java, Indonesia, and this percentage varied from year to year. The observed incidence rate during the study period was 43 times higher than the reported national or provincial rates during the same time period. A wide range of clinical severity was observed with most infections resulting in asymptomatic disease. The

  19. What do young adults know about the HIV/AIDS epidemic? Findings from a population based study in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Johansson Eva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIVAIDS is spreading globally, hitting the younger generations. In Pakistan, the prevalence of HIV in high-risk subpopulations is five per cent or higher. This poses a serious threat of a generalised epidemic especially among the younger population. In the wake of HIVAIDS epidemic this is worrying as a well informed younger generation is crucial in restricting the spread of this epidemic. This study investigated Pakistani young adults' (male and female knowledge and awareness of the HIV/AIDS disease. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1,650 male and female adults aged 17–21 years living in Karachi was conducted using a structured questionnaire. A multi-stage cluster sampling design was used to collect data representative of the general population in an urban area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed separately for males and females. Results Of 1,650 subjects, 24 per cent (n = 390 reported that they had not heard of HIV/AIDS. Among the males, those with a poor knowledge were younger (AOR = 2.20; 95 per cent CI, 1.38, 3.49, with less than six years of schooling (AOR = 2.46; 1.29 4.68 and no computer at home (AOR = 1.88; 1.06 3.34. Among the females, the risk factors for poor knowledge were young age (AOR = 1.74; 1.22, 2.50, low socio-economic status (AOR = 1.54; 1.06, 2.22, lack of enrolment at school/college (AOR = 1.61; 1.09, 2.39 and being unmarried (AOR = 1.85; 1.05, 3.26. Conclusion Alarming gaps in knowledge relating to HIV/AIDS were detected. The study emphasises the need to educate young adults and equip them with the appropriate information and skills to enable them to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. However, taboos surrounding public discussions of sexuality remain a key constraint to preventive activities.

  20. Public Stigma towards Older Adults with Depression: Findings from the São Paulo-Manaus Elderly in Primary Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazufca, Marcia; P de Paula Couto, Maria Clara; Huang, Hsiang; Kester, Rachel; Braga, Patrícia Emília; Peluso, Érica T P; Blay, Sérgio L; R Menezes, Paulo; E Ribeiro, Euler

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates three domains of public stigma (perceived negative reactions, perceived discrimination, and dangerousness) against older adults with depression. The sample comprised of older adults registered with primary care clinics (n = 1,291) and primary health care professionals (n = 469) from São Paulo and Manaus, Brazil. Participants read a vignette describing a 70-year-old individual (Mary or John) with a depressive disorder and answered questions measuring stigma. The prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 30.2 and 37.6% among older participants from São Paulo and between 27.6 and 35.4% among older participants from Manaus. Older adults from both cities reported similar prevalence of perceived stigma. Key factors associated with stigmatizing beliefs among older participants were reporting depressive symptoms, having physical limitations, and identifying the case of the vignette as a case of mental disorder. Among health professionals, the prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 19.8 and 34.8% in São Paulo and 30.2 and 44.6% in Manaus. The key factor associated with stigma among primary health care professionals was city, with consistently higher risk in Manaus than in São Paulo. Findings confirm that public stigma against older adults in Brazil is common. It is important to educate the public and primary health care providers in Brazil on stigma related to mental illness in order to reduce barriers to adequate mental health treatment.

  1. Validity of Self-Reports of Height and Weight among the General Adult Population in Japan: Findings from National Household Surveys, 1986.

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    Nayu Ikeda

    Full Text Available Growing evidence indicates that self-reported height and weight are biased, but little is known about systematic errors in the general adult population in Japan. This study takes advantage of the unique opportunity to examine this issue provided by the 1986 National Nutrition Survey.Individual-level data on a nationally representative sample aged 20-89 years from the National Nutrition Survey (November 1986 were merged with Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (September 1986 data to obtain a dataset containing both self-reported and measured data on height and weight for each person (n = 10,469. Discrepancies between self-reported and measured means of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI were tested across measured BMI categories (<18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, and ≥30.0 kg/m2, age groups (20-44, 45-64, and 65-89 years, and sexes. Reporting bias in mean BMI was decomposed into the contributions of misreporting height and weight. The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported BMI categories were estimated.Mean self-reported BMI was substantially underestimated in older women (P<0.001; Cohen's d, -0.4, and the major contributor to the bias was their over-reported height. Mean self-reported BMI was also considerably underestimated in both men and women who were overweight and obese (P<0.001; Cohen's d, -1.0 to -0.6, due mainly to their underreported weight. In contrast, mean self-reported BMI was considerably overestimated in underweight men (P<0.001; Cohen's d, 0.5, due largely to their over-reported weight. The sensitivity of self-reported BMI categories was particularly low for individuals who had a measured BMI of 27.5-29.9 kg/m2 (40.9% for men and 26.8% for women.Self-reported anthropometric data were not sufficiently accurate to assert the validity of their use in epidemiological studies on the general adult population in Japan in the late 1980s.

  2. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18–64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415–2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045–1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m2, WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  3. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study

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    Ana M. López-Sobaler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18–64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI and waist to height ratio (WHtR were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415–2.104; p=0.000 and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045–1.064; p=0.000. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5 was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m2, WHtR < 0.5, whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, WHtR ≥ 0.5. Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future.

  4. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

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    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  5. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference/((height(1.5−18 was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF% in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3. We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc and the coefficient of determination (R2 between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001. For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI = −6.0 to 18.2, indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414. In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  6. Single oral dose pharmacokinetics of decursin and decursinol angelate in healthy adult men and women.

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    Jinhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D and decursinol angelate (DA contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957.

  7. Topical Finasteride in Hirsutism: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial on Adult Women

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    F Iraji

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride partially blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone through inhibition of 5 α- reductase in hair follicles. Finasteride cream can penetrate to dermis to arrive at hair follicle due to its solubility. Therefore, it is expected to be used in treatment of hirsutism with less systemic adverse effects. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of finasteride cream 0.5% in management of idiopathic hirsutism. Methods: Finasteride (0.5% and placebo creams were administered to 35 women with hirsutism on the face. Medication and placebo creams, each one was used on one side of the face in an area of excessive hair growth, which were not necessarily symmetrical. The side for the finasteride and placebo creams were chosen randomizly and blindly in 1cm2 areas on each side of the face. Hair numbers were counted and the thickness of all hairs was also measured by micrometer and their mean was calculated, at the start of therapy and after 6 months. Statistical analysis was done in SPSS software using Paired and Student t-tests. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean of hair numbers decreased at placebo-applied side from 12.20 ± 6.15 to 10.50 ± 4.90 (P<0.0001 and at finasteride- treated side from 11.37 ± 6.15 to 8.47 ± 4.62 (p<0.0001. Mean of hair thickness at placebo side decreased from 2.92 ± 0.84µm to 2.72 ± 0.79 µm (p<0.0001 and at finasteride side from 3.17 ± 0.90µm to 2.37 ± 0.79 µm (p<0.0001. Comparison of hair number and thickness showed no statistically significant changes in finasteride versus placebo treated sides. But, according to patients' view points, hair growth rate was diminished and hair was looser on finasteride treated side. Conclusion: Six months of topically applied finasteride (0.5% does not affect on number and thickness of facial hirsutism significantly. Despite lack of objective changes, on questioning, most patients in finastride group

  8. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent women: exploratory findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200mg/day of sertraline or 0.5mg/day of ondansetron for 3-weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotypes receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7-days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e. sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a three-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4 ≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4 <7-repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad lib during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions

  9. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent women: exploratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Zywiak, William H; Swift, Robert M; McGeary, John E; Clifford, James S; Shoaff, Jessica R; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender-specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200 mg/day of sertraline or 0.5 mg/day of ondansetron for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for 3 weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7 days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e., sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a 3-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4<7 repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad libitum during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions may be

  10. Cannabis use and quality of life of adolescents and young adults: findings from an Australian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jane A; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Plotnikova, Maria; Najman, Jackob M

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is generally used to enhance mood (quality of life), but it is not known whether it has this effect in the medium to longer term. Little is currently known about the temporal sequence between cannabis use and the quality of life (QOL). Data are taken from a prospective longitudinal study of pregnant women recruited at their first antenatal visit in Brisbane, Australia. Offspring data from the follow-ups with 14-year-olds and 21-year-olds are used here. Indicators of QOL, happiness, and satisfaction at 14 years are considered as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and QOL at 21 years, adjusting for prior QOL (14 years), is also examined. Socio-demographic characteristics were included as potential confounders relevant to QOL assessments. In this cohort, lower QOL in the early teenage years predicted subsequent onset of cannabis use in young adulthood. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and for QOL pre-cannabis use, participants who used cannabis more frequently had a lower QOL at the 21-years follow-up. Frequent use of cannabis does not appear to enhance the user's QOL and appears to be associated with a reduced QOL into young adulthood.

  11. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 1: overview, clinical characteristics, and laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Dawn Zhang; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-10-01

    Acne presenting in adult women is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Many affected women have had acne during their teenaged years, have tried several therapies in the past, and are seeking effective treatment. Others are frustrated by the inexplicable emergence of acne as an adult when they never had it as a teenager. Both groups seek an explanation of why they have acne, are often psychosocially affected by its effects on appearance and self-esteem, and all are wanting effective and safe treatment. Clinicians are encouraged to connect favorably with each patient through careful history and physical examination and to consider underlying causes of androgen excess. Practical approaches to examination and laboratory evaluation are discussed.

  12. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  13. Effects of Meridian Acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong on the Physical Health State, Depression, and Life Satisfaction of Korean Older Adult Women Living Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong (one of 12 Meridian systems) on the physical health state, depression, and life satisfaction of Korean older adult women living alone. A quasi-experimental, pretest–posttest control group design was used. Participants included 76 (experimental: n = 38, control: n = 38) women 65 and older living alone in Seoul and Gyeonggido, South Korea. Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong was applied for 15 minutes twice per week, for a total of 8 weeks in the experimental group. Data showed there were significant differences in physical health state (t = −15.062, p acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong, for older adults.

  14. Assessing, treating and preventing community acquired pneumonia in older adults: findings from a community-wide survey of emergency room and family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory infections, like pneumonia, represent an important threat to the health of older Canadians. Our objective was to determine, at a community level, family and emergency room physicians' knowledge and beliefs about community acquired pneumonia (CAP in older adults and to describe their self-reported assessment, management and prevention strategies. Methods All active ER and family physicians in Brant County received a mailed questionnaire. An advance notification letter and three follow-up mailings were used to maximize physician participation rate. The questionnaire collected information about physicians' assessment, management, and prevention strategies for CAP in older adults (≥60 years of age plus demographic, training, and practice characteristics. The analysis highlights differences in approaches between office-based and emergency department physicians. Results Seventy-seven percent of physicians completed and returned the survey. Although only 16% of physicians were very confident in assessing CAP in older adults, more than half reported CAP to be a very important health concern in their practices. In-service training for family physicians was associated with increased confidence in CAP assessment and more frequent use of diagnostic tests. Family physicians who reported always requesting chest x-rays were also more likely to request pulse oximetry (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.40 to 22.5 and recommend both follow-up x-rays (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.7 to 16.6 and pneumococcal vaccination (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0. Conclusion The findings of this study provide a snapshot of how non-specialists from a non-urban Ontario community assess, manage and prevent CAP in older adults and highlight differences between office-based and emergency department physicians. This information can guide researchers and clinicians in their efforts to improve the management and prevention of CAP in older adults.

  15. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to blood lipids - 6 years of follow-up in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxlund, Anne Lene; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2006-01-01

    : Prospective study with 6 years of follow-up. Overall dietary GI and GL of each participant were assessed from diet history interviews. SETTING: Population-based study. Subjects Three hundred and thirty-five healthy men and women aged 35-65 years selected randomly from a larger sample of Danish adults. RESULTS......, the relationship between GL and DeltaTC was modified by age, being particularly strong for the younger men (P = 0.02). In women the relationship between GI and DeltaLDL was modified by age and was stronger for younger rather than older women (P = 0.01). A tendency for a similar interaction was seen for GI...

  16. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  17. Alcohol consumption and the risk of self-reported perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis in young adult women in a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, P; Grønbæk, M; Kjær, S. K.;

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption has been suggested to be associated with the development of allergic rhinitis (AR), but there is limited data on the topic. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing AR among young...... associated with the risk of developing seasonal (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65-2.45) and perennial AR (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.70-2.74). Smoking was not associated with an increased risk of developing AR. Conclusion In this population of young adult women, alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk...... women. Methods Five thousand eight hundred and seventy Danish women aged 20-29 years participated in a prospective cohort study, and were free of seasonal and perennial AR at baseline (1991-1993). Alcohol consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self...

  18. Acute inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine in adult: MDCT findings and criteria for differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A.Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Russo, Anna [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Daniele, Stefania; Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A.Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Maisto, Francesco [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia

    2009-03-15

    Inflammatory changes of the intestine leading to acute abdomen could represent a frequent diagnostic challenge for radiologists actively involved in the emergency area. MDCT imaging findings needs to be evaluated considering the clinical history and symptoms and other abdominal findings that could be of help in differential diagnosis. Several protocols have been suggested and indicated in the imaging of patient with acute intestine. However, a CT protocol in which the precontrast scanning of the abdomen is followed by i.v. administration of contrast medium using the 45-55 s delay could be effective for an optimal visualization of the bowel wall. It is important to learn to recognize how the intestine reacts to the injury and how it 'talks', in order to become aware of the different patterns of disease manifestation related to an acute intestinal condition, for an effective diagnosis of active and acute inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Askin's Tumor in an Adult: Case Report and Findings on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Kara Gedik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of the chest wall or Askin's tumor is a rare neoplasm of chest wall. It most often affects children and adolescents and is a very rare tumor in adults. In this case report, we present an Askin's tumor occurred in a 73-year-old male. The patient was admitted with a history of 3-month lower back pain and cough. In computed tomography, there was a lesion with dimensions of 70×40×65 mm in the superior segment of the lower lobe of the left lung. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18F-flourodeoxyglucose revealed a pleural-based tumor in the left lung with a maximum standardized uptake value of 4.36. No distant or lymph node metastases were present. The patient had gone through surgery, and wedge resection of the superior segment of left lobe and partial resection of the ipsilateral ribs were performed. Pathology report with immunocytochemistry was consistent with PNET and the patient received chemotherapy after that.

  20. Using the adult attachment interview to understand reactive attachment disorder: findings from a 10-case adolescent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwyn, Ruth; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan

    2011-03-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to examine the usability of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and its coding system with 10 adolescents presenting with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). Given that the measure was deemed usable with all 10 participants, the study then sought to identify the attachment status of the sample. Three transcripts were subjected to inter-rater reliability checks. All transcripts indicated a high level of insecurity, with five participants classified as organized-insecure and five assigned to the cannot classify category. However, a number of issues were raised in the administration and coding of the transcripts concerning participant distress, coding of inferred carer behaviour and experiences of unresolved loss or trauma. We also identified two new phenomena, namely extreme derogation and extreme detachment, and discuss possible development of the existing classification system. Our data indicates that cannot classify attachment status in this population may represent a transitional stage to becoming organized, and that organized insecurity may offer a route to future security. Further minimal adaptations to the AAI may promote the validity of its use with this population.

  1. Sociodemographic differentials of selected noncommunicable diseases risk factors among adults in Matlab, Bangladesh: findings from a WHO STEPS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Abu Haider Mohammad Golam Mustafa; Karar Zunaid Ahsan; Mohammad Shafiqul Islam; Yunus, Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    The study examined noncommunicable diseases risk factors among adults 25 to 64 years old of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System using World Health Organization STEP-wise methodology. The prevalence of smoking was found to be very high for males (53.9%) and it increased initially with age, whereas smoking was almost nil for females (0.8%). About 30% each of males and females used smokeless tobacco and its consumption increased with age. Consumption of vegetable/fruit is very low in this population (90% below recommended level), whereas one third of males and two thirds of female have low levels of physical activities. The raised blood pressure was more prevalent among females than in males (21.0% vs 12.5%, respectively) and the same was true for being overweight (13.9% vs 10.3%, respectively). Raised blood pressure increased with age but overweight did not vary by age for males, whereas it increased initially for females. Smoking (males) and use of smokeless tobacco decreased with increase in education, but both blood pressure and overweight increased.

  2. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes.

  3. Consumer education needed on norovirus prevention and control: findings from a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Sheryl C; Kosa, Katherine M; Brophy, Jenna E; Hall, Aron J; Fraser, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States; however, little is known about consumers' knowledge of NoV infection and their understanding of how to prevent and control associated illness. A nationally representative Web-enabled panel survey of U.S. adults (n = 1,051) was conducted to collect information on consumers' awareness and knowledge of NoVs. Respondents who had heard of NoVs were asked 22 true-and-false questions on the transmission, prevention, and control of NoVs. Forty-seven percent of respondents reported awareness of NoVs, and 85% of respondents had heard of the terms "cruise ship virus," "the stomach bug," or "the stomach flu," which are commonly used to describe NoVs. Of those respondents who had previously heard of NoV or other terms used by consumers to describe NoV (n = 948), 36% correctly answered 11 or more of the 22 true-and-false questions, suggesting that consumers have limited knowledge on how to prevent and control NoV infection. Most consumers do not understand that the primary mode of transmission for NoV infection is fecal to oral, and many have the misperception that meat and poultry are sources of NoV infection. There is the need to educate consumers about how to prevent and control NoV infection. Although there is a proliferation of food safety education materials available, most focus on foodborne bacteria rather than viruses. The survey results will be used to revise existing consumer food safety educational materials to include information on NoV prevention and control.

  4. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  5. Relationship of obesity to physical activity, domestic activities, and sedentary behaviours: cross-sectional findings from a national cohort of over 70,000 Thai adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Chris

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of physical activity (PA, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours are changing rapidly in Asia. Little is known about their relationship with obesity in this context. This study investigates in detail the relationship between obesity, physical activity, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours in a Thai population. Methods 74,981 adult students aged 20-50 from all regions of Thailand attending the Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University in 2005-2006 completed a self-administered questionnaire, including providing appropriate self-reported data on height, weight and PA. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between obesity, defined according to Asian criteria (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥25, and measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours (exercise-related PA; leisure-related computer use and television watching ("screen-time"; housework and gardening; and sitting-time adjusted for age, sex, income and education and compared according to a range of personal characteristics. Results Overall, 15.6% of participants were obese, with a substantially greater prevalence in men (22.4% than women (9.9%. Inverse associations between being obese and total weekly sessions of exercise-related PA were observed in men, with a significantly weaker association seen in women (p(interaction Conclusions Domestic activities and sedentary behaviours are important in relation to obesity in Thailand, independent of exercise-related physical activity. In this setting, programs to prevent and treat obesity through increasing general physical activity need to consider overall energy expenditure and address a wide range of low-intensity high-volume activities in order to be effective.

  6. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalijn I Conklin

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development.A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference.We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084], and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]. The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042] and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027].This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity.

  7. Multidetector-Row CT Findings of a Preduodenal Portal Vein Associated with Polysplenic Syndrome in an Adult: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun; Lee, Su Lim; Ku, Young Mi; Chun, Chang Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) is a rare developmental anomaly in which the portal vein runs at the ventral side of the duodenum instead of at an intrapancreatic location. Understanding of this anomaly is of considerable surgical importance, because it may cause unintended portal vein injury during operations involving the gall bladder or duodenum. We recently experienced PDPV associated with polysplenia syndrome in a 49-year-old male patient who complained of persistent epigastric pain. CT portal venography with thin slab maximal intensity projection and volume rendering demonstrated the unique feature of convex anastomosis between the L-shaped mesenterico-portal vein and mesenterico-splenic vein in the mid abdomen. We report here the Multidetector-row CT findings of a rare case of PDPV.

  8. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  9. Risk prediction in the community: A systematic review of case-finding instruments that predict adverse healthcare outcomes in community-dwelling older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2015-09-01

    Few case-finding instruments are available to community healthcare professionals. This review aims to identify short, valid instruments that detect older community-dwellers risk of four adverse outcomes: hospitalisation, functional-decline, institutionalisation and death. Data sources included PubMed and the Cochrane library. Data on outcome measures, patient and instrument characteristics, and trial quality (using the Quality In Prognosis Studies [QUIPS] tool), were double-extracted for derivation-validation studies in community-dwelling older adults (>50 years). Forty-six publications, representing 23 unique instruments, were included. Only five were externally validated. Mean patient age range was 64.2-84.6 years. Most instruments n=18, (78%) were derived in North America from secondary analysis of survey data. The majority n=12, (52%), measured more than one outcome with hospitalisation and the Probability of Repeated Admission score the most studied outcome and instrument respectively. All instruments incorporated multiple predictors. Activities of daily living n=16, (70%), was included most often. Accuracy varied according to instruments and outcomes; area under the curve of 0.60-0.73 for hospitalisation, 0.63-0.78 for functional decline, 0.70-0.74 for institutionalisation and 0.56-0.82 for death. The QUIPS tool showed that 5\\/23 instruments had low potential for bias across all domains. This review highlights the present need to develop short, reliable, valid instruments to case-find older adults at risk in the community.

  10. Labour force participation of married women in China and Congo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAMITEWOKO Edwige; JIN Xiang-rong

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to find the major determinants of married women participation in the urban area labour force in Zhejiang (China) and Brazzaville (Congo). The methodology used in this study is correct and the resulting conclusion is that the participation of married women basically depends on her personal and family characteristics. Age, education,presence of additional adult in the family are important factors in Brazzaville and Zhejiang. However, the number of children significantly affects only Brazzaville urban married women.

  11. The Use of Mobile Health Applications Among Youth and Young Adults Living with HIV: Focus Group Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Parya; Siedle-Khan, Robert; Sheon, Nicolas; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct focus groups with youth (18-29 years old) living with HIV (YLWH) to better understand preferences for mobile applications in general and to inform the design of a mobile health application aimed at improving retention and engagement in healthcare and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. We conducted four focus groups with YLWH to elicit the names and characteristics of applications that they commonly used, reasons they deleted applications, and the features of an ideal mobile health application. A diverse sample of youth (N = 17) with a mean age of 25 years, 88.2% male, and 29.4% African American participated in four focus groups. Positive attributes of applications included informative, simple, allowing for networking, timely updates, little overlap with other applications, unlimited access to entertainment, and with ongoing advancement. Participants identified several reasons for deleting applications, including engaging in excessive behaviors (e.g., spending money), for hook ups only, too many notifications or restrictions, occupied too much space on device, or required wireless connectivity or frequent updates. Participants suggested that a mobile health application that they would find useful should have the ability to connect to a community of other YLWH, readily access healthcare providers, track personal data and information (such as laboratory data), and obtain health news and education. Privacy was a key factor in a mobile health application for all participants. Researchers can use the information provided by focus group participants in creating mobile health applications for YLWH.

  12. Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for COPD: findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields ME

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Margot E Shields, Wendy E Hovdestad, Charles P Gilbert, Lil E Tonmyr Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between childhood maltreatment (CM and COPD in adulthood.Methods: Data were from 15,902 respondents to the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CM and COPD and the role of smoking and mental and substance use variables as mediators in associations.Results: COPD in adulthood was related to CM, with associations differing by sex. Among females, COPD was related to childhood physical abuse (CPA, childhood sexual abuse, and childhood exposure to intimate partner violence, but in the fully adjusted models, the association with CPA did not persist. Among males, COPD was related to childhood exposure to intimate partner violence and severe and frequent CPA, but these associations did not persist in the fully adjusted models.Conclusion: Results from this study establish CM as a risk factor for COPD in adulthood. A large part of the association is attributable to cigarette smoking, particularly for males. These findings underscore the importance of interventions to prevent CM as well as programs to assist victims of CM in dealing with tobacco addiction. Keywords: child abuse, cigarette, smoking, physical abuse, sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, domestic violence, family violence

  13. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon

    2015-11-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress.

  14. Long-term and chronic homelessness in homeless women and women with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Bradley, Kimberly

    2010-09-01

    The Chronic Homelessness initiative has directed millions of federal dollars to services for single "unaccompanied homeless" individuals, specifically excluding women living with their children. Using a data set with a nationally representative sample of homeless adults, we calculated the prevalence rates and profiles of long-term homelessness in homeless women (n = 849). With the exception of the criterion of being a single "unaccompanied individual," many women, including women with children, met the criteria for chronic homelessness including having a disability of mental health or substance abuse problems. Our findings suggest that the federal definition of chronic homelessness needs to be revised.

  15. The Engagement in Physical Activity for Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Findings from a Community Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current aging trends accompanying the increasing prevalence of multiple chronic conditions (MCCs and decreasing participation in physical activity (PA have swept the United States. In light of the magnitude of this phenomenon, this study seeks to identify the most common MCC combinations and their relationships with PA level. A cross-sectional study, Brazos Valley Health Assessment, was conducted between October 2009 and July 2010. All data analyses were performed by STATA 12.0. The overall sample which met the inclusion criteria is 2,603. Among people older than 45 years, chronic conditions of cardiovascular, endocrine, and musculoskeletal systems were the most prevalent. Participants with three chronic conditions were less likely to meet the PA standard than those with only two chronic conditions. Younger age, women, rural residence, and unsafe environments were related to the lower PA level. After adjusting for seven covariates, all MCCs combinations adversely affect the level of PA (, . People with MCCs were among the least active subgroups despite the health benefits of doing exercise. Given the well-documented benefits of physical activity for delaying the onset or progression of MCCs, public health efforts to enhance regular PA in middle-aged and older adults are recommended.

  16. Sexual and dating violence among adolescents and young adults in Chile: a review of findings from a survey of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Koss, Mary P

    2013-01-01

    This paper synthesises and discusses results from the 2005 Survey of Student Well-Being, a closed-ended questionnaire administered to students attending general education courses at a major public university in Santiago (n = 484 women, 466 men). The survey included questions on sexual violence (SV) and dating violence (DV), public health problems that have received little attention in Chile and other Latin-American countries. This paper highlights key findings from a series of papers based on these data, noting lessons learned in the Chilean context that may be useful for other Latin-American countries. Important gaps in the international literature on SV and DV are also discussed. A central finding is the high prevalence of SV and DV in this sample of university students, warranting further public health attention to these problems. Potentially, the findings will contribute to changes in awareness, policy and practice along similar lines to efforts that transformed the US landscape regarding SV and DV on college campuses in the 1980s.

  17. Writing for Health: Rationale and Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Based Benefit-Finding Writing for Adults With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Kay; Robins, Lisa; Proudfoot, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is Australia’s fastest growing chronic disease, and has high comorbidity with depression. Both subthreshold depression and diabetes distress are common amongst people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and are associated with poorer diabetes self-care. A need exists for low-intensity self-help interventions for large numbers of people with diabetes and diabetes distress or subthreshold depression, as part of a stepped-care approach to meeting the psychological needs of people with diabetes. Benefit-finding writing is a very brief intervention that involves writing about any positive thoughts and feelings about a stressful experience, such as an illness. Benefit-finding writing has been associated with increases in positive affect and positive growth, and has demonstrated promising results in trials amongst other clinical populations. However, benefit-finding writing has not yet been examined in people with diabetes. Objective The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet-based benefit-finding writing (iBFW) intervention for adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (compared to a control writing condition) for reducing diabetes distress and increasing benefit-finding in diabetes, and also improving a range of secondary outcomes. Methods A two-arm RCT will be conducted, using the online program Writing for Health. Adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes living in Australia will be recruited using diabetes-related publications and websites, and through advertisements in diabetes services and general practitioners’ offices. Potential participants will be referred to the study-specific website for participant information and screening. All data will be collected online. Participants will be randomized to either iBFW about diabetes, or a control writing condition of writing about use-of-time. Both conditions involve three daily sessions (once per day for three consecutive days) of 15-minute online

  18. Cognitive Functioning and Walking Speed in Older Adults as Predictors of Limitations in Self-Reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living: Prospective Findings from the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly

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    Hyuma Makizako

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine whether baseline measures of cognitive functioning, walking speed, and depressive status are independent predictors of limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL in older adults. The cross-sectional study involved 1329 community-dwelling adults, aged 75 years or older. At baseline, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST, Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS, and a word list memory task were completed, and self-reported IADLs and walking speed were recorded. The longitudinal study involved 948 participants without baseline IADL limitation, which was assessed at baseline and 15-month follow up, using the three Kihon Checklist subitems. In cross-sectional analyses, participants with IADL limitation demonstrated greater GDS scores, slower walking speeds, and lower MMSE, word list memory task, and SDST (only for women scores relative to those without IADL limitation. In the longitudinal analyses, baseline walking speed (men: OR 0.98; women: OR 0.97, p < 0.05 and word list memory task scores (men: OR 0.84; women: OR 0.83, p < 0.05 in both sexes and SDST scores in women (OR 0.96, p = 0.04 were independent predictors of subsequent IADL limitation. Walking speed, memory, and processing speed may be independent predictors of IADL limitation in older adults.

  19. What is the potential for interventions designed to prevent violence against women to reduce children's exposure to violence? Findings from the SASA! study, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Starmann, Elizabeth; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment often co-occur in households and lead to negative outcomes for children. This article explores the extent to which SASA!, an intervention to prevent violence against women, impacted children's exposure to violence. Between 2007 and 2012 a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Under the qualitative evaluation, 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. This mixed-methods article draws mainly on the qualitative data. The findings suggest that SASA! impacted on children's experience of violence in three main ways. First, quantitative data suggest that children's exposure to IPV was reduced. We estimate that reductions in IPV combined with reduced witnessing by children when IPV did occur, led to a 64% reduction in prevalence of children witnessing IPV in their home (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.06-2.20). Second, among couples who experienced reduced IPV, qualitative data suggests parenting and discipline practices sometimes also changed-improving parent-child relationships and for a few parents, resulting in the complete rejection of corporal punishment as a disciplinary method. Third, some participants reported intervening to prevent violence against children. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent IPV may also impact on children's exposure to violence, and improve parent-child relationships. They also point to potential synergies for violence prevention, an area meriting further exploration.

  20. Attitudes of Older Women Toward Continuing Adult Education at the University Level: Implications for Program Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia-Finlay, Diane; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined the attitudes of older women concerning factors that would reduce anxiety, and appropriate educational experiences. Most of the upper-middle-class, highly educated women indicated an interest in taking humanities classes. In addition, 55 percent preferred the lecture format; 81 percent preferred mixed ages in classes. (Author/JAC)

  1. Anorexia Nervosa: A Synthesis of Poetic and Narrative Therapies in the Outpatient Treatment of Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joy M.; Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Current trends for treatment of women with anorexia nervosa often focus on weight gain as the primary therapeutic goal without concurrently addressing psychological concerns. As a result of this singular focus, many women drop out of treatment before recovering. This article offers an alternate treatment model. A synthesized narrative and poetry…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  3. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

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    Burns Jane S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009, and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid, and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid. Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.

  4. Women at risk: why increasing numbers of women are failing to get the health care they need and how the Affordable Care Act will help. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ruth; Collins, Sara R

    2011-05-01

    Women have greater health care needs than men, and generally play larger roles in the health care of family members. Rising health care costs combined with sluggish income growth has contributed to losses in health insurance among women and rising rates of problems gaining necessary health care and paying medical bills. Women who seek coverage in the individual insurance market face additional hurdles--few plans offer maternity coverage and, in most states, insurance carriers charge higher premium rates to young women than men of the same age. The Affordable Care Act is bringing change for women through required free coverage of preventive care services, small business tax credits, new affordable coverage options, and insurance market reforms, including bans on gender rating. When the law is fully implemented in 2014, nearly all the 27 million working-age women who went without health insurance in 2010 will gain affordable and comprehensive benefits.

  5. Inflammation in adult women with a history of child maltreatment: The involvement of mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Christina; Koenig, Alexandra Maria; Schury, Katharina; Geiger, Martha Leonie; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Wilker, Sarah; Waller, Christiane; Gündel, Harald; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    The experience of maltreatment during childhood is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pro-inflammatory phenotype remain unclear. Mitochondria were recently found to principally coordinate inflammatory processes via both inflammasome activation and inflammasome-independent pathways. To this end, we hypothesized that alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress might be at the interface between the association of maltreatment experiences during childhood and inflammation. We analyzed pro-inflammatory biomarkers (levels of C-reactive protein, cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, PBMC composition, lysophosphatidylcholine levels), serum oxidative stress levels (arginine:citrulline ratio, l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels) and mitochondrial functioning (respiratory activity and density of mitochondria in PBMC) in peripheral blood samples collected from 30 women (aged 22-44years) with varying degrees of maltreatment experiences in form of abuse and neglect during childhood. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was associated with an increased ROS production, higher levels of oxidative stress and an increased mitochondrial activity in a dose-response relationship. Moreover, the increase in mitochondrial activity and ROS production were positively associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PBMC. Decreased serum levels of lysophosphatidylcholines suggested higher inflammasome activation with increasing severity of child maltreatment experiences. Together these findings offer preliminary evidence for the association of alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory phenotype observed in individuals with a history of maltreatment during childhood. The results emphasize that the early prevention of child abuse and neglect warrants more attention, as the

  6. Exploring the Adult Life of Men and Women with Fragile X Syndrome: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartleyand, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Raspa, Melissa; Olmstead, Murrey; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a national family survey, the authors describe the adult lives (i.e., residence, employment, level of assistance needed with everyday life, friendships, and leisure activities) of 328 adults with the full mutation of the FMR1 gene and identify characteristics related to independence in these domains. Level of functional skills was…

  7. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

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    María de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective: To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG, women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1, women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2, women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG for reference in BMD. Results: After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1% and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5% groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal. Conclusion: The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  8. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels. PMID:23704856

  9. Drug-sensitive tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in nonAIDS adults: comparisons of thin-section CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Sung Mok [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Koh, Won-Jung; Kwon, O Jung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Kang, Eun Young [Korea University Guro Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seonwoo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit of the Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this work was to compare thin-section CT (TSCT) findings of drug-sensitive (DS) tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease in nonAIDS adults. During 2003, 216 (113 DS TB, 35 MDR TB, and 68 NTM) patients with smear-positive sputum for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), and who were subsequently confirmed to have mycobacterial pulmonary disease, underwent thoracic TSCT. The frequency of lung lesion patterns on TSCT and patients' demographic data were compared. The commonest TSCT findings were tree-in-bud opacities and nodules. On a per-person basis, significant differences were found in the frequency of multiple cavities and bronchiectasis (P<0.001, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis). Multiple cavities were more frequent in MDR TB than in the other two groups and extensive bronchiectasis in NTM disease (multiple logistic regression analysis). Patients with MDR TB were younger than those with DS TB or NTM disease (P<0.001, multiple logistic regression analysis). Previous tuberculosis treatment history was significantly more frequent in patients with MDR TB or NTM disease (P<0.001, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis). In patients with positive sputum AFB, multiple cavities, young age, and previous tuberculosis treatment history imply MDR TB, whereas extensive bronchiectasis, old age, and previous tuberculosis treatment history NTM disease. (orig.)

  10. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett C Haberstick

    Full Text Available The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive.We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724 participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health with follow-up information every six years since 1995.Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment.Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed.

  11. Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey

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    Ciliska Donna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more socioeconomically advantaged (SEA postpartum women's health, health service needs and utilization patterns. Methods Data collected as part of a large Ontario cross-sectional mother-infant survey were analyzed. Women (N = 1000 who had uncomplicated vaginal births of single 'at-term' infants at four hospitals in two large southern Ontario, Canada cities were stratified into SED and SEA groups based on income, social support and a universally administered hospital postpartum risk screen. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire before hospital discharge and a telephone interview four weeks after discharge. Main outcome measures were self-reported health status, symptoms of postpartum depression, postpartum service needs and health service use. Results When compared to the SEA women, the SED women were more likely to be discharged from hospital within the first 24 hours after giving birth [OR 1.49, 95% CI (1.01–2.18], less likely to report very good or excellent health [OR 0.48, 95% CI (0.35–0.67], and had higher rates of symptoms of postpartum depression [OR 2.7, 95% CI(1.64–4.4]. No differences were found between groups in relation to self reported need for and ability to access services for physical and mental health needs, or in use of physicians, walk-in clinics and emergency departments. The SED group were more likely to accept public health nurse home visits [OR 2.24, 95% CI(1.47–3.40]. Conclusion Although SED women experienced poorer mental and overall health they reported similar

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in adult civilian, military, and sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): a systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asken, Breton Michael; DeKosky, Steven T; Clugston, James R; Jaffee, Michael S; Bauer, Russell M

    2017-03-24

    This review seeks to summarize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies that have evaluated structural changes attributed to the mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adult civilian, military, and athlete populations. Articles from 2002 to 2016 were retrieved from PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar, using a Boolean search string containing the following terms: "diffusion tensor imaging", "diffusion imaging", "DTI", "white matter", "concussion", "mild traumatic brain injury", "mTBI", "traumatic brain injury", and "TBI". We added studies not identified by this method that were found via manually-searched reference lists. We identified 86 eligible studies from English-language journals using, adult, human samples. Studies were evaluated based on duration between injury and DTI assessment, categorized as acute, subacute/chronic, remote mTBI, and repetitive brain trauma considerations. Since changes in brain structure after mTBI can also be affected by other co-occurring medical and demographic factors, we also briefly review DTI studies that have addressed socioeconomic status factors (SES), major depressive disorder (MDD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The review describes population-specific risks and the complications of clinical versus pathophysiological outcomes of mTBI. We had anticipated that the distinct population groups (civilian, military, and athlete) would require separate consideration, and various aspects of the study characteristics supported this. In general, study results suggested widespread but inconsistent differences in white matter diffusion metrics (primarily fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], radial diffusivity [RD], and axial diffusivity [AD]) following mTBI/concussion. Inspection of study designs and results revealed potential explanations for discrepant DTI findings, such as control group variability, analytic techniques, the manner in which regional differences were reported, and

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in adults with suspect brachial plexus lesions: A multicentre retrospective study with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tagliafico@unige.it [Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Succio, Giulia; Serafini, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure, Italy via XXV Aprile, 38- Pietra Ligure, 17027 Savona (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [Radiology Department, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16138 Genova (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To evaluate brachial plexus MRI accuracy with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard in a large multicentre study. Materials and methods: The research was approved by the Institutional Review Boards, and all patients provided their written informed consent. A multicentre retrospective trial that included three centres was performed between March 2006 and April 2011. A total of 157 patients (men/women: 81/76; age range, 18–84 years) were evaluated: surgical findings and clinical follow-up of at least 12 months were used as the reference standard. MR imaging was performed with different equipment at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. The patient group was divided in five subgroups: mass lesion, traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, post-treatment evaluation, and other. Sensitivity, specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), positive predictive value (PPV), pre-test-probability (the prevalence), negative predictive value (NPV), pre- and post-test odds (OR), likelihood ratio for positive results (LH+), likelihood ratio for negative results (LH−), accuracy and post-test probability (post-P) were reported on a per-patient basis. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs were: 0.810/0.914; (0.697–0.904). Overall PPV, pre-test probability, NPV, LH+, LH−, and accuracy: 0.823, 0.331, 0.905, 9.432, 0.210, 0.878. Conclusions: The overall diagnostic accuracy of brachial plexus MRI calculated on a per-patient base is relatively high. The specificity of brachial plexus MRI in patients suspected of having a space-occupying mass is very high. The sensitivity is also high, but there are false-positive interpretations as well.

  14. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

  15. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

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    Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  16. Adult attachment interviews of women from low-risk, poverty, and maltreatment risk samples: comparisons between the hostile/helpless and traditional AAI coding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Costantino, Elisabetta; Ceppi, Elisa; Barone, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of a Hostile-Helpless (HH) state of mind among 67 women belonging to a community sample and two different at-risk samples matched on socio-economic indicators, including 20 women from low-SES population (poverty sample) and 15 women at risk for maltreatment being monitored by the social services for the protection of juveniles (maltreatment risk sample). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) protocols were reliably coded blind to the samples' group status. The rates of HH classification increased in relation to the risk status of the three samples, ranging from 9% for the low-risk sample to 60% for the maltreatment risk sample to 75% for mothers in the maltreatment risk sample who actually maltreated their infants. In terms of the traditional AAI classification system, 88% of the interviews from the maltreating mothers were classified Unresolved/Cannot Classify (38%) or Preoccupied (50%). Partial overlapping between the 2 AAI coding systems was found, and discussion concerns the relevant contributions of each AAI coding system to understanding of the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment.

  17. Do energy density and dietary fiber influence subsequent 5-year weight changes in adult men and women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia I; Helge, Jørn W; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether associations between dietary components and, in particular, energy density (ED) predicted subsequent 5-year weight changes. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The present longitudinal population study was part of the Danish World Health Organization Multinational...... Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) and the 1936 cohort dietary studies. Effects of components were studied in relation to subsequent 5-year weight changes in 862 men and 900 women, 30 to 60 years old. Linear multiple regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Mean 5......-year changes in body weight (BW) were 1.2 +/- 3.9 and 1.3 +/- 4.6 kg for men and women, respectively. In general, neither ED nor any of the dietary components was associated with subsequent change in BW. In women, ED was positively associated with weight gain among the obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2...

  18. Intuitive Mathematical Knowledge as an Essential Aspect of Contemporary Adult Learning: A case of women street vendors in the city of Gaborone

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    Rebecca Nthogo Lekoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The findings of a phenomenological interview study with women street vendors showed a strong link between participants’ perceptions of everyday use of mathematical literacy and the speculations that mathematical use arose spontaneously in response to a practical need. The concept of intuitive mathematics as used indicates that mathematical thinking is an indispensable element of everyday conversation. Although the study finds that intuition and spontaneity are essential principles of lifelong learning, it concludes with recommendations for an empowerment curriculum that interweaves participants’ experiences and intuition with formal/academic mathematical literacy and psychosocial skills necessary for success in a highly competitive business world.

  19. Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Mugisha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the prevalence of chronic conditions, their risk factors, and their associations with disability in older people living with and without HIV are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: In older people living with and without HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: 1 to describe the prevalence of chronic conditions and their risk factors and 2 to draw attention to associations between chronic conditions and disability. Methods: Cross-sectional individual-level survey data from people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV were analyzed from three study sites in Uganda. Diagnoses of chronic conditions were made through self-report, and disability was determined using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS. We used ordered logistic regression and calculated predicted probabilities to show differences in the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions across HIV status, age groups, and locality. We used linear regression to determine associations between chronic conditions and the WHODAS. Results: In total, 471 participants were surveyed; about half the respondents were living with HIV. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and eye problems (except for those aged 60–69 years was higher in the HIV-positive participants and increased with age. The prevalence of diabetes and angina was higher in HIV-negative participants. The odds of having one or more compared with no chronic conditions were higher in women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3 and in those aged 70 years and above (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.6. Sleep problems (coefficient 14.2, 95% CI 7.3–21.0 and depression (coefficient 9.4, 95% CI 1.2–17.0 were strongly associated with higher disability scores. Conclusion: Chronic conditions are common in older adults and affect their functioning. Many of these conditions are not currently addressed by health services in Uganda. There is a need to revise health care policy and practice in Uganda to consider the

  20. Testing the hypothesis of the relationships between laterality and ability according to Annett's right-shift theory: findings in an epidemiological sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, F; Haffner, J; Parzer, P; Pfueller, U; Strehlow, U; Zerahn-Hartung, C

    1997-11-01

    In a large epidemiological sample of young adults, predictions of the right-shift (RS) theory of Annett that cognitive abilities will vary with right-left hand skill were tested. Presenting a theory of a genetic balanced polymorphism with heterozygote advantage for laterality and ability, Annett & Manning (1989, 1990a) and Annett (1993c) claimed that probands at the right end of the R-L hand skill continuum would show lower general intelligence in IQ testing and that specific verbal abilities and educational success would be lower at both extremes of the R-L distribution, taking the form of an inverted U. Most of these predictions could not be confirmed by our study. In particular, our data contrast with the important and specific prediction of the RS theory that strong dextrals will be the most disfavoured group. In our sample, probands at the left end of the R-L continuum had significantly lower scores in spelling and educational success and showed a tendency to have lower non-verbal IQ scores, while strong dextrals tended to have average or even marginally higher ability scores. The effects, however, are small and decrease when controlling for other variables. Implications of these empirical findings for the right-shift theory are discussed.

  1. Comparison of IMP-SPECT findings to subtest scores of Wechsler intelligence adult Scale-Revised in temporal lobe epilepsy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Rumiko; Uejima, Masahiko; Kaneko, Yuko; Miyamoto, Yuriko; Watabe, Manabu; Takahashi, Ruriko; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Shishido, Fumio [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    In this study, 40 temporal lobe epilepsy patients were assessed, using the Laterality Index (LI) of ROI values in IMP-SPECT findings, Wechsler adult intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and subtest scores. LIs of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes were calculated as follows: the ROI values on the right side were subtracted from those on the left, and the results was divided by the sum of the ROI values on the right and left sides. The individual subtest scores on WAIS-R were standardized by all evaluation scores in order to exclude the influence of differences in intelligence level as much as possible. The results were as follows: there was a positive correlation (r=0.74, p<0.001) between LI values and the performance in Arithmetic in the left temporal lobe hypoperfusion group. And there was a positive correlation (r=0.50, p<0.02) between LI values and the performance in Vocabulary in the left temporal lobe hypoperfusion group. In the right occipital lobe hypoperfusion group, there was a negative correlation (r=-O.44, p

  2. MC1R gene polymorphism affects skin color and phenotypic features related to sun sensitivity in a population of French adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latreille, Julie; Ezzedine, Khaled; Elfakir, Anissa; Ambroisine, Laurence; Gardinier, Sophie; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Gruber, Florian; Rees, Jonathan; Tschachler, Erwin; Guinot, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is known to play a major role in skin and hair pigmentation and to be highly polymorphic in Caucasians. This study was performed to investigate the relationships between MC1R gene polymorphisms and skin color in a large sample of French middle-aged Caucasian women. The codons 60 to 265 and the codon 294 of the MC1R gene were sequenced in 488 women. The skin color was measured on the inner side of the forearm using a spectrophotometric instrument. Fifteen variants were identified: Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Arg142His, Asp294His, Ile155Thr, Asp84Glu, Val60Leu, Val92Met, Arg163Gln, Ser83Pro, Thr95Met, Pro256Ser, Val265Ile, Ala166Ala and Gln233Gln. Women carrying Arg151Cys, Asp294His, Arg160Trp and Asp84Glu variants had a significantly higher reflectance in the red region, which indicates a lower level of functional melanin. This association was the most pronounced for women carrying Asp84Glu. In contrast, no significant difference was observed for other variants. Moreover, associations between MC1R polymorphisms and the risks of experiencing sunburn and of having freckles were found independently of skin color. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC1R polymorphisms do not necessarily alter the skin color but should sensitize the skin to UV-induced DNA damage.

  3. Impact of Goal Setting and Goal Attainment Methods on Asthma Outcomes: Findings From an Asthma Self-Management Intervention for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Micah; Nelson, Belinda W.; Kaltsas, Elena; Brown, Randall W.; Thomas, Lara J.; Patel, Minal R.

    2017-01-01

    Optimal use of goal-setting strategies in self-management efforts with high-risk individuals with asthma is not well understood. This study aimed to describe factors associated with goal attainment in an asthma self-management intervention for African American women with asthma and determine whether goal attainment methods proved beneficial to…

  4. The prevalence of suicidal ideation identified by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in postpartum women in primary care: findings from the RESPOND trial

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    Sharp Debbie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 1 Abstract 1.1 Background Suicide is a leading cause of perinatal maternal deaths in industrialised countries but there has been little research to investigate prevalence or correlates of postpartum suicidality. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is widely used in primary and maternity services to screen for perinatal depressive disorders, and includes a question on suicidal ideation (question 10. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, persistence and correlates of suicidal thoughts in postpartum women in the context of a randomised controlled trial of treatments for postnatal depression. 1.2 Methods Women in primary care were sent postal questionnaires at 6 weeks postpartum to screen for postnatal depression before recruitment into an RCT. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS was used to screen for postnatal depression and in those with high levels of symptoms, a home visit with a standardised psychiatric interview was carried out using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised version (CIS-R. Other socio-demographic and clinical variables were measured, including functioning (SF12 and quality of the marital relationship (GRIMS. Women who entered the trial were followed up for 18 weeks. 1.3 Results 9% of 4,150 women who completed the EPDS question relating to suicidal ideation reported some suicidal ideation (including hardly ever; 4% reported that the thought of harming themselves had occurred to them sometimes or quite often. In women who entered the randomised trial and completed the EPDS question relating to suicidal ideation (n = 253, suicidal ideation was associated with younger age, higher parity and higher levels of depressive symptoms in the multivariate analysis. Endorsement of 'yes, quite often' to question 10 on the EPDS was associated with affirming at least two CIS-R items on suicidality. We found no association between suicidal ideation and SF-12 physical or mental health or the EPDS total score at 18 weeks. 1

  5. Increasing effect of body weight perception on suicidal ideation among young Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 and 2005

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    Dong-Sik Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dong-Sik KimDepartment of Gender Equality and Social Cohesion Research, Korean Women's Development Institute, Seoul, Republic of KoreaObjective: To examine the prevalence of actual and perceived overweight and to compare the mediating effect of perceived overweight on the relationship between actual overweight and suicidal ideation among young Korean women between 2001 and 2005.Methods: Data were gathered from the 2001 and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys involving a nationally representative sample of young women (568 in 2001 and 385 in 2005 aged 20–29 years.Results: Over the 5-year period, the prevalence of actual overweight (body mass index ≥23 kg/m2 and perceived overweight increased by 10.5% and 22.8%, respectively. The discrepancy between actual and perceived body weights was much wider in 2005 than in 2001. After controlling for covariates (age, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise, overweight women were more likely to think about suicide than their normal-weight counterparts in both periods. However, in both periods, the association between overweight and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant when perceived weight was considered. In both periods, a self-perception of overweight was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, but the association was much stronger in 2005 than in 2001.Conclusion: This study suggests a need for educational programs or effective treatments to help young women who perceive themselves as overweight to reduce the potential risk of suicidal ideation in later life.Keywords: body mass index, perceived body weight, body weight, body image, suicidal ideation 

  6. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Resistance: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study Among Palestinian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taha, A; Abu-Zaydeh, A H; Ardah, R A; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Awang, R; Zyoud, S H

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are considered to be among the most commonly sold drug classes in Palestine. Resistance to antibiotics has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and awareness about resistance among adults visiting the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine. A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving participants aged 18 or over was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013. Adults who visited the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine were included. Demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use were included in the questionnaire. Poor and good knowledge were defined as a total knowledge score of 0-7 and 8-15 of 15 questions, respectively. Attitude scores of 0-3 and 4-7 of 7 questions were considered poor and good, respectively. A total of 375 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 83.3% was attained. About 55.0% of the participants had a good knowledge and 56.5% had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use. A significant positive correlation was shown between participants' knowledge scores and participants' attitude scores towards antibiotic use (R = 0.344, P = 0.001. Participants with a high family income were more likely to be aware of appropriate antibiotic use than participants with a low family income (P-value attitude towards rational antibiotic use than those with a lower education level (P-value attitude gaps in antibiotic use. These findings will help health policymakers in Palestine to implement intervention programmes to rationalize antibiotic use. Continuing medical education, professional development and training workshops for healthcare professionals regarding rational use of antibiotics and health risks associated with the spread of antibiotic resistance are needed. In addition, minimizing non-prescription use of

  7. Topical medication utilization and health resources consumption in adult patients affected by psoriasis: findings from the analysis of administrative databases of local health units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Valentina; Sangiorgi, Diego; Buda, Stefano; Degli Esposti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Aim The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the drug utilization pattern among adult psoriasis patients who were newly prescribed with topical medication; and 2) assess their adherence to topical therapy and the possibility of switching to other strategies in the treatment process. Methods An observational retrospective analysis was conducted based on administrative databases of two Italian local health units. All adult subjects who were diagnosed with psoriasis or who were newly prescribed for topical medication with at least one prescription between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, were screened. Only patients who were “non-occasional users of topical drugs” (if they had at least two prescriptions of topical drugs in a time space of 2 years) were considered for the first and second objectives in the analysis. The date of the first prescription of topical agents was identified as the index date (ID), which was then followed for all time available from ID (follow-up period). The adherence to therapy was assessed on the basis of cycles of treatment covered in the 6 months before the end of the follow-up period. The mean health care costs in patients who switched to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biologics after the ID were evaluated. Results A total of 17,860 patients with psoriasis who were newly prescribed for topical medication were identified. A total of 2,477 were identified as “non-occasional users of topical drugs”, of whom 70.2% had a prescription for a topical fixed combination regimen at ID. Around 19% adhered to their medication, whereas 6% switched to other options of psoriasis treatment. Multivariable logistic regression model shows that patients on fixed combination treatment were less likely to be non-adherent to treatment and less likely to switch to other treatments. The annual mean pharmaceutical costs were €567.70 and €10,606.10 for patients who switched to DMARDs and biologics, respectively

  8. A novel accelerometer-based method to describe day-to-day exposure to potentially osteogenic vertical impacts in older adults: findings from a multi-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, K; Deere, K C; Hartley, A; Clark, E M; Coulson, J; Ireland, A; Moss, C; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E; Gaysin, T; Cooper, R; Wong, A; McPhee, J S; Cooper, C; Kuh, D; Tobias, J H

    2017-03-01

    This observational study assessed vertical impacts experienced in older adults as part of their day-to-day physical activity using accelerometry and questionnaire data. Population-based older adults experienced very limited high-impact activity. The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported activity.

  9. Self and Informant Reports of Mental Health Difficulties among Adults with Autism Findings from a Long-Term Follow-Up Study

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    Moss, Philippa; Howlin, Patricia; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44?years) whom we have followed over four decades. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when…

  10. Ethnic differences in family trajectories of young adult women in the Netherlands: Timing and sequencing of events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinepier, T.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research on the family behavior of young adults, family dynamics of children of migrants remain largely unexplored. This is unfortunate as family transitions are strongly interlinked with transitions in other domains (e.g., education, work) and predictive for outcomes l

  11. ‘SASA! is the medicine that treats violence’. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda

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    Nambusi Kyegombe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Methods: Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. Results: SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals’ skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. Discussion: This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research

  12. Domestic violence against women as a risk factor for depressive and anxiety disorders: findings from domestic violence household survey in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzad-Asl, Masoud; Davoudi, Farnoush; Zarei, Noushin; Mohammad-Sadeghi, Homa; Rasoulian, Maryam

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence (DV) especially intimate partner violence is a global health problem responsible for significant part of burden of diseases in women. Mental health problems such as depression and anxiety are possibly results and resulted in IPV. To investigate correlation between IPV and depression and anxiety among married women, in a household survey of married women in Tehran, Iran, at summer 2011, we recruited 615 samples with cluster sampling method and they are directly asked about experience of 23 different types of physical and non-physical IPV during marital life and last 12 months. Depression and anxiety were assessed by Beck depression inventory II (BDI) and Beck Anxiety inventory (BAI). Multinominal regression model was used to assess the independent relationship of factor on IPV. Mean (±SE) age and duration of marriage were 42.6 ± 0.9 and 22 ± 0.8, respectively. Non-physical violence and physical violence during marital life reported in 77.2 and 35.1 %. Clinically significant depression and anxiety was reported in 15.3 and 32.7 % of women, respectively. The odds ratio (95 % CI) of clinically significant depression and anxiety in DV victims were 5.8 (2.3-14.6) and 2.6 (1.6-4.3). DV as a social factor is significantly correlated factor with depression and anxiety. Comprehensive view and collaborative work to detect and address social determinants of mental illness like DV is a crucial point in mental health promotion programs.

  13. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  14. Methodology and Early Findings of the Fifth Survey of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Noncommunicable Disease: The CASPIAN-V Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ziaodini, Hasan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Aminaei, Tahereh; Goodarzi, Azam; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ahadi, Zeinab; Shafiee, Gita; Shahsavari, Ali; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled “Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease” (CASPIAN-V) study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran. Fasting blood was obtained from a sub-sample of 4200 randomly selected students. Results: The participation rate for the whole study and for blood sampling were 99% and 91.5%, respectively. The mean (SD) age of participants was 12.3 (3.2) years, consisting of 49.4% girls and 71.4% urban residents. Overall, 16.1% were underweight (17.4% of boys and 14.8% of girls), and 20.8% had excess weight consisting of 9.4% (8.7% of boys and 10.2% of girls) of overweight and 11.4% (12.5% of boys and 10.3% of girls) of obesity. Abdominal obesity was documented in 21.1% of students (21.6% of boys and 20.5% of girls). Low HDL-C was the most prevalent abnormality of the lipid profile (29.5%) followed by high serum triglycerides (27.7%). Of students, 59.9% consumed whole wheat bread; and 57% reported that they never or rarely added salt to table. The reported daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, and milk was about 60%, 32% and 40%, respectively. 13.7% of participants had at least 30-min daily leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: The current findings provide an overview of the current health status and lifestyle habits of children and adolescents. This surveillance program would help planning preventive programs at individual and community levels. PMID:28217266

  15. Trends in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal achievement in high risk United States adults: longitudinal findings from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

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    Matthew C Tattersall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated gaps in achievement of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C goals among U.S. individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk; however, recent studies in selected populations indicate improvements. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the longitudinal trends in achieving LDL-C goals among high-risk United States adults from 1999-2008. METHODS: We analyzed five sequential population-based cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2008, which included 18,656 participants aged 20-79 years. We calculated rates of LDL-C goal achievement and treatment in the high-risk population. RESULTS: The prevalence of high-risk individuals increased from 13% to 15.5% (p = 0.046. Achievement of LDL-C <100 mg/dL increased from 24% to 50.4% (p<0.0001 in the high-risk population with similar findings in subgroups with (27% to 64.8% p<0.0001 and without (21.8% to 43.7%, p<0.0001 coronary heart disease (CHD. Achievement of LDL-C <70 mg/dL improved from 2.4% to 17% (p<0.0001 in high-risk individuals and subgroups with (3.4% to 21.4%, p<0.0001 and without (1.7% to 14.9%, p<0.0001 CHD. The proportion with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL and not on lipid medications decreased from 29.4% to 18% (p = 0.0002, with similar findings among CHD (25% to 11.9% p = 0.0013 and non-CHD (35.8% to 20.8% p<0.0001 subgroups. CONCLUSION: The proportions of the U.S. high-risk population achieving LDL-C <100 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL increased over the last decade. With 65% of the CHD subpopulation achieving an LDL-C <100 mg/dL in the most recent survey, U.S. LDL-C goal achievement exceeds previous reports and approximates rates achieved in highly selected patient cohorts.

  16. Waist circumference cut-off in relation to body mass index and percentage of body fat in adult women from Merida, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Dickinson, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) as an index of central obesity is related to body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (PBF). Waist circumference data were analyzed to identify a WC cut-off for adult women with respect to BMI-based obesity (≥ 30 kg/m²) and PBF. The sample was 138 women aged 22 to 41 years with Maya ancestry (based on surnames) in Merida, Yucatan, measured during 2011 - 2013. Anthropometric parameters included height, body weight (BW), and BMI. The PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance. Estimated cut-offs per centimeter WC (80 - 99 cm) were predicted by BMI for obesity (≥ 30 kg m⁻²; binomial: Yes = 1, No = 0) and PBF (continuous variable) using binary logistic regression analyses. Mean age was 32 years, mean BMI was 29 kg m(-2) and mean WC was 89 cm. The sample exhibited high PBF (44 %), and high rates of overweight (44%) and obesity (40%). The threshold WC (≥ 93 cm) had high sensitivity (80%), specificity (82%), Youden Index value (0.62), and correct classification rate (82%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 88 %. The WC ≥ 93 cm cut-off had corresponding values for mean BMI (34 kg m⁻²) and PBF (47%). The optimal WC cut-off at 93 cm significantly identified central obesity for BMI ≥ 30 kg m⁻² and PBF for this sample.

  17. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  18. Heart Failure in Non-Caucasians, Women, and Older Adults: A White Paper on Special Populations From the Heart Failure Society of America Guideline Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Monica; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Albert, Nancy M; Krishnamani, Rajan; Rich, Michael W; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Walsh, Mary Norine; Westlake Canary, Cheryl A; Allen, Larry A; Bonnell, Mark R; Carson, Peter E; Chan, Michael C; Dickinson, Michael G; Dries, Daniel L; Ewald, Gregory A; Fang, James C; Hernandez, Adrian F; Hershberger, Ray E; Katz, Stuart D; Moore, Stephanie; Rodgers, Jo E; Rogers, Joseph G; Vest, Amanda R; Whellan, David J; Givertz, Michael M

    2015-08-01

    The presentation, natural history, clinical outcomes, and response to therapy in patients with heart failure differ in some ways across populations. Women, older adults, and non-Caucasian racial or ethnic groups compose a substantial proportion of the overall heart failure population, but they have typically been underrepresented in clinical trials. As a result, uncertainty exists about the efficacy of some guideline-directed medical therapies and devices in specific populations, which may result in the under- or overtreatment of these patients. Even when guideline-based treatments are prescribed, socioeconomic, physical, or psychologic factors may affect non-Caucasian and older adult patient groups to a different extent and affect the application, effectiveness, and tolerability of these therapies. Individualized therapy based on tailored biology (genetics, proteomics, metabolomics), socioeconomic and cultural considerations, and individual goals and preferences may be the optimal approach for managing diverse patients. This comprehensive approach to personalized medicine is evolving, but in the interim, the scientific community should continue efforts focused on intensifying research in special populations, prescribing guideline-directed medical therapy unless contraindicated, and implementing evidence-based strategies including patient and family education and multidisciplinary team care in the management of patients.

  19. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  20. An analysis of fat-related and fiber-related behavior in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: key findings for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrychova T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tereza Hendrychova,1 Magda Vytrisalova,1 Jiri Vlcek,1 Alena Smahelova,2 Ales Antonin Kubena1 1Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic; 2Diabetology Centre, Department of Gerontology and Metabolism, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic Background: Despite the efforts of health care providers, adherence of patients with type 2 diabetes to the recommended diet is poor. The aim of this study was to describe the eating habits with emphasis on fat and fiber-related behavior (FFB as well as the relationship between FFB behavior and parameters of diabetes control in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The subjects in this observational cross-sectional study were 200 patients (54.5% male, mean age 66.2 ± 10.1 years, mean Diabetes Control and Complications Trial [DDCT] glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.6% ± 1.7% recruited from diabetes outpatient clinics in the Czech Republic. The subjects filled out the Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire. The most recent patient data on diabetes control and drug therapy were derived from patient medical records. Results: Patients tend to modify the dishes they are used to, rather than remove them completely from their diet and replace them by other types of foods. It is easier to perform healthier fat-related behaviors than fiber-related ones. Women scored significantly better than men on the fat-related diet habits summary scale (P = 0.002, as well as on "modify meat" (P = 0.001 and "substitute specially manufactured low-fat foods" (P = 0.045 subscales. A better score on the fat-related diet habits summary scale was significantly associated with higher HbA1c (ρ = -0.248; P = 0.027 and higher waist circumference (ρ = -0.254; P = 0.024 in women. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes patients are likely to vary in their FFB behavior, and

  1. The Power Semantics in Self and Other Repertory Grid Representations: A Comparison between Obese and Normal-Weight Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, Elena; Belloni, Eleonora; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    According to systemic-constructivist theory, all psycho-pathological organizations are linked to specific meanings which are developed by the individual within problematic situations in the context of learning, particularly within the family. The aim of this empirical study is to support the theory that eating disorders are linked to the "power semantics," concept developed by Ugazio. The hypothesis that the bipolar construct "winner/loser" and the associated meanings are predominant for obese people, has been verified by interviewing 44 women (22 obese/overweight; 22 controls) using the Repertory Grid Test developed by Kelly. The participants' elicited constructs were classified according to their semantic content and the data compared using statistical techniques. The power semantics were more prevalent and important in the Obese Group than in the Control Group. These results are critically discussed, highlighting possible clinical developments.

  2. The power semantics in self and other repertory grid representations: a comparison between obese and normal-weight adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eFaccio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to systemic-constructivist theory, all psycho-pathological organizations are linked to specific meanings which are developed by the individual within problematic situations in the context of learning, particularly within the family. The aim of this empirical study is to support the theory that eating disorders are linked to the power semantics, concept developed by Ugazio. The hypothesis that the bipolar construct winner/loser and the associated meanings are predominant for obese people, has been verified by interviewing 44 women (22 obese/overweight; 22 controls using the Repertory Grid Test developed by Kelly. The participants’ elicited constructs were classified according to their semantic content and the data compared using statistical techniques. The power semantics were more prevalent and important in the Obese Group than in the Control Group. These results are critically discussed, highlighting possible clinical developments.

  3. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellsberg Mary

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies. We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify factors that are consistently associated with abuse across sites, in order to inform the design of IPV prevention programs. Methods Standardised population-based household surveys were done between 2000 and 2003. One woman aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from each sampled household. Those who had ever had a male partner were asked about their experiences of physically and sexually violent acts. We performed multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of physical and/or sexual partner violence within the past 12 months. Results Despite wide variations in the prevalence of IPV, many factors affected IPV risk similarly across sites. Secondary education, high SES, and formal marriage offered protection, while alcohol abuse, cohabitation, young age, attitudes supportive of wife beating, having outside sexual partners, experiencing childhood abuse, growing up with domestic violence, and experiencing or perpetrating other forms of violence in adulthood, increased the risk of IPV. The strength of the association was greatest when both the woman and her partner had the risk factor. Conclusions IPV prevention programs should increase focus on transforming gender norms and attitudes, addressing childhood abuse, and reducing harmful drinking. Development initiatives to improve access to education for girls and boys may also have an important role in violence prevention.

  4. School burnout: increased sympathetic vasomotor tone and attenuated ambulatory diurnal blood pressure variability in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined autonomic and cardiovascular functioning that may link school burnout to cardiovascular risk factors in young healthy adult females. Study 1 (N = 136) investigated whether school burnout was related to resting values of blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) through laboratory beat-to-beat BP assessment. Study 2 (N = 94) examined the link between school burnout and diurnal BPV through ambulatory BP monitoring. Controlling for anxiety and depressive symptomatology, school burnout demonstrated strong positive relationships with indices of cardiac sympathovagal tone, sympathetic vasomotor tone, inefficient myocardial oxygen consumption, increased 24-h ambulatory heart rate and BP, blunted BP diurnal variability, and increased arterial stiffness. These studies establish cardiovascular biomarkers of school burnout and suggest that even in a seemingly healthy sample school burnout may predispose females to increased cardiovascular risk. Several future lines of research are outlined.

  5. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: novel findings using a simulated adult workplace environment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duration of efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX was assessed in adults (18-55 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using the simulated adult workplace environment. Methods After open-label dose optimization (4-week with LDX, 30-70 mg/d, subjects entered a 2-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover phase. Efficacy assessments included the Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP total score (attempted+correct measured predose and from 2 to 14 hours postdose, averaged across postdose sessions (primary and at each time point vs placebo (secondary, and ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV with adult prompts at baseline and crossover visits. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, vital signs, and electrocardiograms. Results Of 127 randomized subjects, 105 were in the intention-to-treat population and 103 completed the study. While receiving LDX vs placebo, adults had greater improvement (P P ≤ .0017 for each time point and change from predose (P P Conclusions LDX significantly improved PERMP scores vs placebo and maintained improvement throughout the day from the first (2 hours to last (14 hours postdose time point vs placebo in adults with ADHD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00697515 Safety and Efficacy Workplace Environment Study of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate (LDX in Adults With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00697515?term=NCT00697515&rank=1

  6. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of the rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in Ghana-findings from the DETECT HIV-TB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Kenu, Ernest; Lartey, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests are urgently needed to mitigate HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) mortality. We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of the rapid urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for pulmonary TB and assessed the effect of a two-sample strategy. METHODS: HIV-infected adults eligible...

  8. Comparative genomic hybridization of germ cell tumors of the adult testis : Confirmation of karyotypic findings and identification of a 12p-amplicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, MMC; vandePol, M; Weghuis, DO; Suijkerbuijk, RF; vanKessel, AG; vanEchten, J; Looijenga, LHJ

    1996-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried out on 15 primary testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) of adolescents and adults and two metastatic residual tumors after chemotherapeutic treatment. The results were compared with karyotypic data obtained form the same tumor specimens after direct h

  9. Influence of tobacco industry advertisements and promotions on tobacco use in India: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010

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    D N Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over in India. Method: Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural. Results: Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0. Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]. For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend < 0.001 with greater level of exposure (moderate, OR = 1.55 [95% CI: 1.1, 2.2]; high, OR = 2.05 [95% CI: 0.8, 5.1]. The risk of any current tobacco use rose with increasing level of exposure to any marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2], with the trend highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Exposure to the marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is

  10. 孕妇的依恋类型与社会支持%Adult Attachment and Social Support in Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同归; 韩钦维; 李聪捷; 赵丽霞; 冯颖; 刘宁宁

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship of adult attachment with social support in pregnant women. Methods:Relationship Questionnaire(RQ) and Experience of Close Relationships(ECR) Inventory were used to measure participants' adult attachment. Social support scale was used to measure subjects' social support. Results: ①Distribution of adult attachment style in pregnant women were: 64.0% secure, 17.8% dismissing, 14.2% preoccupied and 4.1% fearful. ②There were no significant differences among four attachment groups on ‘subjective support’; but secure participants (10.39±3.47) got significant higher score on ‘objective support’ than dismissing(9.21±3.11), preoccupied(9.20±3.08) and fearful (9.17±3.73, F=9.83, P<0.01); Moreover, secure participants(8.32±l.92) got significant higher score on ‘ support availability’ than dismissing (7.64±1.86), preoccupied (7.57±1.70)and fearful (7.60±1.95, F (3.1064)=11.51, P<0.05). ③Score of adult avoidance had negative correlations with ‘support availability’ (r=-0.205, P<0.01) and ‘total score of social support’ (r=-0.230, P<0.01). ④Attachment anxiety had negative correlations with ‘objective support’ (r=-0.111, P<0.01)and ‘total score of social support’ (r=-0.123, P<0.01 ).%目的:探讨孕妇的依恋类型、社会支持及两者之间的关系.方法:采用关系问卷(RQ)和亲密关系经历量表(ECR)中文版,以及社会支持量表,对1070名孕妇进行问卷调查.结果:①孕妇的依恋类型分布:安全型64.0%、轻视型17.8%、倾注型14.2%、害怕型4.1%;②四种依恋类型的孕妇在"主观支持"得分上没有显著性差异,但在"客观支持"得分上,安全型(10.39士3.47)显著高于轻视型(9.21土3.11)、倾注型(9.20±3.08)和害怕型(9.17±3.73,F(3,1030)=9.83,P<0.01).在"支持利用度"得分上,安全型(8.32±1.92)显著高于轻视型(7.64土1.86)、倾注型(7.57±1.70)和害怕型(7.60±1.95,F(3-1030),=11.51 P<0.05.,③

  11. Effects of whole body vibration exercises on bone mineral density of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis without medications: novel findings and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionello, C.F.; Sá-Caputo, D.; Pereira, H.V.F.S.; Sousa-Gonçalves, C.R.; Maiworm, A.I.; Morel, D.S.; Moreira-Marconi, E.; Paineiras-Domingos, L.L.; Bemben, D.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the literature about the effect of whole body vibration exercise in the BMD in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis without medications. Methods: A systematic review was performed. Results: The frequency of the mechanical vibration used in the protocols has varied from 12 to 90 Hz. The time used in the protocols varied from 2 up to 22 months. Techniques with X-rays were used in nine of the twelve publications analyzed, the Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in eight studies and the High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in one publication. The concentration of some biomarkers was determined, as the sclerostin, the bone alkaline phosphatase, N-telopeptide X and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Among the twelve articles analyzed, seven of them have shown an improvement of the BMD of some bone of postmenopausal women exposed to whole body vibration exercises not associated to medications; as well as modifications in biomarkers. PMID:27609034

  12. Lack of indinavir-associated nephrological complications in HIV-infected adults (predominantly women) with high indinavir plasma concentration in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, Christine; Moh, Raoul; Peytavin, Gilles; Anzian, Amani; Minga, Albert; Gomis, Olivier Ba; Seri, Boga; Nzunettu, Gustave; Gabillard, Delphine; Salamon, Roger; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Anglaret, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    To report the tolerance of indinavir combined with ritonavir (IDV/r 800/100 mg) twice daily (bid) in sub-Saharan African HIV-infected adults. HAART-naives patients started zidovudine plus lamivudine plus IDV/r 800/100 mg bid. Follow-up included standardized documentation of morbidity, CD4(+) cell count, creatininemia, plasma HIV-1 RNA, and IDV minimal plasma concentration (C(min)) measurements at month 1 (M1), M3, and M6. Seventy HIV-1-infected adults (68 women, median CD4 235/mm(3)) started HAART. At M6, 63% had undetectable viral load, and the median gain in CD4 since baseline was +128/mm(3). During the first 6 months, 21 patients experimented with 23 treatment modifications (reduction in IDV/r 400/100 mg bid, n = 11; switch to efavirenz, n = 11; zidovudine replaced by stavudine, n = 1), including 22 for digestive intolerance and 1 for severe anemia. At M1, M3, and M6, 67, 59, and 48 patients were still receiving IDV/r 800/100 mg bid, of whom 70%, 72%, and 60% had IDV Cmin above 5 ng/ml, respectively. In these patients, at M1, M3, and M6, the mean (+/- SD) IDV C(min) were 3431 +/- 3835 ng/ml, 2288 +/- 2116 ng/ml, and 1543 +/- 2398 ng/ml, respectively. There was no renal insufficiency of any grade, and no symptoms of urinary stones. The IDV/r 800/100 mg bid-containing regimen led to high IDV Cmin and a high rate of digestive intolerance. There was a surprising lack of nephrological side effects during the 6 months of follow-up, supporting the hypothesis that nephrological tolerance of IDV might be higher in sub-Saharan African individuals than in Americans or Europeans.

  13. Awareness Levels about Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Early Warning Signs, and Screening and Therapeutic Approaches among Iranian Adult Women: A large Population Based Study Using Latent Class Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Tazhibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Breast cancer (BC continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world and in Iran. Lack of awareness and early detection program in developing country is a main reason for escalating the mortality. The present research was conducted to assess the Iranian women’s level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches, and their correlated determinants. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 2250 women before participating at a community based screening and public educational program in an institute of cancer research in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire about risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches of BC. Latent class regression as a comprehensive statistical method was used for evaluating the level of knowledge and its correlated determinants. Results. Only 33.2%, 31.9%, 26.7%, and 35.8% of study participants had high awareness levels about screening approaches, risk factors, early warning signs and therapeutic modalities of breast cancer, respectively, and majority had poor to moderate knowledge levels. Most effective predictors of high level of awareness were higher educational qualifications, attending in screening and public educational programs, personal problem, and family history of BC, respectively. Conclusion. Results of current study indicated that the levels of awareness among study population about key elements of BC are low. These findings reenforce the continuing need for more BC education through conducting public and professional programs that are intended to raise awareness among younger, single women and those with low educational attainments and without family history.

  14. Lubiprostone: evaluation of the newest medication for the treatment of adult women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

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    Tisha N Lunsford

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tisha N Lunsford, Lucinda A HarrisDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic – School of Medicine, Scottsdale, Arizona, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic disorder that affects primarily female patients and is thought also to afflict approximately 7%–10% of the population of the Western World. Although bowel habits may change over the course of years, patients with IBS are characterized according to their predominant bowel habit, constipation (IBS-C, diarrhea (IBS-D, or mixed type (IBS-M, and treatments are focused toward the predominant symptom. Current treatments for IBS-C have included fiber, antispasmodics, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, and the now severely limited 5-HT4 agonist tegaserod. No one agent has been universally successful in the treatment of this bothersome syndrome and the search for new agents continues. Lubiprostone (Amitiza®, a novel compound, is a member of a new class of agents called prostones and was approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in 2006 at a dose of 24 µg twice daily and then in 2008 for the treatment of IBS-C in women only at a dose of 8 µg twice daily. Its purported mechanism is as a type 2 chloride channel activator, but recent evidence suggests that it may also work at the cystic fibrosis transport receptor. This article will compare the newly proposed mechanism of action of this compound to the purported mechanism and review the structure, pharmacology, safety, efficacy, and tolerability of this new therapeutic option. Clinical trial data leading to the approval of this agent for the treatment of IBS-C and the gender-based understanding of IBS, as well as this agent’s place among existing and emerging therapies, will be examined.Keywords: large intestine, functional bowel disorder, therapy

  15. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  16. Rationale, design, and baseline findings from HIPP: A randomized controlled trial testing a Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print intervention for African American women in the Deep South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Joseph, Rodney; Bray, Molly S.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Isaac, Shiney; Desmond, Renee; Meneses, Karen; Marcus, Bess; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    African American women report high rates of physical inactivity and related health disparities. In our previous formative research, we conducted a series of qualitative assessments to examine physical activity barriers and intervention preferences among African American women in the Deep South. These data were used to inform a 12-month Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print (HIPP) intervention, which is currently being evaluated against a wellness contact control condition among 84 post-menopausal African American women residing in the metropolitan area of Birmingham, Alabama. This paper reports the rationale, design and baseline findings of the HIPP trial. The accrued participants had an average age of 57 (SD= 4.7), a BMI of 32.1 kg/m2 (SD=5.16) with more than half (55%) having a college education and an annual household income under $50,000 (53.6%). At baseline, participants reported an average of 41.5 minutes/week (SD=49.7) of moderate intensity physical activity, and 94.1% were in the contemplation or preparation stages of readiness for physical activity. While social support for exercise from friends and family was low, baseline levels of self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change, decisional balance, outcome expectations, and enjoyment appeared promising. Baseline data indicated high rates of obesity and low levels of physical activity, providing strong evidence of need for intervention. Moreover, scores on psychosocial measures suggested that such efforts may be well received. This line of research in technology-based approaches for promoting physical activity in African American women in the Deep South has great potential to address health disparities and impact public health. PMID:26944022

  17. Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Scali

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience. METHODS: We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10 in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21-0.93]. This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44-7.01]. CONCLUSION: Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a "vaccination" effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.

  18. Co-occurrence of anxiety and depression amongst older adults in low- and middle-income countries: findings from the 10/66 study

    OpenAIRE

    Prina, Matthew; C.P. Ferri; Guerra, M.; Brayne, C.; M Prince

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is relative little information about the prevalence and risk factors of co-morbid anxiety and depression in later life. These disorders are often associated with worse response to treatment than either condition alone, and researching their epidemiology in diverse settings is vital to policy makers. We therefore investigated the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive syndromes amongst older adults living in developing countries and measured the separate and joint effect of ...

  19. Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Murphy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. Methods: The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Results: Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789, 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001 and magnesium (P<0.05 below the estimated average requirement (EAR compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05. Potassium and β-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]. Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (P<0.05, However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Conclusion: Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality

  20. Analysis of adult attachment styles of 1170 pregnant women%孕妇依恋类型1170例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同归; 赵丽霞; 李聪捷; 韩钦维; 冯颖; 刘宁宁; 王美军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze adult attachment of pregnant women who are under a positive stressful life event. Methods Two widely used adult attachment measurements Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) and Experiences in Close Relationship inventory (ECR)- were administered to 1170 pregnant women between Sept. 2008 and Aug. 2010 in Beijing,Hebei and Shanxi. Jian jin. Results The distribution of the pregnant women was; 63.8% secure, 17.8% dismissing, 14. 3% preoccupied, and 4. 1% fearful. The score of 'model of self' computed from RQ had negative correlations with attachment avoidance (r = -0.375, P <0.01) and attachment anxiety (r = -0.369, P <0.01), while model of others'was only correlated to attachment a-voidance (r= - 0.42, P < 0.01). Secure attachment participants got lowest score on attachment avoidance (2.49 ± 0.78) , followed by preoccupied(3.12 ±0.91), dismissing(3.36±0. 83)and fearful(3.78 ±0.5) ,F(3.1125), =98.91, P <0.01;Moreover, on attachment anxiety index, secure(3.39 ±0.81 )and dismissing (3.50 ±0.83)had no significant differences, while they were significant lower than preoccupied (4.11 ±0.87)and fearful(4.20 ±0.87), F(3.1125) =43.12, P <0.01. Conclusion The a-dult attachment style of 1170 pregnant women was different from college student samples. The two adult attachment measurements highly correlated with each other.%目的 探讨孕妇成人依恋的特点.方法 2008年9月至2010年8月在北京、河北、陕西、天津等地,采用两种常用的成人依恋量表一关系问卷(RQ)和亲密关系经历量表( ECR),对1170例孕妇进行成人依恋的测量.结果孕妇的依恋类型分布比例为:安全型占63.8%、轻视型17.8%、倾注型14.3%、害怕型4.1%.用RQ测量得到的自我模型得分与ECR中的依恋回避(r=-0.375,P<0.01)和依恋焦虑(r=-0.369,P<0.01)都呈显著的负相关;而他人模型只与依恋回避得分呈显著负相关(r=-0.420,P<0.01),与依恋焦虑没有显著性相关(r=-0.018,P>0

  1. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women

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    Louise F. Saliba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713, ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994 and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217 polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (2 x 2 were used to analyze the intervention effect between polymorphisms and BMI over the period and after stratification for age and socioeconomic status (SES. The weight loss intervention resulted in decreased BMI over the seven-week period (p < 0.001, for high and low SES (p < 0.05 and mainly for participants with 30-49 y. The intervention did not result in a statistically significant difference in weight loss between polymorphism carriers and non-carriers, and although, the ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms did not moderate weight loss, the Gln27Glu polymorphism carriers showed a lower BMI compared to non-carriers in the low SES (p = 0.018 and the 30-39 y (p = 0.036 groups, suggesting a role for this polymorphism related to BMI control.

  2. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  3. Changes in foot pressure elicited by 3D air balance exercise and pelvic stability exercise for functional leg-length discrepancy in adult women.

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    Lee, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Ja; Kim, Chan-Kyu

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effect of pelvic stabilization exercise and 3D equipment exercise on adult women with Functional Leg-Length Discrepancy (FLLD). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female students in their 20's having FLLD without Structural Leg Length Discrepancy were selected. Exercise was performed for 50 min per session, three times a week, for six weeks. The Pelvic stabilization exercise (PSE) group performed pelvic stabilization exercises for 50 minutes, and the 3D exercise (3DE) group performed 3D Air Balance exercise for 10 minutes after performing the pelvic stabilization exercise program for 40 minutes. [Results] The PSE group showed statistically significant differences in tape measure method (TMM) and maximum pressure between pre-test and post-test, and 3DE showed statistically significant differences in TMM, the difference in maximum pressure, the difference in average pressure, and the difference in support area. At the end of the 6-week intervention, TMM, difference in maximum pressure, difference in average pressure, and difference in support area showed significantly greater reduction in the 3DE group. [Conclusion] The results show that 3D stabilization exercise was more effective at improving the stabilization of the deep muscles surrounding the pelvis and left-right muscular balance. We consider that 3D exercise should be included in exercise programs for improving pelvic cavity and spinal stability in the future.

  4. [Study of acute vulvovaginitis in sexually active adult women, with special reference to candidosis, in patients of the Francisco J. Muñiz Infectious Diseases Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Luis; Arechavala, Alicia; Negroni, Ricardo

    2004-12-01

    The results of microbiological vaginal secretions samples obtained from 749 women (from July 2001 to July 2002) were studied in the Bacteriology Unit of the Francisco Javier Muñiz Hospital from Buenos Aires. All patients suffered acute vulvovaginitis were child bearing and sexually active women, 334 of them were HIV-positive. The following are the results of the microbiological studies: Lactobacillus spp 50.6%, Gardnerella vaginalis 25.6%, Candida spp 17.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 5.3%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0.3% and B group Streptococcus 0.8%. Candida vaginitis was significantly more frequent in HIV-positive patients, (21.6% vs 14%; p = 0.0086); meanwhile, trichomoniasis was less common although the difference was not statistically significant (3.6 vs 6.7%, p = 0.0810). The following Candida species were isolated in this study: Candida albicans 76.8%, Candida glabrata 15.6%, Candida parapsilosis 2.9%, Candida tropicalis 1.5% and Candida krusei 0.7%. Eight cases (6.2%) of vaginitis were produced by two Candida species (C. albicans and C. glabrata), and in three cases (2.17%) Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated. Five women suffering acute vaginitis with Candida spp presented another etiologic agent of vaginal infection, three cases T. vaginalis and two cases G. vaginalis. The following are some of the most important findings of this study: 1) Half of the patients presented a normal microbial biota; 2) Candida spp vaginitis was significantly more frequent among HIV-positive women; 3) we observed a high incidence of Candida glabrata infections (15.9%), 4) 6.2% of vaginal candidiasis were caused by more than one Candida species and, 5) the susceptibility pattern of C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates against fluconazole was similar to the one observed in other studies. The majority of C. albicans isolates were susceptible to fluconazole (MIC90 = 0.5 microg/ml) meanwhile C. glabrata strains were much less susceptible to this drug (MIC50 and MIC90 = 32 microg/ml).

  5. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  6. Find a Therapist

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    ... Teens Treatment Tips for Parents and Caregivers Anxiety Disorders at School School Refusal Test Anxiety News and Research College Students Facts Find Help Tips National Stress Øut Day News and Research Resources Women Facts News and Research Pregnancy and Medication Postpartum ...

  7. Menstrual socialization, beliefs, and attitudes concerning menstruation in rural and urban Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvan, Maria Luisa; Trujillo, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Women living in rural and urban areas of Mexico answered a questionnaire about what they were told at home about menstruation before their menarche (first menstruation), and answered the Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Menstruation Questionnaire. Around half of both urban and rural women were told that they were going to experience negative perimenstrual changes. There were fewer urban than rural women who were advised to do or not to do certain activities while menstruating. Menstrual socialization affected the beliefs and attitudes concerning menstruation held by women as adults. These findings are discussed in light of the sociocultural background of the participants.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Long-Term Effects on Psychological and Sexual Functioning in a Nonclinical and Nonstudent Sample of Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Evan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of psychological and sexual functioning of 54 women sexually abused as children and 54 nonabused women found no differences in self-esteem, but abused women reported more symptoms of distress and psychological symptoms previously associated with sexual abuse. No differences in self-reported sexual satisfaction or dysfunction were found.…

  9. Acceptability of an intelligent wireless sensor system for the rapid detection of health issues: findings among home-dwelling older adults and their informal caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Christine Cohen, Thomas Kampel, Henk Verloo Department Ra&D, La Source School of Nursing Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland Background: Aging at home rather than in an institution is now considered the gold standard. Public health figures document an important demographic transition to an increasingly elderly society. At the same time, this is accompanied by the emergence of significant numbers of innovative technologies to help and support home-dwelling older adults in declining health who wish to remain at home.Study aim: To explore the acceptability of intelligent wireless sensor system (IWSS among home-dwelling older adults in rapidly detecting their health issues.Methods: Data were sourced from a pilot 3-month randomized clinical trial that involved 34 older patients in the experimental group (EG using an IWSS to rapidly detect falls and other health issues at home. The effectiveness of the IWSS was assessed by comparing it to participants’ functional and cognitive status, as measured both before and after the trial. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care, Confusion Assessment Method, Cognitive Performance Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Informed Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly were used for the assessments. Acceptability of the IWSS was explored at the end of the study.Results: Both older adults and their informal caregivers considered the performance and usefulness of the IWSS intervention to be low to moderate. A majority of the participants were unsatisfied with its ease of use and found multiple obstacles in using and having an intention to use the IWSS. However, their informal caregivers were more satisfied with the program and gave higher scores for usefulness, ease of use, and intention to use IWSS technology.Conclusion: The IWSS displayed low-to-moderate acceptability among the older participants and their informal caregivers. We

  10. Association of arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency with physical disability in Mexican older adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama-Hinds, Luis M; Al Snih, Soham; Rodriguez, Martin A; Wong, Rebeca

    2017-04-01

    Arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency are prevalent in older adults and are risk factors for disability. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of co-occurring arthritis and vitamin D deficiency on upper-lower extremity functional limitations and disability in older adults. We examined 1533 participants aged ≥50 years from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographics, body mass index, comorbid conditions, falls, physical activity, physical function tests, functional limitations, activities of daily living (ADL), and vitamin D. Participants were categorized into four groups according to arthritis and vitamin D status: no vitamin D insufficiency and no arthritis (58.80%), vitamin D insufficiency only (27.49%), arthritis only (8.47%), and arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency (5.24%). Fourteen percent reported arthritis, and 31.2% had vitamin D insufficiency. The arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency group was associated with upper-lower extremity functional limitations [odds ratio (OR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-3.15, and OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.00-3.62, respectively] and ADL disability (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.63-5.51) when compared with the no vitamin D insufficiency and no arthritis group (reference group). The arthritis only group was three times more likely to report upper-lower extremity functional limitations and ADL disability. The vitamin D insufficiency only group was not significantly associated with functional limitations nor ADL disability. Arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency increased the risk of ADL disability in this population. However, the effect of arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency on upper-lower extremity functional limitations was not higher than the effect of arthritis only, but higher than the effect on vitamin D insufficiency alone.

  11. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, A; Bemrah, N; Veyrand, B; Pollono, C; Merlo, M; Desvignes, V; Sirot, V; Marchand, P; Berrebi, A; Cariou, R; Antignac, J P; Le Bizec, B; Leblanc, J C

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values

  12. Attachment representations and early interactions in drug addicted mothers: a case study of four women with distinct Adult Attachment Interview classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio ePorreca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children.This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing and U-unresolved/with losses. Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985, while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008.As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Mulheres adultas com acne: aspectos comportamentais, perfis hormonal e ultra-sonográfico ovariano Acne in adult women: behavior, hormone and ovarian ultrasonographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Almeida Galvão Teixeira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: abordar os aspectos comportamentais, o perfil androgênico e as alterações ultra-sonográficas ovarianas de uma amostra de mulheres adultas com acne. MÉTODOS: estudo de série de casos envolvendo uma amostra de 60 mulheres, escolhidas por conveniência. As pacientes foram submetidas a exame clínico, dosagens hormonais e ultra-sonografia para avaliação da morfologia ovariana. Na análise estatística, foi aplicado o Teste de Fischer para análise de correlação entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: a média de idade foi de 26,5 anos. Todas as pacientes referiram atitudes e sentimentos negativos em relação à acne, sendo os mais freqüentes ansiedade (88,3% e manipulação constante das lesões (88,3%. O grau de acne mais observado foi o grau II (48,3%. Foram identificados níveis de androgênios fora da faixa de normalidade em 63,3%, com elevação mais freqüente do, dehidroepiandrosterona (57,6%. O padrão ultra-sonográfico mais observado foi o microcístico (74,6%. CONCLUSÕES: as formas clínicas leves de acne predominaram nas mulheres estudadas. Ainda assim, essas apresentaram, com grande freqüência, atitudes e sentimentos negativos em relação à doença. Foram identificados, ainda, modificação dos níveis séricos dos androgênios, bem como do padrão de normalidade do exame ultra-sonográfico.OBJECTIVES: to assess behavior, androgenic profile and ovarian ultrasound alterations in a sample of adult women with acne. METHODS: case study involving a serie of 60 women selected for convenience. Patients were submitted to clinical exam, hormonal dosages and ultrasound to assess ovarian morphology. Fischer's test for variables correlation analysis was applied. RESULTS: age median was 26.5 years old. All patients attitudes were negative in relation to acne, the more frequent ones were anxiety (88.3% and frequent manipulation of the lesions (88.3%. Degree II was the most frequent acne classification determined (48.3%. Abnormal

  14. Childhood maternal care is associated with DNA methylation of the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in peripheral blood cells in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unternaehrer, Eva; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Burkhardt, Susan C A; Dempster, Emma; Staehli, Simon; Theill, Nathan; Lieb, Roselind; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    In adults, reporting low and high maternal care in childhood, we compared DNA methylation in two stress-associated genes (two target sequences in the oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR; one in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, BDNF) in peripheral whole blood, in a cross-sectional study (University of Basel, Switzerland) during 2007-2008. We recruited 89 participants scoring  33 (n = 42, 35 women) on the maternal care subscale of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) at a previous assessment of a larger group (N = 709, range PBI maternal care = 0-36, age range = 19-66 years; median 24 years). 85 participants gave blood for DNA methylation analyses (Sequenom(R) EpiTYPER, San Diego, CA) and cell count (Sysmex PocH-100i™, Kobe, Japan). Mixed model statistical analysis showed greater DNA methylation in the low versus high maternal care group, in the BDNF target sequence [Likelihood-Ratio (1) = 4.47; p = 0.035] and in one OXTR target sequence Likelihood-Ratio (1) = 4.33; p = 0.037], but not the second OXTR target sequence [Likelihood-Ratio (1) BDNF (estimate = -0.005, 95% CI = -0.025 to 0.015; p = 0.626) or OXTR DNA methylation (estimate = -0.015, 95% CI = -0.038 to 0.008; p = 0.192). Hence, low maternal care in childhood was associated with greater DNA methylation in an OXTR and a BDNF target sequence in blood cells in adulthood. Although the study has limitations (cross-sectional, a wide age range, only three target sequences in two genes studied, small effects, uncertain relevance of changes in blood cells to gene methylation in brain), the findings may indicate components of the epiphenotype from early life stress.

  15. Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162700.html Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds Women less ... Dr. Claire Duvernoy, chair of the Women in Cardiology Council at the American College of Cardiology (ACC). ...

  16. Using Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Adult Immigrants’ L2 Needs: Findings from a Research Project in Greece Focusing on School-Parents Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Androulakis, George; Mastorodimou, Efi; VAN BOESCHOTEN, RIKI

    2016-01-01

    In the Greek context of economic crisis and of emerging xenophobic ideas and discourse, this article presents some findings from a research project which had the ambition to give voice to immigrants in Greece about their own language and communication needs. The target group of the project were immigrant parents, whose children attend public schools in the area of Volos. Communication between schools and immigrant families is fragmentary or non-existent, causing frustration for parents and te...

  17. Leg strength is associated with ventilatory efficiency in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, J U; Tucker, S H; Kalasky, M J; Proctor, D N

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if leg function is associated with ventilatory efficiency during exercise in healthy older adults. 24 women and 18 men aged 60-80 years performed treadmill exercise to fatigue for calculation of ventilatory efficiency using the ratio of ventilation to carbon dioxide at the anaerobic threshold (VE/VCO₂@AT). On a separate day, participants performed leg strength testing and graded single-leg knee extension exercise. The VE/VCO₂@AT was higher in women than men (33±3 vs. 30±3; p=0.03). After adjustment for age and VO(₂max), leg strength (knee extensor isometric force) was inversely associated with VE/VCO₂@AT in women (r= - 0.44, p=0.03) while no relationships were found for men. Strength-matched women and men had similar VE/VCO₂@AT indicating that the correlation between leg strength and VE/VCO₂@AT was strength- but not sex-specific. During knee extensor exercise, women with lower leg strength had increased VE/VCO₂ slope across 0-15 W as compared to higher strength women (38±8 vs. 31±3; p<0.05), while no differences were found for men. These results find leg strength to be associated with ventilatory responses to exercise in healthy older women, a finding that might be related to lower leg strength in women than men.

  18. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Palipudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide, particularly in South-East Asia. Health risks associated with exclusive use of one form of tobacco alone has a different health risk profile when compared to dual use. In order to tease out specific profiles of mutually exclusive categories of tobacco use, we carried out this analysis. Methods: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS data was used to describe the profiles of three mutually exclusive tobacco use categories ("Current smoking only," "Current smokeless tobacco [SLT] use only," and "Dual use" in four World Health Organization South-East Asia Region countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Thailand. GATS was a nationally representative household-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design proportional to population size. Prevalence of different forms of usage were described as proportions. Logistics regression analyses was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were weighted, accounted for the complex sampling design and conducted using SPSS version 18. Results: The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varied across countries. Current tobacco use ranged from 27.2% in Thailand to 43.3% in Bangladesh. Exclusively smoking was more common in Indonesia (34.0% and Thailand (23.4% and less common in Bangladesh (16.1% and India (8.7%. Exclusively using SLT was more common in Bangladesh (20.3% and India (20.6% and less common on Indonesia (0.9% and Thailand (3.5%. Dual use of smoking and SLT was found in Bangladesh (6.8% and India (5.3%, but was negligible in Indonesia (0.8 and Thailand (0.4%. Gender, age, education and wealth had significant effects on the OR for most forms of tobacco use across all four countries with the exceptions of SLT use in Indonesia and dual use in both Indonesia and Thailand. In general, the different forms of tobacco use

  19. A reduction of CETP activity, not an increase, is associated with modestly impaired postprandial lipemia and increased HDL-Cholesterol in adult asymptomatic women

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    de Faria Eliana C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between CETP and postprandial hyperlipemia is still unclear. We verified the effects of varying activities of plasma CETP on postprandial lipemia and precocious atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adult women. Methods Twenty-eight women, selected from a healthy population sample (n = 148 were classified according to three CETP levels, all statistically different: CETP deficiency (CETPd ��� 4.5%, n = 8, high activity (CETPi ≥ 23.8, n = 6 and controls (CTL, CETP ≥ 4.6% and ≤ 23.7%, n = 14. After a 12 h fast they underwent an oral fat tolerance test (40 g of fat/m2 of body surface area for 8 hours. TG, TG-rich-lipoproteins (TRL, cholesterol and TRL-TG measurements (AUC, AUIC, AR, RR and late peaks and comparisons were performed on all time points. Lipases and phospholipids transfer protein (PLTP were determined. Correlation between carotid atherosclerosis (c-IMT and postprandial parameters was determined. CETP TaqIB and I405V and ApoE-ε3/ε2/ε4 polymorphisms were examined. To elucidate the regulation of increased lipemia in CETPd a multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results In the CETPi and CTL groups, CETP activity was respectively 9 and 5.3 higher compared to the CETPd group. Concentrations of all HDL fractions and ApoA-I were higher in the CETPd group and clearance was delayed, as demonstrated by modified lipemia parameters (AUC, AUIC, RR, AR and late peaks and meal response patterns. LPL or HL deficiencies were not observed. No genetic determinants of CETP deficiency or of postprandial lipemia were found. Correlations with c-IMT in the CETPd group indicated postprandial pro-atherogenic associations. In CETPd the regression multivariate analysis (model A showed that CETP was largely and negatively predicted by VLDL-C lipemia (R2 = 92% and much less by TG, LDL-C, ApoAI, phospholipids and non-HDL-C. CETP (model B influenced mainly the increment in ApoB-100 containing lipoproteins (R2

  20. Epidemiology and consequences of women's revictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Kaminski, Amy; Baumrind, Nikki

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Kraemer's approach for nonrandom comorbidity to identify the parameters of revictimization among women, using a diverse, population-based sample. Participants (n = 11,056) are from the California Women's Health Survey. Women were asked about childhood and adult violence and current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Logistic regressions adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, and poverty indicate that women who experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse were 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 5.2-6.4) times more likely to experience adult physical or sexual victimization. Revictimization affected 12% of women, and these women were substantially more likely to report current symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD than women exposed to violence only in childhood or only as an adult. Revictimization is a methodologically distinct concept and is a potent risk factor for adult mental health problems. Prevention should target women exposed to both physical and sexual assault.

  1. Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…

  2. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A., E-mail: ami.s.yamada@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Bemrah, N., E-mail: nawel.bemrah@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Veyrand, B., E-mail: bruno.veyrand@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Pollono, C., E-mail: charles.pollono@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Merlo, M., E-mail: mathilde.merlo@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Desvignes, V., E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Sirot, V., E-mail: sirotv@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis.

  3. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

     Coffee Morning Tuesday 7th February 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant n°2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Terre des Hommes Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  4. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 9th October 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale “Nous aussi”. Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  5. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Women's Club

    2014-01-01

        CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th Avril 2014, 9:30 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  6. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning   Tuesday 24th  April 2012, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504, Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  7. Acne da mulher adulta: aspectos epidemiológicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos Acne in adult women: epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna Addor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A acne da mulher adulta (AMA é uma dermatose de incidência crescente; o hiperandrogenismo está presente em muitos casos, mas há pacientes sem anormalidades hormonais. OBJETIVO: Analisar as características prevalentes na mulher adulta com acne sem hiperandrogenismo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um levantamento de 226 prontuários com queixa de AMA foi realizado; 116 pacientes (51,3% possuíam perfil hormonal normal e, portanto, foram incluídas no estudo. Foram pesquisados idade, etnia, perfil clínico da acne, exames complementares, tratamentos anteriores, tratamentos prescritos e evolução. RESULTADOS: A média das idades foi de 33,9 anos e o grau clínico predominante foi o inflamatório moderado (grau II; a face foi a área mais acometida. Os retinoides tópicos foram as drogas mais prescritas, e a medicação sistêmica foi indicada em 53,4% das pacientes. A regressão total foi observada em 31 pacientes (26,7% até 12 semanas de tratamento. Houve reação adversa ao tratamento tópico em 21,5% das pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O quadro clínico da AMA em pacientes sem hiperandrogenismo é de moderada intensidade, com predomínio de lesões inflamatórias. Seu tratamento é similar ao da acne vulgar; entretanto, atenção especial deve ser tomada com medicações de maior potencial irritante, uma vez que esse grupo parece ter uma maior predisposição a irritações cutâneas.BACKGROUND: Adult female acne (AFA is a dermatosis of increasing incidence; hyperandrogenism is present in many cases, but there are patients without hormonal abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalent characteristics in adult women with acne without hyperandrogenism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey of 226 medical records with AFA complaints was conducted; of these, 116 (51.3% had a normal hormonal profile and were, therefore, included in the study. We investigated age, ethnicity, clinical profile of acne, complementary exams, previous treatment, prescribed

  8. Women in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers.

  9. Colorectal cancer prevention for low-income, sociodemographically-diverse adults in public housing: baseline findings of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the study design, intervention components, and baseline data from Open Doors to Health, a study designed to address social contextual factors in colorectal cancer (CRC prevention for low-income, racial/ethnic minority populations. Methods A cluster randomized design with 12 housing sites as the primary sampling units was used: 6 sites were assigned to a "Peer-led plus Screening Access" (PL condition, and 6 were assigned to "Screening Access only" (SCR condition. Study-related outcomes were CRC screening, physical activity (measured as mean steps/day, and multivitamin use. Results At baseline (unweighted sample size = 1554, two-thirds self-reported that they were current with screening recommendations for CRC (corrected for medical records validation, prevalence was 52%, with half having received a colonoscopy (54%; 96% had health insurance. Mean steps per day was 5648 (se mean = 224, and on average 28% of the sample reported regular multivitamin use. Residents reported high levels of social support [mean = 4.40 (se = .03] and moderately extensive social networks [mean = 2.66 (se = .02]. Conclusion Few studies have conducted community-based studies in public housing communities; these data suggest areas for improvement and future opportunities for intervention development and dissemination. Findings from the randomized trial will determine the effectiveness of the intervention on our health-related outcomes as well as inform future avenues of research.

  10. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ It took 14 years--and just two min-utes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family. July 21 this year marked the first anniversary of Haley Butler's finding of her biological parents in Maanshan in east China's Anhui Province.

  11. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  12. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  13. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  14. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wu, Qian [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Zhang, Yanfeng [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Jing [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  15. Lay Epistemology of Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Appalachian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Scott, Allison M; Shaunfield, Sara; Jones, M Grace; Collins, Tom; Cohen, Elisia L

    2016-08-26

    Recent changes to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening have contributed to increased patient uncertainty regarding the timing and appropriateness of screening behaviors. To gain insight into the lay epistemology of women regarding breast cancer screening practices, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 24 adult women living in a medically underserved Appalachian region. We found that women were unaware of breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e., start age, frequency, stop age). Qualitative analysis revealed two lay epistemological narratives establishing (a) uncertain knowledge and ambiguity about breast cancer screening guidelines but certain knowledge of other women's experiences with breast cancer diagnoses, and (b) feelings of knowing one's own body best and seeing the value in "overscreening" to save even one life. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners seeking to improve knowledge or behavior regarding adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

  16. Adult Education and the Elderly. Case Studies from Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Background Materials. The Literacy Debate. General Discussion. Literacy and Women. Literacy and Health-Programmes. Adult Education and Development. Number 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Education and Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This journal issue contains 18 solicited articles on two major topics: adult education and the elderly, and the literacy debate. The articles on adult education and the elderly include "A Ripe Old Age," republished from a newsletter of the British aid organization OXFAM; "Special Programme for Retirees: A Model Project in Cali, Colombia," by…

  17. Finding Family Balance: Establishing an Adult Relationship with the Person with a Disability (A Pamphlet for Families) [and] Equilibrio Familiar: Como Establecer una Relacion Adulta con la Persona con Impedimentos (Panfleto para la Familia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Carla

    Two booklets, in English and Spanish, are addressed to families of disabled adults and offer guidelines for establishing an adult relationship with the disabled individual within the family. Stressed are the importance of helping the disabled adult develop a positive self image, learning to truly listen to the adult as part of improving…

  18. Stroke in young women: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Dorothy M; Desmond, Deirdre; Coughlan, Tara; O'Neill, Des; Collins, D Rónán

    2016-05-01

    Stroke among adults of working age is increasing. We aimed to explore the experience of stroke among young women in Ireland. In total, 12 women (aged between 18 and 50 years) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four super-ordinate themes were identified: stroke as an illness of later life ('obviously it's for older people'), post-stroke selves, a desire for peer support and the impact of stroke on relationships. Findings indicate the importance of addressing the specific needs of younger stroke patients from admission to recovery through provision of inclusive all-age acute stroke services with tailored rehabilitation.

  19. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Discovering her birth parents was an exciting adventure for a 15-year-old girl It took 14 years-and just two minutes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family.July 21 this year marked the first

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings in adolescents and young adults with gastroesophageal reflux and antral gastritis: eradication results to no significant clinical improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Xinias

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD remains controversial. The aim was to investigate the association between Hp infection and gastroesophageal reflux (GER and the impact of Hp eradication on esophageal acid exposure and motility in adolescents and young adults with Hp gastritis and GERD. Sixty-four patients with symptoms suggestive for GERD, of which 40 Hp-positive (group A and 24 Hp-negative (group B, underwent endoscopy-biopsy, esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH-metry. All group A patients received eradication treatment and were re-evaluated six months later again with 24-hour pH-metry, esophageal manometry, endoscopy-biopsy and clinical assessment. At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, grade of endoscopic esophagitis, manometric and pH-metry findings. All Hp-positive patients had an antral predominant gastritis. Eradication of Hp was successful in all patients, and gastritis and esophagitis were healed in all patients. The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP increased significantly from 11.25 mmHg before to 11.71 mmHg after eradication (P<0.05. A significant decrease in reflux index was observed (mean RI 6.02% before versus 4.96% after eradication (P<0.05. However clinical symptoms of GER improved not significantly after 6 months follow up. Conclusively, in children and young adults with GER symptoms and GERD, the presence or absence of Hp has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings. Eradication of Hp infection results in increase in LESP with a consequent decrease in esophageal acid exposure but not significant clinical improvement.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings in adolescents and young adults with gastroesophageal reflux and antral gastritis: eradication results to no significant clinical improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinias, Ioannis; Maris, Theophanis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Panteliadis, Christos; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-02-05

    The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains controversial. The aim was to investigate the association between Hp infection and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the impact of Hp eradication on esophageal acid exposure and motility in adolescents and young adults with Hp gastritis and GERD. Sixty-four patients with symptoms suggestive for GERD, of which 40 Hp-positive (group A) and 24 Hp-negative (group B), underwent endoscopy-biopsy, esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH-metry. All group A patients received eradication treatment and were re-evaluated six months later again with 24-hour pH-metry, esophageal manometry, endoscopy-biopsy and clinical assessment. At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, grade of endoscopic esophagitis, manometric and pH-metry findings. All Hp-positive patients had an antral predominant gastritis. Eradication of Hp was successful in all patients, and gastritis and esophagitis were healed in all patients. The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) increased significantly from 11.25 mmHg before to 11.71 mmHg after eradication (P<0.05). A significant decrease in reflux index was observed (mean RI 6.02% before versus 4.96% after eradication (P<0.05). However clinical symptoms of GER improved not significantly after 6 months follow up. Conclusively, in children and young adults with GER symptoms and GERD, the presence or absence of Hp has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings. Eradication of Hp infection results in increase in LESP with a consequent decrease in esophageal acid exposure but not significant clinical improvement.

  2. Evaluation of the results of bone mineral density measurement in adult women in longevity region%长寿地区成年女性骨密度测量结果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 徐世民; 李春燕; 冯哲; 贺韩臻

    2013-01-01

    目的 检测广西巴马地区20岁~60岁成年女性的骨密度,探讨其骨密度变化的规律.方法 随机选取当地268位20岁~60岁成年女性,按不同年龄分组,每组5岁,共8组.应用韩国生产跟骨超声骨密度测定仪,测定跟骨骨密度.采用SPSS16.0对数据进行分析.结果 268例全部进入分析.(1)女性的峰值骨密度处于36岁~40岁年龄组,峰值组的骨密度高于绝经后组(P<0.05),且随年龄的增加呈现先升高后下降的趋势.(2)女性的骨密度随年龄的增加而减少,导致骨质疏松症的发病率升高.(3)Pearson相关分析显示,女性的SI和年龄呈现出负相关(r=-0.193,P<0.01),和身高有显著关系(r=0.157,P<0.05),并未发现与体重和BMI有关系.结论 广西巴马地区20岁~60岁女性SI值与年龄和身高均有显著相关性,本研究获得的SI值为进一步探讨长寿地区成年女性的骨密度状况提供参考依据.%Objective To investigate the changing pattern of bone mineral density (BMD) by testing BMD in adult women aging from 20 to 60 years old in Bama, Guangxi. Methods Two hundred and sixty-eight adult women aging from 20 to 60 years old were randomly selected. All subjects were divided into 8 groups according to a 5-year-age division. BMD of the calcaneus was tested with ultrasound BMD detector ( Korea). A SPSS 16. 0 software was used to analyze the data. Results The data of all 268 women were analyzed. The peak BMD of the women occurred in 36-40-year-old group. Peak BMD was higher than that in postmenopausal group (P < 0. 05 ) , with a tendency of increasing first then decreasing along with the increase of age. BMD of women decreased along with the increase of age , leading to a high incidence of osteoporosis. SI of BMD was negatively correlated with age ( r = - 0. 193, P < 0. 01 ) while it was significantly correlated with height ( r = 0. 157 , P < 0. 05 ) , according to Pearson correlation analysis . However, no correlation with