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Sample records for adult women findings

  1. Adult Education for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, T. R.

    1980-01-01

    Apathy, indifference, and neglect has characterized adult education for women in India. The National Adult Education Programme must focus attention and funding on women if the extremely low percentage of female literacy is to be improved. (SK)

  2. Purposeful exercise and lifestyle physical activity in the lives of young adult women: findings from a diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Arikawa, Andrea; Kaufman, Beth C; Kurzer, Mindy S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2009-12-01

    It is important to know how physical activity is incorporated in women's lives to assess ways they can feasibly attain and maintain lifelong healthy practices. This study aimed to determine whether patterns of activity differed among young women whose physical activity met nationally recommended levels from those who did not. The sample was 42 women (aged 18-30 years) who had completed an exercise intervention (22 from the exercise group, 20 from the control group). Participants recorded pedometer steps and physical activities in diaries including form, duration and perceived exertion during 12 randomly assigned weeks over 26 weeks. We divided the sample into quartiles of moderate to vigorous physical activity to examine the composition of physical activities per quartile. Walking and shopping comprised the majority of physical activity in the lowest quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity. In the second and third quartiles, walking and household/childcare together comprised more than two-thirds of all activities. Only in the highest quartile was cardio activity (not including walking, shopping and household/childcare) the largest proportion of activity; this category stood alone as varying significantly across quartiles of moderate to vigorous physical activity (p activity was not sufficient to meet recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The one-quarter who met recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity did so largely through purposeful physical activities directly associated with exercise. Further research is needed to refine means of more fully measuring physical activities that women frequently perform, with particular attention to household work, childcare and shopping and to differing combinations of activities and levels of exertion by which diverse women can meet the recommended levels. The findings of this small scale study reinforce the ongoing benefit of recommending structured, planned physical

  3. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant W Edmonds

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (LTL shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02. Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  4. Effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index change among adult women in India: findings from a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index (BMI) change in a follow-up study of 325 women (aged 15-49 years) in Delhi, systematically selected from the 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey samples who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information was collected on height, weight, dietary habits, and sedentary lifestyle through face-to-face interviews. Overall, a 2.0-point increase in mean BMI was found among women in just 4 years. Every second normal-BMI woman, two in five overweight women, and every fourth obese woman experienced a > 2.0-point increase in her mean BMI. High sedentary lifestyle (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.29-5.35) emerged as the main predictor of a > 2.0-point increase in mean BMI in adjusted analysis, but there was weak evidence of association with the dietary covariates. Our findings suggest that a high sedentary lifestyle is a determinant of weight gain among adult women in urban India.

  5. Women in Adult Education

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    Vida A. Mohorčič Špolar

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of data regarding the inclusion of women in formal education by the level of education, by field of educa­ tion in the secondary level and by the institutions of higher education. Furthermore it presents the analysis of statistical data regarding the percentage of the employed women in 1985 and 1993 by different fields of industry.

  6. Immunizations for adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Larkin, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Immunizations protect individual persons and contribute to public health by reducing morbidity and mortality associated with common infectious diseases. In this Practice Pearl, we review guidelines for adult immunizations and recent and potential changes in vaccines.

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder casts a long shadow: findings from a population-based study of adult women with self-reported ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Lewis, D A; Agbeyaka, S K

    2016-11-01

    To develop a sociodemographic and health profile of women with self-reported attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison to women without. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted on data from the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (2012) comparing 107 women aged 20 to 39 years (inclusive) with ADHD to 3801 without ADHD. Depression, generalized anxiety disorder and substance abuse were measured using the WHO-CIDI. Women with ADHD had triple the prevalence of insomnia, chronic pain, suicidal ideation, childhood sexual abuse and generalized anxiety disorder and double the prevalence of substance abuse, current smoking, depressive disorders, severe poverty and childhood physical abuse in comparison with women without ADHD (all P ADHD had substantially higher odds of a wide range of problems. Our results suggest that women with ADHD are particularly vulnerable to early adversities, health and mental health problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan B.; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20–59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Study design Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Results Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. Conclusion The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation. PMID:22901287

  9. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women--associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan B; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-08-06

    To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20-59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  10. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women - associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan B; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20-59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  11. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan B. Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20–59 years and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006. Study design. Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Results. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively. Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. Conclusion. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  12. Smoking cessation in women: findings from qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study is to describe the experience of successful smoking cessation in adult women. The convenience sample included 10 women, ages 25 to 42, who had abstained from smoking for at least 6 months but not longer than 3 years. A semistructured interview format was used to elicit descriptions of the experience of successful smoking cessation from these subjects. The interview format explored the experience, including initial contemplation, the process of quitting, and maintenance of smoking abstinence. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and then analyzed using methods outlined by Miles and Huberman [1]. Four themes emerged from the data: evolving commitment to health and personal growth, being stigmatized, changing conceptualization of smoking, and smoking cessation as a relational phenomenon. These findings were consistent with Pender's Health Promotion Model and have implications for nurse practitioners who counsel women on smoking cessation.

  13. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Mohan B.; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20-59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006).Study design: Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey.Results: Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total populati...

  14. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India: findings from a nationwide large-scale cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-05-01

    Increasing prevalence of asthma in developing countries has been a significant challenge for public health in recent decades. A number of studies have suggested that ambient air pollution can trigger asthma attacks. Biomass and solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in developing countries the health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. In this study we examined the effect of cooking smoke produced by biomass and solid fuel combustion on the reported prevalence of asthma among adult men and women in India. The analysis is based on 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged between 20 and 49 years included in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005-2006. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, determined by the type of fuel used for cooking such as biomass and solid fuels versus cleaner fuels, on the reported prevalence of asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Since the effects of cooking smoke are likely to be confounded with effects of tobacco smoking, age, and other such factors, the analysis was carried out after statistically controlling for such factors. The results indicate that adult women living in households using biomass and solid fuels have a significantly higher risk of asthma than those living in households using cleaner fuels (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.06-1.49; p = .010), even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. Interestingly, this effect was not found among men (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.77-1.24; p = .846). However, tobacco smoking was associated with higher asthma prevalence among both women (OR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.34-2.21; p effects of biomass and solid fuel use and tobacco smoke on the risk of asthma were greater and more significant in women (OR: 2.16; 95%CI: 1.58-2.94; p countries such as India, where large proportions of the population still rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Decreasing household biomass and solid fuel use

  15. Sexual behavior of single adult American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein Lindberg, Laura; Singh, Susheela

    2008-03-01

    Public policies promoting abstinence until marriage attempt to influence the sexual behavior of the more than 18 million American women who are currently single. An analysis of these women's behavior is needed to inform policies that are responsive to their sexual and reproductive health needs. Sexual behaviors, risk factors and reproductive health needs were examined among a nationally representative sample of 6,493 women aged 20-44 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Paired t tests were used to assess differences among single, married and cohabiting women by selected demographic, behavioral and risk measures. Thirty-six percent of women aged 20-44 are single, and nine in 10 single women are sexually experienced. Seventy percent of the latter women are currently sexually active; on average, they had intercourse in seven of the last 12 months. A higher proportion of single women (22%) than of cohabiting (9%) or married women (2%) have had two or more partners in the past year, and half of single women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, single women and cohabiting women are more likely to lack health insurance than are married women (21-25% vs. 12%). Because of the high level of sexual activity among single adult women, providers must address their reproductive health care needs and offer appropriate counseling and services. Government policies aimed at encouraging adult women to have sex only within marriage appear out of touch with the reality of the sexual behavior of single women.

  16. HRCT findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia

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    Kim, Young Beom; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Park, Jai Soung; Lee, Soo Kyung; Im, Han Hyek; Kim, Young Tong; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang Univ. Hospital, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    To analyze the HRCT findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia and correlate these with clinical information. HRCT was performed in 17 cases of 15 adult patients (M:F=5:10) in whom mycoplasma pneumonia had been serologically confirmed. The pattern, extent and distribution of abnormalities were reviewed retrospectively and a changing pattern of abnormalities during the course of the disease was correlated with clinical symptoms. Unilateral(n=11) and lower lobe(n=12) involvement and multiplicity in involved lobes(n=10) were the most common abnormalities. Abnormalities on HRCT were as follows:nodules(n=15), areas of consolidation(n=14), nodules and areas of consolidation(n=13). Most abnormalities(n=11) were segmental or subsegmental in distribution. The most common nodular pattern was centrilobular micronodules(<5mm) or branching linear structures(n=15). An air-bronchogram in areas of consolidation was noted in 13 of 14 cases (92.9%). Areas of ground-glass attenuation, bronchial wall thickening and dilatation were observed in 11 cases as part of a mixed pattern. Additional findings were interlobular septal thickening(n=9), air-trapping(n=1), pleural effusion(n=2), and mediastinal lymphadenopathy(n=1). The relationship between the pattern of abnormalities and duration of the disease(from the onset of symptoms to the time of HRCT scan) was as follows. Group 1 (similar area ratio of consolidation and nodules) was predominant at 1 week, Group 2 (prominent areas of consolidation(>2/3)) at 2 weeks, and Group 3(prominent areas of nodules(>2/3)) over 3 weeks. The main findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia were nodules or areas of consolidation with segmental or subsegmental distribution. The early stage of the disease may show a pattern of a similar prapertion of areas of consolidation and of nodules, followed by increase in the propertion of areas of consolidation(>2/3) as the disease progresses. At the resolvtion stage, the extent of lesions will decrease and nodules will be

  17. Radiographic findings in adult pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T. W.; Youn, Y. S.; Won, J. J

    1981-01-01

    During the period from March, 1980 to February, 1981 in the Department of Radiology, Jeonbug National University Hospital, we reviewed the radiologic findings of 879 cases newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis and 56 cases diagnosed tuberculous pleural effusion without lung parenchymal lesion on initial chest P-A film in the adult (older than 16 years). The results were as follows. 1. Sex distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis was 668 cases (76%) in male, 211 cases (24%) in female, the average age 44.6, and the highest incidence in the third and sixth decade with similarity. 2. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was highest in the springtime (29.5%) and its peak particularly in May. 3. Classifying the extent of pulmonary tuberculosis into minimal, moderately advanced and far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, their ratio was 6 : 1.5 : 1 with the concrete date of 553 cases (70.8%), 136 cases (17.4%) and 92 cases (11.8%) respectively. 4. In the case of minimal pulmonary tuberculosis the location of TB-lesion incidence were right upper, left upper and both upper lobes in the ratio of 45 : 27 :28 (%) 5. The radiological findings of pulmonary tuberculosis appeared various, but the ill-defined patchy density of exudative reaction signifying an initial lesion were than the most (35%). 6. As an unusual type of tuberculosis, cavitary TB was 38 cases (4.3%), among them, in 3 cases (7.9%) there appeared air-fluid level. Miliary TB was 8 cases (0.9%), mostly abundant in the youngsters (esp. in the third decade), and female immensely outnumbered male. Tuberculoma was 10 cases (1.4%), female preceded male in the ratio of 7 : 3, and in right upper lobe in the incidence was highest (50%). 7. Without lung parenchymal lesion, the cases to have caused an tuberculous pleural effusion were 56 (6.0%), and in the years of 16 to 29 it was the most frequent with 26 cases (46.4%). 8. With complicated pulmonary tuberculosis, 78 cases (9.5%) showed to combine with other diseases. Among

  18. FLOW (finding lasting options for women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Courtney; Rose, Caren Lee; Trouton, Konia; Stamm, Holly; Marentette, Danielle; Kirkpatrick, Nicole; Karalic, Sanja; Fernandez, Renee; Paget, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether menstrual cups are a viable alternative to tampons. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Prince George, Victoria, and Vancouver, BC. Participants A total of 110 women aged 19 to 40 years who had previously used tampons as their main method of menstrual management. Intervention Participants were randomized into 2 groups, a tampon group and a menstrual cup group. Using online diaries, participants tracked 1 menstrual cycle using their regular method and 3 menstrual cycles using the method of their allocated group. Main outcome measures Overall satisfaction; secondary outcomes included discomfort, urovaginal infection, cost, and waste. Results Forty-seven women in each group completed the final survey, 5 of whom were subsequently excluded from analysis (3 from the tampon group and 2 from the menstrual cup group). Overall satisfaction on a 7-point Likert scale was higher for the menstrual cup group than for the tampon group (mean [standard deviation] score 5.4 [1.5] vs 5.0 [1.0], respectively; P = .04). Approximately 91% of women in the menstrual cup group said they would continue to use the cup and recommend it to others. Women used a median of 13 menstrual products per cycle, or 169 products per year, which corresponds to approximately 771 248 400 products used annually in Canada. Estimated cost for tampon use was $37.44 a year (similar to the retail cost of 1 menstrual cup). Subjective vaginal discomfort was initially higher in the menstrual cup group, but the discomfort decreased with continued use. There was no significant difference in physician-diagnosed urovaginal symptoms between the 2 groups. Conclusion Both of the menstrual management methods evaluated were well tolerated by subjects. Menstrual cups are a satisfactory alternative to tampons and have the potential to be a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with moderate cost savings and much-reduced environmental effects compared with tampons. Trial

  19. Women and the Struggle for Daytime Adult Education in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Daytime adult education has emerged in Ireland in the form of voluntary, locally based groups of working class women providing education for themselves and others. A survey of 96 groups illuminated their struggles with finding suitable space, day care, and advertising. They thrive because of disenchantment with the content, scheduling, and form of…

  20. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey ( N =1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women's current gender identity (i.e., butch , femme , androgynous , or other ) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences.

  1. Radiographic findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Mi Hye; Choe, Kyu Ok [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    Mycoplasma pneumonia has known to be a not uncommon disease. However, the differential diagnosis of mycoplasm pneumonia with other viral pneumonia is difficult because of its variable clinical symptoms and atypical radiologic findings. A retrospective review was made of plain chest radiologic findings and clinical manifestations of 33 patients, who were admitted at Yonsei University Hospital from January, 1985 to February, 1990. The most prevalent age was 4th decade (33%) and main symptoms were cough (24/33), fever (2/33) and sputum (20/22). The most frequent season was winter (50%). The radiologic patterns were predominently interstitial (15/33), combined (13/33) and predominently alveolar (5/33) lesion. In alveolar infiltration cases (n 18), unilateral single lobe involvement was the most common (17/18) and left lower lobe (8/18) was predominently involved. Associated radiologic findings were hilar lymphadenopathy (4/33), pleural effusion (4/33) and cardiomegaly (7/33)

  2. Adult polysplenia syndrome.CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastia, M.C.; Hernandez, D.; Garriga, V.; Alvarez-Castells, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of polysplenia in a 55-year-old patient that was diagnosed incidentally by CT. Chest X-ray disclosed a hooked prominence of the azygos vein over right hilum, left bronchial isomerism and the absence of the inferior vena cava in an X-ray of the right side. The abdominal CT findings included multiple spleens and stomach in upper right quadrant, centrally located liver and gallbladder, intestinal malrotation, interrupted inferior vena cava continued in the azygos system, and short pancreas. Echocardiography revealed mitral stenosis not associated with cardiac malformation. (Author)

  3. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263

  4. Dental amalgam and cognitive function in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, S R; Snowdon, D A; Wekstein, M W; Henry, R G; Grant, F T; Donegan, S J; Wekstein, D R

    1995-11-01

    The authors determined the number and surface area of occlusal dental amalgams in a group of 129 Roman Catholic sisters who were 75 to 102 years of age. Findings from this study of women with relatively homogeneous adult lifestyles and environments suggest that existing amalgams are not associated with lower performance on eight different tests of cognitive function.

  5. The radiographic findings of adult congenital megacolon disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaotao; Yu Jingying; Zhang Yongchun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the radiographic findings of adult megacolon. Methods: Barium enema examination was performed in 6 patients with megacolon proved by operation. Results: The principal radiographic findings were a markedly dilated colon, the largest diameter was 22 cm, and a narrowed rectum, its length was 3-7 cm; with a cone or funnel shaped transitional segment, it is about 2-6 cm long. Conclusion: The barium enema examination is the most reliable and simple method in diagnosing adult congenital megacolon

  6. Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: CT and MRI findings in eight cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de; Bertoldi, Guilherme A. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Radiologia Diagnostica]. E-mail: arnolfo.carvalho@avalon.sul.com.br; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Secao de Radiologia Diagnostica; Ono, Sergio E. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Gomes, Andre F. [Diagnostico Avancado Por Imagem (DAPI), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-06-01

    Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of neuro epithelial origin, which represents 15 to 30% of all pediatric brain tumors, and less than 1% of CNS adult neoplasms. We report the imaging findings of 8 adult patients with medulloblastoma. The mean age was 35 years, ranging from 20 to 65 years, and the male:female rate was 3:5. The tumors were predominantly lateral (63%), hyperdense on CT scans (83%), and on the MRI, hypointense on T1 (100%) and hyperintense on T2 (80%) weighted images. It was seen intratumoral necrosis and cysts in six cases and calcifications in three. Hydrocephalus was observed in 5 cases and brain stem invasion in four. The imaging findings of medulloblastomas in adults are different of those in child, and also nonspecific. Although these tumors are uncommon in adults, they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar masses in the posterior fossa of this age group. (author)

  7. Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: CT and MRI findings in eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Neto Arnolfo de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of neuroepithelial origin, which represents 15 to 30% of all pediatric brain tumors, and less than 1% of CNS adult neoplasms. We report the imaging findings of 8 adult patients with medulloblastoma. The mean age was 35 years, ranging from 20 to 65 years, and the male:female rate was 3:5. The tumors were predominantly lateral (63%, hyperdense on CT scans (83%, and on the MRI, hypointense on T1 (100% and hyperintense on T2 (80% weighted images. It was seen intratumoral necrosis and cysts in six cases and calcifications in three. Hydrocephalus was observed in 5 cases and brain stem invasion in four. The imaging findings of medulloblastomas in adults are different of those in child, and also nonspecific. Although these tumors are uncommon in adults, they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar masses in the posterior fossa of this age group.

  8. Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: CT and MRI findings in eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de; Bertoldi, Guilherme A.

    2003-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of neuro epithelial origin, which represents 15 to 30% of all pediatric brain tumors, and less than 1% of CNS adult neoplasms. We report the imaging findings of 8 adult patients with medulloblastoma. The mean age was 35 years, ranging from 20 to 65 years, and the male:female rate was 3:5. The tumors were predominantly lateral (63%), hyperdense on CT scans (83%), and on the MRI, hypointense on T1 (100%) and hyperintense on T2 (80%) weighted images. It was seen intratumoral necrosis and cysts in six cases and calcifications in three. Hydrocephalus was observed in 5 cases and brain stem invasion in four. The imaging findings of medulloblastomas in adults are different of those in child, and also nonspecific. Although these tumors are uncommon in adults, they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar masses in the posterior fossa of this age group. (author)

  9. The Pattern of Hysterosalpingographic Findings in Women Being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tubal occlusion is the commonest cause of female infertility in the developing societies. Hysterosalpingography remains a vital method of assessing tubal patency especially in resource limited settings such as ours. Objective: To review the pattern of hysterosalpingographic findings among women being ...

  10. Patterns of maternal tobacco use among Cambodian women: findings from a nationwide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N; Kheam, They; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran S; Yel, Daravuth

    2013-09-01

    Although current trends indicate that the rate of cigarette smoking tends to be low among women in the Western Pacific Region (Malaysia) identify that a large proportion of women of reproductive age and older chew tobacco--often as part of a betel quid mixture that includes other potentially harmful ingredients (eg, areca nut). Our findings from currently pregnant women identified during a nationwide survey of adult tobacco use in Cambodia indicate that 13.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8% to 17%) were current users of smoked or smokeless (in the form of a betel quid) tobacco. Most pregnant women who used tobacco indicated that their habit was either initiated (29.1%; 95% CI = 16.3-46.3) or increased (33.7%; 95% CI = 18.3-53.5) during pregnancy. Pregnancy-related symptoms such as morning sickness were reported as the reason for more than half (54.9%; 95% CI = 34.8-73.4) of the currently pregnant users to have started a tobacco habit during their lifetime. Among those pregnant women who did not use tobacco, we found strong associations (odds ratios from 2 to 14) with beliefs about the harmful effects of tobacco on adult health, faith-based beliefs in addictive substances, and beliefs that influential members of the community, health professionals, and children should not use tobacco. Our findings indicate that tobacco cessation and prevention programs in Cambodia should specifically target pregnant and reproductive-age women.

  11. Bare lymphocyte syndrome: imaging findings in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vandevenne, J.E.; De Schepper, A.M.; Lambert, J.; De Clerck, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a rare primary immune disorder characterized by defective expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) on lymphocytes, often resulting in extensive and recurrent multi-organ infections. We describe a previously undiagnosed case of an adult woman who presented with radiological findings of severe bronchiectases, near-total granulomatous destruction of facial bones, and osteomyelitis. Diagnosis of BLS should be considered when evaluating children with unexplained bronchiectases or adults with long history of chronic multi-organ infections. (orig.)

  12. Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jody L.

    The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

  13. Unusual radiological findings of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Sue Hyun

    1987-01-01

    Usual chest radiographic findings in pulmonary tuberculosis are well described in radiologic literatures for both primary and postprimary phases of disease. During the last decade, many authors have enumerated the unusual manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult population. These unusual findings usually have been involved in the frequent failure of both radiologist and clinician to recognize that tuberculosis could be the cause of a abnormal chest radiograph in patients who are finally and surprisingly proven to have tuberculosis. Authors have evaluated 249 patients who were admitted and newly proven to have adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January, 1985 to December, 1986. Unusual findings were noted in 76 (30.5%) of the 249 patients with adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis. These unusual findings most frequently could be seen in 3rd decades and showed no sex difference in incidence. A broad spectrum of abnormal findings including usual and unusual abnormalities were procedure by adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis. The unusual radiographic findings were arbitrarily classified. Pleural effusion without parenchymal disease (10.0%), unusual location of infiltrate (5.6%) and atelectasis (3.2%) were relatively common. Hilar and / or mediastinal lymphnode enlargement (1.6%), cavity without parenchymal infiltrates (1.6%), septic lung-like infiltrates (1.6%), completely clear lungs (1.2%), miliary infiltrates (1.2%), fibrocalcific scar-like infiltrates (1.2%), masslike density (1.2%) and rheumatoid lung-like infiltrates (1.2%) were occasionally noted. Pneumothorax without parenchymal disease (0.4%) and bron chocutaneous fistula (0.4%) are. The recognition of these unusual findings could further improve the detection and diagnosis of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis

  14. Indoor Tanning Dependence in Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2017-11-01

    Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity. Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood. Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. CT findings of lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in adult myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fugeng; Wei Jiahu; Pan Jishu; Zhou Cheng; Chen Qihang; Yu Jingying; Wu Guogeng; Xu Xianhao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT findings of lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in adult myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: The CT findings of thymus area of 134 adult patients with lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in MG were reviewed, all of them with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis, and compared with the CT findings of 165 normal subjects. Results: In the group of patient, CT showed enlargement of thymus in 31 patients, 5 patients had nodule or mass ( 3 cm) and 9 patients (6.7%) had normal size thymus with soft-tissue density, it can considered with thymic hyperplasia. The spotty or streak shadow showed in other patients, though it could not be certain diagnosed as thymic hyperplasia, but could not be except it. The thymus area tissue complete replacement by fatty density were not found in patient group. The CT findings of patients had marked difference when compared with group of normal subjects (P<0.01), except the spotty or streak shadows. Conclusion: CT scan is an important method in diagnosing thymic lymphofollicular hyperplasia of MG in adult. (authors)

  16. Computed tomographic findings of liver injury in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Deok Gi; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Lee, Won Jae; Oh, Yeon Hee; Lee, Sung Hee; Yun, Jee Yeong; Lee, Tae Woo; Lee, Sung Woo; Park, Soo Soung

    1994-01-01

    We studied to compare computed tomographic(CT) findings of liver injury with management method in adults and, moreover, to present the CT basis for the management. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans of 43 adults diagnosed as liver injury during a 66 month period. Thirty-eight patients were hemodynamically stable. Thirty-two of them were managed conservatively, whereas six managed operatively. Five unstable patients underwent emergency operation. We classified CT findings according to the severity of liver injuries(ie, hematoma, laceration, and periportal tracking) and hemoperitoneum, ranging from grade 1 to 5 and from 0 to 3 +. respectively. Thus, we compared the CT classifications with their management(ie, operation rate), especially hemodynamically stable patients. Operation rates of all patients and hemodynamically stable patients were 26% and 16%, respectively. Operation rate at each grade of liver injury was low, especially in hemodynamically stable, despite relatively high operation rate in grade 4. Operation rate of 3+ homoperitoneum was 100%, including hemodynamically stable patients, in contrast to otherwise low operation rate of others. Most liver injury in adults, including grade 4, were managed conservatively, especially hemodynamically stable. Though large amount of hemoperitoneum(ie, 3+) required operation, most hemooperitoeum were managed conservatively. Thus, CT findings of liver injury is helpful in the decision for the management method

  17. Adipokine Profiling in Adult Women With Central Obesity and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Supriya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Central obesity and hypertension are common risk factors for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Studies have shown that it is more difficult to control blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage in obese individuals with hypertension compared to their non-obese counterparts, especially among women. Obese females have a 6 times higher risk of developing hypertension than non-obese females while obese males are at a 1.5 times higher risk of developing hypertension, compared to their non-obese counterparts. Indeed, the inter-relationship between obesity and hypertension is unclear. Adipokines have been proposed to play a mediating role in the relationship between obesity and hypertension and are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Therefore, this study sought to determine the role of adipokines (adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α in hypertensive Hong Kong Chinese women with central obesity. A total of 387 women aged 58 ± 11 years who were examined with a 2 × 2 factorial design for central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm and hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, were recruited from a pool of 1,492 Hong Kong Chinese adults who were previously screened for metabolic syndrome. Subjects with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia were excluded to eliminate confounding effects. Our findings revealed that hypertensive women with central obesity had a lower anti-inflammatory status (adiponectin and a higher pro-inflammatory status (TNF-α than obese alone or hypertensive alone women. Also, women with central obesity had higher circulatory PAI-1 and leptin concentrations than their non-obese counterparts. We conclude that obesity may shift toward a more pro-inflammatory state and may become more severe in the presence of hypertension or vice versa.

  18. Women's empowerment: Finding strength in self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Olivia; Allen, Ashley Batts

    2017-03-01

    Empowerment is often a desired outcome for health programs; however, it is rarely evaluated. One way to increase empowerment may be through self-compassion. The authors of the current study aimed to determine whether self-compassion and empowerment were positively related. Two hundred and five women (ages 18 to 48 years) were recruited from a pool of undergraduate students at a university in the southeastern United States in the summer/fall of 2012. Participants completed the study using Qualtrics, an online survey system. Participants wrote about a fight in a romantic relationship and were randomly assigned to write about the fight either self-compassionately or generally. Empowerment and perceptions of the fight were assessed as dependent measures. Hierarchical regression analyses investigated the relation of self-compassion, manipulated self-compassion, and their interaction with empowerment. A significant positive relationship was found between self-compassion and empowerment. However, manipulated self-compassion was not significantly related to empowerment. These findings suggested that self-compassion and empowerment were strongly related, but using a short-term self-compassion intervention may not be strong enough to influence empowerment. Empowerment-based practitioners may find empowerment increases more easily in women who are self-compassionate. If self-compassion is incorporated into empowerment settings, a long-term intervention may be necessary.

  19. Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimah, A K; Safiah, M; Jamal, K; Haslinda, Siti; Zuhaida, H; Rohida, S; Fatimah, S; Norazlin, Siti; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Manan, W M; Fatimah, S; Azmi, M Y

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2½ plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21

  20. Pediatric Heart Transplantation: Transitioning to Adult Care (TRANSIT): Baseline Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Kathleen L; Hof, Kathleen Van't; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Shankel, Tamara; Chinnock, Richard; Miyamoto, Shelley; Ambardekar, Amrut V; Anderson, Allen; Addonizio, Linda; Latif, Farhana; Lefkowitz, Debra; Goldberg, Lee; Hollander, Seth A; Pham, Michael; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Cool, Nichole; Yancy, Clyde; Pahl, Elfriede

    2018-02-01

    Young adult solid organ transplant recipients who transfer from pediatric to adult care experience poor outcomes related to decreased adherence to the medical regimen. Our pilot trial for young adults who had heart transplant (HT) who transfer to adult care tests an intervention focused on increasing HT knowledge, self-management and self-advocacy skills, and enhancing support, as compared to usual care. We report baseline findings between groups regarding (1) patient-level outcomes and (2) components of the intervention. From 3/14 to 9/16, 88 subjects enrolled and randomized to intervention (n = 43) or usual care (n = 45) at six pediatric HT centers. Patient self-report questionnaires and medical records data were collected at baseline, and 3 and 6 months after transfer. For this report, baseline findings (at enrollment and prior to transfer to adult care) were analyzed using Chi-square and t-tests. Level of significance was p Baseline demographics were similar in the intervention and usual care arms: age 21.3 ± 3.2 vs 21.5 ± 3.3 years and female 44% vs 49%, respectively. At baseline, there were no differences between intervention and usual care for use of tacrolimus (70 vs 62%); tacrolimus level (mean ± SD = 6.5 ± 2.3 ng/ml vs 5.6 ± 2.3 ng/ml); average of the within patient standard deviation of the baseline mean tacrolimus levels (1.6 vs 1.3); and adherence to the medical regimen [3.6 ± 0.4 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 (1 = hardly ever to 4 = all of the time)], respectively. At baseline, both groups had a modest amount of HT knowledge, were learning self-management and self-advocacy, and perceived they were adequately supported. Baseline findings indicate that transitioning HT recipients lack essential knowledge about HT and have incomplete self-management and self-advocacy skills.

  1. CT findings in adult Wilms' tumor involving both kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, R.; Lasierra, R.; Pina, J.I.; Benito, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common renal neoplasm during childhood, but it rarely presents in adults and even less frequently involves both kidneys at onset. The preoperative diagnosis is difficult, although it should be suspected (despite the low incidence) in cases of renal masses that contain necrotic tissue, calcification or fat. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with bilateral kidney mass and lung metastases. The patient had never complained of urinary symptoms prior to this finding. (Author) 12 refs

  2. Anterior Segment Findings in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Karaca Adıyeke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anterior segment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and to compare them with those of healthy reproductive-age female volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 right eyes of 50 women with PCOS (group 1 and 50 right eyes of 50 healthy women (group 2. Intraocular pressure, Schirmer’s test, tear film break-up time and central corneal thickness were evaluated in all subjects. Correlations between serum hormone (estradiol and testosterone levels and observed findings were also investigated. Results: Mean central corneal thickness values were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p=0.001. The mean intraocular pressures values were similar between the two groups (p=0.560. Schirmer’s test results and tear film break-up time values were significantly lower in the PCOS group (p=0.001 and p=0.001 respectively. Serum estradiol levels were moderately positively correlated with mean central corneal thickness (r=0.552, weakly positively correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.351 and weakly negatively correlated with tear film break-up time (r=-0.393. Serum free testosterone levels were weakly correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.342 and central corneal thickness (r=0.303, and showed weak negative correlations with Schirmer’s test results (r=-0.562 and tear film break-up time (r=-0.502. Conclusion: PCOS leads to physiological and structural changes in the eye. Dry eye symptoms were more severe and central corneal thickness measurements were greater in patients with PCOS. Those are correlated serum testosterone and estradiol levels.

  3. Paratracheal air cysts of thoracic inlet in adults: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of a paratracheal cyst on CT in an adult, and to compare the degree of loculation and the patient's age with the longest diameter of the air cysts. Of 1520 patients, who underwent a CT scan, 41 patients with paratracheal cysts were enrolled in this study. There were 26-males and 15 females, whose ranged from 24 to 82 years (mean, 59.8). The CT findings were evaluated to determine the relationship between the degree of loculation and the longest diameter of the air cysts. Another tracheal diverticula or an air cyst, as well as the tracheal communication were also evaluated. The longest diameter of the paratracheal air cysts was 1 cm (ρ = 0.043). The paratracheal air cysts 2 cm were multilocular. Four patients had another small tracheal diverticula, and one patient had another small paratracheal air cyst. Tracheal communication was observed in 7 patients (17%). The frequency of paratracheal air cysts in adults undergoing a CT scan was 2.7%. The longest diameter of the paratracheal air cysts was associated with the patient's age. The shape of air cysts became more multilocular as the longest diameter of the paratracheal air cysts increased. Another small tracheal diverticula or air cysts were observed in 12% of patients

  4. Women in medicine: the challenge of finding balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilos, Sophia; Chan, Melissa; Brown, Judith Belle

    2008-09-01

    To examine the experiences of women physicians with regard to the interplay between career and lifestyle choices and to discover how women's experiences have evolved during the past 3 decades. Qualitative study using a phenomenologic approach and in-depth interviews. Southwestern Ontario. A total of 12 women physicians. A purposeful sample of women physicians was selected using a maximum variation sampling strategy. Through semistructured interviews, participants' experiences, opinions, behaviour, and feelings were explored. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The analysis strategy was both iterative and interpretive. Researchers independently reviewed and coded each transcript to identify key emerging themes, and the research team met to discuss and compare individual interpretations. Interviews continued until saturation was achieved. Three main challenges emerged from the women physicians' comments: lifestyle and career choices, family planning and career trajectory, and seeking balance. Despite the increased number of women physicians in the work force, the experiences and challenges faced by these women have not evolved during the past 30 years. Women continue to experience the strain of their dual role as women and as physicians, discordance between career and lifestyle choices, and difficulties with timing pregnancies. Some changes in legislation have been made to benefit women physicians, but these changes have not yet influenced attitudes and behaviour in the workplace.

  5. WOMEN IN CARCERE AND ADULT EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of our study conducted in the doctorate. We have divided the text in three stages as follows: the first a brief contextualization on female prisons and women in jail, at second stage, I present short stories of five women living in the prison in which I try to bring their everyday lives lived in the prison and in the last step I tract of the relationship of these detainees with the school and the schooling processes. At the end I trace some considerations and final questions about women in prison.

  6. Knowing Their Place: Feminist Understandings and Perceptions of Women Adult Educators in Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.; Sanford, K.

    2016-01-01

    Arguing gender inequity remains one of the biggest challenges of our time, and framed within the concept of "pedagogic contact zones", our article shares findings from a five-year feminist, cross-national study of women adult educators and community practitioners in public museums and art galleries in Canada and the United Kingdom.…

  7. Anal endosonographic findings in women after vaginal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona, E-mail: iwsud@ciop.pl [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Stefanski, Robert [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Panorska, Anna K. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Nevada, Reno (United States); Gardyszewska, Agnieszka [Second Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warsaw (Poland); Krasnodebski, Ireneusz [Department of General and Gastroenterological Surgery and Nutrition, Medical University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    Objective: To estimate a frequency of obstetric anal sphincters defects in women after vaginal delivery. Methods: The study included 102 women, aged from 16 to 40 years (mean age 28.6 years). 28 women had perineal lacerations of 3rd and 4th degree. 22 women had instrumental delivery. Anal endosonography was performed on all participants using BK Medical scanner Pro focus with a 3D endoprobe during the first week after delivery. Starck's classification was used to score sphincters defects. Results: The endosonographic images were abnormal in 8 out of 102 women (7.8%). Follow-up examinations after 6 weeks confirmed defects in 6 out of 102 women (5.8%). Five women had external anal sphincter torn, and 1 woman had both sphincters, internal and external, defected. Discordance between endosonographic diagnosis of defect and clinical assessment of sphincters continuity was demonstrated in 6 (5.9%) out of 8 initially found, including 2 (1.9%) false endosonographic results and 4 (3.9%) false clinical diagnosis (occult sphincter defects). The endosonography sensitivity and accuracy in sphincter defect diagnostic amounted to 100% and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: (1) Anal sphincters' tears in symptomatic women are not as frequent as it was believed. (2) The defect diagnosis in the first week after delivery should be verified by a follow-up endosonography in 6 weeks, after regression of the edema and hematoma.

  8. Women in Academic Science: Experimental Findings from Hiring Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    Although women are underrepresented in the most mathematically intensive fields, the gender gap in these fields has narrowed over the past 2 decades. In my E. L. Thorndike address I summarized the temporal trends in sex differences for 8 fields and considered factors that drive both the underrepresentation of women and its recent narrowing. I…

  9. Women Owners Of SMMEs: Finding Their Place In The Sun

    OpenAIRE

    Orpha Cilliers; Johan Strydom

    2016-01-01

    Women business ownership is cardinal for long-term economic growth.  Research provides divergent reasons for the difference in the characteristics of SMMEs owned by women and those owned by men.  In this study, a quantitative survey was conducted among 650 formal SMMEs in Soweto Township, South Africa, using questionnaires.  A third of the respondents comprised women, who were characterised as generally being older (67.6% were over the age of 40), having a higher level of education (11.1% had...

  10. Finding a balance: health promotion challenges of military women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazio, Janice Griffin; Buckley, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we explored what may determine, or predict, United States military women's health promotion behaviors. Using a descriptive correlational design grounded in Pender's Health Promotion model, 491 military women completed instruments measuring their demographic variables, perception of health, definition of health, self-efficacy, and interpersonal influences to determine the significant factors affecting participation in health promotion activities. The outcome indicated that self-efficacy and interpersonal influences were the most influential in determining health promotion. This research illuminates some of the challenges working women face in meeting health promotion activities and how best to support their ability to participate in healthy behaviors.

  11. Childhood predictors of adult adiposity: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Fh; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M; Carter, Frances A

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

  12. Finding Feminism, Finding Voice? Mobilising Community Education to Build Women's Participation in Myanmar's Political Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maber, Elizabeth Jane Tregoning

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by women activists and educators in mobilising community education to support new opportunities for women's activism in the context of Myanmar's political transition. Recent political reorientations in Myanmar which have resulted in a civilian-led democracy emerging from a repressive military regime, have…

  13. Lipoid pneumonia in adults: findings on high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Escuissato, Dante L.; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Araujo Neto, Cesar; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Irion, Klaus L.; Rodrigues, Rosana; Mancano, Alexandre Dias; Capone, Domenico; Fialho, Suzane Mansur; Souza, Carolina Althoff

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was aimed at describing the findings on high-resolution computed tomography in patients with exogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to mineral oil aspiration. Materials and methods: Eight adult patients - four men and four women - with mean age of 69.4 years were studied. All of the patients were users of mineral oil for treating intestinal constipation. High-resolution computed tomography studies of these patients were blindly evaluated by two radiologists. Results: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density and crazy paving pattern were the most frequent findings. The lesions were bilateral in six cases and unilateral in two. Conclusion: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density, associated with a clinical history of mineral oil ingestion virtually indicates a diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. (author)

  14. Lipoid pneumonia in adults: findings on high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology]. E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Araujo Neto, Cesar [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Irion, Klaus L. [The Cardiothoracic Centre NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Rodrigues, Rosana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF); Mancano, Alexandre Dias [Hospital Regional de Taguatinga, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Capone, Domenico [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Fialho, Suzane Mansur [Centro Nuclear da Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Carolina Althoff [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at describing the findings on high-resolution computed tomography in patients with exogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to mineral oil aspiration. Materials and methods: Eight adult patients - four men and four women - with mean age of 69.4 years were studied. All of the patients were users of mineral oil for treating intestinal constipation. High-resolution computed tomography studies of these patients were blindly evaluated by two radiologists. Results: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density and crazy paving pattern were the most frequent findings. The lesions were bilateral in six cases and unilateral in two. Conclusion: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density, associated with a clinical history of mineral oil ingestion virtually indicates a diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. (author)

  15. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function: Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L

    2010-01-01

    Introduction.  Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim.  To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing...... and responses is of paramount importance. A biopsychological paradigm was considered when reviewing currently available data, thus considering aspects of: (i) sexual differentiation of the brain, which is critical for sex differentiation in behavior; (ii) central neurobiology of sexual function, highlighting...... arousal in women in both procreation/reproduction and recreation/pleasure. The interaction between physiological and psychological states of women's sexual response, nonspecific sexual response, interoceptive awareness, and flexibility of sexual interests have also been addressed. Conclusion.  Further...

  16. The Romantic Relationship Experiences of Young Adult Women Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Carlson, Camille E; Hlavaty, Kathleen

    2018-05-01

    Guided by a review of the literature on intergenerational transmission of violence, or "the cycle of violence", and Johnson's typology of domestic violence, the current study qualitatively examined the romantic relationship experiences of 23 young adult women who were exposed to father-mother-perpetrated domestic violence (DV) during childhood and adolescence. Findings are partially consistent with the hypothesis that DV exposure is associated with an increased risk of later experiencing dating violence, such that half of the sample reported having abusive partners or relationships during high school. However, none of the young women reported violence or abuse during the early years of college, suggesting the salience of developmental timing when examining transmission of violence. Beyond whether the women experienced dating violence, they described how their earlier DV exposure experiences influence how they entered into, managed, and exited romantic relationships. By comparing their potential, former, and current romantic relationships with their fathers' violence and abuse, their mothers' victimization, and high school relationship partners' behaviors, the young women actively and strategically managed their relationship involvement over time. Although women exposed to both situational couple and coercive controlling violence reported experiencing abuse during high school, only women with coercive controlling exposure experienced reported having nonabusive, healthy, and supportive relationships. Findings suggest that the romantic relationship experiences of DV-exposed young adult women are complex, warranting a holistic approach that takes into consideration the full range of potential relationship experiences, the role of former relationships, and developmental timing when seeking to prevent and intervene in intergenerational transmission processes.

  17. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function : Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Levin, Roy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    Introduction. Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim. To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing

  18. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  19. Radiologic findings of adult pelvis and appendicular skeletal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in nine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, You Seon; Lee, In Sook; Kim, Do Kyung; Yi, Jae Hyuck; Cho, Kil Ho; Song, Jong Woon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the radiologic findings of adult pelvis and appendicular skeletal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), emphasizing the CT and MR findings. The images of nine patients with pathologically proven LCH (five men and four women; mean age, 37.11 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging analysis was confined to the long and flat bones. CT scans were performed in five patients and MR imaging was performed in eight. Images were assessed for the following features on CT and MRI: the location and number of lesions; the presence of cortical destruction, endosteal scalloping, and a periosteal reaction on CT or MRI; the margin of soft tissue masses, the presence of bone marrow edema, and a ''budding'' appearance on MRI; and the presence of sclerotic margins or septations on CT. The involved skeletal sites were the pelvis (seven), femurs (five), humeri (two), tibias (two), fibula (one), clavicle (one), scapula (one), and sternum (one). Endosteal scalloping, a periosteal reaction, and a budding appearance were common on MRI or CT images. Although cortical destruction and the soft tissue lesion formation were rare, soft tissue masses had well-defined margins. Endosteal scalloping and a budding appearance with a periosteal reaction on CT and MRI may be helpful signs for differentiation of LCH from malignant tumors in adults. (orig.)

  20. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms.

  1. Pattern of brain computed tomography findings of adult patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    two adult head injured patients referred to the Radiology department for brain CT over a 3-year period was done. The patients were scanned using Toshiba Aquilion 64 slice spiral CT scan machine, data was collected using a proforma and ...

  2. Factors Related To HPV Vaccine Practice Among Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Perwita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is one of most common diseases among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is known as precursor of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be prevented effectively by practicing hpv vaccine. But the coverage of HPV vaccine is remain low. The objection of study was to analyze factors related to HPV vaccine pratice among adult women. This study used case control design with sample size 25 for each group. Sample case was women who took HPV vaccine in IBI Kota Kediri on 2013, while sample control was neighboor from the sample case who didn’t take HPV vaccine. The independent variabels were age, education level, marital status, income level, knowledge, family support, family history of cervical cancer and the dependent variable was HPV vaccine practice. Those variables was analyzed with chi square or Fisher’s exact with significancy level at 95%. The result showed that there were correlation between education level (p = 0.006; c = 0.346, knowledge (p = 0.001; c = 0.464, and family support (p = 0.000; c = 0.516 with HPV vaccination practice. While there were no correlation between age (p = 0.275, marital status (0.490 and income level (p = 0.098 and family history of cervical cancer (p = 1.000 with HPV vaccination practice. Based on data from this study can be concluded that family support and knowledge had average strenght correlation withHPV vaccine practice among adult women. So, the intervention should be focused in increasing knowledge among women and their family about the important of HPV vaccine as a cervical cancer prevention. Keywords: practice, preventive, HPV, vaccine, adult women

  3. Factors associated with HPV vaccination among adult women in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Marilou; Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Deceuninck, Genevieve; De Wals, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in North America and are associated with cervical cancer. A publicly-funded HPV immunization program was launched in the province of Quebec, Canada, in the fall of 2008. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with HPV immunization among young adult women not targeted by this program. A questionnaire was mailed to 2400 24-y-old women randomly selected from the Quebec provincial health insurance database and 56% responded. Factors associated with vaccination status were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Few women had received at least one dose of HPV vaccine among the 1347 respondents. Age at first sexual intercourse ≥ 20 y, participating in cervical cancer screening, higher education level, being born in Quebec and some positive beliefs about HPV were associated with vaccination. The rate of immunization in women who had to pay for the HPV vaccine was very low and was associated with characteristics that are generally associated with a lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer. Efforts are needed to reach at-risk adult women.

  4. CT findings in adults with obstructive sleep apnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Fumiaki; Asakura, Kohji; Nakano, Yuji; Shintani, Tomoko; Akita, Nobuto; Kataura, Akikatsu

    1993-01-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, we performed CT scans in 20 adult OSAS patients and 6 control subjects, and measured the airspaces in the nasopharynx, mesopharynx and hypopharynx, using an image analyzer. The airspaces were significantly smaller at all sites of the pharynx in OSAS patients than in the control subjects, but they did not show a positive correlation with the apnea index or the body mass index. In good responders whose apnea indexes improved more than 50% after uvulo-palato-pharyngoplasty (UPPP), the nasopharyngeal and mesopharyngeal airspaces were significantly smaller, and the hypopharyngeal space tended to be larger than in poor responders. Our results suggest that CT scan is a helpful method for analyzing the area of the upper airway, especially in relation to the response to UPPP in adults with OSAS. (author)

  5. Gynaecomastia in 786 Adult Men - Clinical and Biochemical findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Christiansen, Peter; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2017-01-01

    Objective - Gynaecomastia is a benign proliferation of glandular tissue of the breast, however, it is an important clinical observation because it can be the first symptom of an underlying disease. Some controversy exists concerning the clinical importance of an in-depth investigation of men who...... develop gynaecomastia. We hypothesize that a thorough work-up is required in adult men with gynaecomastia. Design- All adult men (n=818) referred to a secondary level andrological department at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark in a four-year period (2008-2011) under the diagnosis of gynaecomastia...... (ICD-10: N62) were included. Methods - Thirty-two men did not have gynaecomastia when examined were excluded; leaving 786 men for final analyses. They went through an andrological examination, ultra sound of the testicles and analysis of endogenous serum hormones levels. Results - In 45% of men...

  6. Nutritional and health status of adult women of the Lodha tribal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and health status of adult women of the Lodha tribal population of Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal, India: Compared with nontribal women. ... Results: The results indicated that the Lodha women belong to poor socioeconomic ...

  7. Insomnia is a frequent finding in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wendt Lennart

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while there is scarcity of reports concerning adulthood of AS subjects despite the lifelong nature of this syndrome. In children with Asperger syndrome the initiation and continuity of sleep is disturbed because of the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS. It is probable that sleep difficulties are present in adulthood as well. Our hypothesis was that adults with AS suffer from difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep and nonrestorative sleep (insomnia. Methods 20 AS without medication were compared with 10 healthy controls devoid of neuropsychiatric anamnesis. Clinical examination, blood test battery and head MRI excluded confounding somatic illnesses. Structured psychiatric interview for axis-I and axis-II disorders were given to both groups as well as Beck Depression Inventory and Wechsler adult intelligence scale, revised version. Sleep quality was assessed with sleep questionnaire, sleep diary during 6 consecutive days and description of possible sleep problems by the participants own words was requested. Results compared with controls and with normative values of good sleep, AS adults had frequent insomnia. In sleep questionnaire 90% (18/20, in sleep diary 75% (15/20 and in free description 85% (17/20 displayed insomnia. There was a substantial psychiatric comorbidity with only 4 AS subject devoid of other axis-I or axis-II disorders besides AS. Also these persons displayed insomnia. It can be noted that the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses in AS subjects was virtually similar to that found among patient with chronic insomnia. Conclusions the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS predispose both to insomnia and to anxiety and mood disorders. Therefore a careful assessment of sleep quality should be an

  8. Mental health, sexual identity, and interpersonal violence: Findings from the Australian longitudinal Women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah

    2017-09-30

    We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities

  9. Missed opportunities for HPV immunization among young adult women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos R.; Rock, Robert M.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Xu, Xiao; Lundsberg, Lisbet; Zhang, Liye B.; Gariepy, Aileen; Illuzzi, Jessica L.; Sheth, Sangini S.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite the availability of a safe and efficacious vaccine against human papillomavirus, uptake of the vaccine in the United States is low. Missed clinical opportunities to recommend and to administer human papillomavirus vaccine are considered one of the most important reasons for its low uptake in adolescents; however, little is known about the frequency or characteristics of missed opportunities in the young adult (18–26 years of age) population. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess both the rates of and the factors associated with missed opportunities for human papillomavirus immunization among young adult women who attended an urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. STUDY DESIGN In this cross-sectional study, medical records were reviewed for all women 18–26 years of age who were underimmunized (<3 doses) and who sought care from Feb. 1, 2013, to January 31, 2014, at an urban, hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinic. A missed opportunity for human papillomavirus immunization was defined as a clinic visit at which the patient was eligible to receive the vaccine and a dose was due but not administered. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and missed opportunities. RESULTS There were 1670 vaccine-eligible visits by 1241 underimmunized women, with a mean of 1.3 missed opportunities/person. During the study period, 833 of the vaccine eligible women (67.1%) had at least 1 missed opportunity. Overall, the most common types of visits during which a missed opportunity occurred were postpartum visits (17%) or visits for either sexually transmitted disease screening (21%) or contraception (33%). Of the patients with a missed opportunity, 26.5% had a visit at which an injectable medication or a different vaccine was administered. Women who identified their race as black had higher adjusted odds of having a missed opportunity compared with white women (adjusted odds ratio, 1

  10. Chest HRCT findings in acute transformation of adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Fumito; Sato, Haruka; Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Ono, Asami; Tokuyama, Kouhei; Ando, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Akira; Mori, Hiromu; Ogata, Masao; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Takano, Kuniko

    2015-01-01

    To assess chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with acute transformation of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). We retrospectively identified 72 consecutive patients at our institution with ATLL between October 2000 and March 2014. The cases included acute type (n = 20), lymphoma type (n = 21), smouldering type (n = 24) and chronic type (n = 7). Sixteen (7 men, 9 women; aged 36-85 years, mean 63.3 years) of 31 patients (24 with smouldering and seven with chronic type; 51.6 %) developed acute transformation of ATLL, and had undergone chest HRCT examinations. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, pericardial effusion, pleural effusion and skin lesions were evaluated on HRCT. Chest HRCT of 15 of the 16 patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n = 8), consolidation (n = 5), interlobular septal thickening (n = 5) and nodules (n = 5). Pleural effusion was found in five patients, lymph node enlargement in 10 patients and multiple skin thickening in two patients. Almost all patients with acute transformation of ATLL had abnormal findings on chest HRCT, which consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement, GGO, interlobular septal thickening, nodules and bilateral pleural effusions. (orig.)

  11. Chest HRCT findings in acute transformation of adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fumito; Sato, Haruka; Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Ono, Asami; Tokuyama, Kouhei; Ando, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Akira; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yufu, Oita (Japan); Ogata, Masao; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Takano, Kuniko [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Yufu, Oita (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    To assess chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with acute transformation of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). We retrospectively identified 72 consecutive patients at our institution with ATLL between October 2000 and March 2014. The cases included acute type (n = 20), lymphoma type (n = 21), smouldering type (n = 24) and chronic type (n = 7). Sixteen (7 men, 9 women; aged 36-85 years, mean 63.3 years) of 31 patients (24 with smouldering and seven with chronic type; 51.6 %) developed acute transformation of ATLL, and had undergone chest HRCT examinations. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, pericardial effusion, pleural effusion and skin lesions were evaluated on HRCT. Chest HRCT of 15 of the 16 patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n = 8), consolidation (n = 5), interlobular septal thickening (n = 5) and nodules (n = 5). Pleural effusion was found in five patients, lymph node enlargement in 10 patients and multiple skin thickening in two patients. Almost all patients with acute transformation of ATLL had abnormal findings on chest HRCT, which consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement, GGO, interlobular septal thickening, nodules and bilateral pleural effusions. (orig.)

  12. Electrocardiographic Findings in Brazilian Adults without Heart Disease: ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcelo Martins; Brant, Luisa C C; Padilha-da-Silva, José Luiz; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Vasconcelo-Silva, Paulo R; Almeida, Maria da Conceição C; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz Pinho

    2017-11-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used in population-based studies. However, there are few studies on electrocardiographic findings in Latin America and in Brazil. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprised 15,105 participants (35-74 years) from six Brazilian capitals. To describe electrocardiographic findings in Brazilian adults without heart disease, stratified by sex, age and race/skin color. Cross-sectional study with baseline data of 11,094 adults (44.5% men) without heart disease from ELSA-Brasil. The ECGs were recorded with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine and stored at the Pyramis System. ECG analysis was automatically performed using the Glasgow University software. A descriptive analysis of heart rate (HR), P, QRS and T waves' duration, PR and QT intervals, and P, R and T axes was performed. After stratification by sex, race/color and age, the groups were compared by the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the behavior of electrocardiographic parameters over age. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities defined by the Minnesota code were manually revised. Medians values of the electrocardiographic parameters were different between men and women: HR 63 vs. 66 bpm, PR 164 vs.158 ms, QT corrected 410 vs. 421 ms, QRS duration 92 vs. 86 ms, P-wave duration 112 vs. 108 ms, P-wave axis 54 vs. 57 degrees, R-wave axis 35 vs. 39 degrees, T-wave axis 39 vs. 45 degrees (p < 0.001 for all). The 2nd and the 98th percentiles of each variable were also obtained, and graphs were constructed to illustrate the behavior of the electrocardiographic findings over age of participants stratified by sex and race/skin color. The values for the electrocardiographic measurements herein described can be used as reference for Brazilian adults free of heart disease, stratified by sex. Our results suggest that self-reported race/skin color have no significant influence on

  13. Childhood family structure and women's adult overweight risk: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; de Luna, Xavier; Häggström, Jenny; Ivarsson, Anneli; Lindgren, Urban; Nilsson, Karina; Koupil, Ilona

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether women's adult overweight and obesity risk was associated with their childhood family structure, measured as their mothers' marital status history, during the women's first 18 years of life. Using linked register data, we analyzed 30,584 primiparous women born in Sweden in 1975 who were between 19-35 years of age when their height and pre-pregnancy weight was recorded. The outcomes were women's overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) and the predictor was mothers' marital status history, which was summarized using sequence analysis. We carried out nested logistic regression models adjusting for women's age and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Mothers' marital status history was summarized into six clusters: stable marriage, stable cohabitation, married then divorcing, cohabiting then separating, varied transitions, and not with father. In fully adjusted models and compared with women whose mothers belonged to the stable marriage cluster: (1) women whose mothers belonged to the other marital status clusters had higher odds of overweight/obesity (odds ratio (OR) ranging 1.15-1.19; p overweight or obese in adulthood. The finding that even women raised in the context of stable cohabitation had higher odds of being overweight or obese is intriguing as these relationships are socially accepted in Sweden.

  14. MRI and CT findings of adult Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Tetsuhito; Koshino, Yoshifumi; Omori, Masao

    1993-01-01

    Cranial CT and MRI were performed in 29 adult patients with Down's syndrome aged from 20 to 46 years to examine early aging. Morphological changes with aging, such as brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement, were generally sparse; however, calculi of the basal nucleus and lesions of deep-seated white matter were significantly increased with aging. The pallidum and putamen were shown as low intensity signals on T2-weighted images in many of patients in their fourties, suggesting their involvement in the occurrence of dyskinesia and parkinsonism symptoms that are likely to occur in the elderly. Localized changes, as shown on CT and MRI, may reflect abnormally early occurrence of aging, which precedes morphological changes such as brain atrophy. (N.K.)

  15. Intestinal mal-rotation in adults. CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Munoz, Enrique; Ramiro Ramiro, Esther; Perez Villacastin, Benjamin; Learra Martinez, Maria C.; Franco Lopez, Maria A.

    2004-01-01

    We review 7 adult cases of intestinal mal-rotation who were studied with CT. All patients had a small bowel located in the right hemi abdomen, abnormal location of superior mesenteric vein relative to superior mesenteric artery. Superior mesenteric vein was located anteriorly and to the left of superior mesenteric artery. In patients who suffered intestinal volvulus a 'whirlpool' sign was observed, due to the helicoidal torsion of the intestine and mesentery surrounding superior mesenteric artery. In 3 cases CT demonstrated absence or poor development of the pancreas uncinate process. In 2 patients CT revealed polysplenia. CT played a major role in 3 patients with volvulus as a complication of intestinal mal-rotation. CT also demonstrated unsuspected mal-rotation in one asymptomatic patient. In 3 cases with classic symptoms CT confirmed the intestinal mal-rotation diagnosed by barium studies. (author)

  16. Psychological resources and glucoregulation in Japanese adults: Findings from MIDJA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Tsenkova, Vera K; Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D

    2017-05-01

    To examine associations between glucoregulation and 3 categories of psychological resources: hedonic well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect), eudaimonic well-being (i.e., personal growth, purpose in life, ikigai), and interdependent well-being (i.e., gratitude, peaceful disengagement, adjustment) among Japanese adults. The question is important given increases in rates of type 2 diabetes in Japan in recent years, combined with the fact that most prior studies linking psychological resources to better physical health have utilized Western samples. Data came from the Midlife in Japan Study involving randomly selected participants from the Tokyo metropolitan area, a subsample of whom completed biological data collection (N = 382; 56.0% female; M(SD)age = 55.5(14.0) years). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was the outcome. Models adjusted for age, gender, educational attainment, smoking, alcohol, chronic conditions, body mass index (BMI), use of antidiabetic medication, and negative affect. Purpose in life (β = -.104, p = .021) was associated with lower HbA1c, and peaceful disengagement (β = .129, p = .003) was associated with higher HbA1c in fully adjusted models. Comparable to the effects of BMI, a 1 standard deviation change in well-being was associated with a .1% change in HbA1c. Associations among psychological resources and glucoregulation were mixed. Healthy glucoregulation was evident among Japanese adults with higher levels of purpose in life and lower levels of peaceful disengagement, thereby extending prior research from the United States. The results emphasize the need for considering sociocultural contexts in which psychological resources are experienced in order to understand linkages to physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Shifiona

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems with women in peri-urban Namibie are faced with are multi-dimensional.Like women in other communities they face the pressure of having a number of responsibilities, namely working, being a wife and mother, taking care of their families and perhaps caring for aging parents. Sometimes the pressure can be too overwhelming to manage. As a result, many women become depressed. Studies on depression among black African women in Namibia could not be traced. It was therefore considered to find out how women suffering from depression from this part of the world tell their life stories. The purpose of the study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore and describe the life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia, and secondly to use the information obtained to describe guidelines for psychiatric nurses working with these patients at psychiatric outpatient clinics as well as in the community. A qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature was used. The researcher approached the subjects and their experiences with an open mind. Ten depressed adult women between 21-55 years were involved in the research. The researcher strived to adhere to the principles of trustworthiness. To ensure this Guba’s model (in Krefting, 1991: 217 of trustworthiness was adopted. All the interviews were analysed following Tesch’s method (Creswell, 1994: 154-55. The services of an independent coder were obtained. The results indicated that impaired interpersonal interactions and stressful life events have a negative influence on the daily life of women leading to the development of depressive symptoms. Guidelines to support psychiatric nurses working with depressed women were drawn up.

  18. Life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifiona, N N; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H

    2006-05-01

    The problems women in peri-urban Namibia are faced with are multi-dimensional. Like women in other communities they face the pressure of having a number of responsibilities, namely working, being a wife and mother, taking care of their families and perhaps caring for aging parents. Sometimes the pressure can be too overwhelming to manage. As a result, many women become depressed. Studies on depression among black African women in Namibia could not be traced. It was therefore considered to find out how women suffering from depression from this part of the world tell their life stories. The purpose of the study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore and describe the life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia, and secondly to use the information obtained to describe guidelines for psychiatric nurses working with these patients at psychiatric outpatient clinics as well as in the community. A qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature was used. The researcher approached the subjects and their experiences with an open mind. Ten depressed adult women between 21-55 years were involved in the research. The researcher strived to adhere to the principles of trustworthiness. To ensure this Guba's model (in Krefting, 1991: 217) of trustworthiness was adopted. All the interviews were analysed following Tesch's method (Creswell, 1994: 154-55). The services of an independent coder were obtained. The results indicated that impaired interpersonal interactions and stressful life events have a negative influence on the daily life of women leading to the development of depressive symptoms. Guidelines to support psychiatric nurses working with depressed women were drawn up.

  19. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Manne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement, lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  20. Psychosocial correlates of sunburn among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S

    2012-06-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  1. Viral findings in adult hematological patients with neutropenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ohrmalm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until recently, viral infections in patients with hematological malignancies were concerns primarily in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients. During the last years, changed treatment regimens for non-transplanted patients with hematological malignancies have had potential to increase the incidence of viral infections in this group. In this study, we have prospectively investigated the prevalence of a broad range of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA as well as viruses that commonly reactivate after allogeneic HSCT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients with hematological malignancies and therapy induced neutropenia (n = 159 were screened regarding a broad range of common respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and for viruses commonly detected in severely immunosuppressed patients in peripheral blood. Quantitative PCR was used for detection of viruses. A viral pathogen was detected in 35% of the patients. The detection rate was rather similar in blood (22% and NPA (18% with polyoma BK virus and rhinovirus as dominating pathogens in blood and NPA, respectively. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL (p<0.01 and patients with fever (p<0.001 were overrepresented in the virus-positive group. Furthermore, viral findings in NPA were associated with upper respiratory symptoms (URTS (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both respiratory viral infections and low titers of viruses in blood from patients with neutropenia were common. Patients with CLL and patients with fever were independently associated to these infections, and viral findings in NPA were associated to URTS indicating active infection. These findings motivate further studies on viruses' impact on this patient category and their potential role as causative agents of fever during neutropenia.

  2. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Nash

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM.

  3. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Meredith; Davies, Amanda; Moore, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM.

  4. Treating Substance-Using Women and Their Children in Public Housing: Preliminary Evaluation Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsch, Lisa R.; Wolfe, Harlan P.; Fewell, Rebecca; McCoy, Clyde B.; Elwood, William N.; Wohler-Torres, Brad; Petersen-Baston, Pamela; Haskins, Henry V.

    2001-01-01

    SafePort is a residential substance abuse treatment program within public housing to provide drug treatment to parenting women in Key West, Florida. All family members--women, children, and significant others--receive comprehensive assessments to determine appropriate therapeutic interventions. Preliminary evaluation findings suggest that women…

  5. Radiology findings in adult patients with vocal fold paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Centre, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: s.robinson@dzu.at; Pitkaeranta, A. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Haartmaninkatu, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-10-15

    Aim: To compile imaging findings in patients with vocal fold paralysis. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 100 consecutive patients, admitted to our department with vocal fold paralysis was undertaken. After laryngoscopy, patients were referred for radiological work-up depending on their clinical history and clinical findings. Ultrasound of the neck and/or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT) of the neck and mediastinum was performed, extending to include the whole chest if necessary. In one patient, CT of the brain and in two patients, magnetic resonance angiography was undertaken. Analysis of the clinical and radiological data was performed to assess the most frequent causes for vocal fold paralysis. Results: In 66% of patients, the paralysis was related to previous surgery. Thirty-four percent of cases were labelled idiopathic after clinical examination. After imaging and follow-up, only 8% remained unexplained. Nine patients suffered from neoplasms, four from vascular disease, and 12 from infections. One patient developed encephalomyelitis disseminata on follow-up. Conclusion: Thorough radiological work-up helps to reduce the amount of idiopathic cases of vocal fold paralysis and guides appropriate therapy.

  6. Radiology findings in adult patients with vocal fold paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.; Pitkaeranta, A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To compile imaging findings in patients with vocal fold paralysis. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 100 consecutive patients, admitted to our department with vocal fold paralysis was undertaken. After laryngoscopy, patients were referred for radiological work-up depending on their clinical history and clinical findings. Ultrasound of the neck and/or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT) of the neck and mediastinum was performed, extending to include the whole chest if necessary. In one patient, CT of the brain and in two patients, magnetic resonance angiography was undertaken. Analysis of the clinical and radiological data was performed to assess the most frequent causes for vocal fold paralysis. Results: In 66% of patients, the paralysis was related to previous surgery. Thirty-four percent of cases were labelled idiopathic after clinical examination. After imaging and follow-up, only 8% remained unexplained. Nine patients suffered from neoplasms, four from vascular disease, and 12 from infections. One patient developed encephalomyelitis disseminata on follow-up. Conclusion: Thorough radiological work-up helps to reduce the amount of idiopathic cases of vocal fold paralysis and guides appropriate therapy

  7. Hymenal stenosis and fibrosis in two adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Andrew T; Todd, Sarah; Bedell, Sarah; Tabbarah, Abeer

    2015-05-01

    Hymenal abnormalities are most commonly a result of incomplete apoptosis of the urogenital sinus during embryology. Infrequently, however, noncongenital abnormalities of the hymen can occur that can cause significant sequelae such as severe introital dyspareunia. We report on two adult women who developed severe introital dyspareunia secondary to hymenal stenosis and fibrosis in the absence of other vulvovaginal pathology. Neither woman had point tenderness of the vulvar vestibule, but their symptoms of searing pain on vaginal penetration was reproduced by stretching the hymen with two fingers. In both cases, conservative treatments with vaginal dilators in combination with topical hormonal therapy failed to relieve their symptoms, but both women were subsequently successfully treated with hymenectomy. Hymenal stenosis and fibrosis can develop in the absence of identifiable vulvar dermatoses. If conservative treatment with topical hormonal therapy and vaginal dilators is unsuccessful, hymenectomy can restore normal coital function.

  8. Recurrent group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in adult women: family epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D; Funaro, Deana; Kaplan, Edward L

    2007-03-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) vulvovaginitis has been reported in prepubertal girls. In adult women, a vaginal carrier state has been described, but vulvovaginitis is rarely reported. We describe 2 cases of recurrent GAS vulvovaginitis in women whose husbands were gastrointestinal carriers of GAS. Characterization of the isolated strains demonstrated that identical emm types of GAS were shared by partners. Treatment of both partners resulted in resolution of vaginitis. On the basis of negative vaginal culture results obtained after treatment of each individual episode of vaginitis, we believe that the female patients were reinfected as a result of exposure to their husbands, with shedding likely to have occurred in bed. These cases reiterate the necessity for adequate screening of the patient's family and contacts in cases of recurrent GAS infection by culturing all potential areas of GAS carriage.

  9. MR imaging findings of acetabular dysplasia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Steven; Connell, David; Miocevic, Miranda; Malara, Frank; Pike, Jonathan; Young, David

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in the identification of labral and articular cartilage lesions in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Pre-operative MR imaging was performed on 27 hips in 25 consecutive patients (16 males, 9 females, age range 19-52 years, mean age 31.2 years) with radiographic evidence of acetabular dysplasia (centre-edge angle of Wiberg <20 degrees). The average duration of symptoms was 16.2 months. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed MR images in consensus for the presence of abnormality involving the acetabular labrum and adjacent acetabular articular cartilage. A high resolution, non-arthrographic technique was used to assess the labrum and labral chondral transitional zone. Surgical correlation was obtained in all cases by a single surgeon experienced in hip arthroscopy and ten patients with normal hip MRI were included to provide a control group. The acetabular labra in the dysplastic hips demonstrated abnormal signal intensity, and had an elongated appearance when compared with the control group (mean length 10.9 mm vs 6.4 mm). Morphological appearances in the labra included surface irregularity, fissures and cleft formation. MR imaging correctly identified the severity of chondral abnormality in 24 of 27 hips (89%) when compared with arthroscopic findings. MR imaging demonstrates an elongated labrum, focal intra-substance signal change and irregularity and fissuring of the margins in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Abnormality is also identified at the labral chondral transitional zone, where fissuring, focal clefts, chondral deficiency and subchondral cyst formation may be apparent. A high-resolution, non-arthrographic technique can provide an accurate preoperative assessment and evaluate the presence of premature osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  10. MR imaging findings of acetabular dysplasia in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Steven; Connell, David [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Radiology Department, London, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Miocevic, Miranda; Malara, Frank; Pike, Jonathan [Victoria House Hospital, Radiology Department, Melbourne (Australia); Young, David [Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, Orthopaedic Surgery, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in the identification of labral and articular cartilage lesions in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Pre-operative MR imaging was performed on 27 hips in 25 consecutive patients (16 males, 9 females, age range 19-52 years, mean age 31.2 years) with radiographic evidence of acetabular dysplasia (centre-edge angle of Wiberg <20 degrees). The average duration of symptoms was 16.2 months. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed MR images in consensus for the presence of abnormality involving the acetabular labrum and adjacent acetabular articular cartilage. A high resolution, non-arthrographic technique was used to assess the labrum and labral chondral transitional zone. Surgical correlation was obtained in all cases by a single surgeon experienced in hip arthroscopy and ten patients with normal hip MRI were included to provide a control group. The acetabular labra in the dysplastic hips demonstrated abnormal signal intensity, and had an elongated appearance when compared with the control group (mean length 10.9 mm vs 6.4 mm). Morphological appearances in the labra included surface irregularity, fissures and cleft formation. MR imaging correctly identified the severity of chondral abnormality in 24 of 27 hips (89%) when compared with arthroscopic findings. MR imaging demonstrates an elongated labrum, focal intra-substance signal change and irregularity and fissuring of the margins in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Abnormality is also identified at the labral chondral transitional zone, where fissuring, focal clefts, chondral deficiency and subchondral cyst formation may be apparent. A high-resolution, non-arthrographic technique can provide an accurate preoperative assessment and evaluate the presence of premature osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  11. Women finding the way: American Indian women leading intervention research in Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer; Nanez, Jennifer; Mootz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although there is literature concentrating on cross-cultural approaches to academic and community partnerships with Native communities, few address the process and experiences of American Indian women leading federally funded and culturally grounded behavioral health intervention research in Native communities. This paper summarizes relevant literature on community-engaged research with Native communities, examines traditional roles and modern challenges for American Indian women, describes the culturally grounded collaborative process for the authors' behavioral health intervention development with Native communities, and considers emergent themes from our own research experiences navigating competing demands from mainstream and Native communities. It concludes with recommendations for supporting and enhancing resilience.

  12. The effect of cleft lip on adults' responses to faces: cross-species findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Parsons

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is the most common of the congenital conditions affecting the face and cranial bones and is associated with a raised risk of difficulties in infant-caregiver interaction; the reasons for such difficulties are not fully understood. Here, we report two experiments designed to explore how adults respond to infant faces with and without cleft lip, using behavioural measures of attractiveness appraisal ('liking' and willingness to work to view or remove the images ('wanting'. We found that infants with cleft lip were rated as less attractive and were viewed for shorter durations than healthy infants, an effect that was particularly apparent where the cleft lip was severe. Women rated the infant faces as more attractive than men did, but there were no differences in men and women's viewing times of these faces. In a second experiment, we found that the presence of a cleft lip in domestic animals affected adults' 'liking' and 'wanting' responses in a comparable way to that seen for human infants. Adults' responses were also remarkably similar for images of infants and animals with cleft lip, although no gender difference in attractiveness ratings or viewing times emerged for animals. We suggest that the presence of a cleft lip can substantially change the way in which adults respond to human and animal faces. Furthermore, women may respond in different ways to men when asked to appraise infant attractiveness, despite the fact that men and women 'want' to view images of infants for similar durations.

  13. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  14. Childhood sexual abuse and adult binge drinking among Kanak women in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France

    2009-04-01

    The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conducted in 2002-2003, among women aged 18-54 years drawn from the electoral rolls. Childhood sexual abuse before 15 years of age was reported by 11.6% of respondents. Nearly all the perpetrators (96%) were known to the victims (63% being a close relative). The rate of frequent binge drinking amongst the women within the last 12 months was 34%. After controlling for social and demographic factors, an independent association was found between childhood sexual abuse and current binge drinking. This study is the first to analyse the contribution of childhood sexual abuse to the likelihood of later heavy alcohol use in an indigenous population in the South Pacific. The findings call for improving and giving priority to care for children who are victims of violence to prevent long-term health consequences and to develop prevention programs aimed at alcohol-related behaviour in women, while taking into account simultaneous individual and collective factors.

  15. Alexithymia, emotion perception, and social assertiveness in adult women with Noonan and Turner syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Freriks, Kim; Verhaak, Chris M; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2015-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome (TS) are associated with cognitive problems and difficulties in affective information processing. While both phenotypes include short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and a webbed neck, genetic etiology and neuropsychological phenotype differ significantly. The present study examines putative differences in affective information processing and social assertiveness between adult women with NS and TS. Twenty-six women with NS, 40 women with TS, and 40 female controls were matched on age and intelligence, and subsequently compared on (1) alexithymia, measured by the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, (2) emotion perception, evaluated by the Emotion Recognition Task, and (3) social assertiveness and social discomfort, assessed by the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior. Women with TS showed higher levels of alexithymia than women with NS and controls (P-values assertiveness and the level of social discomfort. Women with NS and TS demonstrated different patterns of impairment in affective information processing, in terms of alexithymia and emotion perception. The present findings suggest neuropsychological phenotyping to be helpful for the diagnosis of specific cognitive-affective deficits in genetic syndromes, for the enhancement of genetic counseling, and for the development of personalized treatment plans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  17. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in adults: clinical and radiological findings in diffuse and focal forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffroy, R.; Guiu, B.; Watfa, J.; Michel, F.; Cercueil, J.P.; Krause, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To describe the clinical and radiological features of focal and diffuse xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) in adults. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the clinical data, laboratory findings, imaging features, and surgical treatment of 13 cases of histologically proven XGP diagnosed between January 1993 and December 2005 was undertaken. There were 10 women and three men with a mean age of 55.2 years (range 30-87 years). All patients underwent both sonography and computed tomography (CT) of the kidneys. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in two patients. Results: XGP was diffuse in 11 patients and focal in two patients. Fever, anorexia and weight loss, urinary symptoms, and flank pain were the most common manifestations. Urinary tract infection was found in eight patients. Sonography and CT showed diffuse kidney enlargement in seven cases and atrophy in five cases; a solitary solid mass was found in two patients. Hydronephrosis was noted in nine cases, staghorn calculus in six, and extensive pararenal disease in six. MRI failed to provide the preoperative diagnosis in the two patients with focal XGP. Total or partial nephrectomy was performed without postoperative complications. Conclusion: Although rare, XGP is the main differential diagnosis of malignant renal neoplasia. The definitive diagnosis depends on histological examination of the operative specimen. Preoperatively, the diagnosis can often be suspected based on imaging studies, primarily CT

  18. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in adults: clinical and radiological findings in diffuse and focal forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loffroy, R. [Department of Radiology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France)]. E-mail: loffroy.romaric@neuf.fr; Guiu, B. [Department of Radiology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France); Watfa, J. [Department of Urology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France); Michel, F. [Department of Urology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France); Cercueil, J.P. [Department of Radiology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France); Krause, D. [Department of Radiology, Bocage Hospital, University Hospital Center, Dijon (France)

    2007-09-15

    Aim: To describe the clinical and radiological features of focal and diffuse xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) in adults. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the clinical data, laboratory findings, imaging features, and surgical treatment of 13 cases of histologically proven XGP diagnosed between January 1993 and December 2005 was undertaken. There were 10 women and three men with a mean age of 55.2 years (range 30-87 years). All patients underwent both sonography and computed tomography (CT) of the kidneys. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in two patients. Results: XGP was diffuse in 11 patients and focal in two patients. Fever, anorexia and weight loss, urinary symptoms, and flank pain were the most common manifestations. Urinary tract infection was found in eight patients. Sonography and CT showed diffuse kidney enlargement in seven cases and atrophy in five cases; a solitary solid mass was found in two patients. Hydronephrosis was noted in nine cases, staghorn calculus in six, and extensive pararenal disease in six. MRI failed to provide the preoperative diagnosis in the two patients with focal XGP. Total or partial nephrectomy was performed without postoperative complications. Conclusion: Although rare, XGP is the main differential diagnosis of malignant renal neoplasia. The definitive diagnosis depends on histological examination of the operative specimen. Preoperatively, the diagnosis can often be suspected based on imaging studies, primarily CT.

  19. Sexual identity and orientation in adult men and women with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Hensel, Devon J; Wiener, John S; Whittam, Benjamin; Cain, Mark P; Misseri, Rosalia

    2017-12-11

    Sexuality has received little attention in spina bifida (SB) care. The aim of this study was to assess sexual identity and orientation in adults with SB. An international online survey to adults with SB was administered over 10-months (recruitment: SB clinics, SB organizations via social media). Collected data included demographics, sexual identity and orientation. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. Median age of 77 men and 119 women was 35 years old (52.0% shunted, 48.5% community ambulators, 42.3% outside United States). Most commonly, men identified as male (96.1%), while 1.3% each described themselves as female, transgender and other. All women reporting sexual identity identified as female (99.2%), 0.8% not providing an answer. Most men reported heterosexual orientation (89.6%), followed by gay (7.8%) and bisexual (2.6%). Most women reported heterosexual orientation (84.9%), followed by bisexual (10.4%), gay/lesbian (2.5%), asexual (0.8%) and other (1.7%). As in the general population, sexual identity typically coincides with biological gender. Sexual orientation of adults with SB mirrors the general population. Due to self-selection, these findings likely do not reflect exact prevalence in the SB population.

  20. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  1. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  2. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY COMPOSITION IN ADULT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára NAGY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data published by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO suggests that the number of obese people in Europe has tripled in the last 20 years and resulted in a prevalence of 130 million obese and 400 million people overweight (Sassi et al., 2009.Body composition is the relative percentage of fat and fat-free mass (bones, muscles, organs, water, blood of total body weight. After Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo and Lohman (1986 the optimal level for health of body fat is 16-25% (18-30% for women.The objective of our study was to assess body composition of adult women, identifying the effect of intervention program on body fat and lean mass, and uncover cases of obesity and overweight.The study involved 95 adult women from Fit4U Fitness Center in Oradea. Period of the study: February 2015 -June 2016. Anthropometric measurements were made: height, weight, circumference, subcutaneous folds. It was calculated the body mass index (BMI, body composition and optimal body weight (estimation based on the five skinfolds measures. The physical activity program consisted of Step -aerobics, Pilates and strength training in the gym, 3 times a week for 60-90 minutes, for 12 months.Results:mean body mass, BMI, BF%, real BF decreased significantly. Mean body fat percentage from 25,63% (± 6,53 decreased to 22,95% (± 5,56. In the studied group overweight and obesity is more frequent in the age group between 35-44 years, but it can be seen the prevalence in all age groups.Conclusions:the physical activity program had a beneficial effect on body composition -by reducing body fat.We found cases of overweight and obesity (21% of the study group.

  3. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  4. Why do adult women in Vietnam take iron tablets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yun

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting iron supplementation programs has been a major strategy to reduce iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. However, only a few countries have reported improvements in the anemia rate at a national level. The strategies used for control of nutrition problems need regular review to maintain and improve their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors in compliance with taking iron tablets, where daily doses of iron (60 mg and folic acid (400 μg were distributed in rural Vietnamese communes. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Nghe An province, Vietnam in January, 2003. The study population was adult women aged less than 35 years who delivered babies between August 1st 2001 and December 1st 2002 (n = 205, of which 159 took part in the study. Data for the study were collected from a series of workshops with community leaders, focus group discussions with community members and a questionnaire survey. Results Improvements in the rate of anemia was not given a high priority as one of the commune's needs, but the participants still made efforts to continue taking iron tablets. Two major factors motivated the participants to continue taking iron tablets; their experience of fewer spells of dizziness (50%, and their concern for the health of their newborn baby (54%. When examining the reasons for taking iron tablets for at least 5–9 months, the most important factor was identified as 'a frequent supply of iron tablets' (OR = 11.93, 95% CI: 4.33–32.85. Conclusion The study found that multiple poor environmental risk factors discouraged women from taking iron tablets continuously. The availability (frequent supply of iron tablets was the most effective way to help adult women to continue taking iron tablets.

  5. Laparoscopic findings of infertile women at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University

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    Shakeela Ishrat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is an important component of infertility work up. It is the gold standard for evaluation of pelvic pathology and assessment of tubal patency. Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the laparoscopic findings of infertile women presenting at Infertlity unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. Method: We had a retrospective cross-sectional study on Japaroscopic findings of 110 women. Results: Out of all patients 22.7% women had endometriosis. Various degrees of adhesion of pouch of Douglus was present in 16.4 %. Regarding tubal pate:1cy , 26.4% had unilateral block and 28.2% had bilateral block. Conclusion: A significant number of infertile women at the Infertility unit of BSMMU has tuboperitoneal disease and bilateral tubal block and ultimately need in vitro fertilization.

  6. Association of Cataract Surgery With Mortality in Older Women: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Victoria L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Yu, Fei; Cauley, Jane A; Li, Wenjun; Thomas, Fridtjof; Virnig, Beth A; Coleman, Anne L

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between cataract surgery and decreased risk for all-cause mortality potentially through a mechanism of improved health status and functional independence, but the association between cataract surgery and cause-specific mortality has not been previously studied and is not well understood. To examine the association between cataract surgery and total and cause-specific mortality in older women with cataract. This prospective cohort study included nationwide data collected from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial and observational study linked with the Medicare claims database. Participants in the present study were 65 years or older with a diagnosis of cataract in the linked Medicare claims database. The WHI data were collected from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1, 2014, through September 1, 2017. Cataract surgery as determined by Medicare claims codes. The outcomes of interest included all-cause mortality and mortality attributed to vascular, cancer, accidental, neurologic, pulmonary, and infectious causes. Mortality rates were compared by cataract surgery status using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for demographics, systemic and ocular comorbidities, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and physical activity. A total of 74 044 women with cataract in the WHI included 41 735 who underwent cataract surgery. Mean (SD) age was 70.5 (4.6) years; the most common ethnicity was white (64 430 [87.0%]), followed by black (5293 [7.1%]) and Hispanic (1723 [2.3%]). The mortality rate was 2.56 per 100 person-years in both groups. In covariate-adjusted Cox models, cataract surgery was associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio [AHR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.39-0.42) as well as lower mortality specific to vascular (AHR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.39-0.46), cancer (AHR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0

  7. Counterintuitive findings from a qualitative study of mental health in English women's prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Laura S

    2016-12-19

    Purpose Large numbers of women in prison report significant emotional and mental health problems, and there is evidence to suggest that the prison environment may exacerbate the incidence and severity of these issues (Armour, 2012). However, there has been limited exploration of the extent to which women's mental health problems exist prior to incarceration, whether symptoms first occur in incarceration, and how incarceration affects this. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 women incarcerated in three English prisons and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Review of official prison records provided a form of data triangulation. Findings Analysis of the data revealed that while many women who experienced mental health issues in prison had experienced these issues in the past, a number of women reported first experiencing mental health and emotional problems only after entering prison. Although these problems often recede, this demonstrates the significant impact that entering prison can have upon the mental health of women. Unusually, the data highlighted many positive experiences of support within prison. However, there was some lack of consistency in the treatment and support offered to women. Originality/value The data presented here are in many ways more positive than previous research and - as opposed to much of the existing literature that simply states the prevalence women's issues in prison - provides insight into the lived experiences of women in prison. This paper documents how prison can present an opportunity for women to engage with treatment, but there is a need for a clearer understanding of women's needs and consistent and appropriate support.

  8. Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. DESIGN: Six areas were selected according to the geographical regions in China. In each of these areas, we selected 4 distinct groups of subjects (children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in regions where the coverage rate of iodised salt was more than 95% and the levels of iodine and fluoride in drinking water were less than or equal to 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. We tested the iodine content of salt, urinary iodine (UI, free thyroxin (FT4, thyrotropin (TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab and antimicrosomal antibody (TM-Ab in the 4 groups, and examined the thyroid volume in children. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine (MUI concentrations were 271.4 μg/L, 260.2 μg/L, 205.9 μg/L and 193.9 μg/L in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively; MUI in children and adults were more than adequate. The goitre prevalence (GP in children was 6.70%. The odds ratios (OR of subclinical hypothyroidism in the Tg-Ab- or TM-Ab-positive groups were 3.80, 7.65, 2.01 and 7.47 for children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively, compared with the negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in children and adults is above the requirement, we should reduce their iodine intake. Subclinical hypothyroidism easily occurs in the Tg-Ab or TM-Ab positive groups.

  9. Adult women's experiences of urinary incontinence: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Adilson; Hoga, Luiza; Gonçalves, Bruna; Silva, Pâmela; Pereira, Priscilla

    2017-05-01

    Women are affected dramatically by urinary incontinence (UI). This disease is currently considered as epidemic. The objective of this review is to identify, through the best available evidence, how women experience UI worldwide. The current review included studies of adult women who had experienced UI. Women with UI from various social and cultural settings were included in this review. Qualitative data including, but not limited to, study designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were included in this review. All aspects related to the experience of UI endured by women were considered. An initial search of MEDLINE (PubMed) and CINAHL was done, followed by the exploration of all the databases and all identified studies, published in English, Spanish, French and Portuguese. The databases searched were CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Lilacs, Scielo, BVS, BVS-Psi, Scopus, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International and the University of São Paulo Dissertations and Thesis bank and gray literature. Each primary study was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality. The Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Appraisal and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) data extraction form for interpretive and critical research was used to appraise the methodological quality of all papers. Qualitative data were extracted using the JBI-QARI. Qualitative research findings were synthesized using the JBI-QARI. From the 28 studies were included, 189 findings were extracted and they were grouped into 25 categories and eight synthesized findings: (i) cultural and religious backgrounds and personal reluctance contribute to delays in seeking UI treatment; (ii) the inevitable and regrettable problem of UI endured silently and alone affects women's daily activities and their social roles; (iii) poor knowledge and the vague nature of the symptoms mask the fact that UI is a disease; (iv) the experiences

  10. Current Tobacco Use Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of tobacco use among US adults. Methods. We used data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cell phone survey of adults aged 18 years and older, to estimate current use of any tobacco; cigarettes; cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; water pipes; snus; and pipes. We stratified estimates by gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, sexual orientation, and US state. Results. National prevalence of current use was 25.2% for any tobacco; 19.5% for cigarettes; 6.6% for cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; 3.4% for chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; 1.5% for water pipes; 1.4% for snus; and 1.1% for pipes. Tobacco use was greatest among respondents who were male, younger, of non-Hispanic “other” race/ethnicity, less educated, less wealthy, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Prevalence ranged from 14.1% (Utah) to 37.4% (Kentucky). Conclusions. Tobacco use varies by geography and sociodemographic factors, but remains prevalent among US adults. Evidence-based prevention strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use and the health and economic burden of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:22994278

  11. The Cluster-Randomized BRIGHT Trial: Proactive Case Finding for Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerse, Ngaire; McLean, Chris; Moyes, Simon A.; Peri, Kathy; Ng, Terence; Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; Latham, Nancy; Connolly, Martin

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE People are now living longer, but disability may affect the quality of those additional years of life. We undertook a trial to assess whether case finding reduces disability among older primary care patients. METHODS We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of the Brief Risk Identification Geriatric Health Tool (BRIGHT) among 60 primary care practices in New Zealand, assigning them to an intervention or control group. Intervention practices sent a BRIGHT screening tool to older adults every birthday; those with a score of 3 or higher were referred to regional geriatric services for assessment and, if needed, service provision. Control practices provided usual care. Main outcomes, assessed in blinded fashion, were residential care placement and hospitalization, and secondary outcomes were disability, assessed with Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale (NEADL), and quality of life, assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF). RESULTS All 8,308 community-dwelling patients aged 75 years and older were approached; 3,893 (47%) participated, of whom 3,010 (77%) completed the trial. Their mean age was 80.3 (SD 4.5) years, and 55% were women. Overall, 88% of the intervention group returned a BRIGHT tool; 549 patients were referred. After 36 months, patients in the intervention group were more likely than those in the control group to have been placed in residential care: 8.4% vs 6.2% (hazard ratio = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04–1.68; P = .02). Intervention patients had smaller declines in mean scores for physical health-related quality of life (1.6 vs 2.9 points, P = .007) and psychological health-related quality of life (1.1 vs 2.4 points, P = .005). Hospitalization, disability, and use of services did not differ between groups, however. CONCLUSIONS Our case-finding strategy was effective in increasing identification of older adults with disability, but there was little evidence of improved outcomes

  12. Sociocultural experiences, body image, and indoor tanning among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Greene, Kathryn; Darabos, Katie; Carpenter, Amanda; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this survey study was to evaluate a model of body image influences on indoor tanning behavior. Participants were 823 young adult women recruited from a probability-based web panel in the United States. Consistent with our hypothesized model, tanning-related sociocultural experiences were indirectly associated with lifetime indoor tanning use and intentions to tan as mediated through tan surveillance and tan dissatisfaction. Findings suggest the need for targeting body image constructs as mechanisms of behavior change in indoor tanning behavioral interventions.

  13. Whole grain intakes in Irish adults: findings from the National Adults Nutrition Survey (NANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Clare B; Devlin, Niamh F; Buffini, Maria; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P; McNulty, Breige A

    2018-01-20

    Observational studies link high whole grain intakes to reduced risk of many chronic diseases. This study quantified whole grain intakes in the Irish adult population and examined the major contributing sources. It also investigated potential dietary strategies to improve whole grain intakes. Whole grain intakes were calculated in a nationally representative sample of 1500 Irish adults using data from the most recent national food survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). Food consumption was assessed, at brand level where possible, using a 4-day semi-weighed food diary with whole grain content estimated from labels on a dry matter basis. Mean daily whole grain intakes were 27.8 ± 29.4 g/day, with only 19% of the population meeting the quantity-specific recommendation of 48 g per day. Wheat was the highest contributor to whole grain intake at 66%, followed by oats at 26%. High whole grain intakes were associated with higher dietary intakes of fibre, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and a higher alternative Mediterranean Diet Score. Whole grain foods were most frequently eaten at breakfast time. Regression analysis revealed that consumption of an additional 10 g of whole grain containing 'ready-to-eat breakfast cereals', 'rice or pastas', or 'breads' each day would increase intake of whole grains by an extra 5, 3.5, and 2.7 g, respectively. This study reveals low intakes of whole grains in Irish adults. Recommending cereals, breads, and grains with higher whole grain content as part of public health campaigns could improve whole grain intakes.

  14. Perceptions of Adult Women on Losing Their Mothers at an Early Age: Implications for Nursing Care During Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jennie; Huebner, Carroll Gunn; McCoy, Kristen

    To explore the lived experience of women over the age of 21 who lost their mothers before the age of 18. Using qualitative methodology, motherless child-adult women were gathered through emails, word of mouth, and snowballing techniques. Interviews were conducted at the convenience of the women. The women coparticipated with identification of emerging themes using thematic analysis. Eight women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 participated. Eight themes emerged: (1) Understanding: For wounded hearts only; (2) Coming apart: Finding my mother's daughter and self-worth; (3) Unconditional love: Grieving for and identifying with my champion; (4) Finding help: Filling the empty place with God; (5) Pitying the motherless child: Making it worse; (6) Filling in: Others as mother; (7) The ebb and flow: Grieving; and (8) Becoming mother: Taking on the Role. The nurse has the opportunity to improve care for women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 years. During pregnancy, childbirth, and childrearing, the woman may feel sad and anxious without the guidance of her mother. Special ways of caring may be instituted to provide her comfort such as allowing and encouraging her to bring a special item of her mother's to procedures and events so that she may feel connected with her, allowing someone to stand in for her mother, perhaps assisting in finding of another motherless child adult to be with her as needed, and the voicing of understanding of her loss while remaining nonjudgmental about her emotions during these times.

  15. Improving the Status of Women in the Third World: A Challenge to Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elmer J.

    Adult educators face a challenge if they are to aid in the improvement of the status of women in the Third World. Women in developing countries, especially those in rural and poverty areas, are often restricted to second class educational and work opportunities. Adult educators could contribute to the reduction of such discrimination in the…

  16. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  17. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  18. Adult Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Mimicking a Cortical Brain Tumor: MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Weon, Young Cheol; Suh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young; Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. Although a PMA is generally a tumor of early childhood and typically occurs in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region, it can mimic cortical tumors, especially in adults. We report the MR findings of a PMA presenting as a cortical brain tumor in an adult with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

  19. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  20. Women Know Better What Other Women Think and Feel: Gender Effects on Mindreading across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Renata; Bölte, Sven; Dziobek, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Research recurrently shows that females perform better than males on various mindreading tasks. The present study contributes to this growing body of literature by being the first to demonstrate a female own-gender mindreading bias using a naturalistic social cognition paradigm including female and male targets. We found that women performed better at reading others' minds, and that they were specifically more capable to read female targets, an own-gender target effect absent in men. Furthermore, a non-linear negative effect of perceiver age on mindreading performance was examined within a sample covering the age range of 17-70 years, as indicated by a stronger performance decrease setting on by the age of 30 years and continuing throughout middle and old age. These findings add to a more comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors influencing mindreading performance in typically developing adults.

  1. Women Know Better What Other Women Think and Feel: Gender Effects on Mindreading across the Adult Life Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wacker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research recurrently shows that females perform better than males on various mindreading tasks. The present study contributes to this growing body of literature by being the first to demonstrate a female own-gender mindreading bias using a naturalistic social cognition paradigm including female and male targets. We found that women performed better at reading others’ minds, and that they were specifically more capable to read female targets, an own-gender target effect absent in men. Furthermore, a non-linear negative effect of perceiver age on mindreading performance was examined within a sample covering the age range of 17–70 years, as indicated by a stronger performance decrease setting on by the age of 30 years and continuing throughout middle and old age. These findings add to a more comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors influencing mindreading performance in typically developing adults.

  2. Comparative Study of the CT Findings and Clinical Features in Pediatric and Adult Sialadenitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jong Kyu; Jo, Seong Shik; Kim, Sang Won; Kim, Young Tong; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Yong Man

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to compare the CT findings and clinical features of parotitis and submandibular sialadenitis in children and adults and to evaluate the statistical significance of these in different age groups and the usefulness of a CT scan. Ninety-seven adults and 36 pediatric patients with sialadenitis were included in this retrospective study. Regardless of the site of involvement, we evaluated the CT findings and clinical manifestations between the pediatric and adult groups, and between the pediatric and adult parotitis and submandibular sialadenitis groups. At last, all the patients were classified into seven age groups. Abscess formations were more prominent in the parotitis groups, and sialiths were more common in the submandibular sialadenitis group with the lowest incidence in the young children group (≤ 10 years). Cellulitis seen on a CT scan showed a higher incidence in the adult parotitis group, and this finding was closely connected with pain. A number of patients showed cervical lymphadenitis on a CT scan and this coincided with lymph node palpation. Tonsillitis associated sialadenitis was common in the pediatric group. The therapeutic durations were longer in the pediatric parotitis patient group and the adult submandibular sialadenitis group. CT scans were very helpful to evaluate for abscess, stone, lymphadenitis and estimating the associated clinical manifestations such as swelling, palpable lymph nodes, pain with operation and the therapeutic plan

  3. CT findings of perforated appendicitis: comparison of child and adult patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jin Hoi; Kim, Mi Young; Choi, Young Woo; Joo, Ji Sun; Kim, Won Hong; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Up

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of patients with surgically confirmed perforated appendicitis and to compare the characteristics between children and adults. Patients in whom complicated appendicitis was clinically suspected underwent contrast enhanced CT scanning. The scans of 50 patients (19 children and 31 adults) with surgically confirmed perforated appendicitis were analysed. Without knowledge of operative findings, we retrospectively analyzed the CT findings with regard to:1) the detection of the appendiceal wall thickening;2) the presence of appendicolith;3) the size, features, and location of periappendical abscess;4) mesenteric fat infiltration and lymphadenopathy;5) wall thickening of the cecum and terminal ileum; and 6) ascites and free air. Appendiceal wall thickening was detected in seven children (37%) and 13 adults (42%) (p>0.05). Appendicolith was detected in 21 patients (42%) and was more frequent in children (13 cases, 68%) than in adults (8 cases, 26%). There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (p 0.05). Periappendiceal abscess with well-defined cyst was more frequent in children (17/19, 89%) than in adults (13/31, 42%) (p<0.05). The most commonly involved site was the midabdomen and pelvis in children (9/19, 47%), and the right lower quadrant in adults (18/31, 58%), (p<.05). Mesenteric lymph nodes were commonly detected in children, and cecal wall thickening in adults. The CT findings of perforated appendicitis included appendiceal wall thickening, appendicolith, periappendiceal abscess, mesenteric fat infiltration and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes, and thickening of the cecum wall Periappendiceal abscess with well-defined cyst in the midabdomen or pelvis was more frequent in children, as were appendicolith and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes.=20

  4. [Prostate specific antigen--PSA and histopathological findings of endometrium in women with fibrocystic breast disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radowicki, Stanisław; Kunicki, Michał

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum free and total PSA and histopathological findings in women with fibrocystic mastopathy. 176 women with fibrocystic breast disease, aged 18 to 45 years.--Group I: comprised 114 patients with cysts 10 mm in diameter. The control group consisted of 46 healthy women aged 18 - 45 years who had no breast pathology Total PSA (PSA-T) and free PSA (PSA-Free) were measured by an ultra-sensitive fluoroimmunometric DELFIA assay (Prostatus PSA Free/Total Wallac, Turku, Finland). The detection limit for PSA was 0.01 ng/ml. Endometrial samples have been obtained with Pipelle probe between 22 and 24 days of the menstrual cycle. In the control group secretory endometrium was more frequently detected than in the mastopathy group (chi2 = 11,15, p = 0.01). Proliferatory (chi2 = 8.27, p = 0.004) and presecretory endometrium (chi2 = 4.61, p = 0.03) were more frequently detected in the mastopathy group than in controls. We did not find statistically significant relationship between the mean PSA concentrations between the groups in relation to histopathological findings. No relationships between free and total PSA measured in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and endometrial findings were detected in our study. Further research is required to evaluate the relationship between PSA and endometrial findings.

  5. Sustaining Advocacy and Action on Women's Participation and Gender Equality in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…

  6. Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Freitas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2. A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2. Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7. The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women.

  7. Thoracic CT findings of adult-onset still's disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Ki Jun; Lee, Jung Whee; Lee, Sung Yong; Hong, Yeon Sik

    2006-01-01

    Adult-onset of Still's disease is a rare systemic rheumatic disorder. It involves various organs including the lungs and pleura. We report here the CT findings of a patient with the thoracic manifestations of Still's disease, including axillary and mediastinal lymphadenopathies, pleural and pericardial effusions and infiltrations in both lung bases

  8. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit.Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost.These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  9. CT findings of swyer-james-macleod syndrome in adults: are there any different findings with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Joung Sook; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Bae, Sang Jin; Woo, Jeong Joo

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate whether there is any different finding on CT with aging for the patients suffering with adult Swyer-James-MacLeod Syndrome (SJMS). We included 11 patients (7 males and 4 females) who underwent chest CT scan among 18 patients who were suspected of suffering with SJMS on chest radiographs. The range of age was from 28 to 85 years (mean: 58.5). We evaluated the diameter of both the main pulmonary artery (MPA) with its ratio, and the diameter of the pulmonary trunk (PT) to evaluate the possibility of pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the presence or absence of bronchiectasis. We also evaluated the relationships between these findings and aging. SJMS affected the left lung in 10 of 11 patients. The mean diameter of the main pulmonary artery of the normal lung was 2.5 cm and it was 1.6 cm in the involved site. The mean ratio of the normal MPA diameter to the involved one was 1.6 and this did not correlate with age (ρ > 0.1). The mean diameter of the pulmonary trunk was 2.8 cm and this increased with age (ρ 0.5). SJMS absolutely affected the left lung much more than right lung. All the patients demonstrated about 1.6 times the compensatory hypertrophy of MPA of the normal lung compared with that of the affected lung on chest CT, which was irrespective of age. The presence or absence of bronchiectasis has no correlation with age

  10. Inadequate Progress for Women in Academic Medicine: Findings from the National Faculty Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Christine M.; Kaplan, Samantha A.; Raj, Anita; Freund, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women have entered academic medicine in significant numbers for 4 decades and now comprise 20% of full-time faculty. Despite this, women have not reached senior positions in parity with men. We sought to explore the gender climate in academic medicine as perceived by representatives to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Group on Women in Medicine and Science (GWIMS) and Group on Diversity and Inclusion (GDI). Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured telephone interviews with GWIMS and GDI representatives and other senior leaders at 24 randomly selected medical schools of the 1995 National Faculty Study. All were in the continental United States, balanced for public/private status and AAMC geographic region. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and organized into content areas before an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Themes that were expressed by multiple informants were studied for patterns of association. Results: Five themes were identified: (1) a perceived wide spectrum in gender climate; (2) lack of parity in rank and leadership by gender; (3) lack of retention of women in academic medicine (the “leaky pipeline”); (4) lack of gender equity in compensation; and (5) a disproportionate burden of family responsibilities and work-life balance on women's career progression. Conclusions: Key informants described improvements in the climate of academic medicine for women as modest. Medical schools were noted to vary by department in the gender experience of women, often with no institutional oversight. Our findings speak to the need for systematic review by medical schools and by accrediting organizations to achieve gender equity in academic medicine. PMID:25658907

  11. Inadequate progress for women in academic medicine: findings from the National Faculty Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Gunn, Christine M; Kaplan, Samantha A; Raj, Anita; Freund, Karen M

    2015-03-01

    Women have entered academic medicine in significant numbers for 4 decades and now comprise 20% of full-time faculty. Despite this, women have not reached senior positions in parity with men. We sought to explore the gender climate in academic medicine as perceived by representatives to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Group on Women in Medicine and Science (GWIMS) and Group on Diversity and Inclusion (GDI). We conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured telephone interviews with GWIMS and GDI representatives and other senior leaders at 24 randomly selected medical schools of the 1995 National Faculty Study. All were in the continental United States, balanced for public/private status and AAMC geographic region. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and organized into content areas before an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Themes that were expressed by multiple informants were studied for patterns of association. Five themes were identified: (1) a perceived wide spectrum in gender climate; (2) lack of parity in rank and leadership by gender; (3) lack of retention of women in academic medicine (the "leaky pipeline"); (4) lack of gender equity in compensation; and (5) a disproportionate burden of family responsibilities and work-life balance on women's career progression. Key informants described improvements in the climate of academic medicine for women as modest. Medical schools were noted to vary by department in the gender experience of women, often with no institutional oversight. Our findings speak to the need for systematic review by medical schools and by accrediting organizations to achieve gender equity in academic medicine.

  12. Key factors impacting on diagnosis and treatment for vulvar cancer for Indigenous women: findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Rawson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    To date, there has been limited research on the topic of vulvar cancer. This paper provides findings from a qualitative study conducted with Indigenous women in East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia on the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment for vulvar cancer. The insights from the study outlined in this paper not only make a contribution to deepening our understanding of the experience of vulvar cancer for Indigenous women, but provide practical recommendations to ensure effective and early engagement for diagnosis and treatment. A qualitative research method was employed through in-depth, open-ended interviews. The participants of the study were a purposive sample of Indigenous women with the condition, health professionals, and Aboriginal health workers. There were a total of 40 participants; with twelve (n = 12) Indigenous women affected with the condition, fourteen (n = 14) Aboriginal Health Workers, ten (n = 10) nurses, three (n = 3) doctors, and one (n = 1) community member. This paper addresses three key issues highlighted by the participants which include the fact that the private nature of the disease makes the condition 'women's business', that there is a sense of shame associated with the condition, and that there is fear and worry generated by the seriousness of the condition. The private nature of the disease and the sense of shame associated with the condition impact upon the diagnosis and treatment for many Indigenous women. In addition, the limitation of resources for health service delivery for East Arnhem Land exacerbates the problems faced by these communities. This paper puts forward suggestions to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment for women affected with the condition.

  13. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Larsen, Tine B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... analysed by systematic text condensation influenced by Giorgi's phenomenological method and supplemented by elements from narrative analysis. FINDINGS: The analysis revealed three concepts: solution to an unbearable problem, learning new boundaries and hopes of normalization. These revelatory concepts were...

  14. Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Detected in the Oral Cavity and Fingernails of Mid-Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tsung-chieh Jane; Hughes, James P; Feng, Qinghua; Hulbert, Ayaka; Hawes, Stephen E; Xi, Long Fu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Stern, Joshua E; Koutsky, Laura A; Winer, Rachel L

    2015-12-01

    Oral and fingernail human papillomavirus (HPV) detection may be associated with HPV-related carcinoma risk at these nongenital sites and foster transmission to the genitals. We describe the epidemiology of oral and fingernail HPV among mid-adult women. Between 2011 and 2012, 409 women aged 30 to 50 years were followed up for 6 months. Women completed health and behavior surveys and provided self-collected oral, fingernail, and vaginal specimens at enrollment and exit for type-specific HPV DNA testing. Concordance of type-specific HPV detection across anatomical sites was described with κ statistics. Using generalized estimating equations or exact logistic regression, we measured the univariate associations of various risk factors with type-specific oral and fingernail HPV detection. Prevalence of detecting HPV in the oral cavity (2.4%) and fingernails (3.8%) was low compared with the vagina (33.1%). Concordance across anatomical sites was poor (κ history (OR, 11.1; 95% CI, 2.8-infinity), lifetime number of male vaginal sex partners at least 10 (OR vs. 0-3 partners, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.2-infinity), and lifetime number of open-mouth kissing partners at least 16 (OR vs. 0-15 partners, infinity; 95% CI, 2.6-infinity, by exact logistic regression) were each associated with oral HPV detection. Although our findings support HPV DNA deposition or autoinoculation between anatomical sites in mid-adult women, the rarity of HPV in the oral cavity and fingernails suggests that oral/fingernail HPV does not account for a significant fraction of HPV in genital sites.

  15. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  16. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Quamrun; El Arifeen, Shams; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-09-18

    Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15-49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths three years prior to the survey were identified. Adult female deaths were then followed by a verbal autopsy (VA) using the WHO structured questionnaire. Two physicians independently reviewed the VA forms to assign a cause of death using the ICD-10; in case of disagreement, a third physician made an independent review and assigned a cause of death. The overall mortality rates for women aged 15-49 in 2001 and 2010 were 182 per 100,000 and 120 per 100,000 respectively. There is a shift in the pattern of causes of death during the period covered by the two surveys. In the 2001 survey, the main causes of death were maternal (20 %), followed by diseases of the circulatory system (15 %), malignancy (14 %) and infectious diseases (13 %). However, in the 2010 survey, malignancies were the leading cause (21 %), followed by diseases of the circulatory system (16 %), maternal causes (14 %) and infectious diseases (8 %). While maternal deaths remained the number one cause of death among 20-34 years old in both surveys, unnatural deaths were the main cause for teenage deaths, and malignancies were the main cause of death for older women. Although there is an increasing trend in the proportion of women who died in hospitals, in both surveys most women died at home (74 % in 2001 and 62 % in 2010). The shift in the pattern of causes of adult female deaths is in agreement with the overall change in the disease pattern from communicable to non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Suicide and other violent deaths as

  17. Lonely young adults in modern Britain: findings from an epidemiological cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Caspi, Avshalom; Fisher, Helen L; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Kepa, Agnieszka; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Arseneault, Louise

    2018-04-24

    The aim of this study was to build a detailed, integrative profile of the correlates of young adults' feelings of loneliness, in terms of their current health and functioning and their childhood experiences and circumstances. Data were drawn from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2232 individuals born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. Loneliness was measured when participants were aged 18. Regression analyses were used to test concurrent associations between loneliness and health and functioning in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses were conducted to examine childhood factors associated with young adult loneliness. Lonelier young adults were more likely to experience mental health problems, to engage in physical health risk behaviours, and to use more negative strategies to cope with stress. They were less confident in their employment prospects and were more likely to be out of work. Lonelier young adults were, as children, more likely to have had mental health difficulties and to have experienced bullying and social isolation. Loneliness was evenly distributed across genders and socioeconomic backgrounds. Young adults' experience of loneliness co-occurs with a diverse range of problems, with potential implications for health in later life. The findings underscore the importance of early intervention to prevent lonely young adults from being trapped in loneliness as they age.

  18. Mammographic density in asymptomatic menopausal women: correlation with clinical and sonographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Regina Alvares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mammographic breast density in asymptomatic menopausal women in correlation with clinical and sonographic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mammograms and clinical and sonographic findings of 238 asymptomatic patients were retrospectively reviewed in the period from February/2022 to June/2006. The following variables were analyzed: mammographic density patterns, sonographic findings, patients' age, parity, body mass index and use of hormone replacement therapy. RESULTS: Age, parity and body mass index showed a negative correlation with breast density pattern, while use of hormone replacement therapy showed a positive correlation. Supplementary breast ultrasonography was performed in 103 (43.2% patients. Alterations which could not be visualized at mammography were found in 34 (33% of them, most frequently in women with breast density patterns 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that breast density patterns were influenced by age, parity, body mass index and time of hormone replacement therapy. Despite not having found any malignant abnormality in the studied cases, the authors have observed a predominance of benign sonographic abnormalities in women with high breast density patterns and without mammographic abnormalities, proving the relevance of supplementary ultrasonography to identify breast lesions in such patients.

  19. Mammographic and sonographic findings of breast cancer in women younger than 35 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw de Paredes, E.; Marsteller, L.; Eden, B.

    1989-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is uncommon in women under 35 years of age and may be difficult to detect because clinically palpable masses are usually benign, and mammography may be limited by dense parenchyma. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the mammographic findings in young patients with breast cancer and the efficacy of mammography in identifying these lesions. During an 8-year period, 100 breast cancers were diagnosed mammography and sonography were performed in 678% and 19% of patients, respectively; mammography demonstrated the lesion in 90% of cases. Mammographic and sonographic findings are presented

  20. Radiologic Findings of Reversed Intestinal Rotation in Adults: 3 Cases Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hyeon Seok; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon; Kim, Kum Rae; Park, Won Kyu; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Most anomalies of intestinal rotation are detected during the postneonatal period. In adults, the diagnosis and treatment of patients with a congenital anomaly of the midgut can be difficult because of their extremely rarity. Based on embryology, anomalies of intestinal rotation can be divided into non-rotation, reversed rotation and malrotation. Reversed rotation of the midgut is the rarest of all anomalies of intestinal rotation. Although this anomaly is rare, it can be diagnosed by a detailed knowledge of embryology and anatomy. We report three adult patients with reversed intestinal rotation and review the embryology, clinical presentation and radiographic findings of this disorder

  1. Developing an attitude towards bullying scale for prisoners: structural analyses across adult men, young adults and women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; Power, Christina L; Bramhall, Sarah; Flowers, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to explore attitudes towards bullying among prisoners, despite acknowledgement that attitudes may play an important role. To evaluate the structure of a new attitudinal scale, the Prison Bullying Scale (PBS), with adult men and women in prison and with young male prisoners. That attitudes would be represented as a multidimensional construct and that the PBS structure would be replicated across confirmatory samples. The PBS was developed and confirmed across four independent studies using item parceling and confirmatory factor analysis: Study I comprised 412 adult male prisoners; Study II, 306 adult male prisoners; Study III, 171 male young offenders; and Study IV, 148 adult women prisoners. Attitudes were represented as a multidimensional construct comprising seven core factors. The exploratory analysis was confirmed in adult male samples, with some confirmation among young offenders and adult women. The fit for young offenders was adequate and improved by factor covariance. The fit for women was the poorest overall. The study notes the importance of developing ecologically valid measures and statistically testing these measures prior to their clinical or research use. The development of the PBS holds value both as an assessment and as a research measure and remains the only ecologically validated measure in existence to assess prisoner attitudes towards bullying.

  2. The role of birth cohorts in studies of adult health: the New York women's birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mary Beth; Flom, Julie; Tehranifar, Parisa; Susser, Ezra

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating associations between early life factors and adult health are often limited to studying exposures that can be reliably recalled in adulthood or obtained from existing medical records. There are few US studies with detailed data on the pre- and postnatal environment whose study populations are now in adulthood; one exception is the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). We contacted former female participants of the New York site of the CPP who were born from 1959 to 1963 and were prospectively followed for 7 years to examine whether the pre- and postnatal environment is associated with adult health in women 40 years after birth. The New York CPP cohort is particularly diverse; at enrolment, the race/ethnicity distribution of mothers was approximately 30% White, 40% Black and 30% Puerto Rican. Of the 841 eligible women, we successfully traced 375 women (45%) and enrolled 262 women (70% of those traced). Baseline data were available for all eligible women, and we compared those who participated with the remaining cohort (n = 579). Higher family socio-economic status at age 7, availability of maternal social security number, and White race/ethnicity were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of tracing. Of those traced, race/ethnicity was associated with participation, with Blacks and Puerto Ricans less likely to participate than Whites (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 0.8, and OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 1.0, respectively). In addition, higher weight at 7 years was associated with lower participation (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92, 0.99), but this association was observed only among the non-White participants. None of the other maternal characteristics, infant or early childhood growth measures was associated with participation or with tracing, either overall or within each racial/ethnic subgroup. Daughters' recall of early life factors such as pre-eclampsia (sensitivity = 24%) and birthweight were generally poor, with the

  3. Prevalence and stability of mental disorders among young adults: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Kristin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2018-03-12

    Mental disorders often have onset early in life, contribute substantially to the global disease burden, and may interfere with young people's ability to complete age-relevant tasks in important developmental periods. However, knowledge about prevalence and course of mental disorders in young adulthood is sparse. The aim of the current study was to estimate prevalence and stability of mental disorders from the twenties to the thirties/forties. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two waves (1999-2004 and 2010-2011) in 1623 young adult Norwegian twins (63.2% women, aged 19-29 years in wave 1). In wave 1, the 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder among people in the twenties was 19.8% (men) and 32.4% (women), anxiety disorders: 9.6% (men) and 26.7% (women), anxiety disorders excluding specific phobias: 2.5% (men) and 6.9% (women), major depressive disorder (MDD): 4.4% (men) and 7.2% (women), and alcohol use disorder (AUD): 8.7% (men) and 4.4% (women). The prevalence of any mental disorder decreased from the twenties to the thirties/forties. This was due to a decrease in AUD and specific phobias. Anxiety disorders in the twenties predicted anxiety disorders and MDD ten years later, even when controlling for the association between these disorders in the twenties. MDD in the twenties predicted MDD ten years later. At both ages, two-week and 12-month prevalence estimates differed markedly for MDD - indicating an episodic course. Common mental disorders are highly prevalent among young adults in the twenties, and somewhat less prevalent in the thirties/forties. Those who suffer from one mental disorder in the twenties are at considerably increased risk for suffering from a disorder ten years later as well. This may have significant implications for young people's ability to attain education, establish a family, and participate in occupational life.

  4. Finding Feminist Literary Reading: Portrayals Of Women In The 1920s Indonesian Literary Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ariani Arimbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Modern Indonesian literature can be said to be born around 1920s with the publication of modern Indonesian literary works by Balai Pustaka. Amongst the works published by Balai Pustaka in the 1920s ; there are most popular works namely Sitti Nurbaya (1922 ; Azab dan Sengsara(1927 and Salah Asuhan (1928 representing the tone of 1920s literary productions. This paper aims to look at images of women in those three works written by male authors ; using feminist literary criticism. By means of close reading technique; the study uses feminist literary criticism to examine and (reexamine the images of women portrayed in those three works. The finding shows that on one hand some women are still trapped with the shackle of patriarchy, but, on the other hand, some women are not simply passive victims of patriarchy: these women still attempt to escape from the patriarchal chain and cut out the patriarchal oppression. Key Words: modern Indonesian literature; 1920s; Balai Pustaka; women; feminist literary criticism Abstrak: Sastra Indonesia modern dapat dikatakan lahir sekitar tahun1920-an dengan publikasi karya sastra Indonesia modern oleh Balai Pustaka. Di antara karya yang diterbitkan oleh Balai Pustaka pada tahun 1920-an; terdapat karya yang paling populer seperti Sitti Nurbaya (1922; Azab dan Sengsara (1927; dan Salah Asuhan (1928 yang mewakili suara produksi sastra tahun 1920-an. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk melihat potret perempuan dalam tiga karya yang ditulis oleh penulis laki-laki dengan menggunakan pendekatan kritik sastra feminis. Melalui teknik pembacaan yang mendalam (close reading technique; penelitian ini menggunakan kritik sastra feminis untuk menelaah potret perempuan dalam tiga karya tersebut. Temuan dalam tulisan ini menunjukkan bahwa di satu sisi perempuan masih terbelenggu oleh patriarkat; tetapi di sisi lain perempuan bukanlah korban patriarkat yang pasif: perempuan tetap berupaya untuk keluar dari belenggu ini dan memutus

  5. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine.We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set.Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them.The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  6. CT findings of swyer-james-macleod syndrome in adults: are there any different findings with aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Joung Sook; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jae Hyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jeong Joo [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We wanted to evaluate whether there is any different finding on CT with aging for the patients suffering with adult Swyer-James-MacLeod Syndrome (SJMS). We included 11 patients (7 males and 4 females) who underwent chest CT scan among 18 patients who were suspected of suffering with SJMS on chest radiographs. The range of age was from 28 to 85 years (mean: 58.5). We evaluated the diameter of both the main pulmonary artery (MPA) with its ratio, and the diameter of the pulmonary trunk (PT) to evaluate the possibility of pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the presence or absence of bronchiectasis. We also evaluated the relationships between these findings and aging. SJMS affected the left lung in 10 of 11 patients. The mean diameter of the main pulmonary artery of the normal lung was 2.5 cm and it was 1.6 cm in the involved site. The mean ratio of the normal MPA diameter to the involved one was 1.6 and this did not correlate with age ({rho} > 0.1). The mean diameter of the pulmonary trunk was 2.8 cm and this increased with age ({rho} < 0.05). There was bronchiectasis in 6 of 11 patients, and the ratio of bronchiectasis did not correlate with age ({rho} > 0.5). SJMS absolutely affected the left lung much more than right lung. All the patients demonstrated about 1.6 times the compensatory hypertrophy of MPA of the normal lung compared with that of the affected lung on chest CT, which was irrespective of age. The presence or absence of bronchiectasis has no correlation with age.

  7. Why do young adults with Type 1 diabetes find it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace?

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; Smith, Diarmuid; Sreenan, Seamus; Doyle, Frank; Conroy, Ronán

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how and why workplace environments impact diabetes management for adults people with Type 1 diabetes, 23-30 years of age. Interviews were conducted with 35 young adults, 29 women and 6 men. The majority of these interviewees worked in sectors such as banking, technology and administration. Young adults found it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace for two main reasons: work-related time pressures and the non-routine nature of interviewees' work and working envir...

  8. Recreational physical activity is inversely associated with asymptomatic gallstones in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Morán, Santiago; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Morán, Segundo; Duque, Ximena; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Macías, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic research suggests that physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of chronic diseases including gallstones. This study explores the association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and risk of asymptomatic gallstones (AG) in adult Mexican women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women from the Health Workers Cohort Study. The study population included Mexican women aged 17-94 years, with no history of gallstone (GS) or cholecystectomy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on weight change, gynecological health history, cholesterol-lowering medications and diuretics, history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), PA and diet. PA was calculated in minutes/day, minutes/week and Metabolic Equivalents (METs)/week. Gallstone diagnosis was performed using real-time ultrasonography. The association between RPA and risk of AG was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results. Of the 4,953 women involved in the study, 12.3% were diagnosed with AG. The participants with AG were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, and had a higher prevalence of DM2 than those without AG. The participants with > 30 min/day of RPA had lower odds of AG (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03), regardless of other known risk factors for gallstone disease. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between RPA time and AG risk, especially in women doing more than 150 min a week of RPA (OR = 0.76; 95%CI: 0.61- 0.95; P = 0.02). These findings support the hypothesis that RPA may protect against AG, although further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this association.

  9. The ecology of anemia: Anemia prevalence and correlated factors in adult indigenous women in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Laura G; Valeggia, Claudia

    2017-05-06

    The Toba/Qom of Namqom are an indigenous community native to the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina. Historically seminomadic foragers, the diet of peri-urban community members has rapidly changed from high-protein, high-fiber to hypercaloric, processed. This study aims to understand the impact of this nutritional transition on aspects of women's health by exploring the relationship between prevalence of anemia and current diet composition, place of birth, and reproductive history. We measured the capillary hemoglobin (Hb) levels of 153 adult women. Each participant was also given two interviews characterizing reproductive history and a 24-hour food recall. The average Hb level was 12.6 g/dL (range 5.8-15.7 g/dL). In our sample, 28% of participants were anemic and 31% were borderline anemic. Iron and vitamin C consumption were negatively associated with Hb levels. Body mass index was marginally associated with Hb levels. Being born in a peri-urban setting, a proxy for early Westernized diet was associated with higher risk of anemia, suggesting developmental experience may play a role. Pregnant and lactating women had lower Hb levels than menstruating and menopausal women. Age, height, parity, and age at first pregnancy were not found to be statistically significant predictors of anemia. Iron deficiency represents a serious health concern for women, particularly pregnant ones. Our results suggest that both past and current nutritional ecology variables may be associated with the risk of anemia. These findings inform public health interventions, since reproductive history may be more difficult to modify than current diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Women Treated with Toremifene for Premenstrual Mastalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksa, S.; Parkkola, R.; Luukkaala, T.; Maeenpaeae, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Toremifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been shown to be effective in alleviating premenstrual breast pain. However, the exact mechanism by which toremifene and related compounds work in premenstrual mastalgia is poorly understood. Purpose: To find out if the effect of toremifene on breast would be detectable with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: This randomized, double-blind crossover study was performed on women suffering from marked premenstrual mastalgia. Ten women were randomized to receive either toremifene (20 mg) or placebo from cycle day 15 until next menstruation for three menstrual cycles. After a washout period, the treatment was crossed over for three additional cycles. The MRI evaluations were performed premenstrually at the end of each treatment phase. Breast pain and quality-of-life scores were collected from one baseline cycle and from all the treatment cycles. Results: Nine patients were evaluable for this analysis. Both the enhancement ratio and the maximum slope of enhancement tended to be smaller during the toremifene cycles as compared to placebo. On the left side, the difference in the maximum slope of enhancement between toremifene and placebo was statistically significant (median 5.150 [range 3.7-6.7] and 6.500 [range 4.9-9.5], respectively; P=0.047). T2 relaxation times as well as breast pain and quality-of-life scores were inconsistent. Conclusion: Use of toremifene is associated with measurable changes in dynamic breast MRI findings in women with cyclic breast pain

  11. Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Women Treated with Toremifene for Premenstrual Mastalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksa, S. (Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori (Finland)); Parkkola, R. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Turku, Turku (Finland)); Luukkaala, T.; Maeenpaeae, J. (Medical School, Univ. of Tampere, Tampere (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    Background: Toremifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been shown to be effective in alleviating premenstrual breast pain. However, the exact mechanism by which toremifene and related compounds work in premenstrual mastalgia is poorly understood. Purpose: To find out if the effect of toremifene on breast would be detectable with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: This randomized, double-blind crossover study was performed on women suffering from marked premenstrual mastalgia. Ten women were randomized to receive either toremifene (20 mg) or placebo from cycle day 15 until next menstruation for three menstrual cycles. After a washout period, the treatment was crossed over for three additional cycles. The MRI evaluations were performed premenstrually at the end of each treatment phase. Breast pain and quality-of-life scores were collected from one baseline cycle and from all the treatment cycles. Results: Nine patients were evaluable for this analysis. Both the enhancement ratio and the maximum slope of enhancement tended to be smaller during the toremifene cycles as compared to placebo. On the left side, the difference in the maximum slope of enhancement between toremifene and placebo was statistically significant (median 5.150 [range 3.7-6.7] and 6.500 [range 4.9-9.5], respectively; P=0.047). T2 relaxation times as well as breast pain and quality-of-life scores were inconsistent. Conclusion: Use of toremifene is associated with measurable changes in dynamic breast MRI findings in women with cyclic breast pain

  12. Does mindfulness have potential in eating disorders prevention? A preliminary controlled trial with young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Melissa J; Wade, Tracey D

    2016-06-01

    This preliminary randomized controlled trial assessed the feasibility of a pilot mindfulness-based intervention with respect to reducing the risk of eating disorders in young women. Forty-four young adult women with body image concerns (Mage  = 20.57, SD = 3.22) were randomly allocated to a mindfulness-based or a dissonance-based intervention (3 × 1 h weekly sessions), or to assessment-only control. Self-report measures of eating disorder risk factors, symptoms and related psychosocial impairment were compared at baseline, post-intervention, and at 1- and 6-month follow up. At post-intervention, acceptability ratings for both interventions were high. Mindfulness participants demonstrated statistically significant improvements relative to control at post-intervention for weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms and related psychosocial impairment; however, these gains were largely lost over follow up. Dissonance participants did not show statistically significant improvements relative to control on any outcomes, despite small to moderate effect sizes. These preliminary findings demonstrate the acceptability and short-term efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach to reducing the risk of disordered eating in young women. This provides support for the continued evaluation of mindfulness in the prevention and early intervention of eating disorders, with increased efforts to produce maintenance of intervention gains. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The Association of Benefit Finding to Psychosocial and Health Behavior Adaptation Among HIV+ Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Rae A.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Blair, Donald C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation, such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of benefit finding to positive health behavior and psychosocial adaptation. HIV+ participants (N = 221) recruited during outpatient care completed self-report assessments of benefit finding, social support, depression, HAART adherence, substance use, and physical activity. In a series of multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic and health status variables, benefit finding was associated with lower depression scores, greater social support, and more physical activity, but showed no association to HAART adherence or substance use. The association of benefit finding to depression was partially mediated by differences in social support. Thus, benefit finding may improve psychological adjustment by motivating patients who experience stress-related growth to seek improved social support. PMID:18157689

  14. Schatzki ring in children and young adults: clinical and radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, K.; Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Husain, K.; Nurko, S. [Division of Gastroenterology, Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Background. The Schatzki ring is a well-known clinical and radiologic entity in adults, but is thought to be rare in childhood. Objective. To review the clinical presentations and radiologic findings of children and young adults with Schatzki rings. Materials and methods. A retrospective review of all barium swallow examinations done between 1990 and 1996 revealed 20 patients with Schatzki rings. Results. The most frequent presenting symptoms of these patients were progressive dysphagia with solid food and acute food impaction. Radiographic findings of Schatzki rings were typical in all cases. Twelve patients had endoscopy and all had evidence of esophagitis. Conclusion. Schatzki rings are not rare in childhood. The patients are symptomatic, presenting with either progressive dysphagia with solids or acute food impaction. A thorough evaluation of the distal esophagus should be performed in patients with a suggestive clinical history. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  15. Socioeconomic related inequality in depression among young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-08-15

    Difficult living conditions in urban areas could result in an increased risk of developing depression, particularly among women. One of the strong predictors of depression is poverty, which could lead to inequality in risk of depression. However, previous studies found conflicting results between poverty and depression. This study examines whether depression was unequally distributed among young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities and investigate the factors contributed to the inequality. Data from 1117 young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were analysed. Concentration Index (CI) was calculated to measure the degree of the inequality. The CI was decomposed to investigate the factor contributing most to the inequality. The prevalence of depression was 15% and more concentrated among lower economic group (CI=-0.0545). Compared to the middle-adult group, the prevalence of depression among women in the young-adult group was significantly higher (18% vs 11%, pinequality in both group. Other factors contributing to inequality were smoking in young-adult group and marital status in middle-adult group. Contribution of education to inequality varied for different age groups. Depression is more concentrated among the lower economic groups, with household expenditure being the major factor contributing to the inequality. This finding emphasises the importance of primary care level mental health services, particularly in poorer urban communities. This study is based on a cross-sectional data, and only assesses social determinants of depression. These determinants are important to address in addition to biological determinants and other factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-Reported Empathy in Adult Women with Autism Spectrum Disorders - A Systematic Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Francien M; Groen, Yvonne; Becke, Miriam; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in females. Although the empathy construct has been examined thoroughly in autism, little attention has been paid to empathy in adult women with this condition or to gender differences within the disorder. Self-reported empathy in adult women with ASD was examined and compared to that of typically developed men and women as well as to men with this condition. Online databases were searched for articles investigating self-reported empathy among adult women with ASD. Only six studies comparing women to men were identified. All studies found women with an ASD to report lower levels of empathy than typically developed women, and typically developed men, but similar levels to men with this condition. The self-reported empathic ability of women diagnosed with ASD resembles that of their male counterparts most closely; they show a hypermasculinisation in empathy. This is particularly surprising considering the large gender difference in empathy in the general population. One of the limitations of this review is that the current diagnostic criteria for ASD are oriented towards male-specific behaviour and fail to integrate gender specific characteristics. Hence, women diagnosed with ASD are likely to be at the male end of the continuum. The suggested hypermasculinisation of women on the spectrum, as evident from this review, may therefore be exaggerated due to a selection bias.

  17. Correlation between abnormal cytological findings and human papillomavirus infection of the uterine cervix in Bulgarian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Miladinov Kovachev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between cases of human papillomavirus (HPV+/− infection of the uterine cervix revealed through HPV typing and cytological results from Papanicolaou (Pap-stained cervical smears. Cervical smears of 421 Bulgarian women attending routine gynaecological examinations during the three-year study period were stained by the Pap technique and classified by the Bethesda system. GenoFlow HPV Array Test Kit was used to analyse the HPV status in the collected cervical samples. The results showed that, of the 421 women, 177 (42% were HPV(+ and 244 (58% were HPV(−; 334 (79.3% Pap smears were with normal morphology and 87 (20.7% had high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL/HSIL changes. Of the 87 women with LSIL/HSIL changes, 54% (47/87 were HPV(− and 46% (40/87 were HPV(+. There was no statistically significant correlation between the HPV(+ status and the cytological LSIL/HSIL findings (P > 0.05. Koilocytes were found in 30.4% (128/421 of the samples. Of the 128 women with koilocytosis, 59.4% (76/128 were HPV(− and 40.6% (52/128 were HPV(+. There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05 between the presence of koilocytes in cervical smears and HPV infection. Our results suggest that HPV infection is frequent even in women with negative Pap-smear results, and polymerase chain reaction seems to be the only reliable test to diagnose this infection. However, the results from this study cannot be considered to fully support the replacement of cytology and colposcopy examination in cervical cancer screening with HPV genotyping tests only.

  18. Receipt of a pediatric liver offer as the first offer reduces waitlist mortality for adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Gilroy, Richard; Lai, Jennifer C

    2018-03-31

    In liver transplantation, adults with small stature have a greater susceptibility to waitlist mortality. This may explain the persistent waitlist mortality disparity that exists for women. We hypothesized that women who receive early offers of pediatric donor livers have improved waitlist survival, and that preferentially offering these organs to women mitigates this sex-based disparity. We analyzed donor liver offers from 2010 to 2014. Adult candidates who received a first offer that ranked within the first three match run positions from the donors' perspective were classified based on gender and whether they received a pediatric versus adult offer. We used competing risks regression to associate first offer type and waitlist mortality. 8,101 waitlist candidates received a first offer that was ranked within the first three match run positions: 5.6% (293/5,202) men and 6.2% (179/2,899) women received a pediatric donor liver as their first offer. In multivariable analyses, compared to adult-first men, adult-first women (sHR1.33, 95%CI 1.17-1.51, p offer had a lower risk of waitlist mortality compared to those who receive adult offers. Our data provides a simple approach to mitigating the increased waitlist mortality experienced by women by incorporating donor and recipient size, as variables, into organ allocation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  20. Evaluation of early atherosclerotic findings in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Afshin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women of childbearing age, and it seems better to consider it as an ovarian manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the current study was to evaluate early atherosclerotic findings in patients with PCOS. Methods We enrolled 46 women with PCOS and 45 normal control subjects who were referred to our hospital's endocrinology outpatient clinic. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD were performed in both cases and matched controls. Results Patients with PCOS showed an increased mean CIMT (0.63 ± 0.16 mm when compared with the control subjects (0.33 ± 0.06 mm. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001. The mean FMD in young patients with PCOS was 10.07 ± 1.2%, while it was 6.5 ± 2.06% in normal subjects. This difference was also statistically significant (p = 0.001. Conclusion Our findings suggest that PCOS is related with early atherosclerotic findings.

  1. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  2. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  3. Stimuli eliciting sexual arousal in males who offend adult women: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolárský, A; Madlafousek, J; Novotná, V

    1978-03-01

    The sexually arousing effects of short film scenes showing a naked actress's seductive behavior were phalloplethysmographically measured in 14 sexual deviates. These were males who had offended adult women, predominantly exhibitionists. Controls were 14 normal men. Deviates responded positively to the scenes and differentiated strong and weak seduction scenes similarly to normals. Consequently, the question arises of why deviates avoid their victim's erotic cooperation and why they do not offend their regular sexual partners. Post hoc analysis of five scenes which elicited a strikingly higher response in deviates than in normals suggested that these scenes contained reduced seductive behavior but unrestrained presentation of the genitals. This finding further encourages the laboratory study of stimulus conditions for abnormal sexual arousal which occurs during the sexual offense.

  4. Predicting impulsive self-injurious behavior in a sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emma B; Mildred, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Different types of self-injury have been classified as reflecting impulsive and compulsive characteristics (article by Simeon and Favazza [Self-injurious Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment {pp 1-28}. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc, 2001]). The current research used a prospective design to evaluate whether there is a progression between these different types of self-injurious behaviors (SIB) over time. Support was found for a progression from compulsive SIB (including hair pulling, nail-biting, skin picking, scratching, and preventing wounds from healing) to impulsive SIB (including cutting, burning, carving, pin sticking, and punching) in a group of adult women (N = 106). Other factors hypothesized to be linked to this outcome were disordered eating, age, and personality facets of impulsivity (specifically, urgency and lack of perseverance). Of these variables, only urgency positively predicted impulsive SIB at the study's conclusion. These findings are discussed, limitations of the study are noted, and directions for future research are outlined.

  5. Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H

    2008-03-01

    Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age

  6. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvigneaud Nathalie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ≥ 94 cm (men or ≥ 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are

  7. Increased pain sensitivity is not associated with electrodiagnostic findings in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Laguarta-Val, Sofia; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the differences in widespread pressure pain and thermal hypersensitivity in women with minimal, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy controls. A total of 72 women with CTS (19 with minimal, 18 with moderate, and 35 with severe) and 19 healthy age-matched women participated. Pressure pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, the C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel, and the tibialis anterior muscle. In addition, warm and cold detection thresholds and heat and cold pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence. All outcome parameters were assessed by an assessor blinded to the participant's condition. No significant differences in pain parameters among patients with minimal, moderate, and severe CTS were found. The results showed that PPT were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS as compared with healthy controls (all, P<0.001). In addition, patients with CTS also showed lower heat pain threshold and reduced cold pain threshold compared with controls (P<0.001). No significant sensory differences between minimal, moderate, or severe CTS were found. The similar widespread pressure and thermal hypersensitivity in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS and pain intensity suggests that increased pain sensitivity is not related to electrodiagnostic findings.

  8. Occupational physical activities, working hours and outcome of pregnancy: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzini, M; Coggon, D; Godfrey, K; Inskip, H; Crozier, S; Palmer, K T

    2009-10-01

    To investigate risks of physical activity at work by pregnancy trimester, including the effects on head and abdominal circumference. At 34 weeks of gestation we interviewed 1327 mothers from the prospective Southampton Women's Survey (SWS); we asked about their activities (working hours, standing/walking, kneeling/squatting, trunk bending, lifting and night shifts) in jobs held at each of 11, 19 and 34 weeks of gestation, and subsequently ascertained four birth outcomes (preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA) and reduced head or abdominal circumference) blinded to employment history. Risk of preterm delivery was elevated nearly threefold in women whose work at 34 weeks entailed trunk bending for >1 h/day. Small head circumference was more common in babies born to women who worked for >40 h/week. However, no statistically significant associations were found with SGA or small abdominal circumference, and preterm delivery showed little association with long working hours, lifting, standing or shift work. There is a need for more research on trunk bending late in pregnancy, and on the relationship of work to reduced head circumference. Our findings on several other occupational exposures common among pregnant workers are reassuring.

  9. Normal appendix in adults: MDCT findings about the location, thickness and the presence or absence of intraluminal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyoung Jin; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Kim, Ha Young; Lim, Sae Kyung; Ohm, Joon Young; Yoon, Chung Dae; Shin, Byung Seok

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to examine the usefulness of multi-detector CT (MDCT) with multiplanar reformations for evaluating the location, thickness and the presence or absence of intraluminal gas in the normal appendix of adults. From December 2004 to June 2005, we evaluated normal appendices in 427 consecutive adult patients who were scanned with 16-slice MDCT. All these patients had no clinical findings of appendicitis. There were 251 men and 176 women. The age range was 19-84 years (mean age: 55 years). The contrast-enhanced MDCT scans during the portal phase were obtained with 0.75 mm detector collimation and they were reviewed with using the multiplanar reconstruction images (3 mm section thickness). The MDCT images of normal appendices on a PACS monitor were retrospectively analyzed. We analyzed the location, thickness and the presence or absence of intraluminal gas by consensus of two abdominal radiologists. The positions of normal appendices were classified as type I (postileal and medial paracecal), type II (subcecal), type III (retrocecal and retrocolic or laterocolic), type IV (preileal and medical colic) and type V (lower pelvic cavity). The five types of appendiceal locations were as follows: type I (n = 187; 44%), type II (n 78; 18%), type III (n = 92, 22%), type IV (n = 39; 9%) and type V (n = 31; 7%). The appendiceal tips in 29 cases (7%) were unusually located in the right subhepatic space, the small bowel mesentery and the right adnexa. The mean thickness of 427 appendices was 5.8 ± 0.9 mm (range: 3.8-9.2 mm). The appendiceal mean thickness was 5.9 ± 0.9 mm in men and 5.7 ± 0.9 mm in women (ρ < 0.05). 384 (90%) of 427 appendices had intraluminal gas and 43 (10%) had no intraluminal gas, and their mean thickness was 5.9 mm (range: 3.8-9.2 mm) and 5.3 mm (3.8-7.3 mm), respectively (ρ < 0.05). MDCT with multiplanar reformations was useful for evaluating the location, thickness and the presence or absence of intraluminal gas in normal appendix of adults. These

  10. Young Adult Women and the Pilgrimage of Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperini, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Motherhood is a complex experience that can be transformative, offering women opportunities for personal enrichment and spiritual development. Because the largest incidence of births occurs to women in the Millennial or late Generation X generations, this complex, potentially transformative experience occurs at a critical time in young adult…

  11. Older Adults' Experiences of Sexual Difficulties: Qualitative Findings From the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron; Tetley, Josie; Lee, David; Nazroo, James

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that sexual activity is important to the quality of life of older adults, and that it can be influenced by physical, psychological, and social factors. However, older adults' experiences of sexual difficulties remain relatively unexplored. This article draws on qualitative data collected as part of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Participants answered a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q), which included an open comment box for further details, 1,084 (1/7) of which were completed. These data were analyzed using Template Analysis, and findings on the experiences of sexual difficulties are presented in this article. Sexual difficulties were contextualized within the couple relationship and could be detrimental to the relationship, particularly if the partner would not seek professional help. Participants reported that sexual difficulties could also have a negative impact on psychological well-being, described mainly as frustration, depression, and sadness. For some participants the supportive nature of their relationship buffered these impacts. Few had sought professional help; those who had reported helpful and unhelpful experiences. These findings add to the limited evidence base and have implications for health care in the context of global aging and a growing recognition of older adults' sexual rights.

  12. Factors influencing young adults' attitudes and knowledge of late-life sexuality among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca S; Petro, Kathryn N; Phillips, Laura L

    2009-03-01

    Although sexuality is valued throughout the lifespan, older women's sexual expression can be influenced by physical, mental and social factors, including attitudes and stereotypes held by younger generations. By gaining an understanding of what influences negative attitudes toward sexuality and beliefs about sexual consent capacity, the stigma associated with sexuality in late life may be reduced. Using vignette methodology in an online survey, we examined older women's health and young adults' (N = 606; mean age = 18.86, SD = 1.42, range 17-36) general knowledge and attitudes toward aging and sexuality, personal sexual behavior, religious beliefs and perceived closeness with an older adult on attitudes towards sexual behavior and perceptions of consent capacity among older women. The health status of older women proved important in determining young adults' acceptance and perception of sexual consent capacity regarding late-life heterosexual/autoerotic and homosexual behaviors. Specifically, young adults expressed lower acceptance and more doubt regarding capacity to consent to sexual expression when the older woman was described as cognitively impaired. Additionally, young adults' personal attitudes toward late-life sexuality, but not knowledge, predicted acceptance toward sexual expression and belief in sexual consent capacity. Attention toward the influence of older women's cognitive health and young adults' attitudes toward late-life sexuality may prove beneficial in designing interventions to decrease the stigma associated with sexual activity in later life.

  13. Use of Technology for HIV Prevention Among Adolescent and Adult Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Patel, Viraj V; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-12-01

    Although the proportion of new HIV infections in the USA among women has decreased over the last few years, still, approximately 20 % of new infections occur annually among adolescent and adult women. The development of effective evidence-based prevention interventions remains an important approach to further decreasing these numbers. Technology-delivered prevention interventions hold tremendous potential due, in part, to their ability to reach beyond the walls of brick-and-mortar intervention sites to engage individuals where they are. While most technology-delivered interventions have focused on adolescents and men who have sex with men, much fewer have specifically targeted adolescent or adult women despite evidence showing that interventions tailored to specific target populations are most effective. We summarize the recently published literature on technology-delivered HIV prevention interventions for US adolescent and adult women and provide suggestions for next steps in this nascent but emergent area of prevention research.

  14. "You're Always First a Girl": Emerging Adult Women, Gender, and Sexuality in the Israeli Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli army drafts both men and women, and most Israelis complete their military service during their emerging adulthood years. This study examined Israeli women's experiences as soldiers in the army. Twenty-three women (18 emerging adults, 5 young adults) were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed about how they experienced…

  15. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  16. Tubular sigmoid duplication in an adult man: an interesting incidental finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asour, Amani; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Arya, Shobhit; Hepworth, Clive

    2017-11-12

    A 61-year-old man attended an outpatient colorectal clinic for a chronic, non-specific abdominal pain, associated with rectal bleeding. He underwent a number of investigations including a CT pneumocolon, which revealed an incidental finding of 20 cm of additional sigmoid colon. This case is interesting because tubular sigmoid duplication is an extremely unusual condition, rarely diagnosed in adults; only a few cases have been reported of this condition in the adult population. Our team chose to treat this patient conservatively, in order to avoid putting the patient at risk of an unnecessary surgery. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Adult Women in China, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baohua; He, Minfu; Chao, Ann; Engelgau, Michael M.; Saraiya, Mona; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among women in China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine screening for cervical cancer, and the WHO Global Monitoring Framework suggests that every nation monitors cervical cancer screening. However, little information is available on cervical cancer screening behavior among women in China. Methods. We used data from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System that included 51,989 women aged 18 years and older. We report the proportion of women who reported ever having had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. Overall, 21% of 51,989 women reported having ever had a Pap test. The highest proportion was reported among women aged 30–39 years (30.1%, 95% confidence interval, 26.8%–33.4%). In all geographic regions, women in rural areas were consistently less likely than women in urban areas to report having had a Pap test. Among women who reported ever having a Pap test, 82% reported having the most recent test in the past 3 years. Factors associated with reporting ever having a test were being aged 30–49 years, higher education, being married, and having urban health insurance. Conclusion. Our results indicate that screening programs need to be strengthened along with a more intense focus on specific demographic groups. National cervical cancer screening guidelines and comprehensive implementation strategies are needed to make screening services available and accessible to all women. Implications for Practice: This study is the largest nationwide and population-based assessment of self-reported history of Pap test for cervical cancer screening in China. This article describes cervical cancer screening behavior among women and examines key demographic and geographic factors. Only one

  18. Women veterans' healthcare delivery preferences and use by military service era: findings from the National Survey of Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Hamilton, Alison B; Cordasco, Kristina M; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2013-07-01

    The number of women Veterans (WVs) utilizing the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has doubled over the past decade, heightening the importance of understanding their healthcare delivery preferences and utilization patterns. Other studies have identified healthcare issues and behaviors of WVs in specific military service eras (e.g., Vietnam), but delivery preferences and utilization have not been examined within and across eras on a population basis. To identify healthcare delivery preferences and healthcare use of WVs by military service era to inform program design and patient-centeredness. Cross-sectional 2008-2009 survey of a nationally representative sample of 3,611 WVs, weighted to the population. Healthcare delivery preferences measured as importance of selected healthcare features; types of healthcare services and number of visits used; use of VA or non-VA; all by military service era. Military service era differences were present in types of healthcare used, with World War II and Korea era WVs using more specialty care, and Vietnam era-to-present WVs using more women's health and mental health care. Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) WVs made more healthcare visits than WVs of earlier military eras. The greatest healthcare delivery concerns were location convenience for Vietnam and earlier WVs, and cost for Gulf War 1 and OEF/OIF/OND WVs. Co-located gynecology with general healthcare was also rated important by a sizable proportion of WVs from all military service eras. Our findings point to the importance of ensuring access to specialty services closer to home for WVs, which may require technology-supported care. Younger WVs' higher mental health care use reinforces the need for integration and coordination of primary care, reproductive health and mental health care.

  19. Perception and evaluation of women's bodies in adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Mai, Sandra; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H

    2015-12-01

    Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been widely studied with regard to the patient's own body, but little is known about perception of or attitude towards other women's bodies in AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate how 20 girls aged 12-18 years and 19 adult women suffering from AN compared to 37 healthy adolescent girls and women estimate weight and attractiveness of women's bodies belonging to different BMI categories (BMI 13.8-61.3 kg/m²). Weight and attractiveness ratings of the participant's own body and information on physical comparisons were obtained, and effects on others' weight and attractiveness ratings investigated. Differential evaluation processes were found: AN patients estimated other women's weight higher than control participants. Patients showed a bias towards assessing extremely underweight women as more attractive and normal weight and overweight women as less attractive than healthy girls and women. These effects were more pronounced in adult than in adolescent AN patients. The tendency to engage in physical comparison with others significantly correlated with weight as well as attractiveness ratings in patients. A logistic regression model encompassing own attractiveness ratings, attractiveness bias towards strongly underweight others' bodies and the interaction of this bias with age as predictors differentiated best between AN patients and controls. Our results indicate that females suffering from AN and healthy girls and women perceive other women's bodies differently. Assessment of others' weight and attractiveness may contribute to the maintenance of dysfunctional physical comparison processes.

  20. Computed tomography findings associated with bacteremia in adult patients with a urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T Y; Kim, H R; Hwang, K E; Lee, J-M; Cho, J H; Lee, J H

    2016-11-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) has rapidly increased recently at acute stage, but the CT findings associated with bacteremia in UTI patients are unknown. 189 UTI patients were enrolled who underwent a CT scan within 24 h after hospital admission. We classified CT findings into eight types: a focal or multifocal wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion, enlarged kidneys, perinephric fat stranding, ureteritis or pyelitis, complicated renal cyst, renal papillary necrosis, hydronephrosis, and renal and perirenal abscess. A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the CT findings associated with bacteremia. The mean age of these patients was 60 ± 17.2 years, and 93.1 % were women. Concurrent bacteremia was noted in 40.2 % of the patients. Abnormal CT findings were noted in 96.3 % of the patients and 62.4 % had two or more abnormal findings. The most frequent abnormal CT finding was a focal or multifocal wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion (77.2 %), followed by perinephric fat stranding (29.1 %). Perinephric fat stranding, hydronephrosis, and the presence of two or more abnormal CT findings were significantly associated with bacteremia in patients with community-acquired UTI. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 1.03; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.009-1.062], two or more abnormal CT findings (OR 3.163; 95 % CI 1.334-7.498), and hydronephrosis (OR 13.160; 95 % CI 1.048-165.282) were significantly associated with bacteremia. Physicians should be aware that appropriate early management is necessary to prevent fatality in patients with these CT findings.

  1. Evaluation of CT findings in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome in intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Sato, Morihito; Yoshida, Masashi; Ura, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Masamitsu

    1996-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings of 19 critically ill patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in ICU were analyzed retrospectively. ARDS was diagnosed according to Murray's criteria (Lung Injury Score> 2.5). The CT findings obtained were diffuse increased lung opacities [100%] (ground-glass opacity [100%] and air-space consolidation [74%]), lobular distributions of increased opacity [53%], loss of lung volume [53%], bronchiectasis and bronchioloectasis [42%] , fine reticular opacity [26%] and peribronchovascular distributions of increased density [11%]. Among those findings, diffuse increased lung opacities were seen in almost all patients. Especially ground-glass opacity was seen in all patients and distributed in the whole lung. Air-space consolidation was observed in 14 patients and involved mainly lower lung fields. Loss of lung volume and bronchiectasis and bronchioloectasis were likely to exist in the same area of air-space consolidation. Lobular distributions of increased opacity was seen in 10 patients without specific distribution. Those findings were thought to be relatively specific CT findings of ARDS. It is concluded that CT findings provide more information than bedside plain roentgenograms and was useful for clinical management of patients with ARDS. (author)

  2. Nasal symptoms and clinical findings in adult patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, Staffan; Mani, Maria; Lundberg, Kristina; Holmström, Mats

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-experienced nasal symptoms among adults treated for UCLP and the association to clinical findings, and to evaluate whether palate closure in one-stage or two-stages affected the symptoms or clinical findings. All people with UCLP born between 1960-1987, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, were considered for participation in this cross-sectional population study with long-term follow-up. Eighty-three patients (76% participation rate) participated, a mean of 37 years after the first operation. Fifty-two patients were treated with one-stage palate closure and 31 with two-stage palate closure. An age-matched group of 67 non-cleft controls completed the same study protocol, which included a questionnaire regarding nasal symptoms, nasal inspection, anterior rhinoscopy, and nasal endoscopy. Patients reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms compared with the control group, e.g., nasal obstruction (81% compared with 60%) and mouth breathing (20% compared with 5%). Patients also rated their nasal symptoms as having a more negative impact on their daily life and physical activities than controls. Nasal examination revealed higher frequencies of nasal deformities among patients. No positive correlation was found between nasal symptoms and severity of findings at nasal examination. No differences were identified between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure regarding symptoms or nasal findings. Adult patients treated for UCLP suffer from more nasal symptoms than controls. However, symptoms are not associated with findings at clinical nasal examination or method of palate closure.

  3. Additional Findings on Differences between Brazilian Men and Women Managers in Their Managing of Conflicts with Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.; Rossi, Ana Maria

    A study was conducted to amplify previous research efforts concerned with the identification of similarities and differences between Brazilian men's and women's managerial communication behaviors. Previous findings have indicated that, in contrast with American managers, Brazilian men and women managers were more likely to use power to resolve…

  4. Decision-making processes shaping the home food environments of young adult women with and without children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskind, Ilana G; Woodruff, Rebecca C; Ballard, Denise; Cherry, Sabrina T; Daniel, Sandra; Haardörfer, Regine; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-06-01

    Although young adult women consume the majority of their total daily energy intake from home food sources, the decision-making processes that shape their home food environments have received limited attention. Further, how decision-making may be affected by the transformative experience of motherhood is unknown. In this study, we explore the factors that influence two key decision-making processes-food choices while grocery shopping and the use of non-home food sources-and whether there are differences by motherhood status. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 women, aged 20-29, living in southwest Georgia. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data stratified by whether or not children were present in the home. Decision-making was affected by numerous factors, which differed across groups. In regard to grocery shopping, women with children more frequently discussed the influence of nutrition and the preferences of children, while women without children more frequently discussed the influence of taste and the preferences of other household members. Cost, convenience, weight control, and pre-planning meals emerged as salient in both groups. In regard to the use of non-home food sources, convenience and taste were discussed by both groups, while social factors were only discussed by women without children. The cost of eating out was the only reason cited for eating inside the home, and this factor only emerged among women with children. Motherhood may be an important contributor to the decision-making processes that shape young adult women's home food environments. Interventions may find success in framing messaging to emphasize factors identified as motivating healthy decisions, such as protecting the health of children, and practical strategies may be adapted from those already in use, such as pre-planning and budgeting for healthy meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive and relational trajectories leading to pregnancy: Differences between adolescents and adult women who had an abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana I F; Pires, Raquel S A; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela F; Canavarro, Maria Cristina C S P

    2018-05-01

    The literature has been conceptualizing pregnancy occurrence as a multiphase event. However, the different combinations of decisions and behaviors leading to pregnancy that end in abortion remain unexplored in the literature. The aims of the study were to describe the reproductive and relational trajectories leading to pregnancy in women who decide to abort and to explore the differences in this process according to women's age [adolescents (leading to pregnancy were identified. The most frequent trajectory (30.8%) included women who 1) were involved in a long-term romantic relationship, 2) did not plan the pregnancy, 3) were using contraception, and 4) did not identify the contraceptive failure that led to pregnancy. Although this was the most frequent trajectory for both age groups, the remaining trajectories showed a different distribution. Compared to adolescents, adult women's trajectories more frequently included casual relationships with non-use of contraception, or contraceptive use with no contraceptive failure identification. Our study highlights the need to recognize the multiplicity of reproductive and relational trajectories leading to pregnancies that end in abortion and their specificities according to women's age. These findings have important implications for abortion counselling and for the development of age-appropriate guidelines for preventive interventions, by drawing attention to prioritization of different contexts of intervention according women's age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adversity in childhood and measures of aging in midlife: Findings from a cohort of british women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Heron, Jon; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-01

    Very few studies have assessed whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity during childhood are associated with objective measures of aging later in life. We assessed associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) and total psychosocial adversity during childhood, with objectively measured cognitive and physical capability in women during midlife. Adverse childhood experiences were retrospectively reported at mean ages 28-30 years in women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (N = 2,221). We investigated associations of childhood SEP and total psychosocial adversity, with composite measures of cognitive and physical capability at mean age 51 years. There was evidence that, compared with participants whose fathers had professional occupations, participants whose fathers had managerial/technical, skilled nonmanual, skilled manual, and partly or unskilled manual occupations had, on average, lower physical and cognitive capability. There was a clear trend for increasing magnitudes of association with lowering childhood SEP. There was also evidence that greater total psychosocial adversity in childhood was associated with lower physical capability. Total psychosocial adversity in childhood was not associated with cognitive capability. Lower SEP in childhood is detrimental to cognitive and physical capability in midlife, at least in part, independently of subsequent SEP in adulthood. Greater psychosocial adversity in childhood is associated with poorer physical capability, independently of social disadvantage in childhood. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to both identify and support children experiencing socioeconomic or psychosocial of adversity as early as possible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Ankylosing spondylitis in women: A comparison of scintigraphic, clinical, and radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Savaser, A.; Krueger, H.H.; Botsch, H.

    1982-01-01

    Since ankylosing spondylits (S.a.) tends to be milder and less progressive in women than in men, there are great difficulties in diagnosing S.a. in fermale patients. The role of scintiscanning for investigation of S.a. in women is discussed by few examiners only especially there are no investigations of quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy in large groups of female patients. Quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy was performed in 19 female patients with S.a. and in 30 control subjects. The sacroiliac/sacrum ratio (Index ISG/sacrum) was calculated. Significantly increased uptakes were found in the patient group compared with the controls. Especially in the early periods of S.a. the activity index was highest. When history and physical examination lead to a suspicion of S.a. and there is not verification by roentgenographic studies, sacroiliac joint scintigraphy is indicated. If clinical and laboratory findings are respected in each patient, quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy is useful for the early diagnosis of S.a. in female patients. (orig.)

  8. [Psychopathic personality in women. Diagnostics and experimental findings in the forensic setting and the business world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, H

    2014-03-01

    Highly psychopathic women are rare in the context of forensic psychiatry; however, the concept of psychopathy plays an important role in diagnostics, for court expertises as well as for treatment. Another so far neglected yet relevant field is the business world. The so-called successful female psychopaths are characterized by highly psychopathic traits but low antisocial behavior, at least with reference to criminal behavior. The basis for investigating and interpreting gender differences is the assessment of psychopathy. Gender differences have been repeatedly demonstrated, especially in the assessment of antisocial behavior and the differentiation of borderline personality disorder and psychopathy which have to be addressed. Group comparisons based on these diagnostic methods found lower inhibitory deficits but less aggressive behavior in female participants with respect to the first main symptom category. For the second symptom category, emotional detachment, so far there are almost no findings reporting gender differences but only few direct gender comparisons have been carried out. However, highly psychopathic women from the general population demonstrate a stronger correlation between psychopathic traits and self-perception as negotiation partner compared to men: they make more use of manipulation and perceive themselves as more powerful in negotiation situations. Future studies should address the diagnostic variability, direct gender comparisons in experimental tasks and the relationship between psychopathic traits, the core symptom categories and career-related success.

  9. Isolated lipoma of filum terminale in adults: MRI findings and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omari, Ma'moon H.; Qudseih, Hana' M.; Al-shinag, Mohammad K.; Eloqayli, Haytham M.

    2011-01-01

    Fat within the filum terminale is frequently seen on routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine (LSS), with prevalence of 1–5%. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and MRI features of isolated lipoma of filum terminale (LFT) in adult population and its correlation with the patient clinical presentations. Prospective analysis of all lumbosacral MRI performed at King Abdullah University Hospital during a 21-month period. A total of 37 patients with LFT were included. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A patients have neurological deficit manifested by either motor, sensory or sphincter abnormality. Group B patients have normal neurological examination. Clinical findings were correlated with: A: thickness of LFT, B: length of LFT, C: distance of LFT from conus medullaris (CM), D: age of the patient. The prevalence of isolated LFT in our study was 3.2%. There was no significant correlation between the thickness or length of LFT and the presence of neurological deficit. The distance of LFT from CM was also not correlated with the patient clinical presentation. No significant difference in the age between the two groups. LFT in adult likely represent an incidental finding on routine lumbosacral MRI. Special attention for LFT in children is mandatory as it may indicate clinical tethering in otherwise normal appearing LSS.

  10. Beliefs about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults in Cambodia: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n=13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88-93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86-93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93-95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia.

  11. Association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence: a study of young adult women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Hoque, Md Aminul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Makinoda, Satoru

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data. The analyses are restricted to young women 20 to 24 years old. Logistic regression analyses are constructed to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between adolescent marriage and IPV in the past year. show that there is a strong significant relationship between adolescent marriage and experience of physical IPV in the past year among this population. Association between sexual IPV and adolescent marriage is insignificant. Adolescent marriage puts women at increased risk of physical IPV into their young adult period. Government agencies need to enforce existing law on the minimum age at marriage to reduce IPV among adolescent and young adult girls.

  12. Sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To describe the sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities, and to determine the usefulness of sonohysterography (SH) for predicting endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease(PCOD). 82 patients with PCOD who had vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickening and lesion mass on baseline transvaginal sonography were prospectively examined with SH. The SH findings were evaluated for endometrial thickness, the presence of endometrial thickening and lesion mass, echogenicity and surface contour, distensibility of the endometrial cavity, and disruption of endometrial-myometrial interface. These findings were compared with the pathologic findings and the diagnostic accuracy of SH for predicting endometrial abnormalities was assessed. Endometrial abnormalities were identified in 47 (57.3%) of 82 PCOD patients, and their pathologic diagnosis included endometrial carcinoma in 7 cases, hyperplasia in 19 cases (atypical hyperplasia, n=5), and polyp in 21 cases. Of the 35 patients who did not have endometrial abnormalities, there was disordered proliferative endometrium in 18 cases and normal proliferative or secretory endometrium in 17 cases. The SH findings of endometrial carcinoma were endometrial thickening in 5 cases, endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness ranged from 6 mm to 15 mm (mean 9.5 mm). They were characterized as a diffuse polyploid endometrial thickening or a sessile endometrial mass with irregular surface, homogeneous hyperechogenicity, and obliteration of the endometrial cavity. Endometrial hyperplasia appeared as endometrial thickening in 14 cases, endometrial lesion mass in 3 cases, and endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness was between 6.5-10.7 mm (mean 8.2 mm). They showed a diffuse uniform endometrial thickening or a polyploid endometrial lesion mass with homogeneous hyperechogenicity and a regular surface. Endometrial polyps appeared as

  13. Sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ju

    2004-01-01

    To describe the sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities, and to determine the usefulness of sonohysterography (SH) for predicting endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease(PCOD). 82 patients with PCOD who had vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickening and lesion mass on baseline transvaginal sonography were prospectively examined with SH. The SH findings were evaluated for endometrial thickness, the presence of endometrial thickening and lesion mass, echogenicity and surface contour, distensibility of the endometrial cavity, and disruption of endometrial-myometrial interface. These findings were compared with the pathologic findings and the diagnostic accuracy of SH for predicting endometrial abnormalities was assessed. Endometrial abnormalities were identified in 47 (57.3%) of 82 PCOD patients, and their pathologic diagnosis included endometrial carcinoma in 7 cases, hyperplasia in 19 cases (atypical hyperplasia, n=5), and polyp in 21 cases. Of the 35 patients who did not have endometrial abnormalities, there was disordered proliferative endometrium in 18 cases and normal proliferative or secretory endometrium in 17 cases. The SH findings of endometrial carcinoma were endometrial thickening in 5 cases, endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness ranged from 6 mm to 15 mm (mean 9.5 mm). They were characterized as a diffuse polyploid endometrial thickening or a sessile endometrial mass with irregular surface, homogeneous hyperechogenicity, and obliteration of the endometrial cavity. Endometrial hyperplasia appeared as endometrial thickening in 14 cases, endometrial lesion mass in 3 cases, and endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness was between 6.5-10.7 mm (mean 8.2 mm). They showed a diffuse uniform endometrial thickening or a polyploid endometrial lesion mass with homogeneous hyperechogenicity and a regular surface. Endometrial polyps appeared as

  14. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Mistimed and Unwanted Pregnancy Among Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; McCabe, Katharine F; Hughes, Tonda L

    2017-09-01

    Many sexual minority women, regardless of sexual identity, engage in heterosexual behavior across the life course, which provides them opportunities to experience an unintended pregnancy. In addition, sexual minority women are more likely than others to report characteristics that may make them vulnerable to unintended pregnancy. Little research, however, has examined whether the risk of unintended pregnancy is elevated among these women. Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, logistic regression models were fitted to examine sexual orientation disparities in mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among 9,807 women aged 20-45; mixed-effects hazard models assessed disparities in the intention status of 5,238 pregnancies among these women by maternal sexual orientation. Compared with heterosexual women reporting only male partners, heterosexual women who have sex with women had higher odds of reporting a mistimed pregnancy (odds ratio, 1.4), and bisexual women had higher odds of reporting an unwanted pregnancy (1.8). When compared with pregnancies reported by heterosexual women with only male partners, those reported by heterosexual women who have sex with women were more likely to be mistimed (hazard ratio, 1.7), and those reported by bisexual and lesbian women were more likely to be unwanted (1.7-4.4). Compared with heterosexuals who have sex with men only, adult sexual minority women are at equal or greater risk of reporting an unintended pregnancy. More research addressing the reproductive health care needs of sexual minority women is needed to develop strategies to improve family planning for this population. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  15. Why do young adults with Type 1 diabetes find it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; Smith, Diarmuid; Sreenan, Seamus; Doyle, Frank; Conroy, Ronan

    2014-03-01

    This article explores how and why workplace environments impact diabetes management for adults people with Type 1 diabetes, 23-30 years of age. Interviews were conducted with 35 young adults, 29 women and 6 men. The majority of these interviewees worked in sectors such as banking, technology and administration. Young adults found it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace for two main reasons: work-related time pressures and the non-routine nature of interviewees' work and working environment. Young adults also found it difficult to get the time to exercise both inside and outside of work. Young adults with Type 1 diabetes need to be provided with the tools and technologies that they need to manage diabetes in modern flexible workplaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  17. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... women aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program at multiple designated community centres. All subjects were able to communicate and residing in an urban area of central Malaysia. Exclusion criteria included those who have mental disorders, concomitant diseases (i.e. dialysis ...

  18. Counseling Issues for Adult Women in Career Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses current psychosocial issues facing women in career transition and the implications of those issues for career counselors. Specifically, psychosocial developmental trajectories, the roles of family and relationships, the importance of underlying physical and mental health issues, and sociocultural and contextual stressors are…

  19. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young Hispanic women: findings from the national Sister to Sister campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fátima; Naderi, Sahar; Wang, Yun; Johnson, Caitlin E; Foody, JoAnne M

    2013-04-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population and have a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors as compared with non-Hispanic whites. Further data suggests that Hispanics have undiagnosed complications of metabolic syndrome, namely diabetes mellitus, at an earlier age. We sought to better understand the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women using data from a large, community-based health screening program. Using data from the Sister to Sister: The Women's Heart Health Foundation community health fairs from 2008 to 2009 held in 17 U.S. cities, we sought to characterize how cardiometabolic risk profiles vary across age for women by race and ethnicity. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines, which included three or more of the following: Waist circumference ≥35 inches, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <50 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg, or a fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL. A total of 6843 community women were included in the analyses. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 35%. The risk-adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women versus white women was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4, 2.0). Dyslipidemia was the strongest predictor of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic women. This disparity appeared most pronounced for younger women. Additional predictors of metabolic syndrome included black race, increasing age, and smoking. In a large, nationally representative sample of women, we found that metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent among young Hispanic women. Efforts specifically targeted to identifying these high-risk women are necessary to prevent the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with metabolic syndrome.

  20. Echocardiographic and radiographic findings in a cohort of healthy adult green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Saunders, Ashley B; Young, Benjamin D; Winter, Randolph L; Hoppes, Sharman M

    2014-09-01

    To describe characteristics of echocardiography and cranial coelomic radiography in a cohort of iguanas. Twenty apparently healthy adult green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from a reptile sanctuary. Physical examination, radiography, two-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography were performed to assess cardiac structures and function, and any related normal or abnormal findings were recorded. Echocardiographic examination was possible without sedation and allowed visualization of the great vessels, atria, and ventricle. Some structures could not be evaluated in a minority of the iguanas due to individual differences in bony conformation and imaging quality. Suspected abnormal echocardiographic findings in 3 iguanas included pericardial effusion (n = 1) and enlarged caudal vena cava and/or sinus venosus (n = 2). Objective measurements were repeatable as assessed by within-subject coefficient of variation, and reliable as assessed by intra-observer intraclass correlation coefficient. Left atrial and ventricular measurements were significantly correlated with body weight. Valve regurgitation was common, with atrioventricular valve regurgitation present in 53% (9/17) and aortic or pulmonic valve regurgitation in 71% (12/17) of otherwise normal iguanas. A heart murmur was not appreciated during examination of any of the iguanas. Heart size cannot be measured radiographically due to superimposition and silhouetting of other coelomic structures. Echocardiographic or radiographic findings consistent with mineralization of the great vessels were present in 76% of iguanas (13/17). Echocardiography in iguanas is well tolerated without sedation and allowed both subjective evaluation and structural measurements. Valve regurgitation and great vessel mineralization were commonly observed in this cohort of apparently healthy adult iguanas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Urinary tract infection pattern in adult women followed from childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebäck, Carin; Hansson, Sverker; Martinell, Jeanette; Sandberg, Torsten; Jodal, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of urinary tract infection (UTI) and bladder function in women who had experienced recurrent UTI in childhood, with and without consequent renal damage, and followed for three to four decades. A population-based cohort of women who had been followed from the first UTI in childhood and previously studied at a median age of 27 years was studied at a median age of 41 years. Renal damage was evaluated by (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan. Clinical data were collected on the pattern of recurrent UTIs and bladder function. A total of 86 women were investigated, of whom 58 had suffered renal damage and 28 were without. Febrile UTI in adulthood had occurred in 22 patients, once in 15 women and twice or more in seven women. There was a change in the infection pattern over time, evident already in childhood, that was characterized by a decrease in UTI frequency and a shift from febrile to non-febrile infections. A significant association was found between renal damage and febrile UTI (p = 0.046), and between abnormal bladder function and recurrent non-febrile UTI (p = 0.002). There was no relationship between persisting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and proneness to either symptomatic UTI (p = 0.99) or febrile UTI in adulthood (p = 0.14). Among this study cohort there was a continuously decreasing rate of febrile UTI in adulthood. Persisting VUR was not related to UTI in adulthood. Abnormal bladder function was related to non-febrile UTI but not to febrile UTI.

  2. Fruit and vegetable consumption and anemia among adult non-pregnant women: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Bishwajit; Yaya, Sanni

    2018-01-01

    Anemia is the most widely prevalent form of micronutrient deficiency that affects over a quarter of the global population. Evidence suggests that the burden of anemia is higher in the developing countries with women of reproductive age and children being the most at-risk groups. The most common causes are believed to be malnutrition and low bioavailability of micronutrients, which usually result from poor dietary habits and inadequate intake of food rich in micronutrients such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Regular consumption of F&V was shown to have protective effect against NCDs; however, evidence on this protective effect against micronutrient deficiency diseases are limited. (1) To measure the prevalence of anemia among adult non-pregnant women in Ghana, and (2) to investigate if there is any cross-sectional relationship between F&V consumption and anemia. This is a cross-sectional study based on data extracted from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Subjects were 4,290 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Hemoglobin levels were measured by HemoCue ® hemoglobin-meter. Association between anemia and F&V consumption was assessed by multivariable regression methods. Findings indicate that well over half (57.9%) of the women were suffering from anemia of some level. The percentage of women consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day were 5.4% and 2.5% respectively. Results of multivariable analysis indicated that among urban women, consumption of 5 servings/day. The findings indicate that urban women who did not maintain WHO recommended level of F&V consumption bear a significantly higher likelihood of being moderate to severely anemic.

  3. Fruit and vegetable consumption and anemia among adult non-pregnant women: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Ghose

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Anemia is the most widely prevalent form of micronutrient deficiency that affects over a quarter of the global population. Evidence suggests that the burden of anemia is higher in the developing countries with women of reproductive age and children being the most at-risk groups. The most common causes are believed to be malnutrition and low bioavailability of micronutrients, which usually result from poor dietary habits and inadequate intake of food rich in micronutrients such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Regular consumption of F&V was shown to have protective effect against NCDs; however, evidence on this protective effect against micronutrient deficiency diseases are limited. Objectives (1 To measure the prevalence of anemia among adult non-pregnant women in Ghana, and (2 to investigate if there is any cross-sectional relationship between F&V consumption and anemia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on data extracted from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Subjects were 4,290 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Hemoglobin levels were measured by HemoCue® hemoglobin-meter. Association between anemia and F&V consumption was assessed by multivariable regression methods. Results Findings indicate that well over half (57.9% of the women were suffering from anemia of some level. The percentage of women consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day were 5.4% and 2.5% respectively. Results of multivariable analysis indicated that among urban women, consumption of 5 servings/day. Conclusion The findings indicate that urban women who did not maintain WHO recommended level of F&V consumption bear a significantly higher likelihood of being moderate to severely anemic.

  4. Correlates of Hypertension Among Adult Men and Women in Kosovo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashani, V.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to assess the independent socioeconomic, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of hypertension among the adult population of Kosovo. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Pristina in 2012-2013 which included a large representative sample of 1793 consecutive primary

  5. Exploring Baseline Food-Media Literacy of Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tina L.

    2012-01-01

    Many media education researchers have identified the importance of adult media literacy but few have studied it. Such literacy is becoming increasingly important with regard to the growing category of food media--advertisements, television programs, and print media among them. Using two focus groups and guided by Primack and Hobbs' (2009) AA, RR,…

  6. Multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings of adult mesoblastic nephroma: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoblastic nephroma (MN presenting in an adult is extremely rare. The computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of this tumor in adulthood have not been widely reported. We present two additional cases of adult MN and describe the multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings.

  7. Environmental Noise Annoyance and Mental Health in Adults: Findings from the Cross-Sectional German Health Update (GEDA Study 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hammersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The health implications of environmental noise, especially cardiovascular effects, have been studied intensively. Research on associations between noise and mental health, however, has shown contradictory results. The present study examined associations between individual levels of noise annoyance due to noise from various sources in the living environment and mental health of adults in Germany. It evaluated whether these associations persisted after adjusting for potential covariates. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional “German Health Update” study 2012 (GEDA 2012, a national health interview survey among adults in Germany conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 19,294. Noise annoyance questions referred to overall noise and that from road traffic, neighbours, and air traffic. Mental health was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Bivariate analysis showed associations between high levels of noise annoyance and impaired mental health for all noise sources except air traffic. After adjusting for covariates (sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, and social support, both men and women who reported high overall noise annoyance showed more than doubled odds of impaired mental health compared to those who were not annoyed. The odds of impaired mental health in the highest noise annoyance category from road traffic and neighbours were also significantly increased. These findings indicate that high noise annoyance is associated with impaired mental health and that this association can vary with the source of environmental noise. Further research on covariates of this association is necessary. Particularly, longitudinal data are required to establish the direction of associations and to address questions of causality.

  8. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  9. Founders, Finding, Being Found: Women's Wisdom in Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Lisa M.; Brosmer, Mary Pierce; Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino

    2015-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of a conversation between two founding women on the delights and demands of teaching and learning within and beyond traditional institutional life, facilitated by Lisa M. Hess of the journal's Editorial Board. The conscious feminine practices of a women's writing school, Women Writing for (a) Change (Cincinnati, Ohio),…

  10. The W(h)ine Club: Women Finding Joy in Academic Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selepe, Mosa; Grobler, Christa; Dicks, Emsie; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna

    2012-01-01

    The W(h)ine Club is a multidisciplinary women's research team which has been working together for the past 10 years. The idea for this Viewpoint piece grew as we participated in a Women in Research programme. The aim of the programme was to improve academic publications among women. A group of us in the programme found ourselves repeatedly…

  11. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  12. Reproductive history and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: findings from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Erin S; Kapphahn, Kristopher; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Parikh, Nisha I; Liu, Simin; Parker, Donna R; Anderson, Matthew; Aroda, Vanita; Sullivan, Shannon; Woods, Nancy F; Waring, Molly E; Lewis, Cora E; Stefanick, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the association between women's reproductive history and their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that characteristics signifying lower cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure would be associated with increased risk. Prospective cohort analysis of 124,379 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We determined age of menarche and final menstrual period, and history of irregular menses from questionnaires at baseline, and calculated reproductive length from age of menarche and final menstrual period. Presence of new onset type 2 diabetes was from self-report. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed associations between reproductive variables and incidence of type 2 diabetes. In age-adjusted models, women with the shortest (<30 y) reproductive periods had a 37% (95% CI, 30-45) greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than women with medium-length reproductive periods (36-40 y). Women with the longest (45+ y) reproductive periods had a 23% (95% CI, 12-37) higher risk than women with medium-length periods. These associations were attenuated after full adjustment (HR 1.07 [1.01, 1.14] for shortest and HR 1.09 [0.99, 1.22] for longest, compared with medium duration). Those with a final menstrual period before age 45 and after age 55 had an increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.99-1.09 and HR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14, respectively) compared to those with age of final menstrual period between 46 and 55 years. Timing of menarche and cycle regularity was not associated with risk after full adjustment. Reproductive history may be associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Women with shorter and longer reproductive periods may benefit from lifestyle counseling to prevent type 2 diabetes.

  13. Glandularity estimation in Japanese women by using a breast model made from mammographic findings of European women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Ai; Matsunaga, Yuta; Chida, Koichi; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate breast glandularity in Japanese women using patient exposure conditions and tissue-equivalent materials by a conventional method. Typical glandularities in Japanese women were compared with those in European women to verify the validity of the average glandular dose estimation manual based on the EUREF protocol. Glandularity was estimated from the data of 600 patients and the model breast of the tissue-equivalent materials which had various amounts of glandular contents and thicknesses. The model breasts were measured to examine the relationships between the thickness of the glandular contents and tube loading by using an automatic exposure control system. Then, equations were established to determine glandularity from patient data. The mean glandularity in the highest compressed breast thickness (CBT) group of 36–45 mm was 72%. The mean CBT of the 184 (31%) patients with glandularities exceeding 100% was 31 mm. Glandularities in patients with CBT of 30–70 mm in the present study were higher compared to those in European women by approximately 10–20%. The results suggest that the model breast of European women might not be a suitable reference standard for more than 30% of Japanese women, who have breasts with lower CBT. (author)

  14. High prevalence of bronchiectasis in adults. Analysis of CT findings in a health screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Hyun-Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Choi, Vo-Won; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Sohn, Jang-Won; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Shin, Dong-Ho; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Heon

    2010-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is one of the common chronic respiratory diseases and associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. However, neither its prevalence nor its etiology is well-defined. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of bronchiectasis in adults. In a retrospective study, we analyzed radiologic findings on chest computed tomography (CT) images performed as part of a health-screening program. From January to December 2008, 1,409 (24.6%) of 5,727 participants in the screening program of a health promotion center at a university hospital underwent chest CT scans based on the subject's decision. Bronchiectasis was diagnosed, if there was abnormal bronchial dilatation in any area of both lungs on chest CT. Respiratory symptoms, smoking status, and past medical history were also analyzed to define clinical characteristics and risk factors of bronchiectasis. Of 1,409 patients (aged 23-86 years), who were screened for respiratory diseases using chest CT for one year in a health promotion center, 129 patients (9.1%) were diagnosed with bronchiectasis. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was higher in females than in males (11.5% vs. 7.9%, p=0.022) and increased with age. Respiratory symptoms were reported in 53.7% of subjects. Previous history of tuberculosis (TB) (odds ratio (OR) 4.61, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 2.39-8.88, p=0.001) and age (OR 2.49, 95% Cl 1.56-3.98, p=0.001) were significantly associated with bronchiectasis. This retrospective analysis of chest CT findings in health screening examinees revealed a very high prevalence of bronchiectasis in adults. Previous TB infection is one of the major causes of bronchiectasis. (author)

  15. Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meintjes Graeme

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presentation and causes of adult meningitis in South Africa have changed substantially as a result of HIV. Knowledge of aetiology and laboratory findings in patients presenting with meningitis are important in guiding management. We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town. Methods Patients undergoing lumbar punctures between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2008 at a public sector referral hospital were studied. Cases were classified by microbiological diagnosis, or in the absence of definitive microbiology as 1 normal CSF (neutrophils ≤ 1 × 106/L, lymphocytes ≤ 5 × 106/L, protein ≤ 0.5 g/dL, glucose ≥1.5 mmol/L, 2 minor abnormalities (neutrophils 2-5, lymphocytes 6-20, protein 0.51-1.0, glucose 1.0-1.49 or 3 markedly abnormal (neutrophils>5, lymphocytes>20, protein>1.0, glucose Results 5578 LPs were performed on 4549 patients, representing 4961 clinical episodes. Of these, 2293 had normal CSF and 931 had minor abnormalities and no aetiology identified. Of the remaining 1737, microbiological diagnoses were obtained in 820 (47%. Cryptococcus accounted for 63% (514 of microbiological diagnoses, TB for 28% (227, bacterial meningitis for 8% (68. Of the remaining 917 who had marked abnormalities, the majority (59% had a sterile lymphocytic CSF. Of note 16% (81 patients with confirmed Cryptococcus, 5% (12 with TB and 4% (3 with bacterial meningitis had normal CSF cell-counts and biochemistry. Conclusions Cryptococcal and tuberculous meningitis are now the commonest causes of adult meningitis in this setting. TB meningitis is probably underdiagnosed by laboratory investigation, as evidence by the large numbers presenting with sterile lymphocytic markedly abnormal CSFs.

  16. Nodular Gastritis and Pathologic Findings in Children and Young Adults with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hong; Noh, Tae-Woong; Baek, Seoung-Yon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic characteristics of nodular gastritis in children and young adults infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Materials and Methods A total of 328 patients were enrolled in this study, and the diagnosis of H. pylori infection was done with gastroduodenal endoscopy concomitant with a CLO™ test and pathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens. Diagnoses of normal, superficial gastritis, nodular gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease were made from the gastroduodenal endoscopic findings. The density of H. pylori organisms in the gastric mucosa was rated as normal, mild, moderate, or marked. The pathologic findings of nodular gastritis were based on the histopathologic findings of inflammation, immune activity, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Each of these findings was scored as either normal (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or marked (3) according to the updated Sydney system and using visual analog scales. The gastritis score was the sum of the four histopathologic scores. Results In this study, nodular gastritis (50.6%) was most common, and mild density (51.5%) H. pylori infection was also common upon microscopic examination. Intestinal metaplasia occurred in 9 patients (2.7%). Conclusion Logistic regression revealed a significant increase in the incidence of nodular gastritis with gastritis score (p = 0.008), but not an association with sex, age, or H. pylori density. Gastritis score was the only significant factor influencing the occurrence of nodular gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia, which was originally thought to be a pre-malignant lesion, occurred in 2.7% of the patients with H. pylori infection. PMID:17461522

  17. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes-the role of glucose and other factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmidt, Lone

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values.......We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values....

  18. The relationship between child abuse and adult obesity among california women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-07-01

    Despite clinical studies suggesting that child abuse is associated with adult obesity, very few studies have been conducted with large community or state-based samples. This study examines the relationship between child abuse and adult obesity, relative to other risk factors such as demographics, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity, in a representative sample of California women. Data are from the California Women's Health Survey, a state-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey of California women. Participants included 11,115 nonpregnant women aged 18 or older, who provided complete data for all study variables. The telephone interview included assessment of child abuse (abstracted from the Traumatic Stress Schedule), food insecurity, perceived stress, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, height, and weight. Data were collected in 2002, 2003, and 2004, and analyzed in 2006. Obese (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or higher) women were significantly more likely to report exposure to child abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.42). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and perceived stress, women exposed to child abuse remained significantly more likely to be obese than unexposed women (adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.13-1.40). The population-attributable fraction of obesity associated with any type of abuse was 4.5% (95% CI=2.28-6.55). Exposure to child abuse is associated with adult obesity among California women, even accounting for other relevant variables. This supports the notion that child abuse and its sequelae may be important targets for public health intervention, particularly in subpopulations where the prevalence of child abuse is known to be high.

  19. Weight change and physical function in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, C L; Snowdon, D A

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the association between change in weight and decline in physical function in older women. Longitudinal study of a defined population of Catholic sisters (nuns) whose weight and function were assessed twice, an average of 584 days apart. Unique life communities (convents) located throughout the United States. 475 Catholic sisters who were 75 to 99 years of age (M = 82.1, SD = 4.8) and were independent in at least one Activity of Daily Living (ADL) at the first assessment of weight and function. None. At each assessment, weight, ADLs, and cognitive function were evaluated as part of the Nun Study--a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Annual percent weight change was calculated using weights from the two assessments, as well as the number of days that elapsed between assessments. Mean weight at first assessment was 140 pounds (range 78 to 232, SD = 27). The mean annual percent weight change was 0.1% (range 22% loss to 16% gain, SD = 3.8). Age- and initial weight-adjusted findings indicated that those participants with an annual percent weight loss of 3% or greater had 2.7 to 3.9 times the risk of becoming dependent in each ADL, compared to the sisters with no weight change. The elevated risk persisted in those who were mentally intact or were independent in their eating habits. Monitoring of weight may be an easy and inexpensive method of identifying older individuals at increased risk of disability.

  20. Does Encouragement by Others Increase Rape Reporting? Findings from a National Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Our study explores the role of victims' consultation with others about whether or not to report their rape to police. Three groups were observed within this sample of 435 rape victims from a national telephone household probability sample of women: those who did not consult with anyone about reporting (n = 364), those who consulted with someone and were encouraged to report to police (n = 40), and those who consulted with someone and were not encouraged to report (n = 31). Descriptive analyses indicated that the encouraged group was more likely to report to police than either of the other two groups (which did not differ from each other). Because there were no differences between the two consulting groups on demographic or rape-related variables, they were combined in subsequent analyses. Consulting with others about whether to report, peri-traumatic fear of injury or death, assault perpetration by a stranger, and concerns about contracting a sexually transmitted disease were significant predictors of reporting to police after controlling for other significant predictors in a multivariate regression analysis. Implications of these findings are discussed, including the benefits and consequences of formal rape reporting for victims, and the role that disclosure recipients may have in assisting victims post-rape (e.g., encouragement of reporting, emotional support). PMID:25431519

  1. The pattern of hysterosalpingographic findings in women being investigated for infertility in Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C O; Okafor, C I; Okpala, O C; Umeh, E

    2010-09-01

    Tubal occlusion is the commonest cause of female infertility in the developing societies. Hysterosalpingography remains a vital method of assessing tubal patency especially in resource limited settings such as ours. To review the pattern of hysterosalpingographic findings among women being investigated for infertility in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria over a period of five years (2001-2005). The data obtained from the request forms and radiologists' reports were analyzed using SPSS version 11. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Of the 320 studied, 230 were found suitable for analysis. Their ages ranged from 20 to 44 years (mean 32.8 +/- 5.8 years). The indications were primary infertility in 103 (44.8%), secondary infertility in 88(38.3%), while in 39 (16.9%) patients the type of infertility was not specified. The reports revealed that 67 (29.1%) had normal HSG Cervical abnormalities were found in 34 (14.8%), uterine cavity abnormalities in 108 (47.0%). Tubal pathologies were seen in 100 (43.5%) with bilateral tubal occlusion in 43 (18.7%) and bilateral hydrosalpinges in 6 (2.6%) patients. Tubal pathology remains a major contributor to female infertility in this part of the world.

  2. Why Is Cancer More Depressing for Men than Women among Older White Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    Using data from two waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 8,054), I examine gender differences in psychological adjustment to cancer among older white adults. Results from different types of longitudinal models reveal that cancer has more adverse psychological implications for men than women. Men's higher levels of depression are reduced…

  3. Physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in the Mmasechaba informal settlement in Gauteng. Apart from the questionnaire, anthropometric measurements were recorded and body mass index and waist-to-hip ratios were calculated. The results indicated that the incidence of ...

  4. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  5. Self-reported empathy in adult women with Autism Spectrum Disorders : A systematic mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Francien M; Groen, Yvonne; Becke, Miriam; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is limited research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in females. Although the empathy construct has been examined thoroughly in autism, little attention has been paid to empathy in adult women with this condition or to gender differences within the disorder. OBJECTIVE:

  6. Teen Pregnancy Among Sexual Minority Women: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Shoshana K; Reese, Bianka M; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between sexual orientation and teen pregnancy (before age 20 years) in a U.S. nationally representative cohort of young adult females aged 24-32 years. A total of 5,972 participants in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were included. Self-reported sexual orientation identity was categorized as heterosexual, and three sexual minority (SM) groups: mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian (combining "mostly homosexual" and "100% homosexual"). Stepwise multivariate regression models were fit to compare odds of teen pregnancy and relative risk ratios of timing of teen pregnancy, between heterosexual and SM groups, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual victimization history, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for sociodemographics and sexual victimization, bisexual women had significantly higher odds than heterosexual peers of teen pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.75); this association was marginally significant after adjusting for sexual risk behaviors. Bisexuals were also more likely to have an early (before age 18 years) teen pregnancy (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.17-3.56). In contrast, lesbian women were significantly less likely to have a teen pregnancy than heterosexual (OR = .47; 95% CI = .23-.97), mostly heterosexual (OR = .46; 95% CI = .21-.99), and bisexual (OR = .29; 95% CI = .12-.71) women in final models. Expanding on extant literature, we found opposing risk patterns for teen pregnancy between bisexual and lesbian women, likely due to distinct patterns of sexual risk taking. Findings suggest that SM-inclusive teen pregnancy prevention efforts tailored to meet the unique needs of SM young women, particularly bisexuals, are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Divorce and sexual risk among U.S. women: findings from the national survey of family growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddon, Nicole; Leichliter, Jami S; Habel, Melissa A; Aral, Sevgi O

    2010-11-01

    Most research focusing on marital status and sexual risk has compared married and single midadult women without differentiating single women by their ever married status. We elucidate differences in sexual risk among divorced and never married women. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) (n = 5,081) were analyzed to compare divorced and never married women in terms of recent and lifetime sex partners, condom use at last vaginal sex, and other sexual risk behaviors. Overall, 13.1% of the women were currently divorced or separated, 62.1% were currently married, 8.3% were cohabitating, and 16.4% were never married. Divorced/separated women were more likely to report 5 or more lifetime sex partners and 2 or more sex partners in the past year than never married women. They were less likely to report condom use. Current findings expose sexual behavioral discrepancies within the single category of women and the need to redefine risk groups for surveillance and intervention efforts.

  8. [Food insecurity is associated with obesity in adult women of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma Del Carmen; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Valderrama-Álvarez, Zaira; Melgar-Quiñónez, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the association of food insecurity (FI) and obesity in adults in Mexico. Cross-sectional design. We included adults' data from the health and nutrition national survey 2012 (Ensanut 2012). Measures of weight and height were obtained and BMI was calculated. The level of household food insecurity was measured through the Latin American Scale of Food Security (ELCSA). Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted. 70.6% of the population had some level of food insecurity, 42.6% mild insecurity, 17.7% moderate insecurity and 10.3% severe insecurity. Adults with mild FI had higher probability of obesity (OR: 1.66; 95%CI 1.11-2.50). Women were slightly more likely to be obese (OR: 1.78; 95%CI 1.01-3.12). Mild FI is associated with obesity, particularly among women.

  9. Desire for tooth bleaching and treatment performed in Brazilian adults: findings from a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando Barcellos da; Chisini, Luiz Alexandre; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Correa, Marcos Britto

    2018-03-08

    Population-based studies estimating the prevalence of tooth bleaching desire or the percentage of individuals who had performed this treatment are rare. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the desire to perform tooth bleaching and the prevalence of adult individuals who had performed the treatment and investigate the association of these outcomes. A subsample (n = 536) of the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort in southern Brazil was investigated at the ages 15, 24 and 31 by clinical examinations and interviews. The prevalence of bleaching at 31 years was 15.6% [95%CI 12.6-18.9] while 85.9% [95%CI 82.7-88.7] reported they desired the treatment. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that individuals who have visited the dentist within the last year showed a treatment prevalence ratio (PR) 2.31 times [95%CI 1.40-3.83] higher compared with those who had the last dental visit more than a year before the interview. Similarly, individuals with smoking habits presented an elevated PR of 1.60 [95%CI 1.00-2.55], and the low-income trajectory group showed the largest PR of desire for tooth bleaching (1.17 [95%CI 1.07-1.28]). Moreover, individuals from the high-risk caries trajectory group presented a higher prevalence of desire for tooth bleaching than individuals from low caries trajectory group. Individuals who have declared being "dissatisfied" with their dental color presented a prevalence of desire for tooth bleaching 16% greater than "satisfied" ones. Thus, the present findings confirm that tooth bleaching has become a frequently desired dental treatment to improve dental aesthetics in the population and a considerable rate of adults has performed the treatment.

  10. Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07-2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41-4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45-0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41-0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.97). There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.

  12. Are current case-finding methods under-diagnosing tuberculosis among women in Myanmar? An analysis of operational data from Yangon and the nationwide prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M S; Khine, T M; Hutchison, C; Coker, R J; Hane, K M; Innes, A L; Aung, S

    2016-03-03

    Although there is a large increase in investment for tuberculosis control in Myanmar, there are few operational analyses to inform policies. Only 34% of nationally reported cases are from women. In this study, we investigate sex differences in tuberculosis diagnoses in Myanmar in order to identify potential health systems barriers that may be driving lower tuberculosis case finding among women. From October 2014 to March 2015, we systematically collected data on all new adult smear positive tuberculosis cases in ten township health centres across Yangon, the largest city in Myanmar, to produce an electronic tuberculosis database. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of sex differences in tuberculosis diagnoses at the township health centres. We also analysed national prevalence survey data to calculate additional case finding in men and women by using sputum culture when smear microscopy was negative, and estimated the sex-specific impact of using a more sensitive diagnostic tool at township health centres. Overall, only 514 (30%) out of 1371 new smear positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at the township health centres were female. The proportion of female patients varied by township (from 21% to 37%, p = 0.0172), month of diagnosis (37% in February 2015 and 23% in March 2015 p = 0.0004) and age group (26% in 25-64 years and 49% in 18-25 years, p Myanmar, found that substantially fewer women than men were diagnosed in all study townships. The sex ratio of newly diagnosed cases varied by age group, month of diagnosis and township of diagnosis. Low sensitivity of tuberculosis diagnosis may lead to a potential under-diagnosis of tuberculosis among women.

  13. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  14. No going back. Mexican women find opportunity and obstacles in a changing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, E

    1994-01-01

    An overview was provided of some of the economic and social changes in Mexico that impact on women. At the Colegio de Postgraduados, an ongoing project will examine women's work roles in an agricultural setting. The Ford Foundation has funded research studies at Mexican universities. One such study will examine women workers in foreign-owned factories producing duty free export goods; another study involves interviews with street vendors in the informal sector. Jose Alonso is a specialist on the Mexican garment industry, teaches at the University of the Americas, and advises at the Autonomous Technological Institute of Mexico. He contends that the process of development can best be understood by examining the informal sector. There is no Mexican tradition of a business class. Scholars at the Colegio de Postgraduados' Center for Rural Development are exploring income generation schemes, and building a master's degree program specializing in gender and rural development. The program would train professionals with an understanding of the needs of rural women and appropriate strategies for improving women's social and economic conditions. Crises have precipitated major shifts in work patterns in Mexico. During the 1980s, inflation and unemployment rapidly increased and income declined to 1970s levels. Mass movement of women into the labor force occurred. For many women, the dual role in long paid work hours and family and domestic care has produced independence with a big price tag. Manufacturing jobs along the free trade border areas have provided work opportunities for women, who hold 70% of the jobs. These jobs have moved from low paid menial tasks to higher skilled and better paid positions with training, but only for some women. There are few unions, and the government Confederation of Mexican Workers does not include women. Notwithstanding working conditions, women confront other problems with housing and the lack of basic amenities such as electricity, tap water

  15. Perceptions of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: findings from the REVIVE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions.

  16. Phasic or terminal detrusor overactivity in women: age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To search for relationships between phasic (P and terminal (T DO with age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior during involuntary detrusor contraction in woman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urodynamic studies (triple lumen catheter 7F, seated position of 164 successive women referred for LUTS with diagnosis of DO were reviewed. Patients were stratified in 4 sub-groups: pre- (18-44y, peri- (45-54 y, post-menopause (55-74 y and oldest old (≥ 75 y. The urethral sensor was positioned at the level of the maximum urethral closure pressure for sphincter behavior analysis. A variation of at least 5 cmH2O in pressure (detrusor or urethra was chosen to assert DO or sphincter response. Sphincter response was classified as relaxation (re before or during DO, or steady (st. RESULTS: Occurrence of P and TDO was similar: 77 P and 87 T. The PDO group was significantly younger (p = 0.0003. TDO was more frequent in patients with a history of neurological disease. The percentage of PDO remained almost constant in age groups, while that of TDO increased with age from 6.7% to 23.2% (p = 0.0013. Uninhibited contraction occurred at a smaller bladder volume in the P group: 149 ± 95 vs. 221 ± 113 mL (p < 0.0001. Steady sphincter predominated in the TDO subgroup: 45.9% vs. 32.1% and increased significantly in each DO sub-group of ³ 75y. CONCLUSION: Steady sphincter during both P and TDO, and occurrence of TDO appear as specific of aging. The last result could be related to structural changes in the detrusor muscle with aging.

  17. Colonic uptake patterns of F-18-FDG PET in asymptomatic adults: correlation with colonoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, M.; Cho, Y.; Shim, K

    2004-01-01

    Physiologic intestinal FDG uptake is frequently observed in asymptomatic individuals for cancer screening FDG PET. Colonic FDG accumulation is a well-known confusing findings that interfere true cancer detection or cause false positive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern and intensity of colonic uptake in whole body FDG PET in asymptomatic healthy adults and to correlate those with colonoscopic findings. We reviewed retrospectively 64 subjects (age: 27-87, M:F = 31:33) who underwent both FDG PET and colonoscopy for cancer screening. FDG uptake pattern was classified as focal, segmental and diffuse. Maximum SUV were measured. The PET results were compared with colonoscopic and histologic findings. In 34 patients FDG bowel uptake was interpreted as diffuse(group I), in 17 patients as segmental(group II) and in 13 patients as focal uptake(group III). Six adenomas(17.6%, average diameter = 5 mm) were found in group I, 7 adenomas (41.1%, 5.57 mm) in group II and 4 adenomas and 1 adenocarcinoma (30.7%, 16.4 mm) in group III. There was no difference in averages of SUV between patients with adenoma and with negative colonoscopic results in each group of intestinal FDG pattern (group I: 1.675±1.15 vs 1.94±0.62, group II: 4.78±3.66 vs 4.23±1.13, group III: 6.50±4.68 vs 4.1±1.01). Large adenomas( >1 cm) were detected more frequently in group III (4 out of 5) rather than in group II (1 out of 7) or group I (none) and had higher SUV (6.30±4.84) than small adenomas (3.74±3.23). In group III, 4 patients without adenomas were non-physiologic(30.7%, 2 intestinal tuberculosis, 2 mucosal ulcer). Focal FDG uptake is associated more often with large adenoma and other pathologic findings in colonoscopy. Segmental uptake cannot discriminate presence of adenoma from negative results, while diffuse pattern may imply normal or having small adenomas

  18. Colonic uptake patterns of F-18-FDG PET in asymptomatic adults: comparison with colonoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Moon Sun; Cho, Yoo Kyung; Jung, Sung Ae; Shim, Ki Nam; Lee, Hong Soo

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic intestinal FDG uptake is frequently observed in asymptomatic individuals for cancer screening FDG PET. Colonic FDG accumulation is a well-known confusing findings that interfere true cancer detection or cause false positive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern and intensity of colonic uptake in whole body FDG PET in asymptomatic healthy adults and to correlate them with colonoscopic findings. We reviewed retrospectively 64 subjects (age: 27-87, M:F=31:33) who underwent both FDG PET and colonoscopy for cancer screening. FDG uptake patterns were classified as focal, segmental and diffuse. Maximum SUV were measured. The PET results were compared with colonoscopic and histologic findings. In 13 patients FDG bowel uptake was interpreted as focal, in 17 patients as segmental and in 34 patients as diffuse uptake. Six adenomas (17.6%, average diameter=5.0 mm) were found in diffuse pattern, 7 adenomas (41.1%, 5.6 mm) in segmental and 4 adenomas and 1 adenocarcinoma (38.5%, 16.4 mm) in focal uptake pattern. In patients with focal uptake, four were non-adenomatous pathologic lesions (30.8%, 2 intestinal tuberculosis, 2 mucosal ulcer). There is no difference of mean SUV between patients with adenoma and with negative colonoscopic results in each group of intestinal FDG pattern (Diffuse: 1.7 ± 0.1 vs 1.9 ± 0.5, Segmental: 4.8 ± 3.6 vs 4.2 ± 1.2, Focal: 6.5 ± 4.7 vs 3.5 ± 1.3). Large adenomas (>1 cm) can be detected more in the focal uptake pattern (4 out of 5) rather than in segmental (1 out of 7) or diffuse uptake (none) and had higher SUV (6.3 ± 4.8) than small adenomas (3.5 ± 3.0)(statistically insignificant). Focal FDG uptake is associated more often with large adenoma and other pathologic findings in colonoscopy. Segmental uptake cannot discriminate presence of adenoma from negative results, while diffuse pattern may have more chance to be normal

  19. Going solo: Findings from a survey of women aging without a partner and who do not have children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Lambert, Nicky; Long, Ellouise; Brady, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Greater longevity in the UK population has led to the increasing diversity of women experiencing aging in a multitude of ways. Internationally, gender inequalities in aging are still relatively invisible within both government policy and everyday life for particular groups of women. This article explores the concept of women growing older "solo"-by which we mean women who find themselves nonpartnered and aging without children as they move into later life. We report on the findings from a mixed-methods survey of 76 solo women in the UK aged 50 years and over, used to provide a broader overview of the issues and challenges they face as they move into later life. Qualitative data from the survey captured respondents' perspectives about the links between their relationships status and well-being in later life and highlighted specific cumulative disadvantages emerging for some women as a result of their solo lifestyles. We discuss two key themes that were identified, "solo-loneliness" and "meaningful futures," in conjunction with the relevant literature and make suggestions for future research within gender and aging studies that could enhance more positive approaches to solo lifestyles.

  20. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2016-01-01

    characteristic; female participants’ attitudes were more positive than male participants’ attitudes, and all participants’ attitudes were generally more positive toward bisexual women than bisexual men. While recent population data suggest a marked shift in more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women in the general population of the U.S., the largest proportions of participants in our study reported a relative lack of agreement or disagreement with all affective-evaluative statements in the BIAS scales. Findings document the relative lack of positive attitudes toward bisexual individuals among the general population of adults in the U.S. and highlight the need for developing intervention approaches to promote more positive attitudes toward bisexual individuals, targeted toward not only heterosexual but also gay/lesbian individuals and communities. PMID:27783644

  1. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2016-01-01

    ; female participants' attitudes were more positive than male participants' attitudes, and all participants' attitudes were generally more positive toward bisexual women than bisexual men. While recent population data suggest a marked shift in more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women in the general population of the U.S., the largest proportions of participants in our study reported a relative lack of agreement or disagreement with all affective-evaluative statements in the BIAS scales. Findings document the relative lack of positive attitudes toward bisexual individuals among the general population of adults in the U.S. and highlight the need for developing intervention approaches to promote more positive attitudes toward bisexual individuals, targeted toward not only heterosexual but also gay/lesbian individuals and communities.

  2. Cognitive function and apolipoprotein E in very old adults: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K P; Snowdon, D A; Saunders, A M; Roses, A D; Mortimer, J A; Nanayakkara, N

    2000-03-01

    The epsilon4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been associated with Alzheimer' s disease and with milder forms of cognitive impairment. We investigated the possibility that the absence of the epsilon4 allele may predict the maintenance of high cognitive function among very old individuals. Our data are from the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease in 678 Catholic sisters. All sisters participate in annual functional exams that include the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery of cognitive tests. High cognitive function was defined as intact scores on five of the CERAD tests. A total of 241 participants aged 75 to 98 met this criterion at the first exam. Findings showed that 62% of the 241 participants maintained intact scores on the five CERAD tests throughout their participation in the study. Life table analyses indicated that those without the APOE epsilon4 allele spent more time with intact cognitive function than those with the epsilon4 allele (p = .007). Cox regression analyses indicated that those without the epsilon4 allele had half the risk of losing their intact status during the study when compared with those with the epsilon4 allele (p < .01). Our findings suggest that the APOE epsilon4 allele may be included among the variables that predict high cognitive function in cognitively intact, very old adults. Although the presence or absence of the epsilon4 allele is known to be related to the risk of dementia, it also appears to be related to maintaining high levels of cognitive function in old age.

  3. Applying Erikson’s Wisdom to Self-Management Practices of Older Adults: Findings from Two Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tam E.; Hassevoort, Luke; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    According to Erik Erikson’s theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson’s theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This paper presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving; and 2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills, and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25651571

  4. Self-monitoring Lifestyle Behavior in Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women: Qualitative Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Draucker, Claire Burke

    Excessive maternal gestational weight gain increases pregnancy and infant complications. Self-monitoring has been shown to be an effective strategy in weight management. Literature, however, is limited in describing pregnant women's engagement in self-monitoring. This qualitative study explored the experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women who self-monitored their eating, walking, and weight as participants in an intervention for excessive gestational weight gain prevention. Thirteen overweight and obese pregnant women participated in semistructured interviews. Reflexive iteration data analysis was conducted. Five themes were identified: making self-monitoring a habit, strategies for self-monitoring, barriers to self-monitoring, benefits of self-monitoring, and drawbacks of self-monitoring. The women viewed self-monitoring as a "habit" that could foster a sense of self-control and mindfulness. Visual or tracing aids were used to maintain the self-monitoring habit. Forgetting, defective tracking aids, complexities of food monitoring, and life events could impede self-monitoring. Being unable to keep up with self-monitoring or to achieve goals created stress. Self-monitoring is a promising approach to weight management for overweight and obese pregnant women. However, healthcare providers should be aware that, although women may identify several benefits to self-monitoring, for some women, consistently trying to track their behaviors is stressful.

  5. Olfactory-mediated stream-finding behavior of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, L.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-finding behavior of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an anadromous fish that relies on pheromones to locate spawning streams, was documented in the vicinity of an important spawning river in the Great Lakes. Untreated and anosmic migrating sea lampreys were implanted with acoustic transmitters and then released outside the Ocqueoc River. Lampreys swam only at night and then actively. When outside of the river plume, lampreys pursued relatively straight bearings parallel to the shoreline while making frequent vertical excursions. In contrast, when within the plume, lampreys made large turns and exhibited a weak bias towards the river mouth, which one-third of them entered. The behavior of anosmic lampreys resembled that of untreated lampreys outside of the plume, except they pursued a more northerly compass bearing. To locate streams, sea lampreys appear to employ a three-phase odor-mediated strategy that involves an initial search along shorelines while casting vertically, followed by river-water-induced turning that brings them close to the river's mouth, which they then enter using rheotaxis. This novel strategy differs from that of salmonids and appears to offer this poor swimmer adaptive flexibility and suggests ways that pheromonal odors might be used to manage this invasive species.

  6. Access to and Satisfaction with Prenatal Care Among Pregnant Women with Physical Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Monika; Akobirshoev, Ilhom; Moring, Nechama Sammet; Long-Bellil, Linda; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Smith, Lauren D; Iezzoni, Lisa I

    2017-12-01

    Previous qualitative studies suggest that women with physical disabilities face disability-specific barriers and challenges related to prenatal care accessibility and quality. This study aims to examine the pregnancy and prenatal care experiences and needs of U.S. mothers with physical disabilities and their perceptions of their interactions with their maternity care clinicians. We conducted the first survey of maternity care access and experiences of women with physical disabilities from 37 states. The survey was disseminated in partnership with disability community agencies and via social media and targeted U.S. women with a range of physical disabilities who had given birth in the past 10 years. The survey included questions regarding prenatal care quality and childbirth and labor experiences. A total of 126 women with various physical disability types from 37 states completed the survey. Almost half of the respondents (53.2%) reported that their physical disability was a big factor in their selection of a maternity care provider and 40.3% of women reported that their prenatal care provider knew little or nothing about the impact of their physical disability on their pregnancy. Controlling for maternal demographic characteristics and use of mobility equipment, women who reported that their prenatal care provider lacked knowledge of disability and those who felt they were not given adequate information were more likely to report unmet needs for prenatal care. The findings from this study suggest the need for training and education for clinicians regarding the prenatal care needs of women with physical disabilities.

  7. Gender role across development in adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dominique N; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the degree of femininity and masculinity at different developmental stages in a group of adult women, some of whom were exposed to elevated prenatal adrenal androgens as a result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21 hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency. Women who had presented to the Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for treatment of CAH due to 21-OH deficiency were included. The control group consisted of sisters of CAH participants and women referred for evaluation of polycystic ovary syndrome. Study participants were given a questionnaire asking them to indicate their degree of masculinity and femininity during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In addition, participants were asked questions related to their play behavior during childhood, including playmate preferences, toy preferences, and admiration of male or female characters during fantasy play. Across participant groups, self-reported femininity decreased in a dose response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure. For all groups, femininity increased through developmental stages. Women with salt-losing CAH remained less feminine than controls into adulthood. Conversely, self-reported masculinity increased in a dose-response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure, across participant groups. Women with CAH showed a decrease in masculinity across developmental stages, such that by adulthood, there were no significant differences in masculinity between controls and the women with CAH. Women with salt-losing CAH were more likely to recall preferences for boy playmates, male-typical toys, and admiration for male characters during childhood than other study participants. Our data support the effect of both prenatal androgen exposure and socialization on gender role behavior in adult women with CAH due to 21-OH deficiency.

  8. Possible Contribution of PTSD to Altered Cortisol Activity in Young Adult Obese African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.

  9. Diabetes distress in adult type 1 diabetes mellitus men and women with disease onset in childhood and in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lašaitė, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas; Žalinkevičius, Rimantas; Jurgevičienė, Nijolė; Radzevičienė, Lina

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether or not diabetes distress varies by age of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) onset and/or gender. A total of 700 adult T1DM patients were randomly selected from the Lithuanian Diabetes Registry; 214 of them (30.6%) agreed to participate and were recruited for the study. Diabetes distress (emotional burden, physician-related distress, regimen-related distress, interpersonal distress) was compared in 105 (42 men and 63 women) patients with T1DM diagnosed during 0-18years of life, and in 109 (61 men and 48 women) with T1DM diagnosed in adulthood, using Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS). Adult childhood-onset T1DM women have higher regimen-related distress (36.3±21.3 vs 26.6±16.2, p=0.016) than adulthood-onset women. Adult childhood-onset T1DM women experience higher diabetes distress (higher emotional burden (27.0±22.0 vs 15.6±16.4, p=0.006), physician-related distress (34.4±33.9 vs 20.7±29.4, p=0.024), total diabetes distress (41.2±13.6 vs 34.8±10.9, p=0.011)) than childhood-onset men. Adulthood-onset T1DM women experience higher physician-related distress (39.2±37.6 vs 23.4±32.5, p=0.013), but lower regimen-related distress (26.6±16.2 vs 35.8±21.6, p=0.014) than adulthood-onset men. In conclusion our findings reinforce the interdependence of psychological and biomedical factors in influencing health outcomes and support the need to provide psychological assessment and support to patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Applying Erikson’s Wisdom to Self-Management Practices of Older Adults: Findings from Two Field Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Tam E.; Hassevoort, Luke; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    According to Erik Erikson’s theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson’s theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This paper presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it wa...

  12. Association of chronic widespread pain with objectively measured physical activity in adults: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansie, Elizabeth J; Turk, Dennis C; Martin, Kathryn R; Van Domelen, Dane R; Patel, Kushang V

    2014-05-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common and potentially debilitating disorder. Patterns of physical activity (PA) in adults with CWP have primarily been investigated using subjective, self-report measures. The current study sought to characterize PA among community-dwelling individuals with CWP, chronic regional pain, or no chronic pain using objective measurements obtained via accelerometry in the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from 3,952 participants ages 20 and older were analyzed to assess relationships between pain status and objective measurements of PA. Prevalence of CWP was 3.3% and 5.4% in men and women, respectively. In men and women, the average activity counts per minute and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA were significantly lower for the CWP group than for the no chronic pain group. Interestingly, time spent in sedentary, light, and lifestyle activities was not associated with pain status. Statistical interaction tests indicated that the effects of chronic pain on counts per minute were stronger in men than in women. Despite recommendations for increased moderate-to-vigorous PA as a pain management strategy for CWP, results from this nationally representative study indicate that adults with CWP participate in less moderate-to-vigorous PA than individuals without chronic pain. Using objective measurement of PA in a nationally representative sample, this study demonstrates that adults with CWP participate in reduced daily and moderate-to-vigorous PA in comparison to people with no chronic pain. Findings indicate that clinicians should emphasize the importance of increasing PA in patients with CWP. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of family-planning service quality reported by adolescents and young adult women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Lozano, Rafael; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Associations between age and patient-reported quality of family planning services were examined among young women in Mexico. A repeated cross-sectional analysis of survey data collected in 2006, 2009, and 2014 was performed. Data from women aged 15-29years who had not undergone sterilization and were currently using a modern contraceptive method were included. The primary outcome was high-quality care, defined as positive responses to all five quality items regarding contraceptive services included in the survey. Multivariable logistic regression and marginal probabilities were used to compare adolescents and women aged 20-29years. The responses of respondents using different contraceptive methods were compared. Data were included from 15 835 individuals. The multivariable analysis demonstrated lower odds of reporting high-quality care among women aged 15-19years (odds ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.88) and 20-24years (odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.96) compared with women aged 25-29years. Adolescents using hormonal and long-acting reversible contraception had significantly lower odds of reporting high-quality care compared with women aged 25-29. Adolescents in Mexico reported a lower quality of family planning services compared with young adult women. Continued research and policies are needed to improve the quality of contraceptive services. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  15. Self-reported drinking and driving amongst educated adults in Spain: The "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN cohort findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Irala Jokin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of alcohol as a risk factor for motor vehicle crashes is long known. Yet, reports on the prevalence of drinking and driving suggest values between 20%–30% when the adult driving population is interviewed. We wondered whether these values hold true among European educated citizens and whether there are any significant differences in prevalence by age, gender, type of profession and other lifestyle indicators. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data from a cohort of university graduates in Spain (SUN study. Answered questionnaires contained items on current drinking and driving practices, together with data on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. Chi square, Fisher test, and multivariate logistic regression were used to investigate the impact of several variables on drinking and driving practices. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results Almost 30% of the participants reported "sometimes" drinking and driving. This percent increased to 47% when "almost never" was also included as a positive answer to the drinking and driving practice question. These percentages varied significantly by gender, with up to 64% of men reporting "sometimes" or "almost never" vs. 36% of women doing so. Drinking and driving practices also differed by overall alcohol consumption habits, smoking, use of safety belts, and notably, type of profession. Conclusion Our findings are amongst the first on the high prevalence of drinking and driving among Spanish. Particularly worrisome is the fact that health professionals reported this habit even at higher rates. Multidisciplinary interventions (e.g., legal, educational, economic are needed to reduce this serious health risk.

  16. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.

  17. Visual working memory span in adults with cochlear implants: Some preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Moberly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neurocognitive functions, specifically verbal working memory (WM, contribute to speech recognition in postlingual adults with cochlear implants (CIs and normal-hearing (NH listener shearing degraded speech. Three hypotheses were tested: (1 WM accuracy as assessed using three visual span measures — digits, objects, and symbols — would correlate with recognition scores for spectrally degraded speech (through a CI or when noise-vocoded; (2 WM accuracy would be best for digit span, intermediate for object span, and lowest for symbol span, due to the increasing cognitive demands across these tasks. Likewise, response times, relating to processing demands, would be shortest for digit span, intermediate for object span, and longest for symbol span; (3 CI users would demonstrate poorer and slower performance than NH peers on WM tasks, as a result of less efficient verbally mediated encoding strategies associated with a period of prolonged auditory deprivation. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 30 postlingually deaf adults with CIs and 34 NH controls. Participants were tested for sentence recognition in quiet (CI users or after noise-vocoding (NH peers, along with WM using visual measures of digit span, object span, and symbol span. Results: Of the three measures of WM, digit span scores alone correlated with sentence recognition for CI users; no correlations were found using these three measures for NH peers. As predicted, WM accuracy (and response times were best (and fastest for digit span, intermediate for object span, and worst (and slowest for symbol span. CI users and NH peers demonstrated equivalent WM accuracy and response time for digit span and object span, and similar response times for symbol span, but contrary to our original predictions, CI users demonstrated better accuracy on symbol span than NH peers. Conclusions: Verbal WM assessed using visual tasks relates weakly to sentence recognition for degraded speech. CI users

  18. Who is food-insecure in California? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia; Baumrind, Nikki; Dumbauld, Sheila

    2007-06-01

    To identify factors associated with food insecurity in California women. The California Women's Health Survey is an ongoing annual telephone survey that collects data about health-related attitudes and behaviours from a randomly selected sample of women. Food insecurity of the women was measured by a 6-item subset of the Food Security Module. Statistical procedures included chi-square tests, t-tests, logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance. California, USA. Four thousand and thirty-seven women (18 years or older). Prevalence of food insecurity was 25.7%. After controlling for income, factors associated with greater food insecurity were Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity; less than a 12th grade education; being unmarried; less than 55 years old; being Spanish-speaking; having spent less than half of one's life in the USA; sadness/depression; feeling overwhelmed; poor physical/mental health interfering with activities; and fair to poor general health. Among Food Stamp Program (FSP) participants, 71% were food-insecure. Among FSP-eligible women who had not applied for the programme, the prevalence of food insecurity was lower among women responding that they did not need food stamps than in women giving other reasons for not applying (23.9% vs. 66.9%, P < 0.001). Factors associated with food insecurity in FSP recipients included being unable to make food stamps last for 30 days, feeling overwhelmed, and having a birthplace in Mexico or Central America. Along with several socio-economic variables, poor physical and mental health is associated with food insecurity. Whether food insecurity is a cause or effect of poor health remains in question.

  19. Increased serum advanced glycation end-products is a distinct finding in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Katsikis, Ilias; Piperi, Christina; Kandaraki, Eleni; Piouka, Athanasia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2008-10-01

    Nonenzymatic advanced glycation and oxidation end-products, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), impart a potent impact on vessels and other tissues in diabetic state and in euglycaemic conditions with increased oxidative stress. Insulin resistant (IR) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women, have elevated serum AGEs, increased receptor (RAGE) expression, and increased deposition with differential localization in the polycystic ovarian tissue (theca and granulosa) compared to normal. To determine whether the raised AGE levels in noninsulin resistant women with PCOS is a distinct finding compared with those presenting the isolated components of the syndrome and among PCOS subphenotypes. Noninsulin resistant women were selected in order to show that serum AGEs are elevated in PCOS independently of the presence of IR. Clinical trial. One hundred and ninety-three age- and BMI-matched young lean noninsulin resistant women were studied. Among them, 100 women were diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria, and divided to subphenotypes (hyperandrogenaemia with or without PCO morphology and with or without anovulation). Sixty-eight women with the isolated components of the PCOS phenotype were also studied along with 25 healthy women. Serum AGE levels, metabolic, hormonal profiles and intravaginal ultrasound were determined in all subjects. The studied population did not differ in BMI, fasting insulin concentration, waist : hip and glucose : insulin ratios. PCOS women exhibited statistically higher AGEs levels (7.96 +/- 1.87 U/ml, P PCOS, serum AGEs are distinctly elevated compared with women having the isolated characteristics of the syndrome. No difference was observed between PCOS subphenotypes. As chronic inflammation and increased oxidant stress have been incriminated in the pathophysiology of PCOS, the role of AGEs as inflammatory and oxidant mediators, may be linked with the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities of the syndrome.

  20. Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L; Sit, Dorothy K Y; McShea, Mary C; Rizzo, David M; Zoretich, Rebecca A; Hughes, Carolyn L; Eng, Heather F; Luther, James F; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Costantino, Michelle L; Confer, Andrea L; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Famy, Christopher S; Hanusa, Barbara H

    2013-05-01

    The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Urban academic women's hospital. During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post partum by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: "The thought of harming myself has occurred to me" (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had comorbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. The most common diagnosis in screen-positive women was major depressive disorder with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Strategies to differentiate

  1. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  2. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health 1989-95 Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-05-04

    In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women-a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort.

  3. Predictors of smoking cessation behavior among Bangladeshi adults: findings from ITC Bangladesh survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Driezen, Pete; Quah, Anne C K; Nargis, Nigar; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Research findings on the predictors of smoking cessation behavior identified in Western countries may not be generalizable to smokers in the Southeast Asian countries (i.e., Bangladesh). This study examined the factors associated with smoking cessation behavior (quit attempts and smoking cessation) among a representative sample of Bangladeshi adults. Data from Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Survey in Bangladesh, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers, were analysed. Households were sampled using a stratified multistage design and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Respondents included in the study are 1,861 adult daily smokers (cigarette only or dual use of cigarette and bidi) in the Wave 1 survey who completed the Wave 2 follow up. Of the smokers (N = 1,861), 98 % were male, 18 % illiterate, 78 % married and 42 % were aged 40 or above; 89 % were cigarette smokers and 11 % were dual users (cigarette & bidi). Overall, 21.8 % of the baseline smokers made quit attempts (that is, making at least one quit attempt that lasted for at least 24 hours) during the 11- to 12-month interval between Waves 1 and 2 with only 4.1 % quitting successfully (that is, smokers who had stopped smoking for at least 6 months at the time of the Wave 2 survey). Significant predictors of attempts to quit included: residing areas outside Dhaka (OR = 3.41), being aged 40 or older (OR = 1.53), having a monthly income of above BDT10,000 (US$126) versus below BDT 5,000 (US$63) (OR = 1.57), intending to quit sometime in the future (OR = 1.73). Respondents not working indoors/outside the home were less likely to have made a quit attempt than those with no workplace restrictions on smoking (OR = 0.62). Predictors of successful smoking cessation included: being aged 40 or older (OR = 3.11), perceiving self-rated health as good or excellent (OR = 2.40), and an increased level of self-efficacy (OR = 1

  4. Hallux Valgus and Lesser Toe Deformities are Highly Heritable in Adult Men and Women: the Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Marian T.; Menz, Hylton B.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate heritability of three common disorders affecting the forefoot: hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar forefoot soft tissue atrophy in adult Caucasian men and women. Methods Between 2002-2008, a trained examiner used a validated foot exam to document presence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy in 2,446 adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Among these, 1,370 participants with available pedigree structure were included. Heritability (h2) was estimated using pedigree structures by Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) package. Results were adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results Mean age of participants was 66 years (range 39 to 99 years) and 57% were female. Prevalence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy was 31%, 29.6% and 28.4%, respectively. Significant h2 was found for hallux valgus (0.29 ~ 0.89, depending on age and sex) and lesser toe deformity (0.49 ~ 0.90 depending on age and sex). The h2 for lesser toe deformity in men and women aged 70+ years was 0.65 (p= 9×10−7). Significant h2 was found for plantar soft tissue atrophy in men and women aged 70+ years (h2 = 0.37; p=3.8×10−3). Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the first findings of heritability of foot disorders in humans, and they confirm the widely-held view that hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities are highly heritable in European-descent Caucasian men and women, underscoring the importance of future work to identify genetic determinants of the underlying genetic susceptibility to these common foot disorders. PMID:23696165

  5. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pham, Kiemanh; Glass, Nancy; Loochkartt, Saskia; Kidane, Teemar; Cuspoca, Decssy; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Singh, Sonal; Vu, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active

  6. Intent to receive HPV vaccine and reasons for not vaccinating among unvaccinated adolescent and young women: findings from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddon, Nicole C; Hood, Julia E; Leichliter, Jami S

    2012-03-30

    HPV vaccine coverage for females has increased in the U.S., although challenges to achieving high coverage remain. HPV vaccine coverage continues to lag behind that of other routinely recommended adolescent vaccines and these gaps in coverage are widening. To inform strategies to improve uptake, we explore correlates of vaccine intention and describe reasons for refusing HPV vaccination among unvaccinated females in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and young adults during early stages of HPV vaccine availability. In 2007-2008, 1243 females aged 15-24 years were asked about HPV vaccination in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). For unvaccinated women (n=955), we evaluated demographic and sexual behavior correlates of likelihood to receive the vaccine in the next 12 months in bivariate and multivariable analyses by age. Correlates to the main reasons for foregoing vaccination are described. A minority (42.5%) of unvaccinated respondents said they intended to receive HPV vaccine in the next 12 months: 37.6% of adolescents (15-19 years) and 42.0% of young adults (20-24 years). Sexually experienced women were more than twice as likely as non-sexually experienced women to intend to receive HPV vaccine (15-19 years: aOR=2.39, 95% CI=1.15, 4.94; 20-24 years: aOR=2.17, 95% CI=1.08, 4.33). Having health insurance was associated with being likely to receive HPV vaccine among adolescents. Hispanic young adults were more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to be likely to receive HPV vaccine. The belief of not being at risk for HPV and institutional barriers were the two most commonly cited reasons for foregoing vaccination.Among unvaccinated women who did not intend to get vaccinated, respondents who never had sex were more likely to report not being at risk as the main reason for not needing the vaccine compared to women with sexual experience (44.5 vs. 24.4%) but this finding was only marginally significant in our limited sample. In the first years

  7. Program Experiences of Adults with Autism, Their Families, and Providers: Findings from a Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffer Miller, Kaitlin H.; Mathew, Mary; Nonnemacher, Stacy L.; Shea, Lindsay L.

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of individuals with autism spectrum disorder are aging into adulthood. In the United States, Medicaid is the primary payer for services for adults with autism spectrum disorder, yet there are few funded programs that provide dedicated supports to this population. This study examined the experiences of adults with autism spectrum…

  8. Sinking or Swimming: Findings from a Survey of State Adult Education Tuition and Financing Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    At no time in recent history has the importance of adult education been greater and the funding more threatened. Despite the fact that as many as 93 million adults in the U.S. may need basic skills services to improve their economic prospects, funding for these services is stagnating at the federal level and being slashed in statehouses and state…

  9. Findings in young adults at colonoscopy from a hospital service database audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie; Lidums, Ilmars; Rosty, Christophe; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew; Parry, Susan; Win, Aung Ko; Tomita, Yoko; Vatandoust, Sina; Townsend, Amanda; Patel, Dainik; Hardingham, Jennifer E; Roder, David; Smith, Eric; Drew, Paul; Marker, Julie; Uylaki, Wendy; Hewett, Peter; Worthley, Daniel L; Symonds, Erin; Young, Graeme P; Price, Timothy J; Young, Joanne P

    2017-04-19

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed at young adults. The aim of this work was to document the prevalence and histological subtype of lesions seen in patients aged <50 years, and any associated clinical features. An audit of the colonoscopy database at The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Adelaide, South Australia over a 12-month period was undertaken. Findings were recorded from both colonoscopy reports and corresponding histological examination of excised lesions. Data were extracted from colonoscopies in 2064 patients. Those aged <50 comprised 485 (24%) of the total. CRC precursor lesions (including sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/P), traditional serrated adenomas, tubular adenomas ≥10 mm or with high-grade dysplasia, and conventional adenomas with villous histology) were seen in 4.3% of patients aged <50 and 12.9% of patients aged ≥50 (P <0.001). Among colonoscopies yielding CRC precursor lesions in patients under 50 years, SSA/P occurred in 52% of procedures (11/21), compared with 27% (55/204) of procedures in patients aged 50 and older (P = 0.02). SSA/P were proximally located in (10/11) 90% of patients aged under 50, and 80% (43/54) of those aged 50 and older (P = 0.46). SSA/P were the most frequently observed CRC precursor lesions in patients aged <50. Most CRCs in this age group are known to arise in the distal colon and rectum suggesting that lesions other than SSA/P may serve as the precursor for the majority of early-onset CRC.

  10. Educational success and adult health: findings from the Chicago longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topitzes, James; Godes, Olga; Mersky, Joshua P; Ceglarek, Sudi; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2009-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that education is associated with health, yet we lack knowledge about the specific educational experiences influencing health trajectories. This study examines the role school factors play in the emergence of poor young adult health outcomes for a low-income, minority sample. The following research questions are addressed. First, what are the education-based predictors of daily tobacco smoking, frequent substance use, depression, and no health insurance coverage? Second, do later-occurring school factors explain the association between earlier school measures and the outcomes and, if so, what pathways account for this mediation effect? Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an investigation of a cohort of 1,539 individuals, born around 1980, who attended kindergarten programs in the Chicago Public Schools. Participants were followed prospectively from early childhood through age 24, and study measures were created from various data sources and multiple assessment waves. Findings from probit hierarchical regressions with controls for early sociodemographic covariates indicated that elementary school socioemotional classroom adjustment and high school completion were significantly and negatively associated with all four study outcomes. Participation in the Chicago Child Parent Center preschool program predicted lower rates of both daily tobacco smoking and no health insurance coverage (p frustration tolerance was inversely associated with daily tobacco smoking and frequent drug use (p < .05). Also, negatively linked to frequent drug use was a high school measure of students' expectation to attend college (p < .01). In nearly all cases, later-occurring school factors fully mediated significant associations between earlier ones and the outcomes. Patterns of mediation were explored along with implications of results.

  11. Women's attitudes to safe-induced abortion in Iran: Findings from a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhani, Nader; Cleary, Michelle; Zarei, Abbas; Lopez, Violeta

    2018-01-01

    To explore attitudes to safe-induced abortion among pregnant women in Iran. In Islamic teachings, abortion is generally forbidden. However in specific circumstances, abortion may be permitted and currently, in Iran, the law allows termination of pregnancy only if three specialist physicians confirm that the pregnancy outcome may be harmful for the mother during pregnancy or after birth. Pilot, descriptive survey. A 15-item structured questionnaire focusing on attitudes to safe-induced abortion was developed and pilot tested. Participants were pregnant women who were referred to the Legal Medical Centre (July-December 2015) to obtain permission for abortion. On obtaining their informed consent, the women were asked to respond to each item if they agreed (Yes) or disagreed (No). Only their age, education, employment, marital status and religion were obtained. Of the 80 survey participants referred for a safe-induced abortion, 90% were carrying foetuses with a diagnosed congenital malformation and 10% were experiencing complications of pregnancy that endangered their health. The majority of women (85%) perceived abortion to be dangerous to health; 86% indicated that partners should be involved in decision-making about abortion, while 83% believed that public health officials should have complete control of abortion law. There is a need to improve women's and couples' awareness and practice of effective contraceptive methods. Further research is needed to better understand the complex issues that lead to unintended pregnancies and abortions considering religious beliefs and cultural and legal contexts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Menstrual change during the menopause transition: do women find it problematic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Sandra

    2009-10-20

    To describe changes in the characteristics of women's menstrual cycles during the menopause transition and to identify whether such changes are perceived by women as being problematic. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a community-based convenience sample of 119 women aged 37-70 years. Participants completed a questionnaire to obtain data on demographic characteristics, menopausal status and changes to menstrual flow, duration, frequency and regularity. There was a common pattern of menstrual change which was of heavier, less frequent, irregular menstruation. Forty one percent of post-menopausal and 40% of women still in the menopause transition stated that, in terms of overall perception, the changes to menstruation experienced during the menopause transition were not problematic or disruptive. When specific change characteristics were examined, significant differences were found in duration of menses (p=0.014) and cycle irregularity (p=0.005) but no significant differences were found on the amount of flow (p=0.125) or frequency of cycles (p=0.142). Increased duration and increased irregularity of occurrence of each period are problematic for women going through the menopause transition, however, increased amount of menstrual flow at each period and increased frequency of cycles are not problematic changes.

  13. Correlation between transvaginal ultrasound measured endometrial thickness and histopathological findings in Turkish women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Alev; Ozer, Serdar; Kanat-Pektas, Mine

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims to determine how transvaginal ultrasonography and histopathological examination findings are correlated in a cohort of premenopausal and postmenopausal Turkish women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This is a retrospective review of 350 Turkish women who underwent transvaginal ultrasonography and suction curettage as a result of abnormal uterine bleeding. Sonographic appearance of the endometrium was normal in 244 patients (69.7%), while homogeneous thickening was detected in 47 patients (13.4%) and cystic thickening in 21 patients (6.0%). A sonographic diagnosis of endometrial polyp was made in 38 patients (10.9%). Histopathological analysis of endometrial samplings revealed proliferative endometrium (36%), secretory endometrium (24.6%), decidualization (10.9%), endometrial polyp (8.3%), endometritis (6.8%), endometrial hyperplasia (4.6%), irregular shedding (3.7%), atrophic endometrium (3.1%), endometrial cancer (1.1%) and placental retention (0.9%). The sonographic and histopathological findings correlated significantly (χ(2) = 122 768, P = 0.001; r = 0.215, P = 0.001). Approximately 51% of the women with homogeneous endometrial thickening had proliferative endometrium. Only 44.7% of the women with ultrasonographically visualized endometrial polyps had histopathologically diagnosed endometrial polyps. Nearly 57% of the women with cystic endometrial thickening had proliferative endometrium. If there is no facility for hysteroscopy or hysteroscopy-guided endometrial biopsy for women with abnormal uterine bleeding, transvaginal ultrasonography findings can be efficiently used to make a preliminary diagnosis and, thus, notify the pathologists. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Onset Timing, Thoughts of Self-harm, and Diagnoses in Postpartum Women With Screen-Positive Depression Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L.; Sit, Dorothy K. Y.; McShea, Mary C.; Rizzo, David M.; Zoretich, Rebecca A.; Hughes, Carolyn L.; Eng, Heather F.; Luther, James F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Costantino, Michelle L.; Confer, Andrea L.; Moses-Kolko, Eyclie L.; Famy, Christopher S.; Hanusa, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. Objectives To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Design Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Setting Urban academic women’s hospital. Participants During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post parturn by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. Main Outcomes and Measures A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: “The thought of harming myself has occurred to me” (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Results Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had co-morbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. Conclusions and Relevance The most common diagnosis in screen

  15. A risk score for predicting coronary artery disease in women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ≤2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V.; Braemswig, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients 15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  17. Can microcredit help improve the health of poor women? Some findings from a cross-sectional study in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, Ks; Haddad, Slim; Narayana, D

    2008-01-10

    This study examines associations between female participation in a microcredit program in India, known as self help groups (SHGs), and women's health in the south Indian state of Kerala. Because SHGs do not have a formal health program, this provides a unique opportunity to assess whether SHG participation influences women's health via the social determinants of health. This cross-sectional study used special survey data collected in 2003 from one Panchayat (territorial decentralized unit). Information was collected on women's characteristics, health determinants (exclusion to health care, exposure to health risks, decision-making agency), and health achievements (self assessed health, markers of mental health). The study sample included 928 non elderly poor women. The primary finding is that compared to non-participants living in a household without a SHG member, the odds of facing exclusion is significantly lower among early joiners, women who were members for more than 2 years (OR = 0.58, CI = 0.41-0.80), late joiners, members for 2 years and less (OR = 0.60, CI = 0.39-0.94), and non-participants who live in a household with a SHG member (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.32-0.90). We also found that after controlling for key women's characteristics, early joiners of a SHG are less likely to report emotional stress and poor life satisfaction compared to non-members (OR = 0.52, CI = 0.30-0.93; OR = 0.32, CI = 0.14-0.71). No associations were found between SHG participation and self assessed health or exposure to health risks. The relationship between SHG participation and decision-making agency is unclear. Microcredit is not a panacea, but could help to improve the health of poor women by addressing certain issues relevant to the context. In Kerala, SHG participation can help protect poor women against exclusion to health care and possibly aid in promoting their mental health.

  18. Women's health, equality and empowerment in tobacco farming - findings from two counties in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Jie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Research takes place in Yunnan, the most important tobacco producing province in China, to gather empirical evidence of women´s role in tobacco farming. Methods Research adopts mixed methods. Quantitative data was collected with structured questionnaire while qualitative data was obtained through individual interviews and focus group discussions. Participatory research method was employed as well in order to better understand the workload of women. Due to sensitivity of tobacco control in Yunnan, respondents had to be reached through personal contacts. Thus a convenience sampling method was used. The information was collected from a sample of 436 female tobacco farmers in two counties in October - November 2015. Results Women spend 50% of working hours on tobacco farming. In tobacco farming season, women work 16+ hours a day and on average they spend 2-3 hours more than their husbands on tobacco farming. 50.1% of respondents had to hire temporary help and 58.0% had to exchange labour (without pay with neighbours / relatives for tobacco farming. 62.4% of respondents borrowed money for tobacco farming. The average income from tobacco farming is US$1,490, accounting for about 26-35% of the household income. Respondents experienced discomforts while growing and picking tobacco leaf, but did not associate these discomforts with tobacco farming. 50.5% of respondents were not aware of negative health effect of tobacco farming. There is no mechanism or entity representing tobacco farmers to bargain with the tobacco corporation. Instead, farmers lost autonomy over farming activity under the pressure of both government and tobacco corporation. Women are even more vulnerable because they rarely participate in decision making at community and above levels although they have significant power over family finance and household farming activity.. Conclusions Being at the bottom of exploitation chain, women lack awarness, knowledge, resource and

  19. Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria for Assessing Endurance in Women over 60 Years of Age – Findings from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortas Jakub

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. If it is to be effective, health training needs to be monitored based on regular and periodic assessment. The norms that have been proposed for standardised endurance tests for the 60-plus age group, particularly for women, still require evaluation. In light of the above, we have undertaken to design quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the level of endurance. Such criteria are urgently needed by persons working with this age group. Material and methods. We developed a quantitative and qualitative system for evaluating endurance based on Zatsiorky’s model, and we verified it in a group of 90 women aged over 60 years. We analysed data measured directly during a 2-km walk test. Results. We developed a set of quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing endurance in women aged over 60 years based on the results of a 2-km walk test, measured on a scale ranging from 24:18 to 15:52 min:s. Conclusion. The pilot study has proven that a scale based on Zatsiorsky’s model can be an effective tool for assessing endurance in women aged over 60 years. We can thus recommend that it be widely used in practice. It is important to compare these results with the norms for the group in question and to establish comprehensive norms that could be useful for persons who organise physical activity for older adults.

  20. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Minooee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM/ body lean mass (BLM in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW. Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27 vs. 15.7% (22. Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS

  1. What adult electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnoses and/or findings do residents in emergency medicine need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patocka, Catherine; Turner, Joel; Wiseman, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    There is no evidence-based description of electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation competencies for emergency medicine (EM) trainees. The first step in defining these competencies is to develop a prioritized list of adult ECG findings relevant to EM contexts. The purpose of this study was to categorize the importance of various adult ECG diagnoses and/or findings for the EM trainee. We developed a list of potentially important adult ECG diagnoses/findings and conducted a Delphi opinion-soliciting process. Participants used a 4-point Likert scale to rate the importance of each diagnosis for EM trainees. Consensus was defined as a minimum of 75% agreement at the second round or later. In the absence of consensus, stability was defined as a shift of 20% or less after successive rounds. A purposive sampling of 22 emergency physicians participated in the Delphi process, and 16 (72%) completed the process. Of those, 15 were from 11 different EM training programs across Canada and one was an expert in EM electrocardiography. Overall, 78 diagnoses reached consensus, 42 achieved stability and one diagnosis achieved neither consensus nor stability. Out of 121 potentially important adult ECG diagnoses, 53 (44%) were considered "must know" diagnoses, 61 (50%) "should know" diagnoses, and 7 (6%) "nice to know" diagnoses. We have categorized adult ECG diagnoses within an EM training context, knowledge of which may allow clinical EM teachers to establish educational priorities. This categorization will also facilitate the development of an educational framework to establish EM trainee competency in ECG interpretation.

  2. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (Padolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  3. Adult jejunojejunal intussusception - a case report and review of the literature. Radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setubal, Roger; Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Endo, Erica; Kataoka, Kazumi; Soares, Aldemir Humberto

    1996-01-01

    The author report a case of jejunojejunal intussusception caused by an adenomatous polyp in an adult. The majority of intussusception's cases occur in children with less than 2 years of age, with only 5% to 15% of cases occurring in adults. In contrast to pediatrics group intussusception, which is idiopathic in 90% of cases, adult intussusception has a demonstrable cause in more than 90% of cases. The pre-operative diagnosis is made by the association between the clinical presentation and plain abdominal radiographs, barium study of small intestine, ultrasound and computed tomography, described and discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China: Findings from China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Zhenzhen; Tang, Zhe; Sun, Fei; Diao, Lijun; Li, Jian; He, Yao; Dong, Birong; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Disability affects older adults' quality of life. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China. Data was obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study (CCGAS). The sample comprised 6864 people aged 60 years and above from seven provinces in China. A door-to-door survey was conducted by formally trained interviewers using a unified questionnaire. Disability was assessed with physical health assessment comprising activities of daily living (ADL), and independent activities of daily living (IADL). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed only disability and some socio-demographic dimensions. The rates were standardized based on China's Sixth National Census population distribution. The disability rate in older adults was 7.0%. The disability rate was significantly higher in women than men, significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas, and higher in northern China than southern China. Urban disability rates ranged from 5.7% to 1.2%. The differences were statistically significant, with Beijing having the highest and Shanghai the lowest disability rates. Disability increased with age. In China, the disability rate in older adults is 7.0%, and increases with age. The disability rate is significantly higher in women, rural area, and northern China. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of disability in older adults in China in recent years and indicates the need for further epidemiological data on disability in China to facilitate long-term care and care policy formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determinants of overweight or obesity among ever-married adult women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Saquib, Nazmus; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Saquib, Juliann; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Khan, Jahidur Rahman; Uddin, Md Jasim; Cullen, Mark R; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in Bangladesh. It is higher among Bangladeshi women than among men. This study was conducted to assess a host of demographic and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, separately for the urban and rural women of Bangladesh. We used data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. The BDHS provides cross-sectional data on a wide range of indicators relating to population, health, and nutrition. We analyzed nutrition-related data to identify the factors associated with being overweight or obese among ever-married women aged 18-49 years. Of 16,493 women, about 18 % (95 % CI 17 · 80-18 · 99) were overweight or obese. Unemployed urban women were at 1 · 44 (95 % CI 1 · 18-1 · 76, p women who were involved in manual-labored work. Watching television at least once a week was another significant predictor among urban women (OR 1 · 49; 95 % CI 1 · 24-1 · 80; p women (OR 1 · 31; 95 % CI 1 · 14-1 · 51; p women. The findings of the study indicate that a large number of women in Bangladesh are suffering from being overweight or obese, and multiple factors are responsible for this including, older age, being from wealthy households, higher education, being from food-secured households, watching TV at least once a week, and being an unemployed urban woman. Given the anticipated long-term effects, the factors that are associated with being overweight or obese should be considered while formulating an effective intervention for the women of Bangladesh.

  6. Estimates of fruit and vegetable intake in childhood and adult dietary behaviors of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Kreuter, Matthew K; Holt, Cheryl; Steger-May, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how estimates of one's fruit and vegetable intake in childhood are related to 3 current dietary behaviors among African American women: intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure to and preference for fruits and vegetables, and preference for trying new foods. Baseline data from a randomized dietary intervention trial. Ten urban public health centers in St. Louis, Missouri. 1227 African American women. A 33-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, items measuring estimates of childhood fruit and vegetable intake, adult fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to and preference for fruit and vegetable, and preference for trying new foods. Linear regression evaluated the association between predictors and continuous measures; logistic regression determined the association between predictors and categorical measures. Estimates of one's vegetable intake as a child were significantly related to exposure and preference for both fruits and vegetables, trying of new foods, and intake of both fruits and vegetables in adulthood. Estimates of eating fruit as a child were not significantly associated with these adult dietary behaviors. Developmental influences on adult dietary patterns may be stronger for vegetables than fruits among African American women. Additional emphasis is needed regarding exposure to and preference for vegetable intake in childhood.

  7. Health status, quality of life and medical care in adult women with Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Alexandra Ertl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that only a minority of patients with Turner syndrome (TS have adequate medical care after transfer to adult care. Aim of this study: To assess the status of medical follow-up and quality of life (QoL in adult women diagnosed with TS and followed up until transfer. To compare the subjective and objective view of the medical care quality and initiate improvements based on patients’ experiences and current recommendations. Methods: 39 adult women with TS out of 64 patients contacted were seen for a clinical and laboratory check, cardiac ultrasound, standardized and structured questionnaires (SF-36v2 and Beck depression inventory. Results: 7/39 of the patients were not being followed medically at all. Only 2/39 consulted all the specialists recommended. Comorbidities were newly diagnosed in 27/39 patients; of these, 11 related to the cardiovascular system. Patients in our cohort scored as high as the mean reference population for SF-36v2 in both mental and physical compartments. Obese participants had lower scores in the physical function section, whereas higher education was related to higher physical QoL scores. Adult height slightly correlated positively with physical health. Conclusion: Medical follow-up was inadequate in our study cohort of adults with TS. Even though their medical follow-up was insufficient, these women felt adequately treated, leaving them vulnerable for premature illness. Initiatives in health autonomy and a structured transfer process as well as closer collaborations within specialities are urgently needed.

  8. Statin therapy and the risk for diabetes among adult women: do the benefits outweigh the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunsheng; Culver, Annie; Rossouw, Jacques; Olendzki, Barbara; Merriam, Philip; Lian, Bill; Ockene, Ira

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine statin therapy and the risk for diabetes among adult women using a selective review. The literature contains reports of new-onset diabetes associated with statin use. While many studies do not report sex-specific results, there is evidence indicating the risk to benefit ratio may vary by gender. However, the absolute effects are not clear because women have historically been under-represented in clinical trials. A review of the literature indicates that the cardiovascular benefits of statins appear to outweigh the risk for statin-related diabetes. However, the effect may depend upon baseline diabetes risk, dose, and statin potency. Rigorous, long-term studies focused on the risks and benefits of statins in women are unavailable to sort for gender-specific differences. Until this changes, individualized attention to risk assessment, and strong prevention with lifestyle changes must prevail.

  9. Hazardous drinking and dimensions of impulsivity, behavioral approach, and inhibition in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-06-01

    Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all 3 dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than nonhazardous drinkers. This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. American Indian Women and Screening Mammography: Findings from a Qualitative Study in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni; Batterton, Chasity; Hamm, Robert M.; Thompson, David; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue within the American Indian (AI) community in Oklahoma; however, there is limited information to explain the low screening mammography rates among AI women. Purpose: To identify the motivational factors affecting an AI woman's decision to obtain a mammogram. Methods: Through the use of…

  11. Assessment of personality functioning in the transition from adolescent to adult life: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, M; Oppenheim, A; Hill, J

    1996-01-01

    The Adolescent to Adult Personality Functioning Assessment (ADAPFA) a modification of the Adult Personality Functioning Assessment (APFA) is described. It may be used to assess specific and general social dysfunction in the transition from childhood to adult life. Two raters independently rated 38 audiotaped interviews to test the interrater reliability of the instrument. The relationship between dysfunction in specific domains and overall psychosocial dysfunction was examined. Interrater reliabilities for the total ADAPFA score and for the majority of the domains were high. Agreement on type of dysfunction and on categorical ratings indicating the presence of personality disorder were good. The ADAPFA is a useful measure of interpersonal and social role performance in the transition between adolescent and adult life.

  12. Depression and violence in adolescence and young adults : Findings from three longitudinal cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Aaltonen, Mikko; Branje, Susan; Ristikari, Tiina; Meeus, W.H.J.; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Goodwin, Guy M.; Fazel, Seena

    Objective: Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people's depression and later violent outcomes. Method: We used data from three cohorts

  13. Adult polyglucosan body disease: Natural History and Key Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochel, Fanny; Schiffmann, Raphael; Steenweg, Marjan E.; Akman, Hasan O.; Wallace, Mary; Sedel, Frédéric; Laforêt, Pascal; Levy, Richard; Powers, J. Michael; Demeret, Sophie; Maisonobe, Thierry; Froissart, Roseline; Da Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos; Fogel, Brent L.; Natowicz, Marvin R.; Lubetzki, Catherine; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Rosenmann, Hanna; Barash, Varda; Kakhlon, Or; Gomori, J. Moshe; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Lossos, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterized by neurogenic bladder, progressive spastic gait, and peripheral neuropathy. Polyglucosan bodies accumulate in the central and peripheral nervous systems and are often associated with glycogen branching

  14. Inequalities in maintenance of health and performance between young adult women and men in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Dellve, Lotta; Eklöf, Mats; Hagberg, Mats

    2009-04-01

    Because of ageing populations, most high-income countries are facing an imminent scarcity of labour. Maintenance of health and performance in young adults therefore becomes a crucial prerequisite for sustainable societies. One major obstruction to this accomplishment is the striking health inequalities between young women and young men. Previously these inequalities have mainly been studied in a cross-sectional way, focusing on ill-health. In this study, we compared the prevalence of maintained health and performance between young adult women and men and the predictors for this outcome. The cohort consisted of 1266 participants from a homogenous sample of university students in Sweden. A combined assessment of self-rated 'very good' health and un-impaired performance took place at three time points (i.e. maintained health and performance). Potential predictors covered stable conditions in health-related behaviours, conditions at work/school and work-home interference. Young women had less maintained health and performance than young men. No major differences in predictors were found. However, there was a tendency for psychosocial factors to be the most important predictors, especially in women. That young women had less maintained health and performance in a homogenous sample beyond well-known differentiating factors suggests explanations other than observable structural differences between the sexes. This was also indicated by the importance attached to perceived demands, and work-home interference, especially in women. The combination of less scheduled, and more unscheduled, schoolwork (i.e. time-flexibility) negatively affected the maintenance of health and performance in our study population, suggesting a focus for future studies.

  15. The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Sherina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013, ethnicity (p = 0.001, religion (p = 0.002, schooling (p = 0.020, educational level (p = 0.016, marital status (p = 0.001 and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.

  16. Relationship TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in adult women by nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Belén

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ratio assessment TG/HDL-C is an indicator of LDL size, facilitating the detection of individuals with increased atherogenic risk. Estimating the size of the LDL becomes important, especially in patients with TG values near the upper limit of normal values of reference and HDL-C. The objective of the study is to estimate the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance (IR by nutritional status in adult women attending the Foundation for Endocrine Metabolic Diseases Research and Applied Clinical Research (FIEEM.Material and methods: Design Cross-sectional, non-pregnant adult women, apparently healthy, older than 30 years old, attending FIEEM in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Dependent variable: TG/HDL-C ≥ 3.0 considered high value. Independent variables: IR by homeostatic model index HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 categorizing the sample into two groups: with and without IR, and controlled by nutritional status using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (CC. SPSS Statistics 15.0, calculating X2 or Fisher exact test, OR with confidence intervals of 95% and establishing logistic regression p value < 0.05.Results: We evaluated a purposive sample of 104 women (31.4% and 26% IR with TG/HDL-C high. 84.6% were overweight or obese and 88.5% increased CC. Women with BMI had significantly increased 0.15-fold increased risk (95% CI = 0.01 to 1.26 for TG/HDL-C high (p = 0.04 than the control women. There was no significance with increased CC. The ratio TG/HDL-C high IR was significantly correlated (r = 0.30 p = 0.002.Conclusions: Body weight was significantly associated with IR and the ratio TG/HDL-C increased. This ratio correlated significantly with IR in apparently healthy women.

  17. Daily Energy Intake from Meals and Afternoon Snacks: Findings from the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Mirnalini, K; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Hasyami, S Mohd; Normah, H; Fatimah, A Siti

    2008-03-01

    Meal and snack patterns are associated with energy and nutrient intakes and consequently health and nutritional status. The aim of this paper is to describe the percentage of daily energy intake from meals and afternoon snack among Malaysian adults. The study included a representative sample of adults aged 18-59 years (n=7349) from a nationwide Food Consumption Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a one day 24-hour diet recall (24-HDR). Dietary data on 6886 adults were analysed using Nutritionist ProTM and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS 13.0. The median percentage of daily energy intake is reported only for adults consuming meals and afternoon tea and by socio-demographic characteristics as well as body mass index (BMI) status. More than 80% of Malaysian adults consumed morning meals, lunch and dinner and 54% reported having afternoon tea. The median percentage of energy intake from morning meals, lunch, dinner and afternoon tea was 29.9%, 30.5%, 32.4% and 17%, respectively. There were variations in the median percentage of energy from meals and snacks according to the socio-demographic variables and BMI status. It is important to understand the eating patterns of Malaysians as the information can assist in efforts to address obesity and diet-related chronic diseases among adults.

  18. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Eugene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men.

  19. Kenyan women adult literacy learners: why their motivation is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwiria, K

    1993-05-01

    Kenya, like other Third World countries, has illiteracy rates for women which are twice those of men (in 1978, 35% of males and 70% of females aged 15 and above were illiterate). Since the beginning of the country's literacy campaign in 1979, women have comprised more than 70% of attendees. While this situation remains the case, the overall enrolment figures for the program have shown a gradual decline from 1979 to 1990 due to a lack of emphasis on individual motivation. Women dominate the literacy programs for several reasons: 1) women historically had less access to formal education than men; 2) the changing economy has forced women to assume extra responsibilities outside the home which make the women want to acquire formal skills; 3) women's schedules are often flexible enough to allow them to attend classes; 4) literacy classes provide women with needed socialization opportunities; and 5) in some communities cultural norms prevent men from attending classes with women. Women also have many obstacles which make their desire to become adult learners difficult to sustain. They have responsibilities which range from child-bearing to management of their family farms which leave them little time for study or class attendance. There is also little encouragement offered the women either at home or in their classes. At home they are confronted with a myriad of demands on their time. Their classes take place in conditions which are not very conducive to learning (classrooms designed for children or open air centers). The literacy teachers are, for the most part, unqualified. They must meet only minimal requirements and receive no training. The women also have less opportunities to practice their new skills outside of the classroom. Women have less time then men to read, and they are less fluent then men in English and Kiswahili, the 2 official languages of Kenya. Because Kenyan society is male-dominated, there is little encouragement given to women who attempt to

  20. Preliminary investigation of foot pressure distribution variation in men and women adults while standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, R; Mishra, A; Anand, Sneh; Ammini, A C

    2011-09-01

    Women and men are anatomically and physiologically different in a number of ways. They differ in both shape and size. These differences could potentially mean foot pressure distribution variation in men and women. The purpose of this study was to analyze standing foot pressure image to obtain the foot pressure distribution parameter - power ratio variation between men and women using image processing in frequency domain. We examined 28 healthy adult subjects (14 men and 14 women) aged between 20 and 45 years was recruited for our study. Foot pressure distribution patterns while standing are obtained by using a PedoPowerGraph plantar pressure measurement system for foot image formation, a digital camera for image capturing, a TV tuner PC-add on card, a WinDvr software for still capture and Matlab software with dedicated image processing algorithms have been developed. Various PedoPowerGraphic parameters such as percentage medial impulse (PMI), fore foot to hind foot pressure distribution ratio (F/H), big toe to fore foot pressure distribution ratio (B/F) and power ratio (PR) were evaluated. In men, contact area was significantly larger in all regions of the foot compared with women. There were significant differences in plantar pressure distribution but there was no significant difference in F/H and B/F ratio. Mean PR value was significantly greater in men than women under the hind foot and fore foot. PMI value was greater in women than men. As compared to men, women have maximum PR variations in the mid foot. Hence there is significant difference at level pfeet can provide suitable guidelines to biomedical engineers and doctor for designing orthotic devices for reliving the area of excessively high pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Circulating Spexin Levels Negatively Correlate With Age, BMI, Fasting Glucose, and Triglycerides in Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda L D; Lam, Wai Ching; Fan, Bao-Min; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Spexin is a newly identified neuropeptide that is involved in satiety control, glucose, and lipids metabolism. It has also been related to human diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether spexin changes with age or not is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between circulating spexin levels and age and to study their interaction effects on body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, and -lipids. This is a cross-sectional study, including 68 healthy adult women whose ages are in a wide range (minimum: 23; median: 38.5; maximum: 64). The serum spexin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine were measured by routine biochemical test. Shapiro-Wilk's test, Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses, χ 2 test, and two-way analysis of variance were used to interpret the data. Serum spexin levels are significantly correlated with age (Spearman r = -0.277, P = 0.022), BMI (Spearman r = -0.445, P glucose (Spearman r = -0.302, P = 0.014), and TG (Spearman r = -0.324, P = 0.008). Spexin levels independently predict the risk of high BMI and high fasting glucose. No interaction effects of spexin and age on BMI and fasting glucose were found. Circulating spexin levels decrease with age, suggesting a possible role of this peptide in aging-related functions and disorders. Further investigations are needed to expand the clinical significance of this finding.

  2. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment.

  3. The feasibility of introducing an adult safeguarding measure for inclusion in the Adult Social Care Outcomes Framework (ASCOF): findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Caroline; Manthorpe, Jill; Cartwright, Cher; Rayat, Pritpal

    2016-06-30

    risk about adult safeguarding services. The survey findings provide the first robust evidence that safeguarding services in the main meet their goals of promoting feelings of safety among adults at risk.

  4. Cash transfers for HIV prevention: what do young women spend it on? Mixed methods findings from HPTN 068

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine MacPhail

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social grants have been found to have an impact on health and wellbeing in multiple settings. Who receives the grant, however, has been the subject of discussion with regards to how the money is spent and who benefits from the grant. Methods Using survey data from 1214 young women who were in the intervention arm and completed at least one annual visit in the HPTN 068 trial, and qualitative interview data from a subset of 38 participants, we examined spending of a cash transfer provided to young women conditioned on school attendance. Results We found that spending was largely determined and controlled by young women themselves and that the cash transfer was predominately spent on toiletries, clothing and school supplies. In interview data, young women discussed the significant role of cash transfers for adolescent identity, specifically with regard to independence from family and status within the peer network. There were almost no negative consequences from receiving the cash transfer. Conclusions We established that providing adolescents access to cash was not reported to be associated with social harms or negative consequences. Rather, spending of the cash facilitated appropriate adolescent developmental behaviours. The findings are encouraging at a time in which there is global interest in addressing the structural drivers of HIV risk, such as poverty, for young women. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01233531 (1 Nov 2010. First participant enrolled 5 March 2011.

  5. Trends in mortality in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S M; Snowdon, D A

    1996-07-01

    During this century, Catholic sisters have remained constant in many life-style characteristics such as smoking and reproduction (Catholic sisters are nonsmoking and nulliparous). It is therefore of interest to compare trends in the health of elderly Catholic sisters to those in the general population. In this study, mortality rates at ages 50 to 84 years in a population of 2,573 Catholic sisters were compared to those in the general population during the years 1965 to 1989. The Catholic sisters had a mortality advantage that increased dramatically over calendar time, and from early to more recent birth cohorts. This coincided with increases in smoking by U.S. women, while during the same time period the Catholic sisters had very low rates of mortality from smoking-related diseases. The Catholic sisters had high rates of mortality from cancers of the breast and reproductive organs, suggesting an effect of nulliparity manifested in older women.

  6. FLOW (finding lasting options for women): multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing tampons with menstrual cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Courtney; Rose, Caren Lee; Trouton, Konia; Stamm, Holly; Marentette, Danielle; Kirkpatrick, Nicole; Karalic, Sanja; Fernandez, Renee; Paget, Julie

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether menstrual cups are a viable alternative to tampons. Randomized controlled trial. Prince George, Victoria, and Vancouver, BC. A total of 110 women aged 19 to 40 years who had previously used tampons as their main method of menstrual management. Participants were randomized into 2 groups, a tampon group and a menstrual cup group. Using online diaries, participants tracked 1 menstrual cycle using their regular method and 3 menstrual cycles using the method of their allocated group. Overall satisfaction; secondary outcomes included discomfort, urovaginal infection, cost, and waste. Forty-seven women in each group completed the final survey, 5 of whom were subsequently excluded from analysis (3 from the tampon group and 2 from the menstrual cup group). Overall satisfaction on a 7-point Likert scale was higher for the menstrual cup group than for the tampon group (mean [standard deviation] score 5.4 [1.5] vs 5.0 [1.0], respectively; P=.04). Approximately 91% of women in the menstrual cup group said they would continue to use the cup and recommend it to others. Women used a median of 13 menstrual products per cycle, or 169 products per year, which corresponds to approximately 771,248,400 products used annually in Canada. Estimated cost for tampon use was $37.44 a year (similar to the retail cost of 1 menstrual cup). Subjective vaginal discomfort was initially higher in the menstrual cup group, but the discomfort decreased with continued use. There was no significant difference in physician-diagnosed urovaginal symptoms between the 2 groups. Both of the menstrual management methods evaluated were well tolerated by subjects. Menstrual cups are a satisfactory alternative to tampons and have the potential to be a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with moderate cost savings and much-reduced environmental effects compared with tampons. Trial registration number C06-0478 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  7. CT and MRI Findings of Soft Tissue Adult Fibrosarcoma in Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexiang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and evaluate CT and MRI features of extremity soft tissue adult fibrosarcoma. Methods. CT and MRI images from 10 adult patients with pathologically proven fibrosarcomas were retrospectively analyzed with regard to tumor location, size, number, shape, margins, attenuation, signal intensity, and enhancement patterns on MR images. Additionally, the relationships between lesions, deep fascia, and change in adjacent bones were also assessed. Results. Nineteen tumor lesions in 10 patients were selected for this study. Eighteen lesions were lobulated and one was oval in shape. Most cases were located under the deep fascia, including seven cases that had a nodular lump adjacent to the deep fascia and one case that had broken lesion through the deep fascia. On CT, the adult fibrosarcomas mostly showed iso-attenuated soft tissue masses (n=6. On MRI, all the cases (n=9 displayed low signal on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI and heterogeneous low and high intensity signals on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI, with band-like areas of low signal on both T1WI and T2WI. On contrast-enhanced MRI images, three cases showed heterogeneous peripheral enhancement and one case demonstrated a spoke-wheel-like enhancement. Eight cases showed muscle edema signals in the peritumoral muscle and one case involved adjacent bone. Conclusion. CT and MR imaging have respective advantages in diagnosing adult fibrosarcoma. Combined application of CT and MR is recommended for patients with suspected adult fibrosarcoma.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of beta human papillomavirus detection in fingernail samples from mid-adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Winer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs have not been evaluated in fingernails from healthy individuals. To determine prevalence and correlates of β-HPVs in fingernails from healthy mid-adult women, we tested archived samples collected from 2011 to 2012 using a multiplex PCR combined with Luminex technology for 46 β-HPV genotypes. One hundred thirteen (61.1% of 185 fingernail samples were positive for β-HPV, and the median number of types detected in positive samples was 2 (interquartile range: 1–4. The most common genotypes detected were HPV-23 (β−2 (13.5%, HPV-38 (β−2 (13.0%, HPV-5 (β−1 (9.2%, HPV-107 (β−2 (8.7%, and HPV-120 (β−2 (8.7%. In multivariate analysis, β-HPV detection was associated with age (prevalence ratio [PR] for women 40–51 years versus 30–39 years = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05–1.62 and race (PR for non-white versus white race = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45–0.94. The prevalence of β-HPV in fingernail samples from healthy mid-adult women was similar to the prevalence of β-HPV reported at other cutaneous sites in prior studies. We did not identify any significant health or sexual behavior predictors of β-HPV detection in fingernails. Our results support the hypothesis that fingers may serve as a source of transmission or autoinoculation of cutaneous HPVs to other anatomic sites. Keywords: Fingernails, Women, Beta-HPV, Prevalence, Mid-adult, Risk factor

  9. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women?s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal adve...

  10. [Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the sexual and affective relationships of adult women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María Isabel

    To analyse perceived sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with affective relationships and confidence and communication in existing relationships, related to a past history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and type suffered, among women treated as part of the Catalonian Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Programme (PASSIR). Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,013 women over the age of 18 years, who underwent psychological therapy at any of the 24 PASSIR centres, were enrolled. A structured, anonymised, self-administered Sex History Questionnaire adapted from Wyatt (1985) & Dubé et al. (2005), and the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen, 2000), were used. Statistical analysis was descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Women who suffered childhood sexual abuse had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with lower perceived sexual satisfaction. CSA with penetration or attempted penetration was associated with greater arousal difficulties and greater rejection. Women who experienced CSA were less confident and experienced greater communication difficulties with their partner. It is necessary to identify potential childhood sexual abuse among women who seek therapy due to relationship problems. It is also necessary to continue research into protective factors and therapeutic interventions to alleviate the consequences of CSA in adult life. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Use of contraception and family planning in adolescent and adult women in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Leigh, Betania; Villalobos-Hernández, Aremis; Hernández-Serrato, María I; Suárez, Leticia; de la Vara, Elvia; de Castro, Filipa; Schiavon-Ermani, Raffaela

    2013-01-01

    To offer current evidence about age at sexual initiation and contraceptive use among adolescent and adult women of different age groups, places of residence, and marital status in Mexico. Data were analyzed from ENSANUT 2006 and 2012 surveys on knowledge and use of contraceptives. In 2012 31.2% of 15-19 year old adolescent women had undergone sexual debut. Condom use increased from 31.8% in 2006 to 47.8% in 2012. Women in rural areas reported lower levels of contraceptive use at last sexual intercourse; 47.9% of 30-34 year-old and 53.2% of 35-49 year-old women reported not using any contraception at last sexual intercourse. A high percentage of women did not adopt contraception after the most recent obstetric event: 52% (15-19 years), 44.2% (20-29 years), 42.5% (30-34 years) and 39% (≥35 years)]. Equitable policies to promote contraception, particularly after a post-obstetric event, are needed.

  12. What older adults find useful for maintaining healthy eating and exercise habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Mary L; Lees, Faith D; Greene, Geoffrey W; Clark, Phillip G

    2004-01-01

    Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 29 adults 60 years of age and older enrolled in the SENIOR Project, a health promotion intervention study designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and exercise among community-dwelling older adults. The focus groups explored the motivations of older adults to eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables and/or exercise and the strategies used to adopt or maintain these behaviors. Participants stated that maintaining health, remaining independent, and fearing illness provided the motivation needed to adhere to these behaviors. The strategies or the behavioral processes used to adopt or maintain these behaviors included counterconditioning, helping relationships, stimulus control, and self-liberation.

  13. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

  14. Transference and Countertransference Issues Unique to Long-Term Group Psychotherapy of Adult Women Molested as Children: Trials and Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Veronica D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses transference and countertransference issues associated with long-term psychodynamic group treatment of adult women molested as children. Describes and examines these women's transference reactions toward group members and the therapist. Also explores the specific effects of race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender of the…

  15. Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-López, Fernando; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Armitage, Christopher J; Wearden, Alison; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Arrayás-Grajera, Manuel Javier; Girela-Rejón, María J; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Geenen, Rinie; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of widespread chronic pain. People with fibromyalgia report lower levels of Positive Affect and higher levels of Negative Affect than non-fibromyalgia peers. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)-a widely used questionnaire to assess two core domains of affect; namely 'Positive Affect' and 'Negative Affect' -has a controversial factor structure varying across studies. The internal structure of a measurement instrument has an impact on the meaning and validity of its score. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the structural construct validity of the PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia. This population-based cross-sectional study included 442 adult women with fibromyalgia (age: 51.3 ± 7.4 years old) from Andalusia (Southern Spain). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the factor structure of the PANAS. A structure with two correlated factors (Positive Affect and Negative Affect) obtained the best fit; S-B χ(2) = 288.49, df = 155, p Positive Affect and Negative Affect are core dimensions of affect in adult women with fibromyalgia. A structure with two correlated factors of the PANAS emerged from our sample of women with fibromyalgia from Andalusia (Southern Spain). In this model, the amount of variance shared by Positive Affect and Negative Affect was small. Therefore, our findings support to use and interpret the Positive Affect and Negative Affect subscales of the PANAS as separate factors that are associated but distinctive as well.

  16. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  17. Use of traditional and modern contraceptives among childbearing women: findings from a mixed methods study in two southwestern Nigerian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Akpan, Wilson

    2018-05-09

    Contraceptive use has numerous health benefits such as preventing unplanned pregnancies, ensuring optimum spacing between births, reducing maternal and child mortality, and improving the lives of women and children in general. This study examines the level of contraceptive use, its determinants, reasons for non-use of contraception among women in the reproductive age group (18-49 years) in two southwestern Nigerian states. The study adopted an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data from 809 participants selected using a 3-stage cluster random sampling technique. We also conducted 46 in-depth interviews. In order to investigate the association between the socio-demographic variables and use of contraceptive methods, we estimated the binary logistic regression models. The findings indicated that knowledge of any methods of contraception was almost universal among the participants. The rates of ever use and current use of contraception was 80 and 66.6%, respectively. However, only 43.9% of the participants had ever used any modern contraceptive methods, considered to be more reliable. The fear of side effects of modern contraceptive methods drove women to rely on less effective traditional methods (withdrawal and rhythm methods). Some women employed crude and unproven contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancies. Our findings show that the rate of contraceptive use was high in the study setting. However, many women chose less effective traditional contraceptive methods over more effective modern contraceptive methods due to fear of side effects of the latter. Patient education on the various options of modern contraceptives, their side effects and management would be crucial towards expanding the family planning services in the study setting.

  18. Depression and Violence in Adolescence and Young Adults : Findings From Three Longitudinal Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Aaltonen, Mikko; Branje, Susan; Ristikari, Tiina; Meeus, Wim; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Goodwin, Guy M.; Fazel, Seena

    Objective Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people’s depression and later violent outcomes. Method We used data from three cohorts

  19. Neurobiological findings associated with high cognitive performance in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Wyllians Vendramini; Schilling, Lucas Porcello; Radaelli, Graciane; Ferreira, Luciana Borges; Pisani, Leonardo; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; da Costa, Jaderson Costa

    2018-04-18

    ABSTRACTObjectives:to perform a comprehensive literature review of studies on older adults with exceptional cognitive performance. We performed a systematic review using two major databases (MEDLINE and Web of Science) from January 2002 to November 2017. Quantitative analysis included nine of 4,457 studies and revealed that high-performing older adults have global preservation of the cortex, especially the anterior cingulate region, and hippocampal volumes larger than normal agers. Histological analysis of this group also exhibited decreased amyloid burden and neurofibrillary tangles compared to cognitively normal older controls. High performers that maintained memory ability after three years showed reduced amyloid positron emission tomography at baseline compared with high performers that declined. A single study on blood plasma found a set of 12 metabolites predicting memory maintenance of this group. Structural and molecular brain preservation of older adults with high cognitive performance may be associated with brain maintenance. The operationalized definition of high-performing older adults must be carefully addressed using appropriate age cut-off and cognitive evaluation, including memory and non-memory tests. Further studies with a longitudinal approach that include a younger control group are essential.

  20. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  1. Substance abuse issues among women in domestic violence programs: findings from North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L; Moracco, Kathryn E; Chang, Judy C; Council, Carol L; Dulli, Lisa S

    2008-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey of North Carolina domestic violence programs that found that substance abuse problems are common among program clients, yet only half of the programs had policies concerning substance-abusing clients, and one fourth had memoranda of agreement with substance abuse treatment providers. Most programs with shelters asked clients about substance use; however, one third of the shelters would not admit women if they were noticeably under the influence of substances while seeking shelter residence, instead referring them to substance abuse programs. Approximately one tenth of the domestic violence programs did not have any staff or volunteers with training in substance abuse issues. Implications are discussed.

  2. Women's exposure to intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: findings from demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2014-07-01

    Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n = 2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n = 2027 OR(adj), 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparative study of the results of heel ultrasound screening and DXA findings (lumbar spine and left hip of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jaganjac

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent and invisible disease of bone, great presence and is considered to suffer from osteoporosis at least 200 million women worldwide. The goal of this paper is to show average ageof postmenopausal respondents, values of anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI, anamnestic data on clinical symptoms, fractures of women in menopause, analysis of heel ultrasound screening results,analysis of lumbar spine DXA results, analysis of left hip DXA results.Methods: In retrospective study 61 respondents were involved, 33 to 79 years old, treated in u Center for Physical Medicine and Acupuncture “AD” in Sarajevo during the period from 01.01.2008 till 31.12.2009. Alldate are shown numerically and percentage account with calculation of mean value, expressed in the form of tables and charts.Results: Finding of heel ultrosound screening compared to T values of postmenopausal respondents indicates on osteoporosis in case of 17 (27,87%, in case of 44 (72,13% respondents osteopenia, while normalvalues were not found. T value with lumbar spine DXA method in postmenopausal female respondents correspond to 43 (70,5% respondents, in 15 respondents (24,6% finding corresponded to osteopenia, while 3 respondents (4,9% had physiological finding. Left hip DXA finding shows 36 (59% respondents corresponded osteoporosis, 19 (31,2% respondents corresponded osteopenia, while physiological finding was found in 6 respondents (9,8%. T value of lumbar spine DXA finding was - 2,71 ± 1,16; DXA finding of left hip -2,35 ±1,36; heel ultrasound screening -2,19 ± 0,54.Conclusion: Research results indicate that DXA finding in relation to the heel ultrasound screening confirms gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis.

  4. Baseline heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression in young adult women: a two-sample examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although substantial literature discusses sensation seeking as playing a role in the relationship between baseline heart rate and aggression, few published studies have tested the relationships among these variables. Furthermore, most prior studies have focused on risk factors of aggression in men and have largely ignored this issue in women. Two samples (n = 104; n = 99) of young adult women completed measures of resting heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression. Across the two samples of females there was no evidence for the relationships of baseline heart rate with sensation seeking or with aggression that has been consistently shown in males. Boredom susceptibility and disinhibition subscales of sensation seeking were consistently significantly correlated with aggression. The lack of significance and the small effect sizes indicate that other mechanisms are also at work in affecting aggression in young adult women. Finally, it is important to consider the type of sensation seeking in relation to aggression, as only boredom susceptibility and disinhibition were consistently replicated across samples. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Association of hypovitaminosis D with triceps brachii muscle fatigability among older women: Findings from the EPIDOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, G; Rolland, Y; Schott, A M; Blain, H; Dargent-Molina, P; Walrand, S; Duque, G; Annweiler, C

    2018-05-01

    Vitamin D affects physical performance in older adults. Its effects on muscles, notably on muscle strength, remain unclear. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether hypovitaminosis D is associated with triceps brachii muscle fatigability in community-dwelling older women. A randomized subset of 744 women aged ≥75years from the EPIDOS cohort was categorized into two groups according to triceps brachii muscle fatigability, defined as loss of strength >5% between two consecutive maximal isometric voluntary contractions. Hypovitaminosis D was defined using consensual threshold values (i.e., serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25OHD] ≤10 ng/mL, ≤20 ng/mL, and ≤30 ng/mL). Age, body mass index, comorbidities, use psychoactive drugs, physical activity, first triceps strength measure, hyperparathyroidism, serum concentrations of calcium, albumin and creatinine, season and study centers were used as potential confounders. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D ≤ 30 ng/mL was greater among women with muscle fatigability compared with the others (P = .009). There was no between-group difference using the other definitions of hypovitaminosis D. The serum 25OHD concentration was inversely associated with the between-test change in triceps strength (adjusted β = -0.09 N, P = .04). Hypovitaminosis D ≤ 30 ng/mL was positively associated with triceps fatigability (adjusted OR = 3.15, P = .02). Vitamin D concentration was inversely associated with the ability to maintain strength over time in this cohort of community-dwelling older women. This is a relevant new orientation of research toward understanding the involvement of vitamin D in muscle function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding the menstrual hygiene management challenges facing displaced girls and women: findings from qualitative assessments in Myanmar and Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Margaret L; Clatworthy, David; Ratnayake, Ruwan; Klaesener-Metzner, Nicole; Roesch, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Erin; Sommer, Marni

    2017-01-01

    There is a significant gap in empirical evidence on the menstrual hygiene management (MHM) challenges faced by adolescent girls and women in emergency contexts, and on appropriate humanitarian response approaches to meet their needs in diverse emergency contexts. To begin filling the gap in the evidence, we conducted a study in two diverse contexts (Myanmar and Lebanon), exploring the MHM barriers facing girls and women, and the various relevant sectoral responses being conducted (e.g. water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), Protection, Health, Education and Camp Management). Two qualitative assessments were conducted: one in camps for internally displaced populations in Myanmar, and one with refugees living in informal settlements and host communities in Lebanon. Key informant interviews were conducted with emergency response staff in both sites, and focus group discussion and participatory mapping activities conducted with adolescent girls and women. Key findings included that there was insufficient access to safe and private facilities for MHM coupled with displacement induced shifts in menstrual practices by girls and women. Among staff, there was a narrow interpretation of what an MHM response includes, with a focus on supplies; significant interest in understanding what an improved MHM response would include and acknowledgement of limited existing MHM guidance across various sectors; and insufficient consultation with beneficiaries, related to discomfort asking about menstruation, and limited coordination between sectors. There is a significant need for improved guidance across all relevant sectors for improving MHM response in emergency context, along with increased evidence on effective approaches for integrating MHM into existing responses.

  7. Latent class analysis of comorbidity patterns among women with generalized and localized vulvodynia: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen RHN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruby HN Nguyen,1 Christin Veasley,2 Derek Smolenski1,3 1Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2National Vulvodynia Association, Silver Spring, MD, 3National Center for Telehealth and Technology, Defense Centers of Excellence, Department of Defense, Tacoma, WA, USA Background: The pattern and extent of clustering of comorbid pain conditions with vulvodynia is largely unknown. However, elucidating such patterns may improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in these common causes of chronic pain. We sought to describe the pattern of comorbid pain clustering in a population-based sample of women with diagnosed vulvodynia. Methods: A total of 1457 women with diagnosed vulvodynia self-reported their type of vulvar pain as localized, generalized, or both. Respondents were also surveyed about the presence of comorbid pain conditions, including temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders, interstitial cystitis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, endometriosis, and chronic headache. Age-adjusted latent class analysis modeled extant patterns of comorbidity by vulvar pain type, and a multigroup model was used to test for the equality of comorbidity patterns using a comparison of prevalence. A two-class model (no/single comorbidity versus multiple comorbidities had the best fit in individual and multigroup models. Results: For the no/single comorbidity class, the posterior probability prevalence of item endorsement ranged from 0.9% to 24.4%, indicating a low probability of presence. Conversely, the multiple comorbidity class showed that at least two comorbid conditions were likely to be endorsed by at least 50% of women in that class, and irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia were the most common comorbidities regardless of type of vulvar pain. Prevalence of the multiple comorbidity class differed by type of vulvar pain: both

  8. Assessing health-related resiliency in HIV+ Latin women: Preliminary psychometric findings.

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    Gladys J Jimenez-Torres

    Full Text Available HIV-associated vulnerabilities-especially those linked to psychological issues-and limited mental health-treatment resources have the potential to adversely affect the health statuses of individuals. The concept of resilience has been introduced in the literature to shift the emphasis from vulnerability to protective factors. Resilience, however, is an evolving construct and is measured in various ways, though rarely among underserved, minority populations. Herein, we present the preliminary psychometric properties of a sample of HIV-seropositive Puerto Rican women, measured using a newly developed health-related resilience scale.The Resilience Scales for Children and Adolescents, an instrument with solid test construction properties, acted as a model in the development (in both English and Spanish of the HRRS, providing the same dimensions and most of the same subscales. The present sample was nested within the Hispanic-Latino longitudinal cohort of women (HLLC, that is part of the NeuroAIDS Research Program at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR, Medical Sciences Campus (MSC. Forty-five consecutively recruited, HIV+ women from the HLLC completed a demographic survey, the HRRS, and the Beck Depression Inventory-I, Spanish version.The results demonstrate excellent overall internal consistency for the total HRRS score (α = 0.95. Each of the dimensional scores also evidenced acceptable internal consistency (α ≥ 0.88. All the dimensional and subscale content validity indices were above the 0.42 cut-off. Analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the HRRS total score and BDI-I-S (r(45 = -0.453, p < 0.003.Albeit preliminary in nature, the present study provides support for the HRRS as a measure to assess resilience among individuals living with chronic medical conditions. Minority populations, especially non-English speaking ones, are understudied across the field of medicine, and when efforts are made to include these patient

  9. Dialogical Exposure with Traumatically Bereaved Bosnian Women: Findings from a Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagl, Maria; Powell, Steve; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi

    2015-01-01

    In this trial, we compared the relative efficacy of dialogical exposure group treatment using Gestalt empty-chair method with a supportive group in the treatment of symptoms stemming from traumatic loss in a post-war society. One-hundred and nineteen women whose husbands were either killed or registered as missing during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina were quasi-randomized to seven sessions of group treatment with dialogical exposure or to an active control condition. Both interventions resulted in significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment for both kinds of loss, in terms of post-traumatic symptoms, general mental health and grief reactions, with the exception of depression and traumatic grief in the control condition. Regarding mean effect sizes (Cohen's d), pre-treatment to post-treatment improvements were moderate (d = 0.56) for the dialogical exposure group and small (d = 0.34) for the supportive group. Treatment gains were maintained at least until the 1-year follow-up. In controlled comparisons, dialogical exposure was superior concerning traumatic grief (Cohen's d = 0.37) and post-traumatic avoidance (d = 0.73) at post-treatment. Results show that short-term dialogical exposure group treatment was moderately effective in treating traumatically bereaved women. Research attests to high levels of symptoms among post-war civil populations, in particular, when a loved one was killed, which can lead not only to trauma reactions but also to severe separation distress. Grieving the loss of a loved one is hampered if the death remains unconfirmed. Unconfirmed loss could be conceptualized as unfinished business in terms of Gestalt therapy, which offers empty-chair dialogue for resolving unfinished business and grief. Dialogical exposure therapy (DET) supports the client in gaining awareness of and expressing his or her inner dialogues concerning the traumatic event, using Gestalt empty-chair method. Short-term DET was effective in

  10. Can microcredit help improve the health of poor women? Some findings from a cross-sectional study in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Slim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines associations between female participation in a microcredit program in India, known as self help groups (SHGs, and women's health in the south Indian state of Kerala. Because SHGs do not have a formal health program, this provides a unique opportunity to assess whether SHG participation influences women's health via the social determinants of health. Methods This cross-sectional study used special survey data collected in 2003 from one Panchayat (territorial decentralized unit. Information was collected on women's characteristics, health determinants (exclusion to health care, exposure to health risks, decision-making agency, and health achievements (self assessed health, markers of mental health. The study sample included 928 non elderly poor women. Results The primary finding is that compared to non-participants living in a household without a SHG member, the odds of facing exclusion is significantly lower among early joiners, women who were members for more than 2 years (OR = 0.58, CI = 0.41–0.80, late joiners, members for 2 years and less (OR = 0.60, CI = 0.39–0.94, and non-participants who live in a household with a SHG member (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.32–0.90. We also found that after controlling for key women's characteristics, early joiners of a SHG are less likely to report emotional stress and poor life satisfaction compared to non-members (OR = 0.52, CI = 0.30–0.93; OR = 0.32, CI = 0.14–0.71. No associations were found between SHG participation and self assessed health or exposure to health risks. The relationship between SHG participation and decision-making agency is unclear. Conclusion Microcredit is not a panacea, but could help to improve the health of poor women by addressing certain issues relevant to the context. In Kerala, SHG participation can help protect poor women against exclusion to health care and possibly aid in promoting their mental health.

  11. Trends in adult exposure to secondhand smoke in vehicles: Findings from the 2009-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2015-10-01

    A growing number of jurisdictions have implemented smoke-free vehicles when children are present due to the substantial health effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). Prior studies on the prevalence of SHS exposure in vehicles have mainly focused on adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of SHS exposure in vehicles among Canadian adults. A repeated cross-sectional data on youth and adult data were drawn from the 2009-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (n=58, 195). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the socio-demographic correlates of exposure to SHS in vehicles. Overall, 19% in 2009 and 18% in 2012 of adults reported SHS exposure in vehicles in the past month. Disparities in the SHS exposure prevalence were observed, with a higher SHS exposure among current smokers, former smokers, males, younger adults, living in a household with smoking-related exposure, and those with less education. The multivariable analyses showed significant associations between socio-demographic characteristics and SHS exposure. Higher odds SHS exposure was found for those younger (aged 20-24, OR=16.27, CI=11.09-23.88; 25-44, OR=6.12, CI=4.14-9.06; 45-64, OR=2.79, CI=1.95-4.02) compared to those aged 65 and over. Likewise, those with less education had greater odds of SHS exposure. Findings suggest that adults SHS exposure is high, especially for young adults and those with less education. Adult passengers may need protection from SHS given that no level of SHS exposure is safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Health literacy of adults in Germany: Findings from the German Health Update (GEDA) study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Susanne; Hoebel, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In today's information society, health literacy (HL) is considered important for health maintenance and disease management. In this context, dealing with health information is fundamental and requires different cognitive and social skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HL levels in the adult population of Germany, and to identify associations with health behaviours and health status. The analyses were based on data from the German Health Update (GEDA) study, a cross-sectional survey of the German-speaking adult population of Germany, which was conducted from October 2013 to June 2014. Health literacy was assessed with the short form of the European Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS EU-Q16), along with questions about socio-demographics, health behaviours, and health status. The HLS-EU-Q16 index could be calculated for 4845 respondents. According to the criteria of the HLS-EU-Q16, more than half of the adults had "adequate" HL (55.8 %). Every third person (31.9 %) had "problematic" and almost every eighth person (12.3 %) had "inadequate" HL. We found significant differences in HL by educational level, but no differences in HL by sex and age group. Certain health behaviours were positively associated with health literacy. A low HL level was associated with poorer physical and mental health. The results point to a need for action to improve HL in the adult population. The strengthening of health literacy should not solely aim at the promotion of individual skills, but also give high priority to the development of health-literate settings.

  13. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  14. Chronic low back pain in older adults: prevalence, reliability, and validity of physical examination findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Debra K; Sakamoto, Sara; Perera, Subashan; Breuer, Paula

    2006-01-01

    To develop a structured physical examination protocol that identifies common biomechanical and soft-tissue abnormalities for older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) that can be used as a triage tool for healthcare providers and to test the interobserver reliability and discriminant validity of this protocol. Cross-sectional survey and examination. Older adult pain clinic. One hundred eleven community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older with CLBP and 20 who were pain-free. Clinical history for demographics, pain duration, previous lumbar surgery or advanced imaging, neurogenic claudication, and imaging clinically serious symptoms. Physical examination for scoliosis, functional leg length discrepancy, pain with lumbar movement, myofascial pain (paralumbar, piriformis, tensor fasciae latae (TFL)), regional bone pain (sacroiliac joint (SIJ), hip, vertebral body), and fibromyalgia. Scoliosis was prevalent in those with (77.5%) and without pain (60.0%), but prevalence of SIJ pain (84% vs 5%), fibromyalgia tender points (19% vs 0%), myofascial pain (96% vs 10%), and hip pain (48% vs 0%) was significantly different between groups (P physical examination. Their recognition may save unnecessary healthcare expenditure and patient suffering.

  15. Urban built environments and trajectories of mobility disability: findings from a national sample of community-dwelling American adults (1986-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Ailshire, Jennifer A; Lantz, Paula

    2009-09-01

    As people age, they become more dependent on their local communities, especially when they are no longer able to drive. Uneven or discontinuous sidewalks, heavy traffic, and inaccessible public transportation, are just some of the built environment characteristics that can create barriers for outdoor mobility in later adulthood. A small body of literature has been investigating the role of the built environment on disability, but has been limited to cross-sectional analyses. The purpose of this paper is to further advance this area of research by examining the role of the built environment on long-term trajectories of mobility disability in a national sample of American adults (age 45+) followed over a 15-year period. Using multilevel logistic growth curve models with nationally representative data from the Americans' Changing Lives Study (1986-2001), we find that trajectories of mobility disability are steeper in older age groups. Women and those with lower education had a higher odds of mobility disability over time. The presence of just one chronic health condition doubled the odds of mobility disability at each of the four study waves. Among older adults (age 75+), living in neighborhoods characterized by more motorized travel was associated with an odds ratio for mobility disability that was 1.5 times higher in any given year than for older adults living in environments that were more pedestrian friendly. These results suggest that the built environment can exacerbate mobility difficulties for older adults. When considering ways to minimize disability as the population ages, simple changes in the built environment may be easier to implement than efforts to change risk factors at the individual level.

  16. [Effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce in adult women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Junshi; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Li, Liming

    2011-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in an iron deficient population. This study was an uncontrolled, community-based, before-after study, which was implemented in three counties of Shijiazhuang Municipality. The intervention was a social mobilization and social marketing strategy. Adult women older than 20 years of age participated in the evaluation protocol. The main outcomes included KAP relevant to IDA. Cross-sectional samples were used to assess the outcomes at baseline and 1 year later. Knowledge and attitudes of adult women had changed positively, and the percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P marketing had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women in the iron deficient population.

  17. biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Naser, H.F.O.

    2004-01-01

    this study investigates the biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases.100 women in premenopausal period (between 30-45 years) were divided into 5 groups:group(1) control, group(2) obese,group (3) HCV non-obese, group(4) HCV obese and group (5) other liver diseases. the obtained results indicated that, for all female-studied groups there were very highly significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist ,hip circumferences, while ,there were non-significant differences in height and waist hip ratio.also there were very highly significant differences in AST, ALT,Alkaline phosphatase,GGT,bilirubin, these results may be due to hepatic injury and metabolic dysfunction. there were very highly significant differences in HDL,triglycerides and total lipids, whereas it was significant difference in cholesterol and non-significant for LDL, these differences might be contributed to obesity and hepatitis virus C infection

  18. The Predictors of Falls in Adult and Senior Women from Cities of Lower Silesia, Poland

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    Domaradzki Arosław

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. balance disorders are considered a significant problem in the elderly as they are associated with an increased incidence of falls. In effect, they can lead to numerous injuries, disability, or even death. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between the risk of falling and various factors (morphology, socioeconomic status, physical fitness, and physical activity level in adult and elderly women. Methods. The study population sample included 149 women aged 47-89 years living in the province of Lower Silesia, Poland. The women were divided into two age groups of younger (n =83,3cage = 59.09 years and older (n = 66, xage = 70.77 years participants. Measures included bMI, marital status, and physical activity, physical fitness, and education levels. Statistical analysis included a chi-squared (%2 test, cluster analysis, logistic regression, and correspondence analysis. Results. bMI and physical fitness were strongly correlated with falls: the higher the bMI (overweight or obese and the lower physical fitness, the greater the risk of falling. The remaining variables showed a weak relationship with falling. Conclusions. The fall risk of women who are overweight or obese or with a low physical fitness level is approximately 2.5 times higher than those with normal and healthy levels of bMI and physical fitness. The presence of both risk factors increased the likelihood of falling.

  19. [Influence of hormonal contraceptives on indices of zinc homeostasis and bone remodeling in young adult women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Tania Mara Rodrigues; Zapata, Carmiña Lucía Vargas; Donangelo, Carmen Marino

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the influence of the use of oral hormonal contraceptive agents (OCA) on the biochemical indices related to metabolic zinc utilization and distribution, and to bone turnover in young adult women. Cross-sectional study. Blood and urine samples from non-users (-OCA; control; n=69) and users of hormonal contraceptives for at least 3 months (+OCA; n=62) were collected under controlled conditions. Indices of zinc homeostasis and of bone turnover were analyzed in serum or plasma (total, albumin-bound and α2-macroglobulin-bound zinc, albumin and total and bone alkaline phosphatase activity), in erythrocytes (zinc and metallothionein) and in urine (zinc, calcium and hydroxyproline). The habitual zinc and calcium intakes were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary zinc intake was similar in both groups and on average above recommended values, whereas calcium intake was similarly sub-adequate in +OCA and -OCA. Compared to controls, +OCA had lower concentrations of total and α2-macroglobulin-bound zinc (11 and 28.5%, respectively, puse decreases serum zinc, alters zinc distribution in major serum fractions with possible effects on tissue uptake, enhances zinc retention in the body and decreases bone turnover. Prolonged OCA use may lead to lower peak bone mass and/or to impaired bone mass maintenance in young women, particularly in those with marginal calcium intake. The observed OCA effects were more evident in women younger than 25 years and in nulliparous women, deserving special attention in future studies.

  20. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Tooth Loss among Iranian Adults: Findings from a Large Community-Based Study

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    Saber Khazaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the prevalence of tooth loss and different prosthetic rehabilitations among Iranian adults, as well as the potential determinants of tooth loss. Methods. In a cross-sectional community-based study conducted among 8094 Iranian adults living in Isfahan province, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess epidemiologic features of tooth loss. Results. Thirty-two percent of subjects had all their teeth, 58.6% had lost less than 6, and 7.2% of participants had lost more than 6 teeth. One hundred and sixty-nine individuals (2.2% were edentulous. Among participants, 2.3% had single jaw removable partial denture, 3.6% had complete removable denture in both jaws, and 4.6% had fixed prosthesis. Others reported no prosthetic rehabilitation (89.5%. In the age subgroup analysis (≤35 and >35 years old tooth loss was more prevalent among men than women (OR=2.8 and 1.9, resp., P35 years (adjusted OR=1.29, P<0.01. Conclusions. Tooth loss is highly prevalent in Iranian adult population. Community programs promoting oral health for prevention of tooth loss should be considered taking into account its major determinants including lower educational level, male gender, smoking, and metabolic abnormality.

  1. White public regard: associations among eating disorder symptomatology, guilt, and White guilt in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Hubbard, Rebecca R; Tully, Carrie B; Utsey, Shawn O; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2014-01-01

    As a novel investigation of the role of White racial identity, the current study explored the link between White guilt and disordered eating. Young adult women (N=375), 200 of whom self-identified as White. Measures assessed disordered eating, trait guilt, White guilt, and affect. White guilt is interrelated with disordered eating, particularly bulimic symptomatology. Distress tolerance and tendency to experience negative affect moderated the relation between White guilt and several disordered eating variables. Exploration of White guilt in clinical and research settings can inform understanding and treatment of disordered eating. © 2013.

  2. Predictors of Weight Loss in Obese Older Adults: Findings from the USA and the UK

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    Sarah E. Jackson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence and demographic predictors of clinically meaningful weight loss in community samples of obese older adults in the USA and the UK. Methods: Data were from obese older adults (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; age ≥ 52 years, free of a cancer diagnosis, from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n = 3398 and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; n = 998. Weight change was assessed from 2004 to 2008. Multivariable logistic regression tested whether age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, education, or BMI predicted ≥ 5% weight loss. Results: Over a quarter (28.7% of obese participants from HRS and 16.6% from ELSA lost ≥ 5% weight. Being female (odds ratio (OR = 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.11-1.54 and heavier (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.37-1.87 predicted weight loss in HRS. Trends were similar in ELSA (female: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.83-1.69; BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2: OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.85-1.82. ORs were increased in ≥ 65-year-olds in HRS (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.33-1.81, and reduced in married people in ELSA (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48-1.00. Neither education nor ethnicity predicted weight loss in either cohort. Conclusion: A high proportion of obese older adults experience clinically meaningful weight loss, but few demographic variables consistently predict weight loss in this population.

  3. CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult patients with no underlying disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Junpei; Takeuchi, Noriyuki; Johkoh, Tsuyoshi

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the CT spectrum of pulmonary tuberculosis, we reviewed CT of the chest in 80 adult patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who had not been treated for tuberculosis. Main patterns seen in patients with active tuberculosis were: (1) nodular shadow (56%), (2) confluent consolidation (15%), and (3) round consolidation (16%). Other CT patterns were: (1) miliary tuberculosis (n=4), (2) pleural effusion only (n=4), and (3) normal chest (n=2). Major features seen at CT included segmental distribution (97%), satellite lesions (86%), single cavity in each cavitary lesion (95%), ectatic change of the bronchi, tendency of distortion or contraction. (author)

  4. Agreement of histopathological findings of uterine curettage and hysterectomy specimens in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradan, Sanam; Ghorbani, Raheb; Lotfi, Azita

    2017-05-01

    To examined the diagnostic value of  dilatation and curettage (D and C) in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) by conducting a histopathological examination of endometrial tissues by D and C and hysterectomy. Methods: In this retrospective study, the medical records of 163 women who had been hospitalized  in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward, Amir-al-Momenin Hospital, Semnan, Iran between 2010 and 2015 for diagnostic curettage due to  AUB and who had undergone hysterectomy were investigated. The patients' characteristics and histopathologic results of curettage and hysterectomy were extracted, and sensitivity and specificity and positive and negative predictive values of curettage were calculated. Results: The mean ± standard deviation age of the patients was 49.8±7.8 years. The sensitivity values of D and C in the diagnosis of endometrial pathologies was 49.1%, specificity 84.5%, positive 60.5%, and negative predictive 77.5%. The sensitivities of D and C in the diagnosis of various endometrial hyperplasia was 62.5%, disordered proliferative endometrium 36.8%, and endometrial cancer 83.3%. Of 6 patients with endometrial polyps on performing hysterectomy, no patient was diagnosed by curettage. Conclusions: Dilatation and curettage has acceptable sensitivity in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer, low sensitivity in the diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia, and very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of disordered proliferative endometrium and endometrial polyps.

  5. Pain and alcohol consumption among older adults: findings from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health, Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Alebtekin; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Myléus, Anna

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cross-sectional associations between self-reported recent pain and alcohol use/abstinence, and previous-day pain and previous-week alcohol consumption in adults aged 50 + in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 (2007-2010) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa is the data source. Prevalence of alcohol use/abstinence is reported by previous-day and previous-month pain. Multinomial logistic regressions (crude and adjusted for sex and country) tested associations between recent pain and alcohol use in the pooled multicountry sample. Across the six SAGE countries, about one-third of respondents reported alcohol use, being highest in Russia (74%) and lowest in India (16%). Holding the effects of sex and country constant, compared with abstainers, people with previous-day pain were more likely to be previous-day or other users. With regard to the quantity and frequency of alcohol use, people with previous-day pain were more likely to be non-heavy drinkers. Overall, we found that, in this population of older adults in six LMICs, recent pain was associated with moderate use of alcohol, although there were differences between countries. The findings provide a platform for country-specific research to better understand bi-directional associations between pain and alcohol in older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Occurrence and impact of xerostomia among dentate adult New Zealanders: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, A M L; Broadbent, J M; Thomson, W M

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence, associations and impact of xerostomia in a nationally representative sample of dentate adult community-dwelling New Zealanders aged 18 years and over. The data were collected from a representative sample of 2209 adults, as part of the 2009 New Zealand Oral Health Survey (NZOHS). Data were collected using face-to-face interviews, dental examinations and the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Data analysis used appropriate weighting for all procedures to account for the complex survey design. The overall prevalence estimate for xerostomia was 13.1% (95% CI 11.7, 14.7), and it was more common among females. Those in the 75+  and 25-34 age groups were more likely (odds ratios of 6.5 and 4.0, respectively) to have xerostomia. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and clinical oral disease, the mean OHIP-14 score among xerostomics was 50% higher than among those who did not have the condition. These data indicate that xerostomia is a common condition which can affect quality of life among people of all ages. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  7. Developmental pathways from childhood conduct problems to early adult depression: findings from the ALSPAC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringaris, Argyris; Lewis, Glyn; Maughan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathways from early-life conduct problems to young adult depression remain poorly understood. Aims To test developmental pathways from early-life conduct problems to depression at age 18. Method Data (n = 3542) came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Previously derived conduct problem trajectories (ages 4-13 years) were used to examine associations with depression from ages 10 to 18 years, and the role of early childhood factors as potential confounders. Results Over 43% of young adults with depression in the ALSPAC cohort had a history of child or adolescent conduct problems, yielding a population attributable fraction of 0.15 (95% CI 0.08-0.22). The association between conduct problems and depression at age 18 was considerable even after adjusting for prior depression (odds ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.24-1.94). Early-onset persistent conduct problems carried the highest risk for later depression. Irritability characterised depression for those with a history of conduct problems. Conclusions Early-life conduct problems are robustly associated with later depressive disorder and may be useful targets for early intervention. PMID:24764545

  8. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  9. Findings concerning testis, vas deference, and epididymis in adult cases with nonpalpable testes

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    Coskun Sahin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to state the relationship between testis, epididymis and vas deference, in adult cases with nonpalpable testis. Between January 1996 and December 2009, we evaluated 154 adult cases with nonpalpable testes. Mean age was 23 years (20-27 years. Explorations were performed by open inguinal incision, laparoscopy, and by inguinal incision and laparoscopy together on 22, 131 and 1 patient, respectively. Of all the unilateral cases, 32 were accepted as vanishing testis. In five of these cases, vas deference was ending inside the abdomen, and in the others, it was ending inside the scrotum. In the remaining 99 unilateral and 22 bilateral cases, 143 testes were found in total. Testes were found in the inguinal canal as atrophic in one case, at the right renal pedicle level with dysmorphic testis in one case, and anterior to the internal ring between the bladder and the common iliac vessels at a smaller than normal size in 119 cases. One (0.69% case did not have epididymis. While epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head and tail locations in 88 (61.53% cases, it was totally attached to the testis in 54 (37.76% cases. There is an obviously high incidence rate of testis and vas deference anomalies, where epididymis is the most frequent one. In cases with abdominal testes, this rate is highest for high localised abdominal testes.

  10. Physical activity and overweight/obesity among Malaysian adults: findings from the 2015 National Health and morbidity survey (NHMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Lim, Kuang Hock; Teh, Chien Huey; Kee, Chee Cheong; Cheong, Siew Man; Khoo, Yi Yi; Baharudin, Azli; Ling, Miaw Yn; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2017-09-21

    Overweight and obesity are growing health problems both worldwide and in Malaysia due to such lifestyle changes as decreased physical activity (PA), increased sedentary behavior and unhealthy eating habits. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA among normal-weight and overweight/obese adults and to investigate the association between PA level and overweight/obesity in Malaysian adults. This study used data from the 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey that implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Respondents aged 18 years and above (n = 17,261) were included in the analysis. The short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was administered to assess the respondents' PA levels. The respondents' height and weight were objectively measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The respondents were categorized according to BMI as either normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) or overweight/obese (≥ 25 kg/m 2 ). Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Overall, approximately 1 in 2 respondents (51.2%) were overweight/obese, even though the majority (69.0%) reporting at least a moderate level of PA (total PA ≥ 10 MET-hours/week). In both normal-weight and overweight/obese groups, a significantly higher prevalence of high PA (total PA ≥ 50 MET-hours/week) was observed among men than women (p obese men reported a significantly lower level of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA than normal-weight men (p obesity (Adjusted OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30) compared to a high level of PA among men but not among women. The levels of PA were inversely related to the risk of overweight/obesity in men but not in women. Programs designed to reduce overweight/obesity rates should encourage the practice of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. Future research should consider using longitudinal and prospective

  11. Diet, physical activity and socio-economic disparities of obesity in Lebanese adults: findings from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Marie Claire; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn; Tamim, Hani; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2015-03-21

    The prevalence of obesity within countries varies by gender, age, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Identification of behavioural factors that are associated with obesity within the country's context is critical for the development of effective public health programs which aim to prevent and manage obesity. The objective of this study was to assess age and gender differentials in the prevalence of obesity in Lebanon and examine correlates of obesity with a focus on socioeconomic disparities. Following the WHO STEPwise guidelines, a national survey was conducted in Lebanon in 2008-2009. Households were selected randomly from all Governorates based on stratified cluster sampling method. One adult aged 20 years and over was randomly selected from each household for the interview. Anthropometric measurements and 24 hour recall dietary intake were obtained. The final sample included 1244 men and 1453 women. Descriptive statistics were computed for BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between energy intake and obesity adjusted for relevant co-variables. The prevalence of obesity among Lebanese adults was 26.1%. Gender differences in obesity estimates were observed across age groups and the three obesity classes, with men showing higher prevalence rates at the younger age groups (20-49 years), and women showing higher prevalence rates in older age groups (50 years and above). Obesity showed significant associations with socio-economic status in women; it decreased with higher educational attainment (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.91), greater household assets (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.72) and lower crowding index (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98), net of the effect of other co-variates. There was a significant positive association between obesity and energy intake in both genders, and a negative association between obesity and physical activity, significantly

  12. Intimate partner violence among speaking immigrant adult Portuguese women in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Queiroga Souto

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to understand the experiences of intimate partner violence among women from Portuguese-speaking countries living in the Greater Toronto Area. METHOD A social phenomenological study was conducted with ten Portuguese-speaking women who had experienced intimate partner violence who were selected by community centre leaders. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed by categories. RESULTS The consequences of violence included health problems, effects on children, and negative feelings among the victims. Factors preventing the women from leaving abusive partners included religious beliefs, challenging daily jobs, and the need to take care of their husband. Factors that encouraged them to leave included getting support and calling the police. Some women expressed hope for the future either with their husband. Others, desired divorce or revenge. Their plans to rebuild their lives without their husband included being happy, learning English, and being financially stable. CONCLUSION Using these findings can implicate in the improvement of care for these women.

  13. Patterns and distribution of HIV among adult men and women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Perkins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available While the estimated prevalence of HIV in India experienced a downward revision in 2007, the patterning and distribution of HIV in the population remains unclear. We examined the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India as well as the patterning of other individual demographic and behavioral determinants of HIV status.We conducted logistic regression models accounting for the survey design using nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 100,030 women and men from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health survey which, for the first time, provided objective assessments of HIV seroprevalence. Although there was a weak relationship between household wealth and risk of being HIV-positive, there was a clear negative relationship between individual education attainment and risk of being HIV-positive among both men and women. A 1000 Rupee change in the per capita net state domestic product was associated with a 4% and 5% increase in the risk for positive HIV status among men and women, respectively. State-level income inequality was associated with increased risk of HIV for men. Marital status and selected sexual behavior indicators were significant predictors of HIV status among women whereas the age effect was the most dominant predictor of HIV infection among men.Although the prevalence of HIV in India is low, the lack of strong wealth patterning in the risk of HIV suggests a more generalized distribution of HIV risk than some of India's high-risk group HIV prevention policies have assumed. The positive association between state economic development and individual risk for HIV is intriguing and requires further scrutiny.

  14. Social support attenuates the harmful effects of stress in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Elizabeth R; Smith, Bruce W

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that social support buffers the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. The study was conducted in the Southwest United States and data were collected from 2006 to 2010. Participants were 52 healthy adult women who completed a baseline questionnaire and a 21-day daily diary. Social support was assessed in the baseline questionnaire and perceived stress and physical symptoms were assessed in the daily diary. Multilevel analyses were used to predict both same day and next day physical symptoms from baseline social support and daily perceived stress. The hypotheses were supported when predicting both same and next day physical symptoms. For the same day, perceived stress and the social support × perceived stress interaction were both related to physical symptoms. For the next day, the social support × perceived stress interaction but not perceived stress was related to physical symptoms when controlling for previous day physical symptoms. The interactions were such that women higher in social support had smaller increases in same and next day physical symptoms on days of higher perceived stress than women lower in social support. Social support may buffer the effects of daily perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. Future research should investigate what aspects and in what contexts social support may reduce the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms and examine how social support may affect the development of long-term health problems through increases in daily physical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations Between Personality and Drinking Motives Among Abstinent Adult Alcoholic Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher Ruiz, Susan; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kemppainen, Maaria I; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S

    2017-07-01

    Men and women differ in personality characteristics and may be motivated to use alcohol for different reasons. The goals of the present study were to characterize personality and drinking motives by gender and alcoholism status in adults, and to determine how alcoholism history and gender are related to the associations between personality traits and drinking motivation. Personality characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, which includes Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie (Social Conforming) scales. To evaluate drinking motivation, we asked abstinent long-term alcoholic men and women, and demographically similar nonalcoholic participants to complete the Drinking Motives Questionnaire, which includes Conformity, Coping, Social and Enhancement scales. Patterns of personality scale scores and drinking motives differed by alcoholism status, with alcoholics showing higher psychopathology and stronger motives for drinking compared with controls. Divergent gender-specific relationships between personality and drinking motives also were identified, which differed for alcoholics and controls. Alcoholic and control men and women differed with respect to the associations between personality traits and motives for drinking. A better understanding of how different personality traits affect drinking motivations for alcoholic men and women can inform individualized relapse prevention strategies. Men and women differed in their personality traits and their motivations for drinking, and these relationships differed for abstinent alcoholic and control groups. Additionally, alcoholics scored higher on Neuroticism and Psychoticism personality traits, and had lower Enhancement and Social Conformity drinking motives than nonalcoholic controls. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. The Influence of Marijuana and Alcohol Use on Condom Use Behavior: Findings from a Sample of Young Adult Female Bar Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251, young adult, female, bar drinkers. Multi-level modeling was used to assess the likelihood of condom use during sexual events that occurred as a function of substance use (none, only alcohol, only marijuana, or both) prior to and partner type during the event, as well as individual differences in sexual assertiveness. Initial model testing (level 1 and 2) revealed that there were significant main effects for partner type (known), substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and sexual assertiveness (refusal, pregnancy/STI prevention) on risky sex. Final model testing indicated that sexual assertiveness interacted with substance use to influence risky sex. Women who were low in sexual assertiveness refusal were more likely to engage in risky sex on days when they had consumed both alcohol and marijuana prior to the sexual activity. These findings highlight the complex nature of the relationship between substance use and risky sex. PMID:22612253

  17. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  18. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m 2 ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R 2 =0.474).

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and risky sexual behavior in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, G M Monawar; Berenson, Abbey B; Tennen, Howard; Bauer, Lance O; Wu, Z Helen

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and high-risk sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study interviewed 462 low-income women aged 18-30 years. We used the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist to assess ADHD symptoms. Risky sexual behaviors included sex before 15 years of age, risky sex partners in lifetime, number of sex partners in the last 12 months, condom use in the last 12 months, alcohol use before sex in the last 12 months, traded sex in lifetime, and diagnosed with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in lifetime. Mean ADHD symptom score was 19.8 (SD±12.9), and summary index of all risky sexual behavior was 1.77 (SD±1.37). Using unadjusted odds ratios (OR), women who endorsed more ADHD symptoms reported engaging in more risky sexual behaviors of all types. However, when multivariable logistic regression was applied adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, the adjusted ORs remained significant for having risky sex partners and having ≥3 sex partners in the prior 12 months. We observed some differences in risky sexual behavior between two domains of ADHD. The ADHD symptom score appears to be associated with some risky sexual behaviors and deserves further attention. A brief ADHD screening can identify this high-risk group for timely evaluation and safe sex counseling.

  20. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  1. A study of the relationship between food group recommendations and perceived stress: findings from black women in the Deep South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Tiffany L; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E; Baskin, Monica L

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m(2)) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Carson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n=355 provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10, and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2 and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16 and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group. Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  3. The diagnostic role of abdominal CT imaging findings in adults intussusception: Focused on the vascular compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Beom Jin; Jin, Yong Hyun; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Kyoung Won

    2007-01-01

    Intussusception is defined as telescoping of one segment of the gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. Unlike that in children, adult intussusception is a relatively rare condition. More than 90% of patients with adult intussusception have been reported to have an organic cause, with benign or malignant tumors for accounting for approximately 65% of the cases. In general, the diagnosis is easily made by means of computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The imaging appearance of a bowel-within-bowel configuration with or without contained fat and mesenteric vessels, is pathognomonic. As the intussusceptum enters into the intussuscipiens, the mesentery is carried forward and trapped between the overlapping layers of bowel. The twisting or severe constriction of the mesenteric vessels may result in vascular compromise with subsequent edematous thickening of the involved bowel. In these circumstances, ischemic necrosis may develop if timely intervention is not undertaken. Therefore, determination of the presence or absence of intestinal necrosis in intussusception is important in patient management. On CT, the presence of well-known diagnostic CT criteria for strangulated obstruction (especially severe engorgement or twisting of the mesenteric vessels) as well as evidence of loss of the layered pattern, accumulation of extraluminal fluid collection, and bowel perforation, may suggest the diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. CT and MR imaging are limited in determining the primary disease causing intussusception. However, CT and MR provide excellent pre-operative evaluation, including the possible extension and/or dissemination of a malignant tumor. CT and MR imaging may also be useful in suggesting the presence of vascular compromise

  4. Can tuberculosis case finding among health-care seeking adults be improved?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, F; Haraldsdottir, Thorny Linda; Mendes, M S

    2014-01-01

    SETTING: The Bandim Health Project study area in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential usefulness of predictors (elsewhere applied) and clinical scores (TBscore and TBscore II) based on signs and symptoms typical of tuberculosis (TB) in case finding. DESIGN: Observational...

  5. Physical activity and overweight/obesity among Malaysian adults: findings from the 2015 National Health and morbidity survey (NHMS

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    Ying Ying Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are growing health problems both worldwide and in Malaysia due to such lifestyle changes as decreased physical activity (PA, increased sedentary behavior and unhealthy eating habits. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA among normal-weight and overweight/obese adults and to investigate the association between PA level and overweight/obesity in Malaysian adults. Methods This study used data from the 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, a nationwide cross-sectional survey that implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Respondents aged 18 years and above (n = 17,261 were included in the analysis. The short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was administered to assess the respondents’ PA levels. The respondents’ height and weight were objectively measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. The respondents were categorized according to BMI as either normal-weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2 or overweight/obese (≥ 25 kg/m2. Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Results Overall, approximately 1 in 2 respondents (51.2% were overweight/obese, even though the majority (69.0% reporting at least a moderate level of PA (total PA ≥ 10 MET-hours/week. In both normal-weight and overweight/obese groups, a significantly higher prevalence of high PA (total PA ≥ 50 MET-hours/week was observed among men than women (p < 0.001, but women reported a significantly higher prevalence of low and moderate PA than men (p < 0.001. Men reported significantly higher activity levels (in MET-hours/week than women with regard to walking, vigorous-intensity PA and total PA (p < 0.001. Overweight/obese men reported a significantly lower level of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA than normal-weight men (p < 0.001. A low level of PA was associated with the risk of overweight

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAXIMUM UNILATERAL SQUAT STRENGTH AND BALANCE IN YOUNG ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

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    Kevin McCurdy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help

  7. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women; Cross-sectional study on physical activity and sedentary behaviour

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    Azza Al-Habsi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour (SB. Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time was self-reported using the Domain- Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population.

  8. Five-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among cardiovascular disease-free Greek adults: findings from the ATTICA study.

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    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Skoumas, Yannis; Lentzas, Yannis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the 5-year incidence of diabetes in an adult population from Greece. 3042 individuals (>18 years), free of cardiovascular disease, participated in the baseline examination (during 2001-2002). Of this sample, 1012 men and 1035 women were found alive at the time of follow-up, while 32 (2.1%) men and 22 (1.4%) women died during this period. The rest were lost to follow-up. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 1806 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. The age-adjusted 5-year incidence of diabetes was 5.5% (men, 5.8%; women, 5.2%). A linear trend was observed between diabetes incidence and age (5.6% increases in incidence per 1-year difference in age, pfamily history of diabetes (OR=2.65, 95% CI 1.58-4.53), as well as fasting glucose levels (OR per 1 mg/dl=1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), were the most significant baseline predictors for diabetes, after adjusting for various potential confounders. Additionally, presence of metabolic syndrome at baseline evaluation 2.95-fold the risk of diabetes (95% CI 1.89-4.61), and showed better classification ability than the model that contained the components of the syndrome (ie, correct classification rate: 94.5% vs. 92.3%). Our findings show that a 5.5% incidence rate of diabetes within a 5-year period, which suggests that the prevalence of this disorder in Greece is rising. Aging, heredity, and metabolic syndrome were the most significant determinants of diabetes.

  9. Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure to arsenic in drinking water: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphiné, David C; Ferreccio, Catterina; Guntur, Sandeep; Yuan, Yan; Hammond, S Katharine; Balmes, John; Smith, Allan H; Steinmaus, Craig

    2011-08-01

    Evidence suggests that arsenic in drinking water causes non-malignant lung disease, but nearly all data concern exposed adults. The desert city of Antofagasta (population 257,976) in northern Chile had high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water (>800 μg/l) from 1958 until 1970, when a new treatment plant was installed. This scenario, with its large population, distinct period of high exposure, and accurate data on past exposure, is virtually unprecedented in environmental epidemiology. We conducted a pilot study on early-life arsenic exposure and long-term lung function. We present these preliminary findings because of the magnitude of the effects observed. We recruited a convenience sample consisting primarily of nursing school employees in Antofagasta and Arica, a city with low drinking water arsenic. Lung function and respiratory symptoms in 32 adults exposed to >800 μg/l arsenic before age 10 were compared to 65 adults without high early-life exposure. Early-life arsenic exposure was associated with 11.5% lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) (P = 0.04), 12.2% lower forced vital capacity (FVC) (P = 0.04), and increased breathlessness (prevalence odds ratio = 5.94, 95% confidence interval 1.36-26.0). Exposure-response relationships between early-life arsenic concentration and adult FEV(1) and FVC were also identified (P trend = 0.03). Early-life exposure to arsenic in drinking water may have irreversible respiratory effects of a magnitude similar to smoking throughout adulthood. Given the small study size and non-random recruitment methods, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type

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    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E. [Dept. of Radiology, GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E.

    2007-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E. [Dept. of Radiology, GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I.

  13. Executive function and falls in older adults: new findings from a five-year prospective study link fall risk to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Anat; Herman, Talia; Brozgol, Marina; Dorfman, Moran; Sprecher, Elliot; Schweiger, Avraham; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that executive function (EF) plays a critical role in the regulation of gait in older adults, especially under complex and challenging conditions, and that EF deficits may, therefore, contribute to fall risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate if reduced EF is a risk factor for future falls over the course of 5 years of follow-up. Secondary objectives were to assess whether single and dual task walking abilities, an alternative window into EF, were associated with fall risk. We longitudinally followed 256 community-living older adults (age: 76.4±4.5 yrs; 61% women) who were dementia free and had good mobility upon entrance into the study. At baseline, a computerized cognitive battery generated an index of EF, attention, a closely related construct, and other cognitive domains. Gait was assessed during single and dual task conditions. Falls data were collected prospectively using monthly calendars. Negative binomial regression quantified risk ratios (RR). After adjusting for age, gender and the number of falls in the year prior to the study, only the EF index (RR: .85; CI: .74-.98, p = .021), the attention index (RR: .84; CI: .75-.94, p = .002) and dual tasking gait variability (RR: 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23; p = .027) were associated with future fall risk. Other cognitive function measures were not related to falls. Survival analyses indicated that subjects with the lowest EF scores were more likely to fall sooner and more likely to experience multiple falls during the 66 months of follow-up (pfalls was predicted by performance on EF and attention tests conducted 5 years earlier. The present results link falls among older adults to cognition, indicating that screening EF will likely enhance fall risk assessment, and that treatment of EF may reduce fall risk.

  14. Results of Chiari pelvic osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia in adults; Association with bone scintigraphic findings

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    Nakamura, Nobuo; Ozono, Kenji; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Takaoka, Kunio; Ono, Hiroo (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    In an attempt to determine indications of Chiari pelvic osteotomy in acetabular dysplasia, postoperative outcome of hip joint (64 joints) was examined on the basis of findings of bone scintigraphy. The subjects were 61 patients with osteoarthrosis of hip joint who underwent preoperative bone scintigraphy. The follow-up period ranged from 2 years to 9 years and 7 months with a mean of 4 years and 9 months. According to X-ray findings, 37 osteoarthrosis joints were staged as early and 27 as progressive. Preoperative bone scintigraphic findings fell into three: (I) normal or slight hot type (33 joints), (II) hot type at the weighting part (16 joints), and (III) double hot type in the weighting part and inside part (15 joints). None of the patients had severe surgical complications such as deep-seated infection, neuroparalysis and pseudojoint. According to the clinical staging for hip joint function, 7 (47%) of 64 joints were judged as poor after osteotomy, belonging to type III. Deterioration of osteoarthrosis was seen in 11 joints (41%) on X-ray films. Of these, 9 had type III. In conclusion, Chiari pelvic osteotomy should not be indicated when type III is shown on bone scintigrams. (N.K.).

  15. Time trends in 20 years of medication use in older adults: Findings from three elderly cohorts in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craftman, Åsa Gransjön; Johnell, Kristina; Fastbom, Johan; Westerbotn, Margareta; von Strauss, Eva

    2016-01-01

    New drugs and expanded drug indications are constantly being introduced. Welfare states strive to provide equity in drug treatment for all of its citizens and todaýs healthcare systems spend financial resources on drugs for the elderly in a higher rate than for any other age group. Drug utilization in elderly persons has an impact in health and wellbeing in older people. It was to describe the changes in medication use including people aged 78 years and over regardless of residence and other characteristics over 20 years. The study population consisted of 4304 participants in three population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Kungsholmen area of central Stockholm, Sweden. The participant's current drug utilization was reviewed by physicians following standardized protocols. Data were statistical analyzed. Logistic regression models was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for use of analgesics and psychotropic drugs in the cohorts of 2001 and 2007, controlling for age, gender, education and cognition. Results shows that the prevalence of medication use and polypharmacy in older adults has increased dramatically the late 1980s to the 2000s in central Stockholm, Sweden. In particular, the use of analgesics increased significantly, while some drug groups decreased, i.e., antipsychotics. Women used more medication than men in all three cohorts. Older adults living in service buildings used the largest amount of drugs in 1987, whereas those living in institutions were the most frequent users in 2001 and 2007. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mammographic findings after reshaping with autoprosthesis in women undergoing contralateral breast reconstruction and mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaperrotta, Gianfranco; Capalbo, Emanuela; Ferranti, Claudio; Falco, Giuseppe; Nava, Maurizio B; Di Leo, Gianni; Marchesini, Monica; Suman, Laura; Panizza, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Breast reduction and mastopexy combined with inferior dermo-lipo-glandular flap (autoprosthesis) gives good breast shape, long-term projection, and upper pole fullness. We assess the impact on breast oncologic surveillance compared to other techniques. A total of 105 patients who underwent mastectomy and reconstruction were divided into 3 groups of 35 patients each: groups 1 and 2 include patients with contralateral breast symmetrization performed with and without autoprosthesis technique, respectively. Group 3 is a control group without contralateral breast reshaping. On mammography, edema, skin thickening, architectural distortion, and calcifications were recorded, as well as further diagnostic examinations, biopsies, and surgical treatments required. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001) in the first follow-up mammography between groups 1 and 2 were stromal edema (6% vs 51%) and architectural distortion (74% vs 63%). The latest findings meant architectural distortion also have significant difference (p<0.001) in the last mammography (79% vs 66%). Microcalcification has statistically significant difference (p<0.001) in the latest postsurgical mammography, increased in group 1. Skin thickening had a similar course in either group. Mammography follow-up was not impaired in most cases notwithstanding the parenchyma distortion as compared with mammography after breast-conserving surgery. Four core biopsies were performed in both groups: 3 new breast cancers and 1 benign epithelial hyperplasia were found. No difficulties were found impairing mammographic evaluation in patients treated with autoprosthesis as compared to other techniques.

  17. College Graduation Reduces Vulnerability to STIs / HIV among African-American Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218

  18. Parental History of Diabetes, Positive Affect, and Diabetes Risk in Adults: Findings from MIDUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenkova, Vera K; Karlamangla, Arun S; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-12-01

    Family history of diabetes is one of the major risk factors for diabetes, but significant variability in this association remains unexplained, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. To our knowledge, no previous work has examined whether psychological factors moderate the degree to which family history of diabetes increases diabetes risk. We investigated the relationships among parental history of diabetes, affective states (positive affect, negative affect, and depressed affect), and diabetes in 978 adults from the MIDUS 2 national sample. As expected, parental history of diabetes was associated with an almost threefold increase in diabetes risk. We found a significant interaction between positive affect and parental history of diabetes on diabetes (p = .009): higher positive affect was associated with a statistically significant lower relative risk for diabetes in participants who reported having a parental history of diabetes (RR = .66 per unit increase in positive affect; 95 % CI = .47; .93), but it did not influence diabetes risk for participants who reported no parental history of diabetes (p = .34). This pattern persisted after adjusting for an extensive set of health and sociodemographic covariates and was independent of negative and depressed affect. These results suggest that psychological well-being may protect individuals at increased risk from developing diabetes. Understanding such interactions between non-modifiable risk factors and modifiable psychological resources is important for delineating biopsychosocial pathways to diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions to prevent the development of diabetes.

  19. Poor mental health among low-income women in the U.S.: The roles of adverse childhood and adult experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P; Janczewski, Colleen E; Nitkowski, Jenna C

    2018-06-01

    It is well established that exposure to a greater number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases the risk of poor physical and mental health outcomes. Given the predictive validity of ACE scores and other cumulative risk metrics, a similar measurement approach may advance the study of risk in adulthood. We examined the prevalence and interrelations of 10 adverse adult experiences, including household events such as intimate partner violence and extrafamilial events such as crime victimization. We also tested the relation between cumulative adult adversity and later mental health problems, and we examined whether adult adversity mediates the link between childhood adversity and mental health. Data were collected from 501 women in the Families and Children Thriving Study, a longitudinal investigation of low-income families that received home visiting services in Wisconsin. We conducted correlation analyses to assess interrelations among study measures along with multivariate analyses to test the effects of childhood and adult adversity on three outcomes: depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We then fit a structural equation model to test whether the effects of childhood adversity on mental health are mediated by adult adversity. Over 80% of participants endorsed at least one adverse adult experience. Adult adversities correlated with each other and with the mental health outcomes. Controlling for ACEs and model covariates, adult adversity scores were positively associated with depression, anxiety, and PTSD scores. Path analyses revealed that the ACE-mental health connection was mediated by adult adversity. Our findings indicate that mental health problems may be better understood by accounting for processes through which early adversity leads to later adversity. Pending replication, this line of research has the potential to improve the identification of populations that are at risk of poor health outcomes. Copyright © 2018

  20. Validation of case-finding algorithms derived from administrative data for identifying adults living with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Antoniou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to validate a case-finding algorithm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection using administrative health databases in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We constructed 48 case-finding algorithms using combinations of physician billing claims, hospital and emergency room separations and prescription drug claims. We determined the test characteristics of each algorithm over various time frames for identifying HIV infection, using data abstracted from the charts of 2,040 randomly selected patients receiving care at two medical practices in Toronto, Ontario as the reference standard. RESULTS: With the exception of algorithms using only a single physician claim, the specificity of all algorithms exceeded 99%. An algorithm consisting of three physician claims over a three year period had a sensitivity and specificity of 96.2% (95% CI 95.2%-97.9% and 99.6% (95% CI 99.1%-99.8%, respectively. Application of the algorithm to the province of Ontario identified 12,179 HIV-infected patients in care for the period spanning April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Case-finding algorithms generated from administrative data can accurately identify adults living with HIV. A relatively simple "3 claims in 3 years" definition can be used for assembling a population-based cohort and facilitating future research examining trends in health service use and outcomes among HIV-infected adults in Ontario.

  1. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and dietary quality among US adults: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh T; Shuval, Kerem; Njike, Valentine Y; Katz, David L

    2014-09-01

    To examine the association of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and diet quality among low-income adults. We examined US nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. The data were analyzed from October 7, 2013, to March 1, 2014. The analytic sample consisted of 4211 low-income adults aged 20 to 64 years, of whom 1830 participate in SNAP. We adhered to the National Cancer Institute method in calculating the Healthy Eating Index 2010 and other dietary indicators, such as empty calorie intake. Bivariate and multivariable regression was used to compare SNAP participants and income-eligible nonparticipants among the full sample and subsamples of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and food insecurity. Compared with low-income nonparticipants, adjusted analyses reveal that SNAP participants had lower dietary quality scores overall (42.58 vs 44.36, P≤.0001) and lower scores for fruits and vegetables, seafood and plant proteins (1.55 vs 1.77, P≤.0022), and empty calories (9.03 vs 9.90, P≤.0001), but they exhibited comparable scores on whole grain, refined grain, total dairy, total protein, fatty acid, and sodium intakes. The association between SNAP participation and lower dietary quality was statistically significant among women, Hispanics, young adults, and individuals who were food secure. Our analyses suggest that SNAP participants have lower dietary quality than their income-eligible nonparticipant counterparts. Although SNAP has an important role in providing nutrition assistance to eligible low-income individuals, interventions are warranted to improve the dietary quality of participants. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Executive function and falls in older adults: new findings from a five-year prospective study link fall risk to cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Mirelman

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that executive function (EF plays a critical role in the regulation of gait in older adults, especially under complex and challenging conditions, and that EF deficits may, therefore, contribute to fall risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate if reduced EF is a risk factor for future falls over the course of 5 years of follow-up. Secondary objectives were to assess whether single and dual task walking abilities, an alternative window into EF, were associated with fall risk.We longitudinally followed 256 community-living older adults (age: 76.4±4.5 yrs; 61% women who were dementia free and had good mobility upon entrance into the study. At baseline, a computerized cognitive battery generated an index of EF, attention, a closely related construct, and other cognitive domains. Gait was assessed during single and dual task conditions. Falls data were collected prospectively using monthly calendars. Negative binomial regression quantified risk ratios (RR. After adjusting for age, gender and the number of falls in the year prior to the study, only the EF index (RR: .85; CI: .74-.98, p = .021, the attention index (RR: .84; CI: .75-.94, p = .002 and dual tasking gait variability (RR: 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23; p = .027 were associated with future fall risk. Other cognitive function measures were not related to falls. Survival analyses indicated that subjects with the lowest EF scores were more likely to fall sooner and more likely to experience multiple falls during the 66 months of follow-up (p<0.02.These findings demonstrate that among community-living older adults, the risk of future falls was predicted by performance on EF and attention tests conducted 5 years earlier. The present results link falls among older adults to cognition, indicating that screening EF will likely enhance fall risk assessment, and that treatment of EF may reduce fall risk.

  3. Oral Health Status of Older Adults in Sweden Receiving Elder Care: Findings From Nursing Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Isabelle; Jansson, Henrik; Lindmark, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Frail elderly people often have poor oral hygiene, contributing to oral health problems that can detract significantly from quality of life. The aim of this study was to describe oral health status of frail elderly individuals using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide-Jönköping (ROAG-J), a mouth assessment instrument that can be used in daily nursing care. Data were obtained from the Swedish Senior Alert quality registry in one Swedish municipality. ROAG-J assessments on admission to elder care and one subsequent occasion were used. ROAG-J measurements documented oral health in nine areas: voice, lips, oral mucosa, tongue, gums, teeth, saliva, swallowing, and presence of any prostheses or implants. Assessments were made by nursing staff during the course of daily nursing care. Individuals 65 years of age or older and receiving elder care services (N = 667) were involved; 1,904 assessments made between November 2011 and March 2014 were used for the analysis. On the basis of both assessments, less than one third of participants had oral health problems. No significant difference in any of the oral health variables was found between first and subsequent assessments. At first assessment, men and women differed in tongue health (p oral health. Assessments made by nursing staff using the ROAG-J demonstrate that this tool can be used in daily nursing care, where different, important oral conditions may be encountered. However, knowledge about oral health conditions and the ROAG-J instrument is important to ensure high validity. The ROAG-J enables nursing staff to detect problems in the mouth and to guide decisions related to oral health interventions.

  4. Histopathological Findings of Endometrial Samples and its Correlation Between the Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Makaju, R; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, A

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is considered as one of the most common problems among women. The therapy is incomplete without knowing the underlying pathology. To determine the types and frequency of endometrial pathologies in patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding at Dhulikhel Hospital Kathmandu university Hospital. This is retrospective study total 100 cases were included over a period of one year of Abnormal Uterine bleeding. Out of 100 cases of Abnormal uterine bleeding, 61% were due to non-organic cause with a commonest histopathological findings proliferative endometrium. 27% cases were due to organic cause with pregnancy related condition as most common finding. 12% were reported as inadequate. The rate of postmenopausal bleeding declined with increasing age in the postmenopausal period and endometritis was the predominant finding. There is an age specific association of Abnormal uterine bleeding with increased incidence in perimenopausal age group. Postmenopausal bleeding declined with increasing with endometritis the most common finding. Dilation and curettage is helpful to exclude other organic pathology. It is useful for diagnosis and to know pathological incidence of organic lesions in cases of Abnormal uterine bleeding prior to surgery.

  5. Pulmonary tuberculosis with airspace consolidation vs mycoplasma pneumonia in adults: high-resolution CT findings

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    Cha, Chull Hee; Choi, Gyo Chang; Park, Jai Soung; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Kyung Rak; Im, Han Haek; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunghyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To analyse and compare high-resolution CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis with consolidation and mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [confirmed by sputum culture (n=9) and bronchoscopic biopsy (n=11)] and airspace consolidation on high-resolution CT and 17 patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, confirmed by serologic test, were included in this study. High-resolution CT findings were analyzed in terms of ground-glass opacities, distribution of consolidation, type of nodules, cavities, interlobular septal thickening, bronchial dilatations, bronchial wall thickening and pleural effusion. In patients with tuberculosis, average age was 33.5 years (range, 20-67); in those with mycoplasma pneumonia it was 32.5 years (range, 17-74). Segmental and subsegmental distributions were most common in both diseases; the preferred site of consolidation was different, however; for tuberculosis it was the upper lobes (13 cases, 65%; bilateral involvement, 7 cases); for mycoplasma pneumonia it was the lower lobes (11 cases, 64.7%). Non-segmental (diffuse and random) distribution of ground-glass opacities were seen in two patients(11.8%) with mycoplasma pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, branching linear opacities and alveolar nodules were not different in both diseases, but there were nodules above 10mm in 14 cases of tuberculosis and in only one case of mycoplasma pneumonia. Tree-in-bud appearances were seen in five cases of tuberculosis. Cavities without air-fluid level were noted in ten cases of tuberculosis. Other interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation and pleural effusion were not different in both diseases. There was considerable overlap between high resolution CT findings of tuberculosis with airspace consolidation and those of mycoplasma pneumonia. The location of consolidation, type of nodules, and the presence of tree-in-bud appearance and cavities help in the differentiation of the two diseases, however.

  6. Incidental finding of congenital pericardial and mediastinal pleural defect by pneumothorax in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Y.; Matsusaka, Y.; Nemoto, E.; Hashizume, T.; Kaseda, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital pericardial defect (CPD) is an uncommon anomaly. If once cardiac herniation occurs, it threatens life. We report a case of left-sided pneumothorax with consequent protrusion of the heart into left thoracic cavity through not only a large CPD but also congenital pleuropericardium window. Case presentation: A 67-year-old man presenting with sudden-onset left-sided chest pain and slight dyspnea was referred to our hospital. Chest X-ray showed a left lung collapse, and also revealed a pneumopericardium along the right border of the ascending aorta. Subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan revealed that the heart was displaced into the left hemithorax. Thus, we diagnosed the patient with pneumothorax and a defect of the pericardial and mediastinal pleurae. Subsequently, a chest tube was inserted into the left thoracic cavity, and the collapsed lung was promptly inflated. The cardiac position was reinstated within mediastinum as evidenced by follow-up CT scan. The QRS axis on his electrocardiogram (ECG) was altered from 52° to 73°. Together with the cardiac relocation evidenced by the QRS axis shift on ECG and findings of CT, we determined that there was a low potential for complications and opted against surgical repair. Discussion: When the CPD is sufficiently large, surgical intervention is not necessary. The size of the CPD can be assessed not only by CT findings, but the alteration of the QRS axis on ECG also provides useful information whether cardiac herniation can be resolved by the inflated lung. - Highlights: • We reported a case of congenital pericardial defect (CPD) with pneumothorax. • We described how to manage to alleviate life-threatening complications. • The size of CPD was assessed by CT findings and the alteration of QRS axis on ECG

  7. Pulmonary tuberculosis with airspace consolidation vs mycoplasma pneumonia in adults: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Chull Hee; Choi, Gyo Chang; Park, Jai Soung; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Kyung Rak; Im, Han Haek; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin

    1997-01-01

    To analyse and compare high-resolution CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis with consolidation and mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [confirmed by sputum culture (n=9) and bronchoscopic biopsy (n=11)] and airspace consolidation on high-resolution CT and 17 patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, confirmed by serologic test, were included in this study. High-resolution CT findings were analyzed in terms of ground-glass opacities, distribution of consolidation, type of nodules, cavities, interlobular septal thickening, bronchial dilatations, bronchial wall thickening and pleural effusion. In patients with tuberculosis, average age was 33.5 years (range, 20-67); in those with mycoplasma pneumonia it was 32.5 years (range, 17-74). Segmental and subsegmental distributions were most common in both diseases; the preferred site of consolidation was different, however; for tuberculosis it was the upper lobes (13 cases, 65%; bilateral involvement, 7 cases); for mycoplasma pneumonia it was the lower lobes (11 cases, 64.7%). Non-segmental (diffuse and random) distribution of ground-glass opacities were seen in two patients(11.8%) with mycoplasma pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, branching linear opacities and alveolar nodules were not different in both diseases, but there were nodules above 10mm in 14 cases of tuberculosis and in only one case of mycoplasma pneumonia. Tree-in-bud appearances were seen in five cases of tuberculosis. Cavities without air-fluid level were noted in ten cases of tuberculosis. Other interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation and pleural effusion were not different in both diseases. There was considerable overlap between high resolution CT findings of tuberculosis with airspace consolidation and those of mycoplasma pneumonia. The location of consolidation, type of nodules, and the presence of tree-in-bud appearance and cavities help in the differentiation of the two diseases, however

  8. Sexist Attitudes Among Emerging Adult Women Readers of Fifty Shades Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Lauren E; Carotta, Christin L; Bonomi, Amy E; Snyder, Anastasia

    2017-02-01

    Stereotypical sexist representations of men and women in popular culture reinforce rigid views of masculinity (e.g., males as being strong, in control, masterful, and aggressive) and femininity (e.g., women as being fragile and weak, unassertive, peaceful, irrational, and driven by emotions). The present study examined associations between the fictional series Fifty Shades-one popular culture mechanism that includes pervasive traditional gender role representations-and underlying sexist beliefs among a sample of 715 women ages 18-24 years. Analyses revealed associations between Fifty Shades readership and sexism, as measured through the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Namely women who reported reading Fifty Shades had higher levels of ambivalent, benevolent, and hostile sexism. Further, those who interpreted Fifty Shades as "romantic" had higher levels of ambivalent and benevolent sexism. Our findings support prior empirical studies noting associations between interacting with aspects of popular culture, such as television and video games, and individual beliefs and behaviors.

  9. Effects on resilience of women family caregivers of adults with serious mental illness: the role of positive cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Bekhet, Abir K; Suresky, M Jane

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the effects of risk and protective factors on resilience in 60 women family members of adults with serious mental illness. Both the risk factors constituting caregiver burden (strain, stigma, client dependence, and family disruption) and protective factors, including eight positive cognitions were found to predict two indicators of resilience: resourcefulness and sense of coherence. The effects of caregiver burden on resourcefulness and sense of coherence were mediated by positive cognitions, lending support to resilience theory and suggesting the need to develop interventions to encourage positive thinking among women caregivers of adults with mental illness.

  10. [Clinical, biochemical and hepatic histological findings in overweight and obese Peruvian adults: first national prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle A, Martín; Poggi M, Luis; Ferrari G, Natalia; Siu G, Hugo; Aguinaga, Melina; Luna C, Eduardo; Scavino L, Yolanda

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, descriptive study in the Clinica Anglo Americana, a prívate institution taking care of patients from a medium-high socioeconomic level in Lima. The goal of the study was to determine the frequency of histologic findings in liver biopsies performed by laparoscopy or percutaneously in patients with overweight (body mass index > 25 kg/m2) or obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m2), and to evaluate the correlation with antropometric variables such as BMI, waist circumference, history of diabetes or hyperlypidemia, and biochemical variables like glycemia, lipid profile, aminotransferases and AST/ALT ratio. Between the years 2001 and 2006 50 patients were biopsied, 29 with overweight and 21 with obesity. Eighteen had simple steatosis and 22 had Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (44%), so 40 patients (80%) had some form of fatty liver. Five patients (10%) had cirrhosis confirmed by biopsy, and in all of them the finding of cirrhosis was completely incidental. Sixty four percent of patients with NASH were obese, like the 5 cirrhotics in our series. Herein we illustrate that in a relatively small sample of patients with obesity and overweight like ours, we found all the forms of the liver steatosis spectrum, from simple steatosis to cirrhosis, with a high frequency of NASH.

  11. A comparison between transabdominal ultrasonographic and cystourethroscopy findings in adult Sudanese patients presenting with haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Feras O; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Abdelgalil, Hani B; Sharfi, Abdulrauf A

    2015-02-01

    Gross and microscopic haematuria both are a common cause of referral to urology clinics. It has a wide spectrum of differential. In many occasions, it is a presentation of underlining serious urological problems. Evaluation of gross and significant microscopic haematuria is of paramount importance. This study was conducted to assess and compare the findings and diagnostic competency of transabdominal ultrasonography (US) versus cystourethroscopy in patients with haematuria of lower urinary tract origin. Prospective hospital-based study done at Ibn Sina Specialized and Omdurman Military Hospitals from June 2012 to March 2013. The study included 109 patients. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from patients. All patients were evaluated by transabdominal US before cystourethroscopy examination. One hundred and nine patients were studied. Patients' mean (SD) age was 57.9 (18.8) years. Fifty-four patients (49.5 %) presented with macroscopic haematuria, while 55 patients presented with microscopic haematuria. The sensitivity and specificity of the US in detecting prostate enlargement, vesical stones, bladder wall tumour, cystitis and schistosomiasis were [(84, 80 %); (82.6, 97.7 %); (64.7, 92.1 %); (15.3, 96.8 %); and (15.3, 98.9 %)], respectively, as compared to cystoscopic finding as the gold standard. Ultrasonography is accepted only as a first-line imaging tool for evaluation of haematuria in poor settings, but cannot replace or became as good as cystoscopy, which remains the gold standard.

  12. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted...

  13. Quality of life and body mass index in overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome during a lifestyle modification program

    OpenAIRE

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; Stuyver, Isabelle; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Design: Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Setting: Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Participants: Thirty-three overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. ...

  14. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsnack SC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharon C WilsnackDepartment of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1 age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2 groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3 heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4 one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention

  15. Regional Brain Responses Are Biased Toward Infant Facial Expressions Compared to Adult Facial Expressions in Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Wei, Dongtao; Qiao, Lei; Wang, Xiangpeng; Che, Xianwei

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neutral infant faces compared to neutral adult faces elicit greater activity in brain areas associated with face processing, attention, empathic response, reward, and movement. However, whether infant facial expressions evoke larger brain responses than adult facial expressions remains unclear. Here, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in nulliparous women while they were presented with images of matched unfamiliar infant and adult facial expressions (happy, neutral, and uncomfortable/sad) in a pseudo-randomized order. We found that the bilateral fusiform and right lingual gyrus were overall more activated during the presentation of infant facial expressions compared to adult facial expressions. Uncomfortable infant faces compared to sad adult faces evoked greater activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex-thalamus, and precuneus. Neutral infant faces activated larger brain responses in the left fusiform gyrus compared to neutral adult faces. Happy infant faces compared to happy adult faces elicited larger responses in areas of the brain associated with emotion and reward processing using a more liberal threshold of p facial expressions compared to adult facial expressions among nulliparous women, and this bias may be modulated by individual differences in Interest-In-Infants and perspective taking ability.

  16. Coronary heart disease risk factors in adult premenopausal white women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with a healthy female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Our specific aim was to determine whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients were independent of their higher body mass index (BMI) and centripetal obesity. In adult, premenopausal, white women, CHD risk factors were compared between 488 patients with well-defined PCOS and 351 healthy free-living population controls from the Princeton Follow-up Study (PFS). After excluding women with irregular menses (putative PCOS phenotypes), comparisons were also made between the 261 PFS women with a history of regular menses and the 488 women with PCOS. Fasting lipids, insulin, glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA insulin secretion, blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference were measured. Compared with both the full cohort of 351 PFS women and the subgroup of 261 PFS women with regular menses, women with PCOS had higher BMI, waist circumference, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR (all Ps PCOS, compared with the 351 and 261 PFS women, had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P PCOS women with normal BMI (PCOS cannot be exclusively attributed to their preponderant centripetal obesity. Identification of women with clinical features of PCOS should alert the clinician to potentially increased risk for CHD and prompt CHD risk factor testing.

  17. Afternoon Napping and Cognition in Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Hodgson, Nancy; Riegel, Barbara; Keenan, Brendan T; Scharf, Mathew T; Richards, Kathy C; Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2017-02-01

    To examine the cross-sectional associations between self-reported postlunch napping and structured cognitive assessments in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional cohort study. China. Individuals aged 65 and older from the baseline national wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (N = 2,974). Interview-based cognitive assessments of orientation and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial abilities, and a combined global cognition score incorporating these assessments. Other self-reported or interview-based assessments included postlunch napping duration, nighttime sleep duration, demographic characteristics, health habits, comorbidities, functional status and social activities. According to reported napping duration, older adults were categorized as non-nappers (0 minutes), short nappers (90 minutes). Postlunch napping was reporting in 57.7% of participants for a mean of 63 minutes. Cognitive function was significantly associated with napping (P napping was significantly associated with better cognition than non- (P = .004), short (P = .04), and extended napping (P = .002), after controlling for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression, instrumental activities of daily living, social activities, and nighttime sleep duration. A cross-sectional association was found between moderate postlunch napping and better cognition in Chinese older adults. The cross-sectional design and self-reported measures of sleep limited the findings. Longitudinal studies with objective napping measures are needed to further test this hypothesis. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Gynecological manifestations, histopathological findings, and schistosoma-specific polymerase chain reaction results among women with Schistosoma haematobium infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma hae...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women with menopause symptoms: findings from a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Kolu

    Full Text Available Menopause is a period that may predispose one to a decrease in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and quality of life. A study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women displaying symptoms of menopause. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on data from a six-month randomised controlled trial (n = 151. The women in the intervention group engaged in an unsupervised session of at least 50 minutes of physical activity four times a week. The control group continued their physical activity as before. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated in terms of maximal oxygen consumption, lean muscle mass, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained. A bootstrap technique was utilised to estimate uncertainty around the point estimate for ICER associated with the intervention. The mean total cost in the intervention group was €1,307 (SEM: €311 and in the control group was €1,253 (SEM: €279, p = 0.10 per person. The mean intervention cost was €208 per person. After six months of the behaviour-change intervention, the ICER was €63 for a 1 ml/kg/min improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, the additional cost per one-gram increase in lean muscle mass was €126, and the cost per QALY gained was €46. According to the findings, physical activity among menopausal women was cost-effective for cardiorespiratory fitness, for lean muscle mass, and for QALYs gained, since the intervention was more effective than the actions within the control group and the additional effects of physical activity were gained at a very low price. From the societal perspective, the intervention used may promote ability to work and thereby save on further costs associated with early retirement or disability pension if the physical-activity level remains at least the same as during the intervention.

  20. How useful are skills acquired at adult non-formal education and training centres for finding employment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-10-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education with courses which foster access to opportunities for skills acquisition and employment and bring about social and economic inclusion. However, many adults who were facing long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. This paper reports on a study which investigated what constitutes favourable conditions ("internal enabling environments") for skills acquisition inside NFET centres leading to employment and how they can be improved to contribute to coordinated efforts of increasing NFET graduates' paid and/or self-employment capacities. The authors found that centres focusing on activities suitable for self-employment during training were more likely to create internal enabling environments for skills acquisition and income generation than centres offering courses designed for entering paid employment. The authors conclude that there appears to be a significant correlation between NFET centres' training programme objectives, financial resources, trainee selection criteria, the process of training needs assessment, and skills acquisition for successful employment outcomes of NFET graduates. Without these internal enabling factors, adult trainees are likely to continue finding it difficult to integrate into the labour market or participate in economic activities and hence break the cycle of poverty and social exclusion.

  1. Hypothyroidism in adults. Levothyroxine if warranted by clinical and laboratory findings, not for simple TSH elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder due to inadequate thyroid hormone secretion. When a patient has signs and symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism, how is it determined whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy will have a favourable harm-benefit balance? How should treatment be managed? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are due to slow metabolism (constipation, fatigue, sensitivity to cold, weight gain, etc.) and to polysaccharide accumulation in certain tissues, leading to hoarseness, eyelid swelling, etc. A blood TSH concentration of less than 4 or 5 mlU/L rules out peripheral hypothyroidism. TSH levels increase with age. Between 30% and 60% of high TSH levels are not confirmed on a second blood test. In overt hypothyroidism, the TSH level is high and the free T4 (thyroxine) level is low. Most of these patients are symptomatic. So-called subclinical hypothyroidism, which is rarely symptomatic, is characterised by high blood TSH levels and normal free T4 levels. The natural history of hypothyroidism depends on its cause. In chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common form seen in rich countries, hypothyroidism generally worsens over time. However, other situations can lead to transient hypothyroidism that may last several weeks or months. Subclinical hypothyroidism, as the name implies, is usually asymptomatic. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is about 3% to 4% per year overall but increases with the initial TSH level. Treatment guidelines are mainly based on physiological and pharmacological considerations and generally recommend levothyroxine therapy. The adverse effects of levothyroxine are signs of thyrotoxicosis in case of overdose (tachycardia, tremor, sweating, etc.). Even a slight overdose carries a risk of osteoporotic fractures and atrial fibrillation, especially in the elderly. In young adults, levothyroxine is usually started

  2. Childhood maltreatment, intervening variables, and adult psychological difficulties in women: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Jordan, Carol E

    2009-10-01

    This article reviews the complex relationship between child maltreatment and later psychosocial difficulties among adult women. Specifically addressed are (a) the various forms of childhood maltreatment, (b) the range of potential long-term psychological outcomes, and (c) important contextual variables that mediate or add to these maltreatment-symptom relationships. Among the latter are characteristics of the abuse and/or neglect; effects of impaired parental functioning; premaltreatment and postmaltreatment psychobiology; qualities of the parent-child attachment; abuse and/or neglect-related affect dysregulation that may lead to further symptomatology; the extent to which the child responds with significant emotional or behavioral avoidance; and whether later traumas are also present. Also relevant are sociocultural contributors to both child maltreatment and maltreatment effects, especially poverty and marginalization. Clinical and research implications are considered.

  3. Cognitive dysfunction and histological findings in adult rats one year after whole brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sato, Mitsuya; Takeda, Norio

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and histological changes in the brain were investigated following irradiation in 20 Fischer 344 rats aged 6 months treated with whole brain irradiation (WBR) (25 Gy/single dose), and compared with the same number of sham-irradiated rats as controls. Performance of the Morris water maze task and the passive avoidance task were examined one year after WBR. Finally, histological and immunohistochemical examinations using antibodies to myelin basic protein (MBP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) were performed of the rat brains. The irradiated rats continued to gain weight 7 months after WBR whereas the control rats stopped gaining weight. Cognitive functions in both the water maze task and the passive avoidance task were lower in the irradiated rats than in the control rats. Brain damage consisting of demyelination only or with necrosis was found mainly in the body of the corpus callosum and the parietal white matter near the corpus callosum in the irradiated rats. Immunohistochemical examination of the brains without necrosis found MBP-positive fibers were markedly decreased in the affected areas by irradiation; NF-positive fibers were moderately decreased and irregularly dispersed in various shapes in the affected areas; and GFAP-positive fibers were increased, with gliosis in those areas. These findings are similar to those in clinically accelerated brain aging in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Binswanger's disease, and multiple sclerosis. (author)

  4. Access to public spaces and physical activity for Mexican adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietza Bojorquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore the association between access to public spaces and physical activity for adult women, controlling and testing interactions with sociodemographic and public spaces characteristics. We combined sociodemographic data from a survey with the adult (18-65 years of age women population of Tijuana, Mexico, conducted in 2014 (N = 2,345; with data from a 2013 study on public spaces in the same city. We evaluated access to public spaces by the presence and total area of public spaces in buffers of 400, 800, 1,000 and 1,600m around the participants’ homes. We measured physical activity with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short. We employed multinomial logistic models to evaluate the association between access to public spaces and physical activity, and tested for interactions between access to public spaces and public spaces quality and sociodemographic characteristics. We observed no interaction between access to public spaces and public spaces quality in their effect on physical activity. There was an association between the presence of public spaces in the 400m buffer, and higher odds of being in the low physical activity level (as opposed to being in the moderate level (coefficient: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.13; 0.87. Participants who used public transport were less likely to be in the low physical activity level (coefficient: -0.57; 95%CI: -0.97; -0.17. We suggest that, in this population, the access to public spaces might be less relevant for physical activity than other elements of the urban environment and sociodemographic characteristics.

  5. Vape Factor Fast Find-Adult (VF3-A): a prototype survey method for recording brand-specific vaping factors in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Zhang, Tancy C; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael

    2018-03-23

    In population studies, vaping is often treated as a dichotomous exposure (present/absent) without consideration of specific vaping devices and materials being used. A survey instrument is needed to record specific vaping devices and materials. We developed a database of 613 vaping device models and 3196 vaping liquid products, indexed by device brand, device type, liquid brand, liquid name and liquid flavour type. We developed a survey instrument to allow participants to report their vaping device and liquid from the indexed lists. The survey was pilot tested with a convenience sample of 208 adults (≥age 21). We validated the vaping device and liquid responses with a recontact survey. We report the proportion of respondents finding their products, characteristics of people finding their products and survey response times. Devices used most frequently in the past 30 days were electronic cigarettes (33% of respondents), vaping pens (28%) and vaping mods (16%). Fifty-seven per cent used liquids containing nicotine most frequently in the past 30 days, followed by liquids without nicotine (20%) and marijuana or hashish (10%). Most (85%) participants found their vaping device successfully (median 19.7 s) and 74% found their vaping liquid (median 19.8 s). Females and older adults were less likely to find their devices and liquids. Responses were validated for 91% and 76% of devices and e-liquids, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of an internet-based survey instrument to record specific vaping factors for use in studies of vaping and health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Estimating the size of illicit tobacco consumption in Brazil: findings from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Szklo, André Salem; Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2017-01-01

    Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence between 2008 and 2013. Tax rate increases since 2007 and a new tobacco tax structure in 2012 may have played an important role in this decline. However, continuous tax rate increases pushed up cigarette prices over personal income growth and, therefore, some consumers, especially lower income individuals, may have migrated to cheaper illicit cigarettes. To use tobacco surveillance data to estimate the size of illicit tobacco consumption before and after excise tax increases. We defined a threshold price and compared it with purchasing prices obtained from two representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013 to estimate the proportion of illicit cigarette use among daily smokers. Generalised linear model was specified to understand whether the absolute difference in proportions over time differed by sociodemographic groups and consumption levels. Our findings were validated using an alternative method. Total proportion of illicit daily consumption increased from 16.6% to 31.1% between 2008 and 2013. We observed a pattern of unadjusted absolute decreases in cigarette smoking prevalence and increases in the proportion of illicit consumption, irrespective of gender, age, educational level, area of residence and amount of cigarettes consumed. The strategy of raising taxes has increased government revenues, reduced smoking prevalence and resulted in an increased illicit trade. Surveillance data can be used to provide information on illicit tobacco trade to help in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) article 15 and the FCTC Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  8. Being emotionally abused: a phenomenological study of adult women's experiences of emotionally abusive intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.

  9. High-resolution computed tomography findings from adult patients with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Zanetti, Glaucia; Hochhegger, Bruno; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Fontes, Cristina Asvolinsque Pantaleao; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Dias Mancano, Alexandre; Meirelles, Gustavo; Irion, Klaus Loureiro

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings at presentation in patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia. Materials and methods: We reviewed the HRCT findings from 20 patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) and compared their HRCT scans with chest radiographs, obtained on the same day. The imaging studies were obtained 4-9 days after the onset of symptoms. The patients included 11 men and 9 women (ages 24-62 years; mean 42.7 years). All patients had a body temperature greater than 100.4 deg. F (>38 deg. C), tachypnea, and cough. Other common symptoms included diarrhea (60%) and sore throat (30%). The radiographs and HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The predominant HRCT findings consisted of bilateral ground-glass opacities (n = 12), bilateral areas of consolidation (n = 2), or a mixed bilateral pattern of ground-glass opacities and areas of consolidation (n = 6). The abnormalities were bilateral in all of the 20 patients, had a predominantly sub-pleural distribution in 13 patients, and had a random distribution in the remaining 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were consolidations. Normal radiographs were found in 4 out of the 20 patients. Conclusion: HRCT may reveal parenchymal abnormalities in patients with Influenza A (H1N1) infection who have normal findings on radiographs. The predominant HRCT findings were bilateral, peripheral, ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation. The patients who presented consolidations had more severe clinical course.

  10. High-resolution computed tomography findings from adult patients with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Zanetti, Glaucia [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: glauciazanetti@gmail.com; Hochhegger, Bruno [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: brunohochhegger@gmail.com; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D' OR Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: rosana.souzarodrigues@gmail.com; Fontes, Cristina Asvolinsque Pantaleao [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: cristinasvolinsque@gmail.com; Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Santa Catarina Federal University, Florianopolis (Brazil)], E-mail: luizfelipenobresc@gmail.com; Dias Mancano, Alexandre [Anchieta Hospital, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: alex.manzano1@gmail.com; Meirelles, Gustavo [Sao Paulo Federal University, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: gmeirelles@gmail.com; Irion, Klaus Loureiro [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital NHS, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: klaus.irion@btinternet.com

    2010-04-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings at presentation in patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia. Materials and methods: We reviewed the HRCT findings from 20 patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) and compared their HRCT scans with chest radiographs, obtained on the same day. The imaging studies were obtained 4-9 days after the onset of symptoms. The patients included 11 men and 9 women (ages 24-62 years; mean 42.7 years). All patients had a body temperature greater than 100.4 deg. F (>38 deg. C), tachypnea, and cough. Other common symptoms included diarrhea (60%) and sore throat (30%). The radiographs and HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The predominant HRCT findings consisted of bilateral ground-glass opacities (n = 12), bilateral areas of consolidation (n = 2), or a mixed bilateral pattern of ground-glass opacities and areas of consolidation (n = 6). The abnormalities were bilateral in all of the 20 patients, had a predominantly sub-pleural distribution in 13 patients, and had a random distribution in the remaining 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were consolidations. Normal radiographs were found in 4 out of the 20 patients. Conclusion: HRCT may reveal parenchymal abnormalities in patients with Influenza A (H1N1) infection who have normal findings on radiographs. The predominant HRCT findings were bilateral, peripheral, ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation. The patients who presented consolidations had more severe clinical course.

  11. Are pregnant and postpartum women: at increased risk for violent death? Suicide and homicide findings from North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandari, Ghazaleh; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L; Schiro, Sharon; Norwood, Tammy; Avery, Matt

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate rates of suicide and homicide death among pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant/non-postpartum women ages 14-44, and to determine comparative rates of violent death for pregnant and/or postpartum women compared to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. North Carolina surveillance and vital statistics data from 2004 to 2006 were used to examine whether pregnant or postpartum women have higher (or lower) rates of suicide and homicide compared to other reproductive-aged women. The suicide rate for pregnant women was 27% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio= 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11-0.66), and the suicide rate for postpartum women was 54% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.31-0.95). Homicide rates also were lower for pregnant and postpartum women, with the homicide rate for pregnant women being 73% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.39-1.37), and the homicide rate for postpartum women being half the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.98). Although pregnant and postpartum women are at risk for homicide and suicide death, the highest risk group is non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. Violence prevention efforts should target all women of reproductive age, and pay particular attention to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women, who may have less access to health care services than pregnant and postpartum women.

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism: A common finding in adult patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter; Idorn, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars; Jensen, Annette S

    2018-03-01

    Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. First, 90 clinically stable cyanotic congenital heart disease patients were examined with blood samples (thyroid-stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and N-terminal pro-brain-natriuretic peptide) in a cross-sectional descriptive study. Second, a longitudinal follow-up study of 43 patients originating from the first study part, was carried out. These patients had thyroid function parameters (thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies) evaluated biannually. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was present in 24% of the 90 screened patients. During follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03). Subclinical hypothyroidism is a very common finding in cyanotic congenital heart disease. This is not associated with increased levels of C-reactive protein, heart failure, or autoimmunity but appears to be associated with cyanosis and age. Since the clinical impact of SCH is uncertain, further studies are needed to determine this. Regular thyroid evaluation is recommended in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients since SCH can develop to overt hypothyroidism. © 2017

  13. Smoking Habits and Body Weight Over the Adult Lifespan in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Allison, Matthew; Johnson, Karen C; Ho, Gloria Y F; Tindle, Hilary A; Asao, Keiko; LaMonte, Michael J; Giovino, Gary A; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between smoking habits and weight gain are complex. However, few studies have examined the association of smoking habits with weight gain over the life course. Major smoking parameters and weight gain over time were examined in a large cohort of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at enrollment between 1993 and 1998 (N=161,808) and followed through 2014 (analyses conducted in 2016). Cross-sectional analyses were used to assess the association of smoking and body weight at baseline. Retrospective data were used to correlate smoking status with body weight over a 45-year period prior to enrollment. In addition, the association of smoking with weight gain over 6 years of follow-up was examined. At baseline, women who had quit smoking prior to enrollment weighed 4.7 kg more than current smokers and 2.6 kg more than never smokers. Former, never, and current smokers all gained weight over the 45-year period from age 18 years to time of enrollment (average age, 63 years): 16.8, 16.4, and 14.6 kg, respectively. In prospective analyses, women who were current smokers at baseline but who quit smoking during follow-up gained more than 5 kg by Year 6 compared with current smokers at baseline who continued to smoke. Among long-term quitters, greater intensity of smoking and more recent quitting were associated with greater weight gain. These results suggest that excess weight gain associated with smoking cessation occurs soon after quitting and is modest relative to weight gain in never smokers over the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Estévez-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of widespread chronic pain. People with fibromyalgia report lower levels of Positive Affect and higher levels of Negative Affect than non-fibromyalgia peers. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS–a widely used questionnaire to assess two core domains of affect; namely ‘Positive Affect’ and ‘Negative Affect’ –has a controversial factor structure varying across studies. The internal structure of a measurement instrument has an impact on the meaning and validity of its score. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the structural construct validity of the PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 442 adult women with fibromyalgia (age: 51.3 ± 7.4 years old from Andalusia (Southern Spain. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the factor structure of the PANAS. Results: A structure with two correlated factors (Positive Affect and Negative Affect obtained the best fit; S-B χ2 = 288.49, df = 155, p < .001; RMSEA = .04; 90% CI of RMSEA = (.036, .052; the best fit SRMR = .05; CFI = .96; CAIC = −810.66, respectively. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that both Positive Affect and Negative Affect are core dimensions of affect in adult women with fibromyalgia. A structure with two correlated factors of the PANAS emerged from our sample of women with fibromyalgia from Andalusia (Southern Spain. In this model, the amount of variance shared by Positive Affect and Negative Affect was small. Therefore, our findings support to use and interpret the Positive Affect and Negative Affect subscales of the PANAS as separate factors that are associated but distinctive as well.

  15. Self and peer perceptions of childhood aggression, social withdrawal and likeability predict adult substance abuse and dependence in men and women: a 30-year prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane E; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2011-12-01

    While childhood behaviors such as aggression, social withdrawal and likeability have been linked to substance abuse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, the mechanisms by which these variables relate are not yet well established. Self and peer perceptions of childhood behaviors in men and women were compared to assess the role of context in the prediction of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. Participants (N=676) in an ongoing longitudinal project examining the relation between childhood behavior and adult mental health outcomes completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM IV regarding their histories of substance abuse in mid-adulthood (mean age=34, SD=2). In women, higher levels of both self and peer reported aggression were associated with drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and higher levels of peer reported aggression were associated with higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence. As well, higher levels of self-perceived likeability were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. In men, higher levels of peer perceived social withdrawal were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. Findings support the comparison of self and peer perceptions of childhood behavior as a method of assessing the mechanisms by which childhood behaviors impact adult outcomes, and suggest the importance of gender in the relation between childhood behaviors and adult substance abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural and Functional Imaging Studies in Chronic Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review of Adolescent and Adult Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, Albert; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Yücel, Murat; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre; Nogué, Santiago; Torrens, Marta; Pujol, Jesús; Farré, Magí; Martin-Santos, Rocio

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents. Methods Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered. Results One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. Limitations However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings. Conclusion Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives. PMID:23390554

  17. Structural and functional imaging studies in chronic cannabis users: a systematic review of adolescent and adult findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Batalla

    Full Text Available The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents.Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered.One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure.However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings.Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives.

  18. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV 1 /FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV 1 /FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R 2 =0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV 1 /FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV 1 /FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations

  19. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms among Young Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Polak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increased interest in the role of vitamin D in depression; however, there have been few studies conducted in younger population groups. Our aim was to investigate the association between vitamin D status and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical young adult sample living in Dunedin, New Zealand. A cross-sectional sample of 615 young adults completed a questionnaire including demographics and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Height, weight and a blood sample for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was obtained. Serum 25(OHD was used to predict depression scores, adjusting for potential confounders including time spent outdoors for 13 consecutive days, BMI, age, sex and ethnicity. Prevalence of low vitamin D was high even in this age group, and serum 25(OHD was negatively associated with depression symptoms before and after adjustment. When investigating the relationship between the presence versus absence of depressive symptoms and quartiles of 25(OHD, participants in the lowest quartile were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared with those in the highest quartile. Although our findings suggest that vitamin D is a predictor of depression symptomatology, even when controlling for time spent outdoors, a randomised controlled trial in this young adult target group is needed to confirm the association.

  20. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    enhance bone formation or inhibit bone resorption in young adult women, as assessed by biochemical markers of bone metabolism. (2 Subsequent maintenance of a high protein intake for 10 days in these regularly-training, calcium-replete women also showed no effects on bone metabolism.

  1. Desirable possible selves and depression in adult women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Martin G; Hansson, Berit; Lundblad, Suzanna

    2014-06-01

    Possible selves are conceptions of our selves in future states. Previous findings indicated that women with anorexia nervosa tended to have more negative possible selves than a control group, even when rating future situations normally regarded in our society as desirable. The present study investigated whether this was a general pattern in women with eating disorders, relating findings on possible selves to depression. Possible selves concerning treatment were also included. Patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 19), bulimia nervosa (n = 29) or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (n = 18) and a control group (n = 27) rated the valence of five possible selves on Likert's scales. Levels of depression were measured among the patients using the Beck Depression Inventory. The patients rated the valence of the possible selves significantly less positively and more negatively than did the control group. A strong correlation between valence and depression was found in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No such correlation was found in patients with EDNOS. Possible selves concerning future treatment were rated even more negatively. The results indicate that, when compared to a non-patient group, eating disorder patients make more negative evaluations of possible selves usually seen as desirable. Depression may be a mediating factor in these evaluations for the anorexia and bulimia patients.

  2. Age group differences in positive and negative affect among oldest-old adults: findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W; MacDonald, M; Jazwinski, S M; Green, R C; Gearing, M; Johnson, M A; Markesbery, W R; Woodard, J L; Tenover, J S; Siegler, L C; Rott, C; Rodgers, W L; Hausman, D; Arnold, J; Davey, A

    2013-01-01

    The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin, 2002) provides insights into how current experiences and resources (proximal variables) and past experiences (distal variables) are correlated with outcomes (e.g., well-being) in later life. Applying this model, the current study examined proximal and distal variables associated with positive and negative affect in oldest-old adults, investigating age differences. Data from 306 octogenarians and centenarians who participated in Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study were used. Proximal variables included physical functioning, cognitive functioning, self-rated health, number of chronic conditions, social resources, and perceived economic status; distal variables included education, social productive activities, management of personal assets, and other learning experiences. Analysis of variance and block-wise regression analyses were conducted. Octogenarians showed significantly higher levels of positive emotion than centenarians. Cognitive functioning was significantly associated with positive affect, and number of health problems was significantly associated with negative affect after controlling for gender, ethnicity, residence, and marital status. Furthermore, four significant interaction effects suggested that positive affect significantly depended on the levels of cognitive and physical functioning among centenarians, whereas positive affect was dependent on the levels of physical health problems and learning experiences among octogenarians. Findings of this study addressed the importance of current and past experiences and resources in subjective well-being among oldest-old adults as a life-long process. Mechanisms connecting aging processes at the end of a long life to subjective well-being should be explored in future studies.

  3. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P activity (P activity (P activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Thymic involvement in immune recovery during antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection in adults; comparison of CT and sonographic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Lilian; Strandberg, Charlotte; Dreves, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    ) repertoire were determined. The study demonstrated no correlation between the 2 scanning methods (r = 0.201, p = 0.358 in patients and r = 0.457, p = 0.184 in controls). Among the patients, no association was found between the sonographically estimated thymic size and immunological parameters such as CD4...... count (r = 0.083, p = 0.706), naive CD4 count (r = 0.067, p = 0.762), CD4 + TREC frequency (r = 0.028, p = 0.900) and CD4 + TCR repertoire (r = -0.057, p = 0.828). These findings show that CT remains superior for assessing thymic size in adults and is preferable to ultrasound when evaluating...

  5. Hepatic lipidosis and other test findings in two captive adult porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) dying from a "sudden death syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, Robert; Schamber, Ev; Newell, Teresa K; Dyer, Neil W

    2007-11-01

    Routine postmortem examination and histologic evaluation of tissue sections demonstrated hepatic lipidosis (HL) in 2 adult captive porcupines with a history of sudden death. The male porcupine had a markedly enlarged pale liver that microscopically showed large unilocular vacuoles within hepatocellular cytoplasm. The periparturient female had similar but less marked hepatic lesions and an incidental pulmonary mycosis. These findings suggest HL as an important differential of spontaneous death in captive porcupines. It is hypothesized that in addition to the widely documented causes, HL in captive porcupines may be specifically associated with nutritional imbalances caused by the feeding of unsuitable commercial diets. The possible association of the condition with dietary and other factors in captive porcupines needs to be thoroughly investigated.

  6. Low nutrient intake among adult women and patients with severe tuberculosis disease in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mupere Ezekiel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information regarding dietary nutrient intake during tuberculosis disease is lacking. We established the relationship between disease severity or wasting during pulmonary tuberculosis and nutrient intake. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 131 adults with or without pulmonary tuberculosis were screened for human immune-deficiency virus (HIV, wasting, disease severity using 13 item validated clinical TBscore, and 24-hour dietary intake recall. Results Of the 131 participants, 61 were males and 70 females. Overall men and women had similar age. In average 24-hour nutrient intake, the following nutrients: energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin A, and folate were low among patients with severe tuberculosis disease. Patients with moderate-to-severe clinical TBscore had lower average energy intake than patients with mild TBscores (6.11 vs. 9.27 MJ, respectively (p Conclusions Findings suggest that severity of pulmonary tuberculosis and female gender had reduced nutrient intake. Early tuberculosis diagnosis and nutritional support may be important in management of tuberculosis patients.

  7. Work-family conflicts and self-reported work ability: cross-sectional findings in women with chronic musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, Matthias; Borngräber, Yvonne

    2015-03-18

    Under conditions of gender-specific division of paid employment and unpaid childcare and housework, rising employment of women increases the likelihood that they will be faced with work-family conflicts. As recent research indicates, such conflicts might also contribute to musculoskeletal disorders. However, research in patient samples is needed to clarify how important these conflicts are for relevant health-related measures of functioning (e.g., work ability). We therefore examined, in a sample of women with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, the indirect and direct associations between the indicators of work-family conflicts and self-reported work ability as well as whether the direct effects remained significant after adjustment for covariates. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted. Participants were recruited from five rehabilitation centers. Work-family conflicts were assessed by four scales referring to time- and strain-based work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW). Self-reported work ability was measured by the Work Ability Index. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to approve the anticipated four-factor structure of the work-family conflict measure. Direct and indirect associations between work-family conflict indicators and self-reported work ability were examined by path model analysis. Multivariate regression models were performed to calculate adjusted estimators of the direct effects of strain-based WIF and FIW on work ability. The study included 351 employed women. The confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the anticipated four-factor structure of the work-family conflict measure. The path model analysis identified direct effects of both strain-based scales on self-reported work ability. The time-based scales were indirectly associated with work ability via the strain-based scales. Adjusted regression analyses showed that a five-point increase in strain-based WIF or FIW was

  8. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  9. Online Social Communication Patterns among Young Adult Women with Histories of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Ahmad, Shaikh I.; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult women with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), however available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at three time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidites, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other two groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. PMID:25894439

  10. Online social communication patterns among emerging adult women with histories of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about adult women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at 3 time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidities, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other 2 groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Distribution of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in two portions of placenta of teenager and adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Milena Lima; de Faria Barbosa, Renata; Santo, Raquel Espírito; da Silva Santos, Flávia; de Almeida, Lívia Belcastro; de Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fátima Lucia; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares

    2011-12-01

    The placenta is fundamental for fetal development. The aim of this study was to determine Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn content in the fetal and maternal portions of the placentas of teenage and adult women. Measurement of the minerals was conducted using Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Forty samples from the fetal portion of teenagers and adults and 40 samples from the maternal portion of teenagers and adults were analyzed. There were significant differences in the Ca and Cu concentrations of the placenta's maternal portion when compared to the fetal portion, for both teenagers and adults. There were differences in Fe and Zn concentrations only when comparing the maternal portion of placenta with the fetal portion of the adults. These results suggest important differences in mineral content based on the placental portion. No significant difference was observed between the minerals studied of the maternal portion of teenagers and adults; however, in the fetal portion, mineral concentrations were greater in adults than in teenagers. Therefore, the mineral concentration of the fetal portion of the placenta is influenced by the mother's age. If there is mineral's competition between the mother and fetus during pregnancy in adolescence due to the importance of these minerals in growth and development, then the mechanism and reason for it should be elucidated in future research. In addition, we believe that further research should be carried out on transporters of these minerals in the same portions of the placentas analyzed by our group, in teenagers and adults.

  12. The Fertility Management Experiences of Australian Women with a Non-communicable Chronic Disease: Findings from the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Thananjeyan, Aberaami; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2018-06-01

    Introduction Despite the considerable and increasing proportion of women of reproductive age with a chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) and the potential adverse implications of many NCDs for childbearing, little is known about the fertility management experiences of women with an NCD, including their contraceptive use, pregnancy experiences and outcomes, and reproductive health care utilisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the fertility management experiences of women with an NCD and draw comparisons with women without an NCD. Method A sample of 18-50 year-old women (n = 1543) was randomly recruited from the Australian electoral roll in 2013. Of these women, 172 women reported a physical, chronic non-communicable disease: diabetes, arthritis, asthma, hypertension, heart disease, thyroid disorders, and cystic fibrosis. Respondents completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with fertility management were identified in multivariable analyses. Results Women who reported having an NCD were significantly more likely than women who did not report an NCD to have ever been pregnant (75.9 vs. 67.5%, p = 0.034), have had an unintended pregnancy (33.47 vs. 25.5%, p = 0.026), and have had an abortion (20.3 vs. 14.2%, p = 0.044); they were less likely to consult a healthcare provider about fertility management (45.0 vs. 54.4%, p = 0.024). Similar proportions were using contraception (48.8 vs. 54.5%, p = 0.138). Conclusion The findings have implications for healthcare providers and women with an NCD and highlight the importance of addressing possible assumptions about the inability of women with an NCD to become pregnant, and ensuring women receive information about suitable methods of contraception and pre-pregnancy care.

  13. DNA methylation and gene expression of TXNIP in adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Houshmand-Oeregaard

    Full Text Available Fetal exposure to maternal diabetes increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM, possibly mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Low blood TXNIP DNA methylation has been associated with elevated glucose levels and risk of T2DM, and increased skeletal muscle TXNIP gene expression was reported in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism or T2DM. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and skeletal muscle play a key role in the control of whole body glucose metabolism and insulin action. The extent to which TXNIP DNA methylation levels are decreased and/or gene expression levels increased in SAT or skeletal muscle of a developmentally programmed at-risk population is unknown.The objective of this study was to investigate TXNIP DNA methylation and gene expression in SAT and skeletal muscle, and DNA methylation in blood, from adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes (O-GDM, n = 82 or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, n = 67 in pregnancy compared with offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, n = 57.SAT TXNIP DNA methylation was increased (p = 0.032 and gene expression decreased (p = 0.001 in O-GDM, but these differences were attenuated after adjustment for confounders. Neither blood/muscle TXNIP DNA methylation nor muscle gene expression differed between groups.We found no evidence of decreased TXNIP DNA methylation or increased gene expression in metabolic target tissues of offspring exposed to maternal diabetes. Further studies are needed to confirm and understand the paradoxical SAT TXNIP DNA methylation and gene expression changes in O-GDM subjects.

  14. Acceptability and Feasibility of a Sexual Health Intervention for Young Adult Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Mays, Vickie M; Heilemann, MarySue V; Nyamathi, Adey; Bauermeister, Jose A; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2018-05-16

    To assess the acceptability and feasibility of S2S, a newly adapted behavior intervention to address high-risk sexual behavior. Pilot randomized controlled trial. The Internet and text messages with no in-person interactions. Eighty-eight Black women, ages 18 to 24 years, were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups and self-enrolled in the respective text message program. Participants in the intervention group were sent text messages about sexual health, whereas those in the control group were sent text messages about diet and/or exercise. Participants in each group received 24 text messages, including text-only messages, memes, and infopics. Participants in the intervention group also received videos links. All text messages were sent three times per week for 8 weeks. Quantitative methods were used to analyze data from the message and video platform reports. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze participants' responses to an acceptability and feasibility survey. Overall, the delivery of health promotion text messages was viewed as acceptable and feasible by participants in both groups. Most of the short answer responses from participants were favorable, and responses to the acceptability and feasibility survey yielded a total mean score of 4.01 on a 5-point scale. Results from this study support the idea that evidence-based interventions can be adapted for delivery by text message. This delivery modality is acceptable to young adult Black women and may help decrease barriers that would otherwise prevent them from receiving health promotion messages. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Five-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among cardiovascular disease-free Greek adults: Findings from the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Demosthenes B Panagiotakos1, Christos Pitsavos2, Yannis Skoumas2, Yannis Lentzas2, Christodoulos Stefanadis21Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece; 2First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceObjective: We evaluated the 5-year incidence of diabetes in an adult population from Greece.Research design and methods: 3042 individuals (>18 years, free of cardiovascular disease, participated in the baseline examination (during 2001–2002. Of this sample, 1012 men and 1035 women were found alive at the time of follow-up, while 32 (2.1% men and 22 (1.4% women died during this period. The rest were lost to follow-up. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 1806 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline.Results: The age-adjusted 5-year incidence of diabetes was 5.5% (men, 5.8%; women, 5.2%. A linear trend was observed between diabetes incidence and age (5.6% increases in incidence per 1-year difference in age, p < 0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age (OR per 1 yr = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06, waist (OR per 1 cm = 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.003, physical activity (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.35–1.02 and family history of diabetes (OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.58–4.53, as well as fasting glucose levels (OR per 1 mg/dl = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.07, were the most significant baseline predictors for diabetes, after adjusting for various potential confounders. Additionally, presence of metabolic syndrome at baseline evaluation 2.95-fold the risk of diabetes (95% CI 1.89–4.61, and showed better classification ability than the model that contained the components of the syndrome (ie, correct classification rate: 94.5% vs. 92.3%.Conclusion: Our findings show that a 5.5% incidence rate of diabetes within a 5-year period, which suggests that the prevalence of this disorder in Greece is rising. Aging, heredity, and metabolic syndrome were the most significant

  16. Clinical and Surgical Findings and Outcome Following Rumenotomy in Adult Dairy Cattle Affected with Recurrent Rumen Tympany Associated with Non-Metallic Foreign Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Bani Ismail; A. Al-Majali; K. Al-Qudah

    2007-01-01

    Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10) included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group...

  17. Preliminary findings of an adapted evidence-based woman-focused HIV intervention on condom use and negotiation among at-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.

  18. Biological, socio-demographic, work and lifestyle determinants of sitting in young adult women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; Twisk, Jos W R; Singh, Amika S; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Brown, Wendy J

    2014-01-24

    Sitting is associated with health risks. Factors that influence sitting are however not well understood. The aim was to examine the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of sitting time (including during transport, work and leisure) in young adult Australian women. Self-reported data from 11,676 participants (aged 22-27 years in 2000) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were collected over 9 years in 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009. Generalised Estimating Equations were used to examine univariable and multivariable associations of body mass index (BMI), country of birth, area of residence, education, marital status, number of children, occupational status, working hours, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake and stress with week- and weekend-day sitting time. Compared with women in the respective referent categories, (1) women with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with less than University level education, doing white collar work, working 41-48 hours a week, current smokers, non, rare or risky/high risk drinkers and those being somewhat stressed had significantly higher sitting time; and (2) women living in rural and remote areas, partnered women, those with children, those without a paid job and blue collar workers, those working less than 34 hours a week, and active women had significantly lower sitting time. Among young adult Australian women, those with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with higher level occupations and long working hours, were most at risk of higher sitting time. These results can be used to identify at-risk groups and inform intervention development.

  19. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, Yasuji, E-mail: oshiro4211@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Okinawa Hospital, 20-14 Ganeko 3-chome, Ginowan city, Okinawa 901-2214 (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Ohta, Morio [Department of Surgery, Nakagami Hospital, 6-25-5 Chibana, Okinawa-city, Okinawa 904-2195 (Japan); Teruya, Takao [Second Department of Surgery, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung.

  20. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Yasuji; Murayama, Sadayuki; Ohta, Morio; Teruya, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung

  1. Non-occupational lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Bangkok, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Shimbo, S.; Watanabe, T.; Srianujata, S.; Banjong, O.; Chitchumroonchokchai, C.; Nakatsuka, H.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N.; Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M.

    1999-01-01

    This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to offer blood, spot urine, boiled rice and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Samples were wet-ashed, and then analyzed for Pb and Cd by ICP-MS. Geometric means for the levels in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B) and urine (Pb-U and Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), and also for dietary intake (Pb-F and Cd-F) were 32.3 μg/l for Pb-B, 0.41 μg/l for Cd-B, 2.06 μg/g creatinine for Pb-U, 1.40 μg/g creatinine for Cd-U, 15.1 μg/day for Pb-F and 7.1 μg/day for Cd-F. Rice contributed 30% and 4% of dietary Cd and Pb burden, respectively. When compared with the counterpart values obtained in four neighboring cities in southeast Asia (i.e. Nanning, Tainan, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur), dietary Pb burden of the women in Bangkok was middle in the order among the values for the five cities. Pb level in the blood was the lowest of the levels among the five cities and Pb in urine was also among the low group. This apparent discrepancy in the order between Pb-B (i.e. the fifth) and Pb-F (the third) might be attributable to recent reduction of Pb levels in the atmosphere in Bangkok. Regarding Cd exposure, Cd levels in blood and urine as well as dietary Cd burden of Bangkok women were either the lowest or the next lowest among those in the five cities. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. How the Affordable Care Act Has Helped Women Gain Insurance and Improved Their Ability to Get Health Care: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunja, Munira Z; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beautel, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    ISSUE: Prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), one-third of women who tried to buy a health plan on their own were either turned down, charged a higher premium because of their health, or had specific health problems excluded from their plans. Beginning in 2010, ACA consumer protections, particularly coverage for preventive care screenings with no cost-sharing and a ban on plan benefit limits, improved the quality of health insurance for women. In 2014, the law’s major insurance reforms helped millions of women who did not have employer insurance to gain coverage through the ACA’s marketplaces or through Medicaid. GOALS: To examine the effects of ACA health reforms on women’s coverage and access to care. METHOD: Analysis of the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Surveys, 2001–2016. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Women ages 19 to 64 who shopped for new coverage on their own found it significantly easier to find affordable plans in 2016 compared to 2010. The percentage of women who reported delaying or skipping needed care because of costs fell to an all-time low. Insured women were more likely than uninsured women to receive preventive screenings, including Pap tests and mammograms.

  3. Barriers to exercise in younger and older non-exercising adult women: a cross sectional study in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-04-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants' number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women's total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained approximately 25% and approximately 30% of the variance of younger and older women's total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  4. Migraine and cognitive function: Baseline findings from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health: ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino Baena, Cristina; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Bensenor, Isabela Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background The association between migraine and cognitive performance is unclear. We analyzed whether migraine is associated with cognitive performance among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, ELSA-Brasil. Methods Cross-sectional analysis, including participants with complete information about migraine and aura at baseline. Headache status (no headaches, non-migraine headaches, migraine without aura and migraine with aura), based on the International Headache Society classification, was used as the dependent variable in the multilinear regression models, using the category "no headache" as reference. Cognitive performance was measured with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease word list memory test (CERAD-WLMT), the semantic fluency test (SFT), and the Trail Making Test version B (TMTB). Z-scores for each cognitive test and a composite global score were created and analyzed as dependent variables. Multivariate models were adjusted for age, gender, education, race, coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, depression, and anxiety. In women, the models were further adjusted for hormone replacement therapy. Results We analyzed 4208 participants. Of these, 19% presented migraine without aura and 10.3% presented migraine with aura. All migraine headaches were associated with poor cognitive performance (linear coefficient β; 95% CI) at TMTB -0.083 (-0.160; -0.008) and poorer global z-score -0.077 (-0.152; -0.002). Also, migraine without aura was associated with poor cognitive performance at TMTB -0.084 (-0.160, -0.008 and global z-score -0.077 (-0.152; -0.002). Conclusion In participants of the ELSA-study, all migraine headaches and migraine without aura were significantly and independently associated with poorer cognitive performance.

  5. Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Susan A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Morrison, Diane M; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-09-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N=161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex - perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence - and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication.

  6. Finding the keys to successful adult-targeted advertisements on obesity prevention: an experimental audience testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Cotter, Trish; Maloney, Sarah; O'Hara, Blythe J; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-20

    Mass media communications are an important component of comprehensive interventions to address population levels of overweight and obesity, yet we have little understanding of the effective characteristics of specific advertisements (ads) on this topic. This study aimed to quantitatively test audience reactions to existing adult-focused public health television ads addressing overweight and obesity to determine which ads have the highest levels of message acceptance, argument strength, personalised perceived effectiveness and negative emotional impact. 1116 Australian adults aged 21-55 years recruited from a national online panel participated in this web-based study. Quotas were applied to achieve even numbers of males and females, those aged 21-29 years and 30-55 years, and those with a healthy weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) and overweight/obesity (BMI = 25+). Participants were randomly assigned to view and rate four of eight ads that varied in terms of message content (health consequences, supportive/encouraging or social norms/acceptability) and execution style (graphic, simulation/animation, positive or negative testimonial, or depicted scene). Toxic fat (a graphic, health consequences ad) was the top performing ad on all four outcome measures and was significantly more likely than the other ads tested to promote strong responses in terms of message acceptance, argument strength and negative emotional impact. Measure up (a negative testimonial, health consequences ad) performed comparably on personalised perceived effectiveness. Most ads produced stronger perceptions of personalised perceived effectiveness among participants with overweight/obesity compared to participants with healthy weight. Some ads were more likely to promote strong negative emotions among participants with overweight/obesity. Findings provide preliminary evidence of the most promising content and executional styles of ads that could be pursued as part of obesity prevention campaigns. Ads

  7. Cross-sectional interview study of fertility, pregnancy, and urogenital schistosomiasis in coastal Kenya: Documented treatment in childhood is associated with reduced odds of subfertility among adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Miller-Fellows

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented an increased risk of subfertility in areas of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as an ecological association between urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence and decreased fertility. This pilot project examined reproductive patterns and the potential effects of childhood urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection and individual treatment experience on adult subfertility among women who were long-term residents in an S. haematobium-endemic region of coastal Kenya.We analyzed findings from 162 in-depth interviews with women of childbearing age in a rural, coastal community, linking them, if possible, to their individual treatment records from previous multi-year longitudinal studies of parasitic infections. Reproductive histories indicated a much local higher local rate of subfertility (44% than worldwide averages (8-12%. Although, due to the very high regional prevalence of schistosomiasis, a clear relationship could not be demonstrated between a history of S. haematobium infection and adult subfertility, among a convenience sub-sample of 61 women who had received documented treatment during previous interventional trials, a significant association was found between age at first anti-schistosomal treatment and later fertility in adulthood, with those women treated before age 21 significantly less likely to have subfertility (P = 0.001.The high subfertility rate documented in this pilot study suggests the importance of programs to prevent and treat pelvic infections in their early stages to preclude reproductive tract damage. The available documented treatment data also suggest that early anti-schistosomal treatment may prevent the fertility-damaging effects of urogenital schistosomiasis, and lend support for programs that provide universal treatment of children in S. haematobium-endemic regions.

  8. Cross-sectional interview study of fertility, pregnancy, and urogenital schistosomiasis in coastal Kenya: Documented treatment in childhood is associated with reduced odds of subfertility among adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Fellows, Sarah C; Howard, Laura; Kramer, Rebekah; Hildebrand, Vanessa; Furin, Jennifer; Mutuku, Francis M; Mukoko, Dunstan; Ivy, Julianne A; King, Charles H

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has documented an increased risk of subfertility in areas of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as an ecological association between urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence and decreased fertility. This pilot project examined reproductive patterns and the potential effects of childhood urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection and individual treatment experience on adult subfertility among women who were long-term residents in an S. haematobium-endemic region of coastal Kenya. We analyzed findings from 162 in-depth interviews with women of childbearing age in a rural, coastal community, linking them, if possible, to their individual treatment records from previous multi-year longitudinal studies of parasitic infections. Reproductive histories indicated a much local higher local rate of subfertility (44%) than worldwide averages (8-12%). Although, due to the very high regional prevalence of schistosomiasis, a clear relationship could not be demonstrated between a history of S. haematobium infection and adult subfertility, among a convenience sub-sample of 61 women who had received documented treatment during previous interventional trials, a significant association was found between age at first anti-schistosomal treatment and later fertility in adulthood, with those women treated before age 21 significantly less likely to have subfertility (P = 0.001). The high subfertility rate documented in this pilot study suggests the importance of programs to prevent and treat pelvic infections in their early stages to preclude reproductive tract damage. The available documented treatment data also suggest that early anti-schistosomal treatment may prevent the fertility-damaging effects of urogenital schistosomiasis, and lend support for programs that provide universal treatment of children in S. haematobium-endemic regions.

  9. Sexual diversity in the United States: Results from a nationally representative probability sample of adult women and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Herbenick

    Full Text Available In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based, U.S. nationally representative probability survey of 2,021 adults (975 men, 1,046 women focused on a broad range of sexual behaviors. Individuals invited to participate were from the GfK KnowledgePanel®. The survey was titled the 2015 Sexual Exploration in America Study and survey completion took about 12 to 15 minutes. The survey was confidential and the researchers never had access to respondents' identifiers. Respondents reported on demographic items, lifetime and recent sexual behaviors, and the appeal of 50+ sexual behaviors. Most (>80% reported lifetime masturbation, vaginal sex, and oral sex. Lifetime anal sex was reported by 43% of men (insertive and 37% of women (receptive. Common lifetime sexual behaviors included wearing sexy lingerie/underwear (75% women, 26% men, sending/receiving digital nude/semi-nude photos (54% women, 65% men, reading erotic stories (57% of participants, public sex (≥43%, role-playing (≥22%, tying/being tied up (≥20%, spanking (≥30%, and watching sexually explicit videos/DVDs (60% women, 82% men. Having engaged in threesomes (10% women, 18% men and playful whipping (≥13% were less common. Lifetime group sex, sex parties, taking a sexuality class/workshop, and going to BDSM parties were uncommon (each <8%. More Americans identified behaviors as "appealing" than had engaged in them. Romantic/affectionate behaviors were among those most commonly identified as appealing for both men and women. The appeal of particular behaviors was associated with greater odds that the individual had ever engaged in the behavior. This study contributes to our understanding of more diverse adult sexual behaviors than has previously been captured in U.S. nationally representative probability surveys. Implications for sexuality educators, clinicians, and individuals in the general population are discussed.

  10. Sexual diversity in the United States: Results from a nationally representative probability sample of adult women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Bowling, Jessamyn; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Sanders, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based, U.S. nationally representative probability survey of 2,021 adults (975 men, 1,046 women) focused on a broad range of sexual behaviors. Individuals invited to participate were from the GfK KnowledgePanel®. The survey was titled the 2015 Sexual Exploration in America Study and survey completion took about 12 to 15 minutes. The survey was confidential and the researchers never had access to respondents’ identifiers. Respondents reported on demographic items, lifetime and recent sexual behaviors, and the appeal of 50+ sexual behaviors. Most (>80%) reported lifetime masturbation, vaginal sex, and oral sex. Lifetime anal sex was reported by 43% of men (insertive) and 37% of women (receptive). Common lifetime sexual behaviors included wearing sexy lingerie/underwear (75% women, 26% men), sending/receiving digital nude/semi-nude photos (54% women, 65% men), reading erotic stories (57% of participants), public sex (≥43%), role-playing (≥22%), tying/being tied up (≥20%), spanking (≥30%), and watching sexually explicit videos/DVDs (60% women, 82% men). Having engaged in threesomes (10% women, 18% men) and playful whipping (≥13%) were less common. Lifetime group sex, sex parties, taking a sexuality class/workshop, and going to BDSM parties were uncommon (each <8%). More Americans identified behaviors as “appealing” than had engaged in them. Romantic/affectionate behaviors were among those most commonly identified as appealing for both men and women. The appeal of particular behaviors was associated with greater odds that the individual had ever engaged in the behavior. This study contributes to our understanding of more diverse adult sexual behaviors than has previously been captured in U.S. nationally representative probability surveys. Implications for sexuality educators, clinicians, and individuals in the general population are discussed. PMID:28727762

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among homeless and unstably housed adult women living in a resource-rich urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elise D; Cohen, Jennifer; Dilworth, Samantha E; Grimes, Barbara; Marquez, Carina; Chin-Hong, Peter; Philip, Susan S

    2016-06-01

    The social context of poverty is consistently linked to Trichomonas vaginalis infection, yet few studies regarding T. vaginalis have been conducted exclusively among low-income individuals. We identified social determinants of health associated with prevalent T. vaginalis infection among homeless and unstably housed adult women. Between April and October of 2010, we conducted cross-sectional T. vaginalis screening and behavioural interviews in an existing cohort of San Francisco homeless and unstably housed women. Data were analysed using multivariable logistical regression. Among 245 study participants, the median age was 47 years and 72% were of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. T. vaginalis prevalence was 12%, compared to 3% in the general population, and 33% of infected individuals reported no gynaecological symptoms. In adjusted analysis, the odds of T. vaginalis infection were lower among persons older than 47 years, the population median (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.38), and higher among those reporting recent short-term homeless shelter stays (OR=5.36, 95% CI 1.57 to 18.26). Race and income did not reach levels of significance. Sensitivity analyses indicated that testing all women who report recent unprotected sex would identify more infections than testing those who report gynaecological symptoms (20/30 vs 10/30; p=0.01). The prevalence of T. vaginalis is high among homeless and unstably housed adult women, over one-third of infected individuals have no gynaecological symptoms, and correlates of infection differ from those reported in the general population. Targeted screening and treatment among impoverished women reporting recent unprotected sex, particularly young impoverished women and all women experiencing short-term homelessness, may reduce complications related to this treatable infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  13. Weight-Influenced Self-Esteem, Body Comparisons and Body Satisfaction : Findings among Women from The Netherlands and Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =

  14. Women's participation in household decision-making and higher dietary diversity: findings from nationally representative data from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Lartey, Anna; Kimani, Elizabeth; Mberu, Blessing U

    2016-05-31

    Low-quality monotonous diet is a major problem confronting resource-constrained settings across the world. Starchy staple foods dominate the diets in these settings. This places the population, especially women of reproductive age, at a risk of micronutrients deficiencies. This study seeks to examine the association between women's decision-making autonomy and women's achievement of higher dietary diversity (DD) and determine the socio-demographic factors that can independently predict women's attainment of higher DD. The study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The participants comprised of 2262 women aged 15-49 years and who have complete dietary data. The DD score was derived from a 24-h recall of intake of foods from nine groups. The score was dichotomized into lower DD (DD ≤4) and higher (DD ≥5). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between women decision-making autonomy (final say on how to spend money, making household purchases, own health care, opinions on wife-beating, and sexual intercourse with husband) and the achievement of higher DD. The logistic regression models were adjusted for covariates at the individual and household levels. The analysis showed that women participation in decision-making regarding household purchases was significantly associated with higher DD, after adjusting for individual and household level covariates. The odds of achieving higher DD were higher among women who had a say in deciding household purchases, compared to women who did not have a say (OR = 1.74, 95 % CI = 1.24, 2.42). Women who had more than primary education were 1.6 times more likely to achieve higher DD, compared to those with no education (95 % CI = 1.12, 2.20). Compared to women who lived in polygamous households, those who lived in monogamous households had higher odds of achieving higher DD (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI = 1.04, 1.93). Net other covariates, women who have a say in making

  15. Insulin Resistance and Impaired Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Adult Offspring of Women With Diabetes in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2013-01-01

    Context:Offspring of women with diabetes during pregnancy have increased risk of glucose intolerance in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.Objective:We aimed to investigate effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia on insulin secretion and - action in adult offspring of mothers...... a standard oral glucose tolerance test (120 minutes, 75 gram glucose). Pancreatic beta-cell function taking the prevailing insulin sensitivity into account was estimated by disposition indices.Results:Both groups of offspring exposed during pregnancy to either maternal gestational diabetes or type 1 diabetes.......005).Conclusion:Reduced insulin sensitivity as well as impaired pancreatic beta cell function may contribute to the increased risk of glucose intolerance among adult offspring born to women with diabetes during pregnancy....

  16. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswan, Saritha P; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Petzold, Max G; Fonn, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women's autonomy such as education and occupation. Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis. The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), the likelihood of use of modern contraception was lowered to about 2.5 (from 8.2) and 2.8 (from 11.8) times during 2008 and 2013, respectively, among women with secondary or higher education. The likelihood of use of modern contraception lowered only to 1.6 (from 2.8) and 1.8 (from 2.6) times among women with high sexual autonomy after controlling for other covariates, respectively, during the same period. Sexual autonomy seems to play an important role in women's use of modern contraceptive methods independent of education and a number of other factors related to women's status. Sexual autonomy needs to be simultaneously promoted alongside increasing educational opportunities to enhance women's ability to use modern contraception.

  17. Universal health coverage in emerging economies: findings on health care utilization by older adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Williams, Jennifer Stewart; Kowal, Paul; Negin, Joel; Snodgrass, James Josh; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Thiele, Liz; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) in emerging economies is a high priority within the global community. This timely study uses standardized national population data collected from adults aged 50 and older in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa. The objective is to describe health care utilization and measure association between inpatient and outpatient service use and patient characteristics in these six low- and middle-income countries. Secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health Wave 1 was undertaken. Country samples are compared by socio-demographic characteristics, type of health care, and reasons for use. Logistic regressions describe association between socio-demographic and health factors and inpatient and outpatient service use. In the pooled mult