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Sample records for adult south american

  1. The Relationship between Diet Quality and Acculturation of Immigrated South Asian American Adults and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira A Khan

    Full Text Available Even though the total SA American population is increasing rapidly, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between diet quality, acculturation and health outcomes such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS in the low-income South Asian (SA sub-population. Our goal was to examine diet quality, degree of acculturation and their potential influence on MetS in a diverse sample of SA Americans. A convenience sample of 401 adult SA men and women were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Volunteers from two low-income community health clinics in Maryland were interviewed by questionnaires. MetS, defined by the consensus harmonized definition by the presence of ≥ 3 of the 5 abnormal indicators, was studied. An interviewer obtained an automated self-administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24 and an acculturation index (using a previously validated (SL-ASIA. SA had a composite HEI2010 score of 68 suggesting an overall need for diet improvements. Males had a higher diet quality (mean HEI2010 score than females. Males with MetS had lower diet quality (68 than males without MetS (73. The converse was true for females (68 vs. 65. Americanized (more acculturated subjects had a higher diet quality compared to less acculturated SA. Small differences were found in diet quality scores among SA adults from different countries. Less acculturated females, had a higher percentage of MetS and lower diet quality compared to males. These results suggest that interventions are needed in males and females who were less acculturated because they may have greater MetS and lower diet quality compared to more Americanized SA.

  2. South American perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, S.

    1999-03-01

    South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)

  3. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of "colonias" in…

  4. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "A refreshing and intriguing interdisciplinary examination of the ways in which the history and cultures of the American South have been largely shaped by forces beyond the geographical boundaries of the United States." --Allison Graham, author of Framing the South "This is an impressive collecti...... author of The Postsouthern Sense of Place in Contemporary Fiction. William A. Link, Richard J. Milbauer Professor of History at the University of Florida, is the author of Links: My Family in American History....

  5. South American legal perspective on professional nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fagner Alfredo Ardisson Cirino; Nekrassovski, Oleg

    This study involved a literature review aimed at describing the professional duties, stipulated in federal legislation, of nursing professionals in South America. According to the federal legislation that regulates the professional nursing practice, nurses are supposed to apply their skills and knowledge in an autonomous and secure way. Since it is through this legislation that professional competence of nurses is determined, the laws of each South American nation were consulted, to see how professional nursing functions differ according to each. In general, according to the South American federal nursing legislations, professional nursing practice must be grounded in quality patient care and good nursing administration. PMID:24260995

  6. The fry patterns in the South-American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The fry pattern of aquarium-bred species of the South-American catfish genus Corydoras, contribute to discriminate between species of the so-called ‘acutus’-group, showing a greyish adult colour pattern.

  7. More on South American geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    As an addendum to J. Urrutia Fucugauchi's (Eos, 63, June 8, 1982, p. 529) excellent analysis of why things go wrong in Latin American geophysics, I submit that funds in whatever form are not the only answer. In Mexico over the past decade there has been a reasonable availability of funds, yet no dramatic increase in the quality or quantity of geophysical research was detected. Graduate scholarships have even gone begging for applicants in the earth sciences!Leadership is the big problem. National plans and forecasts for science and technology continue to ignore this central fact. They want to generate hundreds, nay thousands, of middle-level scientists while providing no incentive for excellence. As others have found out long before us, this approach is doomed from the start.

  8. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26. PMID:27030145

  9. An introduction to South American camelids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South American camelids - the domesticated alpaca and llama, and the wild vicuna and guanaco - which belong to the Camelidae family of the Artiodactyla order are of considerable sociological, economic and ecological importance to the native populations living in the high plateau (altiplano) of the central Andes. Owing to their biological characteristics they are able to provide meat, wool, hides and transportation without disrupting the fragile ecosystem. Increasing interest is being taken in these animals, both in their native lands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru and in other parts of the world. (author). 55 refs, 5 figs

  10. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik;

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....

  11. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural south

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African American youth in the south are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and ...

  12. Detection of different South American hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-12-01

    Hantaviruses are the etiologic agents of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in Old World, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)/Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS), in the New World. Serological methods are the most common approach used for laboratory diagnosis of HCPS, however theses methods do not allow the characterization of viral genotypes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for diagnosis of viral infections, including those caused by hantaviruses, enabling detection of few target sequence copies in the sample. However, most studies proposed methods of PCR with species-specific primers. This study developed a simple and reliable diagnostic system by RT-PCR for different hantavirus detection. Using new primers set, we evaluated human and rodent hantavirus positive samples of various regions from Brazil. Besides, we performed computational analyzes to evaluate the detection of other South American hantaviruses. The diagnostic system by PCR proved to be a sensible and simple assay, allowing amplification of Juquitiba virus, Araraquara virus, Laguna Negra virus, Rio Mamore virus and Jabora virus, beyond of the possibility of the detecting Andes, Anajatuba, Bermejo, Choclo, Cano Delgadito, Lechiguanas, Maciel, Oran, Pergamino and Rio Mearim viruses. The primers sets designed in this study can detect hantaviruses from almost all known genetics lineages in Brazil and from others South America countries and also increases the possibility to detect new hantaviruses. These primers could easily be used both in diagnosis of suspected hantavirus infections in humans and also in studies with animals reservoirs. PMID:26220480

  13. Diagnosis of the South American Monsoon Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Gan, Manoel; Aragão Ferreira, Solange

    2014-05-01

    In order to understand the space-time evolution of the dominant modes that constitute the South American Monsoon System (SAMS), cyclostationary EOF analysis was applied in the region between 20°N-60°S and 0°-90°E and for 29 summers (from 1978/79 to 2007/08) to the Xie-Arkin pentad precipitation data and other synoptic variables during the life cycle of the SAMS (September to March). This analysis shows detailed features of the first three dominant modes. The first mode of precipitation represents the seasonal cycle, the second mode explains the cold phase of El Niño-South Oscillation (ENSO) (La Niña) signal, and the third mode describes the transition phase of ENSO between La Niña and El Niño and possible interaction of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). All three modes together explain about 26% of the total variance of the pentad precipitation data. The most pronounced feature of the seasonal cycle is strongly associated with the positive anomalies of surface temperature during the rainy season onset that develop over the tropical region of the continent. Associated with these temperature anomalies changes in the sea level pressure (SLP) field are observed. During the end of the dry season, the surface temperature over the SAMS core increases and consequently SLP decreases. This initiates an cyclonic circulation over central region of South America (SA), known as Chaco low. The increased upward motion induced by the surface warming together with the anomalous cyclonic circulation results in the increased of low-level moisture transport from Amazon region toward central region of SA by the low-level northwesterly flow. This situation increases the amount of precipitation in SAMS core and starts the rainy season in this region. During the termination stage, these conditions over SA are reversed. The ENSO mode reveals that the following factors affect the evolution of the SAMS system in La Niña years. (1) Negative 1000-hPa temperature anomalies over the

  14. Gridded bathymetry of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was...

  15. Contemporary South Asian American women's fiction: the "difference"

    OpenAIRE

    Assella, Shashikala Muthumal

    2015-01-01

    This thesis critically explores the “difference” of contemporary South Asian American women’s fiction and their fictional narratives of women’s lives, away from the ethnic postcolonial depictions of diasporic women. The selected novels of Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Amulya Malladi, Bharti Kirchner, V.V. Ganeshananthan, Nayomi Munaweera, Nausheen Pasha-Zaidi and Shaila Abdullah studied here interrogate the depiction of South Asian women characters both within diasporic American locations and i...

  16. Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…

  17. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    AH Herdy; F López-Jiménez; CP Terzic; Milani, M.; R Stein; T Carvalho; S. Serra; CG Araujo; PC Zeballos; CV Anchique; G Burdiat; González, K.; González, G.; R. Fernández; C Santibáñez

    2014-01-01

    In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR). In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopul...

  18. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  19. Adult Caregiving among American Indians: The Role of Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…

  20. A South Asian American diasporic aesthetic community?

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Dhiraj

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the late 1990s, a diverse group of British South Asian musicians began to gain notoriety in the UK for their distinctive blends of synthesized beats with what were considered South Asian elements (e.g. tabla, sitar and `Hindustani' samples). Following these successes, the British media industries engaged in discourses on whether these South Asian musicians should be labelled under pre-existing musical genres such as acid jazz and electronic music or under an ethnically ...

  1. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  2. Sources of anti-Americanism in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Young Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to identify the causes of increasing anti-Americanism in South Korea. To accomplish this, three areas will be researched. First, the transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic government in the 1990s has provided previously unheard of democratic freedom in South Korean society. Second, the perception of inequality in the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) and the civilian crimes committed by U.S. military personnel, since the Korean War have fuel...

  3. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  4. Studies on South American Gomphidae (Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J.

    1970-01-01

    The present paper deals with some gomphids from South America. Besides descriptions of a number of new species additional notes on several Selysian and other, little-known species, elucidated with illustrations of important details, are offered in order to obtain a better insight into the characteri

  5. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  6. Rupert B. Vance, Space and the American South. CSISS Classics

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Vance paid close attention to the geographic patterning of economic and demographic factors across places. He was especially interested in what set the American South apart from the rest of America. His research explored ecological and geographic factors in Southern exceptionalism; the spatial basis of Southern migration; and the importance of regionalism.

  7. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... potential economic effects of this action on small entities. South American cactus moth is a pest that... Executive Order 12866. However, for this action, the Office of Management ] and Budget has waived its review... Health Inspection Service has determined that this action will not have a significant economic impact...

  8. Can Indian Ocean SST anomalies influence South American rainfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschetto, Andréa S.; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2012-04-01

    In this study we examine the impact of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability on South American circulation using observations and a suite of numerical experiments forced by a combination of Indian and Pacific SST anomalies. Previous studies have shown that the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode can affect climate over remote regions across the globe, including over South America. Here we show that such a link exists not only with the IOD, but also with the Indian Ocean basin-wide warming (IOBW). The IOBW, a response to El Niño events, tends to reinforce the South American anomalous circulation in March-to-May associated with the warm events in the Pacific. This leads to increased rainfall in the La Plata basin and decreased rainfall over the northern regions of the continent. In addition, the IOBW is suggested to be an important factor for modulating the persistence of dry conditions over northeastern South America during austral autumn. The link between the IOBW and South American climate occurs via alterations of the Walker circulation pattern and through a mid-latitude wave-train teleconnection.

  9. Can Indian Ocean SST anomalies influence South American rainfall?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschetto, Andrea S. [University of New South Wales, Climate Change Research Centre, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ambrizzi, Tercio [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this study we examine the impact of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability on South American circulation using observations and a suite of numerical experiments forced by a combination of Indian and Pacific SST anomalies. Previous studies have shown that the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode can affect climate over remote regions across the globe, including over South America. Here we show that such a link exists not only with the IOD, but also with the Indian Ocean basin-wide warming (IOBW). The IOBW, a response to El Nino events, tends to reinforce the South American anomalous circulation in March-to-May associated with the warm events in the Pacific. This leads to increased rainfall in the La Plata basin and decreased rainfall over the northern regions of the continent. In addition, the IOBW is suggested to be an important factor for modulating the persistence of dry conditions over northeastern South America during austral autumn. The link between the IOBW and South American climate occurs via alterations of the Walker circulation pattern and through a mid-latitude wave-train teleconnection. (orig.)

  10. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  11. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hubbe

    Full Text Available Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene.

  12. Phylogenetic reconstruction of South American felids defined by protein electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, J P; Johnson, W E; Goldman, D; O'Brien, S J

    1994-09-01

    Phylogenetic associations among six closely related South American felid species were defined by changes in protein-encoding gene loci. We analyzed proteins isolated from skin fibroblasts using two-dimensional electrophoresis and allozymes extracted from blood cells. Genotypes were determined for multiple individuals of ocelot, margay, tigrina, Geoffroy's cat, kodkod, and pampas cat at 548 loci resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and 44 allozyme loci. Phenograms were constructed using the methods of Fitch-Margoliash and neighbor-joining on a matrix of Nei's unbiased genetic distances for all pairs of species. Results of a relative-rate test indicate changes in two-dimensional electrophoresis data are constant among all South American felids with respect to a hyena outgroup. Allelic frequencies were transformed to discrete character states for maximum parsimony analysis. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates a major split occurred approximately 5-6 million years ago, leading to three groups within the ocelot lineage. The earliest divergence led to Leopardus tigrina, followed by a split between an ancestor of an unresolved trichotomy of three species (Oncifelis guigna, O. geoffroyi, and Lynchailuris colocolo) and a recent common ancestor of Leopardus pardalis and L. wiedii. The results suggest that modern South American felids are monophyletic and evolved rapidly after the formation of the Panama land bridge between North and South America. PMID:7932791

  13. Depression and gender differences: focus on Taiwanese American older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Lee-jen W; Morris, Diana Lynn

    2006-04-01

    Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was used to examine gender differences and depression in elderly Taiwanese Americans. There is a paucity of health-related research focused on Asian Americans. This is especially true in the area of mental health. Depression, the most common psychiatric illness in older adults, is under-diagnosed in Asian Americans. A convenience sample of 100 elderly Taiwanese Americans, 47 women and 53 men, was used. Women were older, had higher depressions cores, more physical illness, poorer sleep scores, and less physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that 25% of the variance in depression scores was explained by sleep quality and physical activity. PMID:16615710

  14. Electricity consumption and economic growth in seven South American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth among seven South American countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela using widely accepted time-series techniques for the period 1975-2006. The results indicate that the causal nexus between electricity consumption and economic growth varies across countries. There is a unidirectional, short-run causality from electricity consumption to real GDP for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, and Ecuador. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth in those countries. In Venezuela, there is a bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This implies that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption in that country. However, no causal relationships exist in Peru. The documented evidence from seven South American countries can provide useful information for each government with regard to energy and growth policy.

  15. 2009 South American benchmarking study: natural gas transportation companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Nathalie [Gas TransBoliviano S.A. (Bolivia); Walter, Juliana S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the current business environment large corporations are constantly seeking to adapt their strategies. Benchmarking is an important tool for continuous improvement and decision-making. Benchmarking is a methodology that determines which aspects are the most important to be improved upon, and it proposes establishing a competitive parameter in an analysis of the best practices and processes, applying continuous improvement driven by the best organizations in their class. At the beginning of 2008, GTB (Gas TransBoliviano S.A.) contacted several South American gas transportation companies to carry out a regional benchmarking study in 2009. In this study, the key performance indicators of the South American companies, whose reality is similar, for example, in terms of prices, availability of labor, and community relations, will be compared. Within this context, a comparative study of the results, the comparative evaluation among natural gas transportation companies, is becoming an essential management instrument to help with decision-making. (author)

  16. Comparative DNA analysis of three South American marsupials.

    OpenAIRE

    Heguy, A; Musto, H; Wettstein, R.

    1982-01-01

    Published information on marsupials DNA is limited to a group of species belonging to only one genus. No previous reports have been written on South American species. In this paper we characterize the DNA of three out of the four marsupials found in Uruguay. Analytical and preparative ultracentrifugations in neutral CsCl gradients, including four intercalating agents and in Cs2SO4 gradients in presence of increasing amounts of Hg++ ion did not allow us to separate any satellite fraction. The ...

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American Doradoidea (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes)

    OpenAIRE

    José L. O Birindelli

    2014-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis based on 311 morphological characters is presented for most species of the Doradidae, all genera of the Auchenipteridae, and representatives of 16 other catfish families. The hypothesis that was derived from the six most parsimonious trees support the monophyly of the South American Doradoidea (Doradidae plus Auchenipteridae), as well as the monophyly of the clade Doradoidea plus the African Mochokidae. In addition, the clade with Sisoroidea plus Aspredinidae was consi...

  18. South American mega cities: Knowledge gaps and collaboration opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization and population concentration are outstanding phenomena in South America. About 83% of the 530 million South Americans live already in large coastal or near coastal cities (> 750 k inhabitants), many of which are heavily polluted. Curbing measures have been implemented on a relatively fast pace taking advantage of lessons learned elsewhere. However, as environmental objectives become more ambitious, considering for instance chronic health effects, impacts on ecosystems and agriculture, addressing secondary particles and climatic impacts, the need for cost-effective measures requires of more reliable and locally representative data. Such data include: emission fluxes (both natural and anthropogenic) and emission scenarios; characterization of vertical mixing; speciation and distribution of pollutants and precursors. In this presentation, we review the current situation in terms of atmospheric modeling, emission modeling, measuring and observations in a number of South American cities. Also, we describe low-cost actions oriented towards improving our understanding of: 1) vertical mixing by means of a modeling inter comparison exercise using data already collected in Santiago de Chile; 2) aerosol composition and speciation of volatile organic compounds by means of a coordinated sampling of filters and canisters at various locations highlighting the diversity of our cities. These actions were collectively convened by ca. 50 leading scientists and local policy makers during an international symposium held in Santiago in January 2012 (http://ossaf.cmm.uchile.cl/). This activity marked the closure of a five year project sponsored by the Inter American Institute on Global Change Research that tackled South American Emissions Megacities and Climate (SAEMC, CRN 2017). It was also a regional activity promoted and sponsored by the international Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (iCACGP), and by the World Meteorological Organization, Global

  19. New views on American colonization: critical tests from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of timing, but also geographic points of entry and speed of dispersal, based on ecological theory. A number of emerging alternative hypotheses on the colonization of the Americas predict early entry and dispersal of people into South America - earlier than, or coeval with, initial dispersal in North America. The study of genetic, morphological, and archaeological variation across South America is critical to testing these new, alternative hypotheses of Native American origins. I will review the evidence for emerging, alternative views of American Colonization, and suggest ways in which data from South American populations and prehistory will be crucial in testing them.

  20. An overview of the South American fossil squamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Adriana María; Brizuela, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of squamates in South America is the result of the complex geological and paleoclimatic history of this part of the world. The incomplete and episodic fossil record allows us to know only a small part of this evolution. Most Mesozoic squamate remains come from the Patagonian region, but remarkable specimens have also been recovered from Brazil. Both major squamate clades (Iguania and Scleroglossa) are present in the South American Mesozoic. Remains of Mesozoic snakes are common and diverse in Cretaceous deposits, including some of the most primitive terrestrial forms. Paleogene and Neogene squamate remains have been recognized from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Paleogene lizard record appears to be scarce in comparison to that of the Mesozoic, whereas snakes show an important Paleogene diversity. At least two extant boid snakes appeared during this epoch (Boa and Corallus). The South American Miocene included some extant genera of Iguania, Teiidae, and Boidae but extinct genera were also present. "Colubrids" appeared at the early Miocene, whereas the first viperid is known from the late Miocene. Most of the Paleogene and early Neogene squamate families and genera have been recognized outside their current range of distribution following favorable climatic conditions for ectothermic vertebrates. During the latest Miocene and Pliocene few extant squamate taxa are found to occur outside their present distribution. The earliest amphisbaenian of South America is known from the Pliocene. Most Pleistocene and Holocene squamate remains are assigned to living genera, and some extant species were recognized. PMID:24482358

  1. Anomalies in the South American Monsoon Induced by Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. M. William; Kyu-Mong, Kim

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the direct effects of aerosols on the water cycle of the South American monsoon using the NASA finite-volume general circulation model (fvGCM). Global aerosol forcings are computed from radiative transfer functions derived from global distributions of five species of aerosols, i.e., dust, black carbon, organic carbon, sulphate and sea salt from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation Transport (GOCART) model. Comparing fvGCM experiments without aerosol forcing, and with different combinations of aerosol forcing, we evaluate the impacts of aerosol direct heating on the onset, maintenance and evolution of the South American summer monsoon. We find that during the pre-monsoon season (September-October-November) Saharan dust contribute to heating of the atmosphere over the central and eastern equatorial Atlantic/Africa region through the elevated heat pump mechanism. The heating generates an anomalous Walker circulation with sinking motion, and low level northeasterlies over the Caribbean and northwestern South America. The low level flow is blocked by the Andes, and turn south and southeastward, increasing the low level jet (LLJ) along the eastern slope of the Andes. The increased LLJ transports more moisture from the Atlantic and the Amazon, enhancing the moisture convergence over subtropical land regions of South America. The moisture convergence was further accelerated by atmospheric heating by biomass burning over the Amazon. The net results of the dust and biomass heating are: a) an advance of the monsoon rainy season, b) an enhanced LLJ and c) a shifting the South America monsoon land precipitation equatorward, with increased rain over southern Brazil and reduced rain over the La Plata basin. ramifications of this elevated heating heat pump mechanism in aerosol monsoon water cycle on climate variability and change will be discussed. The ramifications of this "elevated heating heat pump" mechanism in aerosol monsoom water cycle on climate

  2. Urbanisation and coronary heart disease mortality among African Americans in the US South.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, E; Strogatz, D; Armstrong, D; Wing, S

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite significant declines since the late 1960s, coronary mortality remains the leading cause of death for African Americans. African Americans in the US South suffer higher rates of cardiovascular disease than African Americans in other regions; yet the mortality experiences of rural-dwelling African Americans, most of whom live in the South, have not been described in detail. This study examined urban-rural differentials in coronary mortality trends among African American...

  3. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10530083

  4. Mental illness and lost income among adult South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Crick; Myer, Landon; Dan J Stein; Williams, David R.; Flisher, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Little is known regarding the links between mental disorder and lost income in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental disorder and lost income in the first nationally representative psychiatric epidemiology survey in South Africa. Methods A probability sample of South African adults was administered the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview schedule to assess the presence of mental ...

  5. The GPS-VTEC over three South American stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical electron content (VTEC) values obtained from GPS satellite signals received at three South American stations are used to study the behaviour of this ionospheric variable during high solar activity. The standard deviation difference between median to lower quartile and to upper quartile, are used to specify the variability of VTEC. The results show that the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude. The VTEC measurements obtained during equinoxes are greater than those obtained during solstices. The coefficients of variability can reach values as high as 50% or more for some cases. (author)

  6. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-...

  7. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  8. Influence of Andean Plateau Rise on South American Climate Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, N.; Poulsen, C. J.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    Large mountain ranges exhibit a first-order control on climate. In South America, the modern Andes act as a barrier to atmospheric flow and control regional wind and precipitation patterns. However, it is unclear how climate may have changed over time as Andean topography developed. We present results from a regional general circulation model (RegCM3) to evaluate dynamical and physical atmospheric changes associated with variations in Andean plateau height during the Cenozoic. A series of five experiments were conducted with plateau topography systematically varying between 0 and 100% of the modern. Experiments were performed over a continental-scale domain with 60km horizontal resolution using the MIT-Emanuel convection scheme. Land surface characteristics, sea-surface temperatures and atmospheric boundary conditions were specified from modern NCEP reanalysis data. Model results show that large-scale upper-level (200 mbar) circulation characteristics are only weakly affected by the removal of the Andes with a slight weakening and eastward shift of the high pressure system over Bolivia. However, low-level (800 mbar) wind patterns change significantly and have a direct effect on precipitation in South America. The following features can be observed as the Andean topography decreases: (1) The dominant wind direction in the central Andes reverses with prevailing winds sourced from the Pacific Ocean. The Westerlies are characterized by low moisture content due to the presence of the cold Humboldt current along the west coast of South America. (2) A reduction in the surface pressure gradient between the Andes and the Amazon Basin reduces convergence over the plateau and suppresses the South American low level jet, reducing the southward moisture flux along the eastern flanks of the Andes that is the primary source for precipitation in the Chaco region. These changes lead to declines in precipitation over the Andes and decreased latent heat release. This results in a

  9. Desi Women on the Forty Acres: Exploring Intergenerational Issues and Identity Development of South Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan

    2011-01-01

    South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…

  10. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Herdy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR. In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Rehabilitation from the Department of Exercise, Ergometry, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology has created a committee of experts to review the Portuguese version of the guideline and adapt it to the national reality. The mission of this document is to help health professionals to adopt effective measures of CVDPR in the routine clinical practice. The publication of this document and its broad implementation will contribute to the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO, which is the reduction of worldwide cardiovascular mortality by 25% until 2025. The study group's priorities are the following: • Emphasize the important role of CVDPR as an instrument of secondary prevention with significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; • Join efforts for the knowledge on CVDPR, its dissemination, and adoption in most cardiovascular centers and institutes in South America, prioritizing the adoption of cardiovascular prevention methods that are comprehensive, practical, simple and which have a good cost/benefit ratio; • Improve the education of health professionals and patients with education programs on the importance of CVDPR services, which are directly targeted at the health system, clinical staff, patients, and community leaders, with the aim of decreasing the barriers to CVDPR implementation.

  11. Influence of subduction history on South American topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Nicolas; Gurnis, Michael; Müller, R. Dietmar; Bower, Dan J.; Husson, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    The Cenozoic evolution of South American topography is marked by episodes of large-scale uplift and subsidence not readily explained by lithospheric deformation. The drying up of the inland Pebas system, the drainage reversal of the Amazon river, the uplift of the Sierras Pampeanas and the uplift of Patagonia have all been linked to the evolution of mantle flow since the Miocene in separate studies. Here we investigate the evolution of long-wavelength South American topography as a function of subduction history in a time-dependent global geodynamic model. This model is shown to be consistent with these inferred changes, as well as with the migration of the Chaco foreland basin depocentre, that we partly attribute to the inboard migration of subduction resulting from Andean mountain building. We suggest that the history of subduction along South America has had an important influence on the evolution of the topography of the continent because time-dependent mantle flow models are consistent with the history of vertical motions as constrained by the geological record at four distant areas over a whole continent. Testing alternative subduction scenarios reveals flat slab segments are necessary to reconcile inferred Miocene shorelines with a simple model paleogeography. As recently suggested, we find that the flattening of a subduction zone results in dynamic uplift between the leading edge of the flat slab segment and the trench, and in a wave of dynamic subsidence associated with the inboard migration of the leading edge of flat subduction. For example, the flattening of the Peruvian subduction contributed to the demise of Pebas shallow-water sedimentation, while continental-scale tilting also contributed to the drainage reversal of the Amazon River. The best correlation to P-wave tomography models for the Peruvian flat slab segment is obtained for a case when the asthenosphere, here considered to be 150 km thick and 10 times less viscous than the upper mantle, is

  12. Pollution and its Impacts on the South American Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Gallardo, Laura; Andrade, M.; Baumgardner, D.; Borbor-Córdova, M.; Bórquez, R.; Casassa, G.; Cereceda-Balic, F.; Dawidowski, L.; Garreaud, R.; Huneeus, N.; Lambert, F.; McCarty, J. L.; Mc Phee, J.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Raga, G. B.; Schmitt, C.; Schwarz, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    This article is a review of the science goals and activities initiated within the framework of the Pollution and its Impacts on the South American Cryosphere (PISAC) initiative. Air pollution associated with biomass burning and urban emissions affects extensive areas of South America. We focus on black carbon (BC) aerosol and its impacts on air quality, water availability, and climate, with an emphasis on the Andean cryosphere. BC is one of the key short-lived climate pollutants that is a topic of growing interest for near-term mitigation of these issues. Limited scientific evidence indicates that the Andean cryosphere has already responded to climate change with receding glaciers and snow cover, which directly affect water resources, agriculture, and energy production in the Andean region of South America. Despite the paucity of systematic observations along the Andes, a few studies have detected BC on snow and glaciers in the Andes. These, in addition to existing and projected emissions and weather patterns, suggest a possible contribution of BC to the observed retreat of the Andean cryosphere. Here we provide an overview of the current understanding of these issues from scientific and policy perspectives, and propose strategic expansions to the relevant measurement infrastructure in the region.

  13. Exploring Hybrid Identities: South Asian American Women Pursue a Career in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…

  14. The American South: From Civil Rights Struggle to Civil Rights Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Dorit Wagner

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the American South has become the platform for an authenticity seeking tourism industry. Former sites of civil rights action have been revived and transformed into tourist attractions. The following paper introduces the notion of so-called civil rights tourism and presents a critical analysis of current sites of civil rights commemoration throughout the American South.

  15. A South American Brazil and a Europeised Spain: relations within the Ibero-American framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Sanahuja

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relationship between Brazil and Spain, by considering the bilateral level, the Ibero-American Community and the European Union-Latin America and the Caribbean interregional frameworks. Bilateral relations have been characterised by rapid development, as well as by continuity and pragmatism which is visible despite the ideological differences between the governments of both parties. However, Brazil’s growing leadership in South America and the Europeanisation process of Spain’s foreign policy have introduced new elements into the relationship, which weaken the Ibero-American commitment in Brazil, and point to an increase in policy coherence problems for Spain and the EU. Bearing in mind an eventually successful negotiation between EU and Mercosur, the article identifies strategies to strengthen the “strategic alliance” between Spain and Brazil.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  17. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popula...

  18. ENSO impact on simulated South American hydro-climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stuck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the simulated hydro-climatology of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM is analysed. Main object of this study is the ENSO-driven variability of the water storage of South America. The horizontal model resolution amounts to 0.5 degree and it is forced with monthly climate variables for 1961-1995 of the Tyndall Centre Climate Research Unit dataset (CRU TS 2.0 as a representation of the observed climate state. Secondly, the model is also forced by the model output of a global circulation model, the ECHAM4-T42 GCM. This model itself is driven by observed monthly means of the global Sea Surface Temperatures (SST and the sea ice coverage for the period of 1903 to 1994 (GISST. Thus, the climate model and the hydrological model represent a realistic simulated realisation of the hydro-climatologic state of the last century. Since four simulations of the ECHAM4 model with the same forcing, but with different initial conditions are carried out, an analysis of variance (ANOVA gives an impression of the impact of the varying SST on the hydro-climatology, because the variance can be separated into a SST-explained and a model internal variability (noise. Also regional multivariate analyses, like Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA provide information of the complex time-space variability. In particular the Amazon region and the South of Brazil are significantly influenced by the ENSO-variability, but also the Pacific coastal areas of Ecuador and Peru are affected. Additionally, different ENSO-indices, based on SST anomalies (e.g. NINO3.4, NINO1+2, and its influence on the South American hydro-climatology are analysed. Especially, the Pacific coast regions of Ecuador, Peru and Chile show a very different behaviour dependant on those indices.

  19. Prospects for the development of the South American methanol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industry entered 1994 with positive market conditions and became increasingly robust as consumers mobilized for the anticipated needs of the second phase of the Clean Air Act. These conditions were reinforced by structural changes taking place in the industry the prime result being the emergence of a single marketer as the dominant force in world trade. In 1995 however, the drawdown of stockpiles of MTBE and methanol accumulated earlier, created conditions of excess as the industry continued to run at nearly full capacity and as opt outs from the reformulated gasoline program dampened the rate of MTBE consumption. The historical forces that attend market cycles on its way up by exerting stickiness upward also contrived to accelerate prices on their way down. Market pricing in the methanol industry, as in other commodities is set largely by the incremental molecules entering the market place. Accordingly, the terms and conditions of the transactions covering traded volumes represent a major influence on market pricing. The major portion of traded volumes are sourced from offshore locations where the domestic market is small in comparison to the production capacities. The South American region is one such strategic offshore location on which increasing emphasis must be placed, if any realistic prognosis of the future direction of the industry is to be made. It is in this context, that this paper attempts to review the underlying factors which led to the rapid growth of the major methanol producing countries in South America and to emphasize the potential for continued development of this region and its strategic importance to the global methanol industry both as a major source of production and as a significant force in the world methanol trade

  20. Intraspecific variability and systematics in South American Syrotrigoniinae (Trigoniida, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Javier; Damborenea, Susana E.; Manceñido, Miguel O.

    2015-04-01

    The systematics of the genus Syrotrigonia is revised in the light of the intraspecific variability of a large sample of Syrotrigonia sigeli from the Valanginian from Neuquén Basin, Argentina. The genus can be recognized by the presence of concentric or subconcentric costae surrounding the umbo, later on developing an inflection and finally resulting in a set of anterior horizontal to commarginal costae and another set of posterior sub-vertical costae. The anterior part of the area bears transverse, usually anteriorly concave, costae which direct towards the umbo on the escutcheon; initially they are continuous with those on the flank, but later on they usually alternate. General shell shape, the presence of an antecarinal sulcus, the junction pattern between both sets of costae and the number of horizontal costae relative to vertical costae are variable among species, while costae width or density and the development of horizontal vs. commarginal costae may vary highly within species. The presence of commarginal rugae developed on the whole surface of the shell is interpreted as a result of environmental perturbations. A brief biogeographical interpretation of the family Buchotrigoniidae is also outlined. Syrotrigonia probably originated in North America in the Tithonian, being widespread in the Pacific coast of South America by Early Cretaceous times; at least six (probably seven) South American species could be recognized. By Aptian times the taxon reached the Tethyan realm, its last record being Aptian or Albian in age. The frequent presence of different species in marginal marine deposits suggests a euryhaline lineage adapted to salinity variations, this may also be the cause of the frequent presence of commarginal rugae. Considering the high variability displayed in the analyzed material, large samples are needed to characterize new species within the group.

  1. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  2. Deforestation changes land-atmosphere interactions across South American biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alvaro; Katzfey, Jack; Thatcher, Marcus; Syktus, Jozef; Wong, Kenneth; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-04-01

    South American biomes are increasingly affected by land use/land cover change. However, the climatic impacts of this phenomenon are still not well understood. In this paper, we model vegetation-climate interactions with a focus on four main biomes distributed in four key regions: The Atlantic Forest, the Cerrado, the Dry Chaco, and the Chilean Matorral ecosystems. We applied a three member ensemble climate model simulation for the period 1981-2010 (30 years) at 25 km resolution over the focus regions to quantify the changes in the regional climate resulting from historical deforestation. The results of computed modelling experiments show significant changes in surface fluxes, temperature and moisture in all regions. For instance, simulated temperature changes were stronger in the Cerrado and the Chilean Matorral with an increase of between 0.7 and 1.4 °C. Changes in the hydrological cycle revealed high regional variability. The results showed consistent significant decreases in relative humidity and soil moisture, and increases in potential evapotranspiration across biomes, yet without conclusive changes in precipitation. These impacts were more significant during the dry season, which resulted to be drier and warmer after deforestation.

  3. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Schneider

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo, the kodkod (Leopardus guigna, and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi. To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species, achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  4. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. PMID:23153624

  5. Soil Quality Impacts of Current South American Agricultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Wingeyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yields, but the use of purchased inputs, monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., and marginal land cultivation have also increased. These changes have significantly altered the global food and feed supply role of these countries, but they have also resulted in various levels of soil degradation through wind and water erosion, soil compaction, soil organic matter (SOM depletion, and nutrient losses. Sustainability is dependent upon local interactions between soil, climate, landscape characteristics, and production systems. This review examines the region’s current soil and crop conditions and summarizes several research studies designed to reduce or prevent soil degradation. Although the region has both environmental and soil resources that can sustain current agricultural production levels, increasing population, greater urbanization, and more available income will continue to increase the pressure on South American croplands. A better understanding of regional soil differences and quantifying potential consequences of current production practices on various soil resources is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences.

  6. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  7. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  8. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008.Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 yea...

  9. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound). ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  10. Musical Crossings: Identity Formations of Second-Generation South Asian American Hip Hop Artists

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nitasha Tamar

    2005-01-01

    This paper stems from a dissertation project on second-generation South Asian American hip hop artists based on twenty-two months of fieldwork conducted primarily in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. Through interviews, participant observation, and an analysis of their lyrics, this paper examines how South Asian American (desi) hip hop artists develop a racial consciousness and identities that both challenge narrow identity politics strictly drawn around ethnic lines and provide alternativ...

  11. Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Plasma of American Alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, Jacqueline T.; Bowden, John A.; Brunell, Arnold M.; Christie, Ian; Finnell, Brendan; Guillette, Matthew P.; Jones, Martin; Lowers, Russell H.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitate fourteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at twelve sites across the southeastern US. Of those fourteen PFAAs, nine were detected in 65% - 100% of the samples: PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTriA, PFTA, PFHxS, and PFOS. Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of four PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Kiawah Nature Conservancy both exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length (SVL) were observed in both sexes suggesting PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. This study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, reveals potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and provides and additional contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health.

  12. School Adjustment and the Academic Success of Rural African American Early Adolescents in the Deep South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jana H.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Leung, Man-Chi

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates…

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American Doradoidea (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. O. Birindelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis based on 311 morphological characters is presented for most species of the Doradidae, all genera of the Auchenipteridae, and representatives of 16 other catfish families. The hypothesis that was derived from the six most parsimonious trees support the monophyly of the South American Doradoidea (Doradidae plus Auchenipteridae, as well as the monophyly of the clade Doradoidea plus the African Mochokidae. In addition, the clade with Sisoroidea plus Aspredinidae was considered sister to Doradoidea plus Mochokidae. Within the Auchenipteridae, the results support the monophyly of the Centromochlinae and Auchenipterinae. The latter is composed of Tocantinsia, and four monophyletic units, two small with Asterophysusand Liosomadoras, and Pseudotatiaand Pseudauchenipterus, respectively, and two large ones with the remaining genera. Within the Doradidae, parsimony analysis recovered Wertheimeriaas sister to Kalyptodoras, composing a clade sister to all remaining doradids, which include Franciscodorasand two monophyletic groups: Astrodoradinae (plus Acanthodorasand Agamyxis and Doradinae (new arrangement. Wertheimerinae, new subfamily, is described for Kalyptodoras and Wertheimeria. Doradinae is corroborated as monophyletic and composed of four groups, one including Centrochirand Platydoras, the other with the large-size species of doradids (except Oxydoras, another with Orinocodoras, Rhinodoras, and Rhynchodoras, and another with Oxydorasplus all the fimbriate-barbel doradids. Based on the results, the species of Opsodoras are included in Hemidoras; and Tenellus, new genus, is described to include Nemadoras trimaculatus, N. leporhinusand Nemadoras ternetzi. Due to conflicting hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Acanthodoras, Agamyxis, and Franciscodoras, these are considered as incertae sedisin Doradidae. All suprageneric taxa of the Doradoidea are diagnosed based on synapomorphic morphological characteristics.

  14. Rainwater harvesting in the South American Dry Chaco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, P. N.; Baldi, G.; Murray, F.; Aurand, S.; Paez, R. A.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    A vast fraction of the South American Dry Chaco ecoregion still relies on rainwater harvesting (RWH) to support, not only livestock production, but domestic and industrial uses as well. As a result, water capture and storage infrastructure is widely disseminated throughout the region. In this work we characterized the most typical RWH systems in two contrastingly developed sub-regions of Dry Chaco ranging from extensive ranching to intensive beef and dairy production (central Argentina and western Paraguay, respectively). In each sub-region, we quantified RWH density, spatial distribution and associations with landscape features; by other hand, we illustrated how the daily dynamic of water stock in a typical RWH system contributes to assess their capture and storage efficiency. We found that randomly distributed, low-tech RWH systems prevail in central Argentina, while clustered and hi-tech systems do it in western Paraguay. Their density was highly contrasting between sub-regions (0.098 vs. 0.94 units/ km2 in central Argentina and western Paraguay, respectively), being exponentially associated with land cleared fraction and proximity to villages. The daily monitoring of water level suggested a positive but complex response of water capture to precipitation. The elongated catchment area, created by roads and trails, could have partially decoupled local precipitation and water yield of the impoundment, favouring the capture of remote precipitation events and generating highly variable water yield under large local precipitation events. Once stored, the rates of water level decline suggested that infiltration exceeded evaporation as a water output pathway (59 vs. 41%, respectively, of total losses). Across both study areas, RWH accounts for less than 1% of the annual precipitation, playing a minor role on the regional water balance; however at a local level, they can affect several hydrological fluxes including the onset of groundwater recharge and the mitigation of

  15. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1 in 2008. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. Results: The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Conclusions: Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems, can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults.

  16. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. Results The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems) were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Conclusions Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems), can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults. PMID:23336621

  17. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  18. 75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... regulations for the interstate movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of South American cactus... American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose, Program Manager, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ,...

  19. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  20. Orphanhood and fertility in young adults: Evidence from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzoli, Carlos G

    2016-09-01

    I study the relation between orphanhood and fertility patterns in young adults using a longitudinal survey from the city of Cape Town, South Africa. The data set combines two survey waves with a year-by-year life history calendar that records key outcomes (e.g., schooling, work, fertility). It also provides information on so-called 'parental investments' (time and material support), family background, and literacy and numeracy test scores. I find that orphans exhibit significantly higher rates of teenage pregnancy. In particular, teenage motherhood is 19% points more likely among (female) orphans. These results suggest that orphanhood may leave a long-lasting 'imprint' in terms of premature fertility, especially in teenage females. PMID:27239730

  1. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popular culture. I situate sport as a key element of popular culture through which South Asian American communities work out, struggle through, and contest notions of self. Informed by an Anthropology of Sport, ethnography of South Asian American communities in Atlanta takes place alongside an examination of the North American Indo-Pak Basketball circuit. Accordingly, my findings indicate that such community formation has also taken shape at the intersections of institutions, gender, and sexuality whereby excluding queers, women, and other communities of color.

  2. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted. PMID:17900857

  3. The South American Monsoon Variability over the Last Millennium in CMIP5/PMIP3 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; Arias, P. A.; Flores-Aqueveque, V.; Seth, A.; Vuille, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we assess South American Monsoon System (SAMS) variability throughout the Last Millennium as depicted by the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project version 5/Paleo Modelling Intercomparison Project version 3 (CMIP5/PMIP3) simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly period and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small forcing during the past 1000 years, CMIP5/PMIP3 model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, as suggested by rainfall reconstructions in South America. However, with an ad-hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies were identified. The models feature a stronger Monsoon during the LIA associated with: (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer, (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-troposphere anticyclone, (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results to a certain extent in a poleward shift in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and (iv) a weaker upper-level sub tropical jet over South America, this providing important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  4. Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation: Comparing Perceptions and Knowledge of African American and White South Carolinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail. PMID:26042496

  5. Host-specificity of myxoma virus: Pathogenesis of South American and North American strains of myxoma virus in two North American lagomorph species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, L; Barnard, D; Knowlton, F; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Holland, M K; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2010-03-24

    The pathogenesis of South American and North American myxoma viruses was examined in two species of North American lagomorphs, Sylvilagus nuttallii (mountain cottontail) and Sylvilagus audubonii (desert cottontail) both of which have been shown to have the potential to transmit the South American type of myxoma virus. Following infection with the South American strain (Lausanne, Lu), S. nuttallii developed both a local lesion and secondary lesions on the skin. They did not develop the classical myxomatosis seen in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The infection at the inoculation site did not resolve during the 20-day time course of the trial and contained transmissible virus titres at all times. In contrast, S. audubonii infected with Lu had very few signs of disseminated infection and partially controlled virus replication at the inoculation site. The prototype Californian strain of myxoma virus (MSW) was able to replicate at the inoculation site of both species but did not induce clinical signs of a disseminated infection. In S. audubonii, there was a rapid response to MSW characterised by a massive T lymphocyte infiltration of the inoculation site by day 5. MSW did not reach transmissible titres at the inoculation site in either species. This might explain why the Californian myxoma virus has not expanded its host-range in North America. PMID:19836172

  6. Massive Muscular Infection by a Sarcocystis Species in a South American Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J F; Wellehan, J F X; Weisman, J L; Rush, M; Childress, A L; Lindsay, David S

    2015-06-01

    Massive numbers of sarcocysts of a previously undescribed species of Sarcocystis were observed in the skeletal muscles throughout the body of an adult, female South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). Examination of tissue sections by light microscopy demonstrated that sarcocysts were present in 20 to 40% of muscle fibers from 5 sampled locations. Sarcocysts were not present in cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or other organs. Sarcocysts were 0.05-0.15 mm wide, had variable length depending on the viewed orientation and size of the muscle fiber, and had a sarcocyst wall less than 1-μm thick. Sarcocysts were subdivided by septa and had central degeneration in older sarcocysts. Host induced secondary encapsulation or an inflammatory response was not present. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the sarcocyst wall was Type I, with a parasitophorous membrane of approximately 100 nanometers in width arranged in an undulating pattern and intermittently folded inward in a branching pattern. The sarcocysts contained metrocytes in different stages of development and mature bradyzoites. The nucleic acid sequence from a section of the 18S small subunit rRNA gene was most closely related to S. mucosa that uses marsupials as intermediate hosts and has an unknown definitive host. This is apparently the third report of muscular Sarcocystis infection in snakes and is the first to describe the ultrastructure of the sarcocysts and use sequencing methods to aid in identification. PMID:25658773

  7. Employing Strategic Thinking in South American 4icrofinance Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    CONCARI, GUSTAVO

    2014-01-01

    The article is about the use of strategic thinking in microfinance in South America. Microfinance is an important business in South America today, its importance lies in its ability to transform poor people and informal enterprises into citizens and formal companies making human beings grow as individuals at the same time. The sector is very strong in the region despite its youth and maybe it's time to use the ideas of business strategy developed for traditional businesses. The goal of thi...

  8. Biological relationship between Central and South American Chibchan speaking populations: evidence from mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Phillip E; Briceño, I; Gómez, A; Devor, E J; Bernal, J E; Crawford, M H

    2007-05-01

    We examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup and haplotype diversity in 188 individuals from three Chibchan (Kogi, Arsario, and Ijka) populations and one Arawak (Wayuú) group from northeast Colombia to determine the biological relationship between lower Central American and northern South American Chibchan speakers. mtDNA haplogroups were obtained for all individuals and mtDNA HVS-I sequence data were obtained for 110 samples. Resulting sequence data were compared to 16 other Caribbean, South, and Central American populations using diversity measures, neutrality test statistics, sudden and spatial mismatch models, intermatch distributions, phylogenetic networks, and a multidimensional scaling plot. Our results demonstrate the existence of a shared maternal genetic structure between Central American Chibchan, Mayan populations and northern South American Chibchan-speakers. Additionally, these results suggest an expansion of Chibchan-speakers into South America associated with a shift in subsistence strategies because of changing ecological conditions that occurred in the region between 10,000-14,000 years before present. PMID:17340631

  9. Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Tomas; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Vila, Enric; Del Pino, Modesto; Hernandez-Suarez, Estrella

    2012-12-01

    The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been introduced into new geographic areas, including the Mediterranean region, where it has become a serious threat to tomato production. Three greenhouse trials conducted in tomato crops during 2009 and 2010 explored control strategies using the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti compared with chemical control. The effectiveness of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) was also tested. In greenhouses with early pest infestations (discrete generations), periodic inundative releases (eight releases at a rate of 50 adults/m2, twice a week) were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (85.63 +/- 5.70%) early in the growing season. However, only one inoculative release (100 adults/m2) was sufficient to achieve a comparatively high parasitism level (91.03 +/- 12.58%) under conditions of high pest incidence and overlapping generations. Some intraguild competition was observed between T. achaeae and the predator, N. tenuis. This mirid species is commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouse tomato crops for the control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Tomato cultivars were also observed to influence the activity of natural enemies, mainly N. tenuis (whose average numbers ranged between 0.17 +/- 0.03 and 0.41 +/- 0.05 nymphs per leaf depending on the cultivar). This may be because of differences in plant nutrients in different cultivars, which may affect the feeding of omnivorous insects. In contrast, cultivar effects on T. achaeae were less apparent or possibly nonexistent. Nevertheless, there was an indirect effect in as much as T. achaeae was favored in cultivars not liked by N. tenuis. PMID:23356074

  10. Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults Lifestyle might account for the finding, expert says ... a culture of fast food, soda, stress and insomnia," said Dr. David Katz. Director of the Yale ...

  11. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation: American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.

  12. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B.; Bess, Jukelia J.; Mills, Kevin R.; Jimmy T. Efird

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesit...

  13. Model Minority at Risk: Expressed Needs of Mental Health by Asian American Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E.; Robinson, E. Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery ...

  14. School Adjustment and the Academic Success of Rural African American Early Adolescents in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung, M.-C.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates exceeding 50% for public school students. Girls were more likely to have positive characteristics than boys. Academic, behavioral, and social difficulties were linked to low end-of-year grades, and positive characteristics were linked to high grades. Implications for supporting low-achieving African American students from low-resource communities are discussed.

  15. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted. PMID:27251639

  16. Trends and variability of the South American hydrological cycle for the last 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Heitor; Gonzalez Arango, Catalina; Nogueira, Juliana; Monteiro, Leonardo; von Gunten, Lucien; Khodri, Myriam; Neukom, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    The South American continent encloses two of the largest global river basins: The Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. Its hydrological cycle is highly dependent on the water vapour transport advected from tropical-equatorial Atlantic as well as the polar advections. The Pacific Ocean contribution in the continental water budget is largely restricted to the western Andes region. Nevertheless, moderate-to-intense ENSO periods strongly affect more than half of the South American hydrology, influencing the availability of water resources from mountainous regions that are vital to ecosystems and the human economy and wellbeing. Intense droughts and floods observed continentally during the modern epoch have pointed to the need of better understanding the regional climate related issue. Recent paleoclimate advances, especially the creation of high-standard regional proxy record databases, allow describing the South American climate from a new perspective. However, large areas of tropical South America are still underrepresented in those databases. Here we present an effort of the South American PAGES 2k paleo-community LOTRED-SA to fill this gap. The group aims at producing a South American hydro-climate reconstruction from 267 proxy records (mostly tree rings, ice cores, pollen, instrumental precipitation and river flow) and 14 high resolved speleothems data covering the common era. For this study we plan to reanalyse new and existing tree ring and pollen data with respect to instrumental climate data. The well calibrated tree-ring index will be compared to an independently developed hydro-climate reconstruction for the last 2K based on speleothem records (Khodri et al., in prep) using coherence and singular spectral analyses to depict the temporal evolution of the dominant cyclicities the time series. For the more recent period, we will also use long-term instrumental data of precipitation, river flow and air temperature.

  17. Institutional Barriers to Participation in Adult Education among African Americans within Religious Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…

  18. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  19. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method: Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors…

  20. Elder Mistreatment and Physical Health among Older Adults: The South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cisler, Josh M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Begle, Angela M.; Hernandez, Melba; Acierno, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including interpersonal violence, is associated with poorer physical health in young adults. This relation has not been well-investigated among older adults in specific populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to PTEs and elder mistreatment are associated with physical health status among older adults residing in South Carolina. 902 older adults aged 60 and above participated in a structured interview assessin...

  1. High-energy physics, the South American way

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The 6th CERN–Latin American School of High-Energy Physics (CLASHEP) was held in Brazil from 23 March to 5 April. With its record-breaking attendance and strong international spirit, CLASHEP is yet another sign of the continent's growing particle physics community.   Participants in the 6th CERN–Latin American School of High-Energy Physics outside the Hotel Porto do Mar, Natal (Brazil), where the School was held. CLASHEP was established in 2001 as a way of engaging young Latin American scientists in the field of particle physics - particularly in the experimental aspects of research. It has played an important role in encouraging Latin American institutes to collaborate with CERN and showing how non-Member-State physicists can work as equals with Member-State nationals. “CLASHEP reflects some of CERN’s guiding policies: enlarging its membership and involving new nations in its programmes,” says Nick Ellis, director of the CERN Schools of High-Ene...

  2. Advances in sarcocystiosis diagnosis in South American camelids in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sarcocystiosis in south-American camelids has a high prevalence, about 94% and affects alpacas and llamas by producing cysts either in skeletal muscle or heart muscle and is caused aucheniae and S. lamacanis. The approach of this investigation was to identify the species involves their pathogenicity, protein structure and the antibody kinetics of animals raised under field conditions, in isolation and under experimental infection and immunization by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Also a PCR assay was developed for diagnosis of the disease in live animals, because so far this parasitic disease is diagnosed at the post mortem examination in the slaughterhouse. PCR product was sequenced and registered in the GeneBank for S. lamacanis. To learn about antibody kinetics under field conditions a group of 30 alpacas and their offspring raised in the Andean region of Huancavelica was sampled. Blood samples were collected and assayed by ELISA for 6 months after lambing. Similarly, a group of alpaca crias kept in isolation in Lima was monitored for antibodies. A group of 20 pregnant alpacas raised in the Andean region of Puno was transferred to our station in Lima and raised in sarcocystis-free pens. These alpacas were monitored for antibody to sarcocystis by ELISA and blood parasitemia by PCR for 2 years. A group of alpaca crias was immunized using a bradyzoite protein suspension, and blood samples were collected for monitoring antibody by ELISA and western blot. In order to identify genes coding surface antigens, bradkyzoites of S. aucheniae were collected for total RNA and mRNA isolation. From this mRNA a cDNA library will be constructed, using ligation, transformation and sequencing. Alpacas from Huancavelica assayed by ELISA showed antibody (93.3%) up to 4 months after parturition, and then 100% of them were positive. This result indicates the high rate of the infection in field conditions. A 30% of their offspring showed antibody up to 2 months of age being

  3. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  4. Inclusion of South American samples reveals new population structuring of the blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) in the western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, Davidson; Rodrigues-Filho, Luis F S; Souza, Rosália F C; Rêgo, Péricles S; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2012-12-01

    Carcharhinus limbatus has a cosmopolitan distribution and marked genetic structuring, mainly because of its philopatric behavior. However, analysis of this structuring has not previously included South American populations. In the present study, we analyzed a sample of adult individuals collected on the northern coast of Brazil and compared the sequences of the mitochondrial control region with those of populations already genotyped. Relatively high haplotype diversity (12 haplotypes, genetic diversity of 0.796) was observed, similar to that in other populations but with a much larger number of private alleles. In contrast to populations studied previously, which were represented by neonates, the pronounced allelic variability found in the South American individuals may have resulted from migrations from other populations in the region that have yet to be genotyped. This population was also genetically distinct from the other Atlantic populations (F(st) > 0.8), probably because of female philopatry, and apparently separated from the northwestern Atlantic group 1.39 million years ago. These findings indicate that the C. limbatus population from northern Brazil is genetically distinct from all other populations and should be considered as a different management unit for the protection of stocks. PMID:23271935

  5. Inclusion of South American samples reveals new population structuring of the blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus in the western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Sodré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcharhinus limbatus has a cosmopolitan distribution and marked genetic structuring, mainly because of its philopatric behavior. However, analysis of this structuring has not previously included South American populations. In the present study, we analyzed a sample of adult individuals collected on the northern coast of Brazil and compared the sequences of the mitochondrial control region with those of populations already genotyped. Relatively high haplotype diversity (12 haplotypes, genetic diversity of 0.796 was observed, similar to that in other populations but with a much larger number of private alleles. In contrast to populations studied previously, which were represented by neonates, the pronounced allelic variability found in the South American individuals may have resulted from migrations from other populations in the region that have yet to be genotyped. This population was also genetically distinct from the other Atlantic populations (Fst > 0.8, probably because of female philopatry, and apparently separated from the northwestern Atlantic group 1.39 million years ago. These findings indicate that the C. limbatus population from northern Brazil is genetically distinct from all other populations and should be considered as a different management unit for the protection of stocks.

  6. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  7. The Italian-Americans of the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotia, Elizabeth R.; Rasmussen, Karen

    Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Italian Americans can enhance cultural awareness. This document presents the story of Italians beginning with cultural roots in Italy and their subsequent emigration to the United States, including to South Bend, Indiana. Four major areas are explored. An account…

  8. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Louisa A; Ramirez, Juan David; Llewellyn, Martin S; Guhl, Felipe; Miles, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control. PMID:27434772

  9. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound. ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  10. Learning to Teach about Race: The Racialized Experience of a South Asian American Feminist Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadass, Edith

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the intellectual and experiential journey of a South Asian American (SAA) feminist who teaches about race and anti-racist praxis in the United States. It starts with her struggles trying to teach about race through the lens of White privilege and ends by sharing her current teaching practices which foreground the concept of…

  11. Coping with Discrimination: The Subjective Well-Being of South Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…

  12. Professor creates three American Mountain South-related diversity websites as resources for teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2009-01-01

    Wilma A. Dunaway, professor in the School of Public and International Affairs, has created three websites that provide a treasure trove of historic images, narratives, and information about economic history, slaves and 19th-century women in the American Mountain South.

  13. South American energy integration: new perspectives; Novas perspectivas para a integracao energetica sul-americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Malhaes da [Malhaes da Silva Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salomao, Luiz Alfredo [Universidade Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Politicas Publicas e Governo

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the South American energy integration, the advantages related to this process as well as the existing obstacles . What is the scope in terms of projects and initiatives, and the role of political and institutional barriers to be overcome. (author)

  14. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  15. Teaching English Vocabulary to Elementary Mexican American Students in South Texas: Some Responsive Modern Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiaka Nzai, Valentin; Reyna, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Teaching reading and vocabulary to Mexican American children in the United States of America today requires an acknowledgment of historical social injustice that continues to affect many communities in South Texas. This article debriefs some vocabulary teaching strategies--such as mnemonics and game play under the learning centers…

  16. Insulating an Ideology: The Enclave Effect on South Florida's Cuban Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Chris; Grenier, Guillermo J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Cuban Americans embrace a distinctive anti-Castro ideology. Although this ideology supports the embargo against Cuba--purportedly to bring about the Castro regime's compliance or collapse--the real objectives may be more symbolic than practical. Ultimately, the institutional completeness provided by the enclave in South Florida insulates and…

  17. Hand injuries in a human caused by a South American porcupine (ouriço-cacheiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Haddad Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human injuries caused by South American porcupines (in Portuguese, ouriço-cacheiro are rare. This study reports severe hand injuries provoked by the body spines of the animal in a human and discusses the circumstances involved in the accident, with emphasis on environmental factors.

  18. California Adults Who Met Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is from the 2013 California Dietary Practices Survey of Adults. Adults were asked a series of eight questions about their physical activity practices...

  19. Employing Strategic Thinking in South American 4icrofinance Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONCARI, GUSTAVO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the use of strategic thinking in microfinance in South America. Microfinance is an important business in South America today, its importance lies in its ability to transform poor people and informal enterprises into citizens and formal companies making human beings grow as individuals at the same time. The sector is very strong in the region despite its youth and maybe it's time to use the ideas of business strategy developed for traditional businesses. The goal of this paper is then to use the ideas of business strategy in microfinance. A classic strategy scheme called the Ansoff matrix is used for this. It proposes two axes (product and market as possible ways for developing a business. The work includes the theoretical development of this scheme and evaluations from experts interviewed to give their opinion on it, evaluations that make the idea richer while pointing the possible weaknesses of the model

  20. Perspectives of the mercosur parliament performance according to south american political organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Franzoi Dri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The signature of the MERCOSUR Parliament Constitutive Protocol, in 2005, has opened new parliamentary perspectives to the integration process which takes place in the South Cone. The nomination “parliament”, the universal suffrage prevision and new legislative and control functions evidence possibilities for an outstanding actuation. But is it possible to consider that this new organ was created in the middle of political conditions favorable to an effective functionality? Looking for traces to an answer, the paper examines political and electoral characteristics common to the South American States. First, we study the daily relations between the Executive and Legislative Powers in South American presidential regimes. Then, we verify to what extent the proportional open-list electoral system, largely used in the election of the lower houses members in the continent, influences such relations. At the end, we discuss the new assembly perspectives of effectiveness based on the regional characteristics studied.

  1. Checklist of the Helminth Parasites of South American Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, CP; Gibson, DI

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2001-2015 Magnolia Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The attached file is the published version of the article. Although the Chiroptera represents a significant proportion (c.20%) of the mammalian fauna and South America has the highest diversity of bat species, only a...

  2. Health of adults caring for orphaned children in an HIV endemic community in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, an estimated 2.5 million children have been orphaned by AIDS and other causes of adult mortality. Although there is a growing body of research on the well-being of South African orphaned children, few research studies have examined the health of adult individuals caring for children in HIV endemic communities. The cross-sectional survey assessed prevalence of general health and functioning (based on Short-Form 36 version 2 scale), depression (based on Center for Epidemiologic...

  3. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation betw...

  4. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  5. The Mexican American Cultural Values Scale for Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; German, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosav, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The article discusses the items derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans' (adolescents, mothers, and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups…

  6. A satellite magnetic model of northeastern South American aulacogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, M. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Von Frese, R. R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Magnetic modeling of the Amazon River and Takatu Aulacogens in northeastern South America illustrate the utility of satellite magnetic data in characterizing the properties and structure of the lithosphere. Specifically, reduction of preliminary Magsat scalar magnetic anomaly data to an equivalent condition of vertical polarization shows a general correlation between magnetic anomaly minima and the Amazon River and Takatu Aulacogens. Surface gravity data demonstrate a correlative positive anomaly. Spherical earth modeling of the magnetic data indicates a less magnetic crust associated with the aulacogens which is compatible with previous studies over the Mississippi River Aulacogen and Rio Grande Rift in North America.

  7. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  8. How does Preceding Soil Moisture Influence the Onset of the South American Monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbery, E. H.; Collini, E. A.

    2006-05-01

    The South American Monsoon System achieves maximum precipitation over the southern Amazon basin and the Brazilian highlands during the austral summer. The precipitation pattern associated with the monsoon system extends southeastward to southeastern Brazil and into the Atlantic Ocean as a band of clouds and precipitation called the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Earlier studies have noted the important role of advective processes, and in particular the effect of the South American Low-level Jet east of the Andes Mountains, in the onset and maintenance of the monsoon precipitation. The local effects of the land surface onto the onset of the South American monsoon are less understood. This study discusses the sensitivity of the monsoon precipitation to changes in initial soil moisture conditions using ensembles of month long simulations with the regional mesoscale Eta model. The sensitivity experiments to soil moisture changes suggest that soil over the subtropical region seems to be close to saturation. Consequently, precipitation is not as sensitive to increases of soil moisture as it is to decreases. When the initial soil moisture is reduced, changes in precipitation respond to two basic mechanisms. On the one hand the reduction of soil moisture implies less availability of water for evaporation; on the other hand, changes in the Bowen ratio also imply a deeper (and drier) boundary layer which results in a more elevated Low-level Jet, with a consequent reduction of the moisture transports into the monsoon region. The two mechanisms act concurrently to reduce the core monsoon precipitation.

  9. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Huamaní

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7% and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country.

  10. [Psychotherapeutic function of the South American medicine man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, H

    1976-01-01

    Observing the medicine man system in South America from a psychological point of view, the function of the medicine man can be characterized as psychohygienic or psychotherapeutic; that is to say he employs many methods similar to modern psychotherapeutic ones. We know from many ethnological field research reports that the medicine man employs in his healing procedures - among other things - dream interpretation, (auto-) hynosis, and healing suggestion, advises the sick, uses imaginative techniques, and initiates group catharsis, i.e. he treats his patients by psychological means. The psychic disturbances which he treats concern less the individual but much more often the whole group. Here the medicine man must work as a regulator and valve for the group and try to equalize, to prevent and to heal all disturbances within the collective. PMID:1024011

  11. South American natural gas trade: the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state and future prospects for the natural gas sector in South America were examined, including the ability of the natural gas resource base to meet potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay). The physical, legal, fiscal, regulatory and political developments in the hydrocarbon-producing countries in the Southern Cone region were reviewed. For example, in Colombia, the domestic gas market potential and resource base argue in favor of a closed domestic gas sector development policy. In contrast, Venezuela, a country that already has a well developed domestic gas sector, is pursuing offshore market development through both petrochemical and liquefied natural gas initiatives. Following a comprehensive description of individual gas resources, markets and market potential, and legal, institutional and political environments, the study reports on a number of alternative scenarios concerning natural gas integration in the Southern Cone region, developed by using the South America Natural Gas (SANG) model. The following scenarios were reviewed: (1) closure and confinement, (2) integration and expansion, and (3) gains from technology. It was estimated that potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region is projected to grow from 900 billion cubic feet per year in 1994 to over 5.3 trillion cubic feet in 2021. The majority of growth is expected in Brazil. The overall conclusion of the study was that regardless of the scenario, Southern Core gas sector integration has strong economic and commercial merit, and that the natural gas resource base in the Southern Cone, as represented by the gas reserves database, is more than adequate to service potential demand. 100 refs., 50 tabs., 54 figs

  12. Generational differences in fast food intake among South-Asian Americans: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Monideepa B; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States. PMID:25474383

  13. Generational Differences in Fast Food Intake Among South-Asian Americans: Results From a Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Monideepa B.; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to imp...

  14. Influence of Surface Processes over Africa on the Atlantic Marine ITCZ and South American Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies show that the climatological precipitation over South America, particularly the Nordeste region, is influenced by the presence of the African continent. Here the influence of African topography and surface wetness on the Atlantic marine ITCZ (AMI) and South American precipitation are investigated.Cross-equatorial flow over the Atlantic Ocean introduced by north south asymmetry in surface conditions over Africa shifts the AMI in the direction of the flow. African topography, for example, introduces an anomalous high over the southern Atlantic Ocean and a low to the north. This results in a northward migration of the AMI and dry conditions over the Nordeste region.The implications of this process on variability are then studied by analyzing the response of the AMI to soil moisture anomalies over tropical Africa. Northerly flow induced by equatorially asymmetric perturbations in soil moisture over northern tropical Africa shifts the AMI southward, increasing the climatological precipitation over northeastern South America. Flow associated with an equatorially symmetric perturbation in soil moisture, however, has a very weak cross-equatorial component and very weak influence on the AMI and South American precipitation. The sensitivity of the AMI to soil moisture perturbations over certain regions of Africa can possibly improve the skill of prediction.

  15. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need. PMID:25803784

  16. Rooting Memory, Rooting Place: Regionalism in the Twenty-First-Century American South

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Lewis Simpson first used the term ‘postsouthern’ to define the state of the American South in an era of postmodern capitalism. The recent swathe of transnational and transcultural theory has much bearing on this notion, as any questioning of the nation and its borders must have concomitant effects on those regions within it. The U.S. South is one such region that has long endured questioning of its contours, whether geographical, cultural, or ideological. Simpson’s ‘postsouth’ has gained much...

  17. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  18. Residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eCorral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with any certainty in light of the considerable methodological problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided.

  19. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J; Mills, Kevin R; Efird, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the) studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with certainty in light of the considerable methodologic problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided. PMID:26191522

  20. Long-term solar activity influences on South American rivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mauas, Pablo; Flamenco, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    River streamflows are excellent climatic indicators since they integrate precipitation over large areas. Here we follow up on our previous study of the influence of solar activity on the flow of the Parana River, in South America. We find that the unusual minimum of solar activity in recent years have a correlation on very low levels in the Parana's flow, and we report historical evidence of low water levels during the Little Ice Age. We also study data for the streamflow of three other rivers (Colorado, San Juan and Atuel), and snow levels in the Andes. We obtained that, after eliminating the secular trends and smoothing out the solar cycle, there is a strong positive correlation between the residuals of both the Sunspot Number and the streamflows, as we obtained for the Parana. Both results put together imply that higher solar activity corresponds to larger precipitation, both in summer and in wintertime, not only in the large basin of the Parana, but also in the Andean region north of the limit with Patago...

  1. REVIEW: South & East Asian Adult Education: Chronologies in Commonwealth Countries

    OpenAIRE

    SHARMA, Reviewed By Dr. Ramesh C.

    2002-01-01

    The major aim of this international research project was to record and analyze the chronological development of adult education in the country members of the commonwealth. It traces the developments in the area of adult education since early 1900s to the very latest as for 1999. This project was supported by the Commonwealth of Learning; the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto; the Commonwealth Association for the Education and Training of Adults; and the United ...

  2. An overview of musical instruments used in South American dance traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul A.

    2002-11-01

    Musical instruments used in South American dances combine elements from Amerindian, African, and European musical traditions. The Amerindian influence can be seen in Andean instruments, such as the end-blown flute, panpipe, and charango (modified from the European guitar). The berimau, a musical bow used in the Brazilian capoeira dance, is an example of African influence. The bandoneon is a square-ended German concertina most famous for its use in the tango from Argentina. This paper provides an overview of the musical instruments commonly used in South American dance traditions in relationship to their origins. The acoustics of some of these instruments, such as the guitar, has been studied in detail, whereas others, like the Brazilian cuica, provide opportunity for new studies.

  3. The South-American Connection Gaston Maspero, Egyptology and Americanist Archaeology at Montevideo (Uruguay, 1868

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schavelzon

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1867, young Gastón Máspero arrived in Montevideo, Uruguay, to translate a book written by the Argentine historian Vicente Fidel López, who, while during his exile conducted his campaign to run for office, also devoted himself to Quechua and the linguistics from Perú. The year he spent in Montevideo coincided with the presence of other travelers, antiquarians and pioneers of archaeology in South America, as well as with the exhibition of major Egyptian collections at Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro. He was in the right place at the right time. Eventually, in spite of having concentrated on Egyptology, would never lost contact with Americanism or with the South American countries.

  4. ARTERIAL ELASTICITY IN AMERICAN INDIAN AND CAUCASIAN CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during seven consecutive days. Amer...

  5. Depression among Asian-American Adults in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, HEE JUN; Park, Eunmi; Storr, Carla L.; Tran, Katherine; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors. Methods Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogene...

  6. Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M; Alegria, Magarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. We report findings from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), a national household probability psychiatric survey of 4,488 Latino and Asian American adu...

  7. Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Alcohol Use among Asian American Adults: Findings from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling ...

  8. Male Courtship Behavior of the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, from an Argentinean Laboratory Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Calcagno, G; Belluscio, L; Vilardi, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest of fruit species of warm regions of the Americas, including Argentina. Some authors claim that this taxon includes a group of cryptic species. In order to evaluate possible targets of sexual selection, it is necessary to analyze ethological aspects of male courtship and identify particular steps that strongly influence mating success. A mating test designed to evaluate behavioral differences betwe...

  9. Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Abdolrazagh; Geissbühler, Urs; Schellenberger, Frank; Zanolari, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Tooth root problems and periodontal diseases are common in South American camelids (SAC). The objective was to evaluate and optimize the imaging technique for dental radiography in SAC and to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal teeth at different ages. In this study, the heads of 20 healthy SAC slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons not related to dental problems included 7 female and 10 male llamas and 3 male alpacas. Using ...

  10. Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages.

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Abdolrazagh; Geissbühler, Urs; Schellenberger, Frank; Zanolari, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tooth root problems and periodontal diseases are common in South American camelids (SAC). The objective was to evaluate and optimize the imaging technique for dental radiography in SAC and to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal teeth at different ages. In this study, the heads of 20 healthy SAC slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons not related to dental problems included 7 female and 10 male llamas and 3 male alpacas. Us...

  11. Culicoides fauna and bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection in South American camelid herds in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a Culicoides-born infectious disease caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). From 2006 to 2010, BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) spread throughout Europe, causing severe disease in domestic and some wild ruminant species and in an alpaca. Compulsory vaccination of susceptible animals was the most effective strategy to control and eradicate the BTV-8 epizootic in Europe. However, South American camelids (SAC) were not included in the BTV-8 vaccination programmes in Europe. The presented...

  12. Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J.; Thomas, Jessica A.; Wadsley, Marc; Brace, Selina; Cappellini, Enrico; Turvey, Samuel T.; Reguero, Marcelo; Gelfo, Javier N.; Kramarz, Alejandro; Burger, Joachim; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashford, David A.; Ashton, Peter D.; Rowsell, Keri

    2015-01-01

    No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the eleph...

  13. Pentecostal improvement strategies : a comparative reading on african and south american pentecostalism

    OpenAIRE

    Köhrsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to explore the regional differences of religious life improvement strategies in African and South American Pentecostalism. Religious life improvement strategies can be defined as practices conducted within a religious environment that may (intentionally or not) contribute to the improvement of everyday life. Pentecostalism provides life improvement strategies to individuals seeking betterment by applying both secular and non-secular means that can help to advan...

  14. A "Nuclear Integration" : Constructing Supranationality in the South American Southern Cone

    OpenAIRE

    Milanese, Juan Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The agreements for the peaceful use of nuclear energy reached by Argentina and Brazil are not like the traditional South American integration schemes. Historically, the latter were characterized by their interpresidential structure, which showed progress but produced a precarious level of institutionalization. Although the beginning of the "nuclear cooperation" can also be characterized by its interpresidential nature, later the course of the development turned towards supranationality, with ...

  15. ON MALE AND FEMALE SPEECH AND MORE: CATEGORICAL GENDER INDEXICALITY IN INDIGENOUS SOUTH AMERICAN LANGUAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    International audience Indexing the gender of the speaker or the addressee within any type of sentence is often considered as sociolinguistic variation rather than as a gender-exclusive rule. This paper presents a survey of categorical (rather than statistical) gender indexicality in grammar with the greatest number of languages to date. It also offers a data-informed typology of categorical gender indexicality based on 41 indigenous South American languages, aimed at encouraging and facil...

  16. Measured Acculturation and MMPI-168 Performance of Native American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Tom; And Others

    1985-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that acculturation influences the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) performance of Native Americans, an instrument was developed to measure five components of acculturation. When both the acculturation instrument and the MMPI-168 were administered to 69 Rosebud Sioux, results confirmed the hypothesis. Thus,…

  17. Cocaine Use among High School Students in Six South American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes Dowell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare lifetime and past year prevalence estimates of cocaine use among secondary school students in six South American countries. Methods: Data are from the 2009 Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD and United Nations Office on Drug Control Policy (UNODC collaborative study on drug use; with national representative samples of over 170,286 secondary school students in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay. Results: Cocaine was the second most commonly reported illicit substance used following marijuana in Argentina and Uruguay, and was the most common illicit substance following marijuana and inhalants in the other four countries surveyed. Past year use ranged from a high of 3.5% in Uruguay to a low of 1.1% in Peru. Conclusions: Cocaine prevalence shows a worrisome pattern among high school students in South America. Rates in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay are close to the United States and Canada. This analysis provides evidence to support the notion that cocaine use is a problem in South American countries, particularly among those that have no known history of cocaine production. Implications for drug policy, health among teenagers and education in Latin America are discussed.

  18. Ongoing land use change exacerbates tropical South American drought by sea surface temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Lintner, B. R.; Boyce, C. K.; Lawrence, P.

    2011-12-01

    Observations of tropical South American precipitation over the last three decades indicate an increasing rainfall trend to the north and a decreasing trend to the south. Given that tropical South America has experienced significant land use change over the same period, it is of interest to assess the extent to which changing land use may have contributed to the precipitation trends. Simulations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (NCAR CAM) analyzed here suggest a non-negligible impact of land use on this precipitation behavior. While forcing the model by imposed historical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) alone produces a plausible north-south precipitation dipole over South America, NCAR CAM substantially underestimates the magnitude of the observed southern decrease in rainfall unless forcing associated with human-induced land use change is included. The impact of land use change on simulated precipitation occurs primarily during the local dry season and in regions of relatively low annual-mean rainfall, as the incidence of very low monthly-mean accumulations (heat flux from the land surface. Moving forward, continuing pressure from deforestation in tropical South America will likely increase the occurrence of significant drought beyond what would be expected by anthropogenic warming alone and in turn compound biodiversity decline from habitat loss and fragmentation.

  19. Land use change exacerbates tropical South American drought by sea surface temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Lintner, Benjamin R.; Boyce, C. Kevin; Lawrence, Peter J.

    2011-10-01

    Observations of tropical South American precipitation over the last three decades indicate an increasing rainfall trend to the north and a decreasing trend to the south. Given that tropical South America has experienced significant land use change over the same period, it is of interest to assess the extent to which changing land use may have contributed to the precipitation trends. Simulations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (NCAR CAM3) analyzed here suggest a non-negligible impact of land use on this precipitation behavior. While forcing the model by imposed historical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) alone produces a plausible north-south precipitation dipole over South America, NCAR CAM substantially underestimates the magnitude of the observed southern decrease in rainfall unless forcing associated with human-induced land use change is included. The impact of land use change on simulated precipitation occurs primarily during the local dry season and in regions of relatively low annual-mean rainfall, as the incidence of very low monthly-mean accumulations (heating. Moving forward, continuing pressure from deforestation in tropical South America will likely increase the occurrence of significant drought beyond what would be expected by anthropogenic warming alone and in turn compound biodiversity decline from habitat loss and fragmentation.

  20. Redefining Religious Nones: Lessons from Chinese and Japanese American Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Jeung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.

  1. Upstream Ecological Risks for Overweight and Obesity Among African American Youth in a Rural Town in the Deep South, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alison J Scott; Wilson, Rebecca F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have focused on overweight and obesity among rural African American youth in the Deep South, despite disproportionately high rates in this group. In addition, few studies have been conducted to elucidate how these disparities are created and perpetuated within rural communities in this region. This descriptive study explores community-based risks for overweight and obesity among African American youth in a rural town in the Deep South. Methods We used ecological theor...

  2. A whole language curriculum for nonreading, limited English proficient Native American adult factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, Mary Susan Tomat

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a whole language curriculum for limited English proficient, nonreading Native American adult factory workers. The curriculum was based upon a humanistic view of the adult literacy process. Cognitive and psycholinguistic theories of learning were used as the theoretical foundation for the curriculum. Schema theory was presented as part of a reader-centered, psycholinguistic processing model of English as a Second Language reading. The curricu...

  3. Potential use of the sterile insect technique against the South American fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Latin American countries have a strong interest in increasing fruit production and quality to facilitate commercialization within and outside the region. Various fruit fly control programmes in South America and their objectives and benefits are described here. Specific priorities to improve fruit fly control and eradication technologies include strengthening of quarantine, development of pre- and post-phytosanitary measures, and harmonization of the most effective and advanced technical procedures/methodologies to control fruit flies. A subregional strategy to control fruit flies in South America would promote technical co-operation among the South American countries and strengthen the activities of less advanced fruit fly programmes. Effective use can be made of local/regional infrastructure, expertise, sterile fly production and human/technical resources. In Argentina, advanced technology related to the use of medfly genetic sexing strains for SIT programmes has been successfully introduced. Joint efforts between technicians and scientists would contribute to developing new technology to control important pests in South America. (author)

  4. Satellite Elevation Magnetic and Gravity Models of Major South American Plate Tectonic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some MAGSAT scalar and vector magnetic anomaly data together with regional gravity anomaly data are being used to investigate the regional tectonic features of the South American Plate. An initial step in this analysis is three dimensional modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies of major structures such as the Andean subduction zone and the Amazon River Aulacogen at satellite elevations over an appropriate range of physical properties using Gaus-Legendre quadrature integration method. In addition, one degree average free-air gravity anomalies of South America and adjacent marine areas are projected to satellite elevations assuming a spherical Earth and available MAGSAT data are processed to obtain compatible data sets for correlation. Correlation of these data sets is enhanced by reduction of the MAGSAT data to radial polarization because of the profound effect of the variation of the magnetic inclination over South America.

  5. Stigma of poverty. The discursive construction of ­"South" term in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÓMEZ QUINTERO, Juan David

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects a general knowledge and a macro-paradigmatic contribution of developmentalist discourses, in particular, its modernist and Eurocentric roots. In particular we analyze the artificiality of the discursive construction of certain categories that represent geopolitical stigma of poverty, such as ­Third World® or ­South® or ­underdeveloped® adopted in the field of international relations and the development cooperation. It notes that there are not metaphors opposite (North-South in its own right, the ­South® is not the opposite of the ­North®, but its negative extension, as evidenced by the imaginarium of most Latin American countries. The metaphors that stigmatize poverty are symbolic discourse used to define in a European way the identity of the winner (rich people.

  6. Dietary Fat Reduction Behaviors among African American, American Indian, and White Older Adults with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A; Snively, Beverly M; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Dietary self-management of diabetes is often difficult for older adults to practice, particularly in rural communities. We describe patterns and correlates of dietary fat reduction among older rural adults with diabetes of any type. In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic random sample of 701 adults ≥65 with diabetes from two North Carolina counties. The Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire was used to measure dietary behaviors. Separate multiple linear regressions assessed effec...

  7. Aerosol particle properties in a South American megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulke, Ana; Torres-Brizuela, Marcela; Raga, Graciela; Baumgardner, Darrel; Cancelada, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    The subtropical city of Buenos Aires is located on the western shore of Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of Argentina. It is the second largest metropolitan area in South America, with a population density of around 14 thousand people per km2. When all 24 counties of the Great Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area are included it is the third-largest conurbation in Latin America, with a population of around fifteen million inhabitants. The generalized worldwide trend to concentrate human activities in urban regions that continue to expand in area, threatens the local and regional environment. Air pollution in the Buenos Aires airshed is due to local sources (mainly the mobile sources, followed by the electric power plants and some industries) and to distant sources (like biomass burning, dust, marine aerosols and occasionally volcanic ash) whose products arrive in the city area due to the regional transport patterns. Previous research suggests that ambient aerosol particle concentrations should be considered an air quality problem. A field campaign was conducted in Buenos Aires in 2011 in order to characterize some aerosol particles properties measured for the first time in the city. Measurements began in mid- April and continued until December. The field observations were done in a collaborative effort between the Universities of Mexico (UNAM) and Buenos Aires (UBA). A suite of instruments was installed on the roof of an UBA laboratory and classroom buildings (34.54° S, 58.44° W) at an altitude of approximately 30 m above sea level. The measurements included the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN) larger than approximately 50 nm, the mass concentration of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), the scattering (Bscat) and absorption (Babs) coefficients at 550 nm and the vertical profiles of backscattered light from aerosols at a wavelength of 910 nm using a ceilometer. In addition, a weather station recorded the meteorological

  8. Social justice in climate services: Engaging African American farmers in the American South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts

  9. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks. PMID:26056875

  10. Outcome of Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in South East of Iran (Zahedan)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Koushyar, Mohhamad Mahdi; Mohammadi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a lymphoid malignancy, resulting from autonomous proliferation of monoclonal abnormal stem cell. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response rate and prognostic factor of adult patients suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who were treated with chemotherapy in south east of Iran and demographic methods were used for this study. Methods This study was conducted in Ali Ebne Abitaleb Hospital in south east of Iran (Zahedan) from 2003-2010...

  11. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Duggirala Sivaram Prasad; Zubair Kabir; Ashok Kumar Dash; Bhagabati Charan Das

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnorma...

  12. Attitudes on Aging Well Among Older African Americans and Whites in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Corwin, Sara J; Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B.; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive impairment in older adults is a major cause of functional disability. Interest in protecting brain health is likely to grow as the US population ages and more people have experiences with cognitive decline. Recent scientific evidence suggests that physical activity, heart-healthy diets, and social involvement may help to maintain brain health. We investigated attitudes about aging well among older African Americans and whites to inform the development of interventions t...

  13. Prevalence of HBV genotypes in South American immigrants affected by HBV-related chronic active hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Palumbo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of HBV infection in a population of South American immigrants in Italy and to determine in patients with detectable serum HBV-DNA the HBVgenotypes. Between April 2005 and April 2006 a total of 130 South American immigrants were tested for HBsAg. In HBsAg positive patients the biochemical and virological activity of infection and the possible presence of co-infections (HCV, HDV, HIV were evaluated. In patients with detectable serum HBV DNA, the HBV genotype was determined by INNOLiPA. Among the 130 subjects tested, 14 (10.7% resulted HBsAg positive. All were men, with a mean age of 22 years (range 19-37 and 12 (85.7 % came from Brazil, while 2 (14.3% came from Ecuador. All patients infected by HBV had elevated alanine-aminotransferase serum levels (mean level was 127 IU/L, range 74-312 and serum HBV DNA detectable by PCR-Real Time (mean level 1,037,652 copies/mL, range 19,876-1,377,648. Genotype distribution was as follow: genotype D, 9 (64.2%, genotype A, 5 (35.8%. All patients infected by genotype D came from Brazil, while among the patients infected by genotype A, three came from Brazil and two from Ecuador. Our study evidences a moderate prevalence of HBV-infection in South American immigrants with the identification of two genotypes, D and A. These genotypes are not the most prevalent in the South America and this is probably the expression of a possible geographical redistribution of HBV genotypes.

  14. Adult Education Research: A Comparison of North American and British Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Finding that British researchers are believed to use qualitative methods while North Americans favor quantitative measurement in adult education enquiry, the author examines substantive research concerns and research publication in the United States, Britain, and Canada and concludes that there is some validity to the stereotype. (Availability:…

  15. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  16. Engaging in Violence on American Television: A Comparison of Child, Teen, and Adult Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.; Colvin, Carolyn M.; Smith, Stacy L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perpetrators of violence on American television in terms of their chronological age. Compares the amount and nature of violence committed by child and teen characters to that committed by adult characters. Suggests that younger perpetrators are depicted in several ways that pose risks for the child viewer. (SG)

  17. War, religion, and white supremacy in comparative perspective: South Africa and the American South

    OpenAIRE

    R M�ller

    2004-01-01

    The southern states of the United States of America and South Africa share a number of analogous historical realities. One of these, which is the main subject of� this article,� is� the way in which the memory of a lost war had fused cultural mythology and religious symbolism to provide a foundation for the formation and maintenance of attitudes of white supremacy in both contexts.� This article seeks to achieve a historical� understanding of the complex interrelationship between the developm...

  18. Comparative analysis of post-breakup basin evolution along the South-American and South-African margins, southern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, F.; Back, S.; Kukla, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, considerable attempts have been made to compare the sedimentary basin evolution and the associated tectonic framework on both sides of the South-Atlantic. However, yet there are still unresolved questions concerning the tectono-sedimentary styles of margin basin evolution that markedly differ from north to south. Amongst the most striking observations is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic margin segment on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. Adding to the heterogeneity of the system, the northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is also characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin now comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt than the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. This project deals with a large-scale comparison of this very different post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development of the southern and northern South American and African continental margins that both record thick post-rift sedimentary successions. To gain detail of the basin margin evolution, we focus on a regional comparison between the post-breakup records archived in the large offshore southern Brazil basins (Pelotas, Santos, Campos) and the post-breakup continental margin successions of offshore Namibia (e.g. Orange Basin) and southern Angola (e.g. Kwanza Basin). A tectonic-stratigraphic comparison of representative geological transects provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key factors influencing margin development which include the subsidence development through time, the sediment (in-)flux and storage patterns and the respective type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems). Data from the salt-prone areas offshore South America and southern

  19. Online Education for Adult Learners in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Insung

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes three applications of online learning and technology in South Korea: development of single-mode virtual universities; online education in conventional universities; and Web-based corporate training. Concludes with principles of online learning derived from experiences in implementing such environments. (AEF)

  20. Young Adult, Rural, African American Stimulant Users: Antecedents and Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Booth, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Early initiation of substance use appears to be an alarming trend among rural minorities. This study focuses on 18–21 year old African American stimulant users in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta. Most participants had no high school diploma and were unemployed; 74.5% had already been arrested. Substance use was initiated early, and nearly all of the men and three quarters of the women already met criteria for lifetime abuse or dependence. Only 18% reported they had ever received substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that substance use interventions in rural communities will require multi-faceted strategies addressing economic, educational and healthcare disparities. PMID:20098663

  1. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmody J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John Carmody1, Raghunath P Misra1,2, Marlyn P Langford1, William A Byrd1, Lauren Ditta1, Bryan Vekovius1, Donald E Texada11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a "starry sky" appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients.Keywords: B-cells, Burkitt lymphoma, cancer, diabetes, eye, Epstein–Barr virus, orbit, tumor

  2. Arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during 7 consecutive days. American Indians had a higher percentage of body fat than Caucasians (p = 0.002), whereas daily ambulatory activity measures were similar (p > 0.05). American Indians had a 16% lower large artery elasticity index (p = 0.007) and a 19% lower small artery elasticity index (p cadence (p = 0.001), fat-free mass (p cadence for 30 continuous minutes (p = 0.009), race (p = 0.005), and average cadence (p = 0.049). Between 8 and 30 years of age, elasticity means for the large and small arteries is lower in American Indians than in Caucasians. A smaller difference was observed in children, with a trend to a much larger difference in young adults. Furthermore, greater fat-free mass and higher daily ambulatory cadence are associated with higher arterial elasticity in both American Indians and Caucasians. PMID:21828174

  3. Meteorology of the Southern Global Plume: African and South American Fires Pollute the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Chatfield, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    An immense global plume of CO meanders widely around the world in the Southern Hemisphere. It arises over Southern America and Africa and flows eastward. The first emissions are in tropical Brazil, and the plume circulates around the world to South America again. The plume was largely unexpected until there were aircraft studies made in NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission - Tropics (Part A). This paper describes the meteorology of the Global Plume, as our simulation, with a synoptic model adapted to global transport, reveals it with a tracer-CO simulation. The observations and their simulation require a particular set of conditions of pollutant accumulation, cumulonimbus venting with required strengths at a narrow range of altitude. Additionally, a particular subtropical conduction region, over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and the westeRNmost South Pacific, relatively free of storms, appears to be a key part of the mechanism. These conclusions are the results of a synoptic reconstruction of the PEMT-A period, September- October, 1996.

  4. Coastal dunefields of south Brazil as a record of climatic changes in the South American Monsoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Vinícius Ribau; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Southern Brazil coastal dunefields are undergoing a stabilization process that appears to be influenced by climate change. Although this process is relatively well known in the literature, the precise climatic mechanisms involved were not fully understood until now. Here, we propose a new method for integrating meteorological data with dunefield morphology analyses by remote sensing to better understand the impacts of recent climate change on dunefield dynamics. Based on this approach, three successive morphological phases were identified for the Santa Catarina central coast dunefields since 1938: (i) increased sand saturation; (ii) reduced sand saturation with consequent accelerated dune migration; and (iii) decelerated dune migration with trends of stabilization by the vegetation cover. For the coastal dunefields of southern Brazil, the stabilization process can be explained mechanistically by an increase in precipitation and decrease of wind power, both of which were correlated with the intensification of the South American Monsoon System.

  5. Climate change and American Bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled the potential distribution of the bullfrog in its native range based on different climate models and green-house gases emission scenarios, and projected the results onto South America for the years of 2050 and 2080. We also overlaid projected models onto the South American network of protected areas. Our results indicate a slight decrease in potential suitable area for bullfrog invasion, although protected areas will become more climatically suitable. Therefore, invasion of these sites is forecasted. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence supporting the vulnerability of the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot to bullfrog invasion and call attention to optimal future climatic conditions of the Andean-Patagonian forest, eastern Paraguay, and northwestern Bolivia, where invasive populations have not been found yet. We recommend several management and policy strategies to control bullfrog invasion and argue that these would be possible if based on appropriate articulation among government agencies, NGOs, research institutions and civil society.

  6. Seismic Study of the Southernmost Andes. The Contact Between Scotia and South American Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, A.; Cominguez, A. H.; Yagupsky, D.; Alvarado, P.; Lodolo, E.; Menichetti, M.

    2003-12-01

    The relationships between the sinistral Magallanes-Fagnano continental transform fault (MFS), a major segment of the boundary between Scotia-South American plates, and the northern flank of the western Scotia Sea, characterized mostly by compressional structures, have not been yet clearly identified. From data processing, depth seismic-migration modeling and interpretation of 800 km of seismic reflection profiles, this study presents one morpho-structural analysis of these two main tectonic elements. In the offshore part of the Malvinas fold-and-thrust belt, five main seismic units have been recognized. Steeply dipping (mainly to the south) reverse faults cut through the folds. Some of these faults represent old extensional faults of the Middle-Mesozoic Rocas Verdes marginal basin rifting, which have been subsequently inverted by compressional stress fields. A noticeable fault system is recognized in the seismic profile, which involves both the sedimentary cover and the acoustic basement. This fault is interpreted as the result of shear stresses produced along the transcurrent South American-Scotia plate boundary. In the SW border of Malvinas Basin, four major discontinuities were recognized. Each discontinuity represents important changes in the regional geodynamic evolution: Early-Late Jurassic rift; Thermal subsidence (Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous); Transitional stage, to Foreland basin (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) and Foreland (since Eocene).

  7. How Useful Are Skills Acquired at Adult Non-Formal Education and Training Centres for Finding Employment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education…

  8. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    OpenAIRE

    S Kalra; Mercuri, M.; Anand, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical im...

  9. Cigarette Smoking Among Urban American Indian Adults - Hennepin and Ramsey Counties, Minnesota, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jean; Poupart, John; Rhodes, Kristine; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Lamont, Genelle; D'Silva, Joanne; Erickson, Darin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, it was estimated that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among American Indians was 36.5%, the highest of all racial/ethnic groups in the continental United States (1). Among American Indians, considerable cultural and geographic variation in cigarette smoking exists. Smoking prevalence among American Indians is lowest in the Southwest and highest in the Upper Midwest/Northern Plains (2). Little information is available about tobacco use among urban American Indians, who might not have ever lived on a reservation or be enrolled in or affiliated with a tribe. In Minnesota, a significant proportion of American Indians reside in urban areas. Among Minnesota's residents who identify as American Indian alone or in combination with another race, 30% live in Hennepin County and Ramsey County, which encompass Minneapolis and St. Paul, respectively (collectively known as the Twin Cities). The predominant tribes (Ojibwe [Chippewa] and Dakota/Lakota/Nakota [Sioux]) traditionally have used locally grown tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), red willow, and other plants for religious ceremonies, although nonceremonial tobacco is often substituted for traditional plants. To assess prevalence of cigarette smoking among this population, it is important to distinguish ceremonial tobacco use (smoked or used in other ways) from nonceremonial tobacco use. To obtain estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among American Indians in Hennepin and Ramsey counties, the American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey was administered to 964 American Indian residents in 2011, using respondent-driven sampling. Among all participants, 59% were current smokers, 19% were former smokers, and 22% had never smoked. Approximately 40% of employed participants reported that someone smoked in their workplace area during the preceding week. High prevalences of cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among urban American Indians in Minnesota underscores the need for a comprehensive and culturally

  10. Adults Who Learn: Sharing Literacy Project Experience from South-Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Oluwatoyin Dare

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the outcome of a funded non-formal, functional adult literacy project embarked upon in the university-based "Isoya" rural development programme area in south-western Nigeria from 2005-2007. It specifically presents the approaches used in legitimising the literacy project amongst community people; and reports the positive impact…

  11. Transformative Adult Learning in New Social Movement – a Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čubajevaitė Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New social movements in South Africa could play a prominent role in mobilizing the communities to reflect critically and address the repercussions of the neo-liberal agenda which manifests itself in perpetual exclusion of under-educated adults and provision of poor quality education.

  12. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

  13. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  14. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  15. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  16. Statistical arbitrage and FX exposure with South American ADRs listed on the NYSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadie Broumandi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An American Depositary Receipt (ADR represents ownership in the shares of a foreign company trading in US financial markets. We test a pair trading rule based on the mean reversion assumption for six South American stocks and their ADR counterparts on the NYSE. In our opinion, such a strategy should separate the spread risk from the currency risk. This paper aims to challenge the positive results found in similar settings. The main achievement is to show that isolating FX exposure turns such strategies that were presented as profitable to unprofitable and abnormal returns are just due to an appreciation in the home currencies versus the USD. Hence the results in some of literature should be revised.

  17. Cross-species microsatellite amplification in South American Caimans (Caiman spp and Paleosuchus palpebrosus

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    Rodrigo Barban Zucoloto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite DNA markers have been used to assess genetic diversity and to study ecological behavioral characteristics in animals. Although these markers are powerful tools, their development is labor intensive and costly. Thus, before new markers are developed it is important to prospect the use of markers from related species. In the present study we investigated the possibility of using microsatellite markers developed for Alligator mississipiensis and Caiman latirostris in South American crocodilians. Our results demonstrate the use of microsatellite markers for Paleosuchus palpebrosus, Caiman crocodilus and Caiman yacare.

  18. THE REGIONAL EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY: THE CASE OF THE AMERICAN SOUTH

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    David Beckworth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies over the past decade find that US monetary policy generates asymmetric effects on regional economies. These studies further find that the variation in industry composition across US regions is a key reason for these regional effects of monetary policy. One implication from these findings is that should a US region undergo a major restructuring of its economy that region would likely find its response to monetary policy shocks to change as well. This possibility is explored in this article by examining the regional effect of monetary policy shocks during and after the dramatic economic transformations of the American South in the twentieth century.

  19. Highly Structured Duets in the Song of the South American Hornero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Rodrigo; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2003-12-01

    The South American Hornero (Furnarius rufus) is a suboscine bird widely known for its mud-made, oven-looking nest. Beyond their architectural skills, the male and female Horneros sing in highly structured duets. The analysis of field recordings reported in this work reveals that as the male increases the note production rate the female responds by switching to different locking states: the ones predicted by the theory of nonlinear forced oscillators. This gives the duet a most appealing rhythm, and unveils the nonlinear nature of the underlying brain activity needed to generate the song.

  20. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

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    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  1. The Antillean-South American Collision Zone as Imaged by BOLIVAR Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Bezada, M. J.; Niu, F.; Miller, M. S.; Masy, J.; Clark, S. A.; Magnani, M.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Pindell, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Most models for the evolution of the southeastern Caribbean plate boundary invoke a time transgressive collision of the Antilles arc against northern South America (SA) as the Antillean subduction zone rolled back from Colombia to its present location east of Trindad during the Cenozoic. We present seismic images from the BOLIVAR experiment that detail crustal, lithospheric, and upper mantle structures across northern Venezuela resulting from this collision between the Caribbean and South American plates. A combination of seismicity, active seismic profiles, receiver functions, shear wave splits, and surface wave inversions image crustal, lithospheric and upper most mantle structures, while receiver functions and finite-frequency body-wave tomography provide control on deeper structures through the transition zone. We observe a number of first order structures that relate to Caribbean-South American collision: 1) The right-lateral San Sebastian-El Pilar strike-slip system originates at the southeastern corner of the Antillean subduction zone at about (10.75oN, 62.25oW) offshore eastern Venezuela as a subduction-transform edge propagator fault system. As the Atlantic plate descends into the mantle, tearing from the South American plate, it also depresses the edge of the SA continental margin, providing room for coastal mountain building and massive sedimentary basins. 2) After tearing from South America, the Atlantic slab descends rapidly to the transition zone as seen in body wave tomography and receiver function images. 3) The Caribbean plate has been underthrust beneath Colombia and western Venezuela from the west, and now extends as far east as the foreland of the Merida Andes, its western edge roughly paralleling the Bocono fault. 4) The mountains of central and western Venezuela owe much of their elevation to the Caribbean slab lying beneath them. In particular east-directed flat-slab Caribbean subduction beneath westernmost Venezuela has produced the Merida

  2. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  3. Depression among Asian-American Adults in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jun Kim

    Full Text Available In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors.Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics.A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults. Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%-43.7% and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%-51.3%. Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003. Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%; however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino.There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care, including increased screening

  4. An international cooperative effort to protect Opuntia cactus resources in the American Southwest and Mexico from the South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The South American Cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was intentionally introduced to an island in the Caribbean in the 1950’s and eventually made its way to the Florida peninsula by 1989. In 2004, the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APH...

  5. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  6. Review of seismic gaps and gap model for the South American subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Frank; Dahm, Torsten; Hainzl, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The seismic gap hypothesis describes a long-period decrease of the probability of earthquake occurrence after major earthquakes, as a consequence of the induced stress shadow. The gap model assumes that the continuous build-up of tectonic strain and stress is released by characteristic major earthquakes. The size of the characteristic earthquakes is for instance controlled by structural heterogeneities or the geometry of the plate boundaries. The gap model is commonly accepted by geologists and a fundamental assumption of our approaches to estimate seismic hazard and time dependent earthquake probability. Interestingly, systematic and rigorous tests to verify the seismic gap model have often failed. In this study we analyze the historical record of major earthquakes at the South American plate boundary with a special look to seismic gaps. The aim of our study is to compare and proof different seismic gap models. We discuss whether the characteristic earthquakes assumption is justified for the South American plate boundary. Two different gap models are discussed: (a) a traditional quasi-periodic recurrence model involving time dependent conditional occurrence probabilities, and (b) a new model describing earthquake rates by rate and state seismicity models considering the estimated spatial pattern of stress drop during major earthquakes.

  7. Normalized difference vegetation index for the South American continent used as a climatic variability indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NOAA AVHRR GAC data set was used to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps for the South American Continent covering the period from August 1, 1981 to June 30, 1987. A 15-day maximum value composite procedure was used to partially eliminate the cloud contamination and atmospheric attenuation. Monthly evolution of NDVI for a dry and a wet year within the period studied was used to estimate the area covered by NDVI value less than 0.223, This value was used as an indicator of the drought area and the delineation of the Low rainfall areas in the continent. It was observed a well defined regional dependence of the drought area variability for the Northeast, Southwest and Northwest continent and also for the Amazon region. It is shown a relative estimation of the area coverage with NDVI less than 0.223 for the years 1982/83 and 1984/85. The dynamics of the drought area evolution in the continent is discussed. It is also presented a diagnosis of regional variability of the continental distribution of drought area from 1981 to 1987 for the months of May and September. This information is also used to discuss its relationship with the EL-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the South American Precipitation patterns during this period. It is suggested that the use of NDVI image to identify the dynamics of the drought induced by low rainfall may provide us valuable information to study the large scale climatic variation

  8. Annual South American forest loss estimates based on passive microwave remote sensing (1990-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, M. J. E.; van der Werf, G. R.; de Jeu, R. A. M.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Consistent forest loss estimates are important to understand the role of forest loss and deforestation in the global carbon cycle, for biodiversity studies, and to estimate the mitigation potential of reducing deforestation. To date, most studies have relied on optical satellite data and new efforts have greatly improved our quantitative knowledge on forest dynamics. However, most of these studies yield results for only a relatively short time period or are limited to certain countries. We have quantified large-scale forest loss over a 21-year period (1990-2010) in the tropical biomes of South America using remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD). This passive microwave satellite-based indicator of vegetation water content and vegetation density has a much coarser spatial resolution than optical data but its temporal resolution is higher and VOD is not impacted by aerosols and cloud cover. We used the merged VOD product of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) observations, and developed a change detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Our results compared reasonably well with the newly developed Landsat-based Global Forest Change (GFC) maps, available for the 2001 onwards period (r2 = 0.90 when comparing annual country-level estimates). This allowed us to convert our identified changes in VOD to forest loss area and compute these from 1990 onwards. We also compared these calibrated results to PRODES (r2 = 0.60 when comparing annual state-level estimates). We found that South American forest exhibited substantial interannual variability without a clear trend during the 1990s, but increased from 2000 until 2004. After 2004, forest loss decreased again, except for two smaller peaks in 2007 and 2010. For a large part, these trends were driven by changes in Brazil, which was responsible for 56 % of the total South American forest loss area over our study

  9. Annual South American forest loss estimates based on passive microwave remote sensing (1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. E. van Marle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consistent forest loss estimates are important to understand the role of forest loss and deforestation in the global carbon cycle, for biodiversity studies, and to estimate the mitigation potential of reducing deforestation. To date, most studies have relied on optical satellite data and new efforts have greatly improved our quantitative knowledge on forest dynamics. However, most of these studies yield results for only a relatively short time period or are limited to certain countries. We have quantified large-scale forest losses over a 21 year period (1990–2010 in the tropical biomes of South America using remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD. This passive microwave satellite-based indicator of vegetation water content and vegetation density has a much coarser spatial resolution than optical but its temporal resolution is higher and VOD is not impacted by aerosols and cloud cover. We used the merged VOD product of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I observations, and developed a change detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Our results compared favorably to the newly developed Global Forest Change (GFC maps based on Landsat data and available for the 2001 onwards period (r2 = 0.90 when comparing annual country-level estimates, which allowed us to convert our results to forest loss area and compute these from 1990 onwards. We found that South American forest exhibited substantial interannual variability without a clear trend during the 1990s, but increased from 2000 until 2004. After 2004, forest loss decreased again, except for two smaller peaks in 2007 and 2010. For a large part, these trends were driven by changes in Brazil, which was responsible for 56 % of the total South American forest loss over our study period according to our results. One of the key findings of our study is that while forest losses decreased in Brazil

  10. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  11. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  12. Problem drinking and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Phaswana-Mafuya, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alcohol abuse poses special risks for increased morbidity and mortality among older adults. Little attention has focused on assessing alcohol use and associated factors among older adults in transitional societies such as South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors in older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in 2008. Method We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 aged 50 years or older in South Africa in 2008. In this study we analysed data from all 2144 participants who were over 60 years old. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol intake as well as comorbidity. Risky drinking was defined in two ways: heavy drinkers (>7 drinks/week) and binge drinkers (>3 drinks/one occasion/week). Results Four percent of participants reported heavy drinking and 3.7% binge drinking. Male gender (Odds Ratio (OR) =3.79, Confidence Interval (CI) =1.38-10.37) and white population group (OR=3.01, CI=1.31-6.89) were associated with risky drinking in multivariate analysis; as well as tobacco use (OR=5.25, CI=2.20-12.52) and not being obese (OR=0.14, CI=0.05-0.35). Hypertension, diabetes and depression were not associated. Conclusion This study reveals moderate rates of risky drinking among older adults (60 years and more) in South Africa that puts them at risk of morbidity. Alcohol problems among older adults are commonly under-recognized, indicating a need for health care worker intervention. PMID:23595529

  13. Characterization of the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Aline Weber; Giongo, Adriana; Valdez, Fernanda P; Blaese de Amorin, Derek; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro A; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana P G

    2016-03-01

    The microbiota of wild marine mammals is poorly understood, perhaps due to the migratory habits of some species and the difficulty in obtaining samples. Using high-throughput sequencing, the present study examines the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Faecal samples from South American (n = 6) and Subantarctic fur seals (n = 4) found dead along the south coast of Brazil were collected. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project-Bayesian classifier. Diversity of the microbiota was assessed by categorization of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units. Results indicate that Firmicutes (88.556%-84.016%) was the predominant phylum in South American and Subantarctic fur seals. The distribution of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria varied according to the fur seal species. Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes represented less than 1% of the sequences. The most abundant order in both fur seals was Clostridiales (88.64% and 87.49%). Individual variable incidences were observed in the composition of family among the fur seals, though the families Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Coriobacteriaceae were more prevalent. This study provides insight into the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American and Subantarctic fur seals. PMID:26880785

  14. The South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from Brazil as another definitive host for Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, J.P.; Kerber, C. E.; Lindsay, D S; Kasai, N; Pena, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is a definitive host for at least 3 species of Sarcocystis: S. falcatula Stiles 1983, S. neurona Dubey, Davis, Speer, Bowman, de Lahunta, Granstrom, Topper, Hamir, Cummings, Suter 1991, and S. speeri Dubey and Lindsay 1999. In order to identify species of Sarcocystis in the South American opossum, D. marsupialis, Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of a naturally infected opossum (D. marsupialis) from Brazil were fed to 4 gamma-interfer...

  15. Accounting for Racial Differences in School Attendance in the American South, 1900: The Role of Separate-But-Equal

    OpenAIRE

    Margo, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Everyone knows that public school officials in the American South violated the Supreme Court's separate-but-equal decision. But did the violations matter? Yes, enforcement of separate-but-equal would have narrowed racial differences in school attendance in the early twentieth century South. But separate-but-equal was not enough. Black children still would have attended school less often than white children because black parents were poorer and less literate than white parents.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis. PMID:27021143

  17. Model minority at risk: expressed needs of mental health by Asian American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Robinson, E Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery County, Maryland. We developed a moderator's guide with open-ended questions and used it to collect qualitative data. Using a software, we organized and identified emergent themes by major categories. Participants reported a several common sources of stress that affect the mental health of Asian American young adults including: pressure to meet parental expectations of high academic achievement and live up to the "model minority" stereotype; difficulty of balancing two different cultures and communicating with parents; family obligations based on the strong family values; and discrimination or isolation due to racial or cultural background. Young Asian Americans tend not to seek professional help for their mental health problems; instead they use personal support networks-close friends, significant others, and religious community. Participants suggested that Asian cultural norms that do not consider mental problems important, and associated stigma of seeking professional care might undermine their mental health help seeking behavior. Our findings support a need for delivering culturally appropriate programs to raise awareness of mental health and cultural training for health providers to deliver culturally appropriate care. PMID:18931893

  18. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  19. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Wessels; Elmien Lesch

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurt...

  20. UTILIZATION OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES AMONG ADULTS ATTENDING A HEALTH FAIR IN SOUTH LOS ANGELES COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Macias, Eduardo P.; Morales, Leo S.

    2000-01-01

    A bilingual survey was developed to collect information regarding socio-demographics, access to medical and dental care, health insurance coverage, perceived health status, and use of folk medicine providers from 70 adults presenting to a health fair in South Los Angeles County. Ninety-seven percent of respondents were foreign-born. Seventy-nine percent reported having no health insurance during the year prior to survey. Of the uninsured, 61 percent lacked a doctor visit and 76 percent lacked...

  1. Dietary Adequacies among South African Adults in Rural KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Kolahdooz; Kerry Spearing; Sangita Sharma

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfacti...

  2. U.S. Foreign Policy, The South American Integration, and the case of the military bases in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias-Cavicchioli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the nature of the conflict generated in South America by the adoption of the new military agreement between the U.S. and Colombia. The article will evaluate the political and the geostrategic implications of this agreement, especially its repercussions for the regional integration process of South America. It will also analyze the stances of the local actors in order to consider prospective scenarios, and will assess the U.S. approach to South American integration under the Obama administration.

  3. Comparison between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Alves de Moraes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: the study aims to evaluate the reproducibility between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in an adult population living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. METHODS: population-based cross-sectional study, including 930 adults of both genders. The reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, estimated according to socio-demographic strata. RESULTS: the kappa estimates showed good agreement between the two criteria in all strata. However, higher prevalence of "actives" was found by using the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association. CONCLUSIONS: although the estimates have indicated good agreement, the findings suggest caution in choosing the criteria to classify physical activity profile mainly when "walking" is the main modality of physical activity.

  4. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  5. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  6. The Decline of Social Education and the Rise of Instrumentalism in North American Adult Education (1947-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Andre P.

    2012-01-01

    In 1947 the Truman Commission on Higher Education accentuated the importance of adult education in its report entitled "Higher Education for American Democracy". In 1970 a new US "Handbook of Adult Education" signifying the move to a more professionalised field of study and practice was published. The intervening years encapsulate a time of…

  7. IMPOSEX IN THE MARINE SNAIL XANTHOCHORUS BUXEA (BRODERIP, 1833 (MURICIDAE FROM THE SOUTH AMERICAN PACIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guabloche, Angélica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The imposex phenomenon is the emergence of male sexual characteristics on the reproductive system of female prosobranch gastropod snails. This alteration was historically associated with contamination with organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT. In this study we evaluated the incidence of imposex in the marine snail Xanthochorus buxea (Broderip, 1833 (Muricidae from Hermosa Beach, Ancon, Lima, Peru. Imposex percentage was 97.6%. The rate of the relative length of the penis (RPLI was equal to 94.3. Astatistically significant relationship was found between the shell length and length of the penis in males and females. This research is the first application of X. buxea as a bioindicator of organotin components in Peru from the South American Pacific coast.

  8. Clinical management of potential ibuprofen toxicosis in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Juliet N

    2006-09-01

    This article describes the clinical management of potential ibuprofen toxicosis in South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria). A 2.5-year-old, 0.78-kg Geochelone carbonaria tortoise was presented to the emergency clinic after ingesting solubilized ibuprofen (200 mg) in a gelatin capsule. Treatment on initial presentation consisted of esophagostomy tube placement for gastric lavage and activated charcoal administration, intravenous and intraosseous fluid therapy, and administration of gastrointestinal protectants (sucralfate and famotidine). The tortoise was discharged to the owners. Although follow-up diagnostic monitoring was minimal because of owner compliance, the patient was noted to be alive and in reasonable health 1 year after initial presentation. This is the first report on the management of potential nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug toxicosis in any chelonian species. PMID:16931380

  9. Morphological divergence in a continental adaptive radiation: South American ovenbirds of the genus Cinclodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Jonathan A.; Dillon, Michael E.; Chesser, Terry; Sabat, Pablo; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cinclodes is an ecologically diverse genus of South American passerine birds and represents a case of continental adaptive radiation along multiple axes. We investigated morphological diversification in Cinclodes using a comprehensive set of morphometric measurements of study skins. Principal component analysis identified 2 primary axes of morphological variation: one describing body size and a second capturing differences in wing-tip shape and toe length. Phylogenetic analyses of the first principal component suggest an early divergence ofCinclodes into 2 main clades characterized by large and small body sizes. We suggest that 2 morphological outliers within these main clades (C. antarcticus and C. palliatus) may be cases of island gigantism and that a third (C. patagonicus) may reflect ecological character displacement. Despite its ecological and physiological diversity, the genus Cinclodes does not appear to show morphological diversity beyond what is typical of other avian genera.

  10. An Exploration of Human Nature and a Challenge Against Conventional Morality of American South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉平

    2005-01-01

    文章通过对马克·吐温名著主题的分析,深刻探讨了马克·吐温对人的本性的探索和对美国南方传统道德的挑战,并进而提出了与现今社会紧密联系的人文关怀问题.%By analyzing the theme of Mark Twain's work The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,we can learn that Mark Twain makes an exploration of human nature and a challenge against conventional morality in American South through the depiction of Huck's mental conflict, his final determination to help Jim acquire freedom as well as the friendship between Huck and Jim established during their escape journey down the Mississippi River.

  11. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Fernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  12. Complex networks identify spatial patterns of extreme rainfall events of the South American Monsoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Marengo, José

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall synchronicity of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) by means of Complex Networks (CN). By introducing a new combination of CN measures and interpreting it in a climatic context, we investigate climatic linkages and classify the spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall synchronicity. Although our approach is based on only one variable (rainfall), it reveals the most important features of the SAMS, such as the main moisture pathways, areas with frequent development of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS), and the major convergence zones. In addition, our results reveal substantial differences between the spatial structures of rainfall synchronicity above the 90th and above the 95th percentiles. Most notably, events above the 95th percentile contribute stronger to MCS in the La Plata Basin.

  13. Evaluation of Riboflavin Intakes and Status of 20–64-Year-Old Adults in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Young Choi; Young-Nam Kim; Youn-OK Cho

    2014-01-01

    A recent Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey indicated inadequate riboflavin intake in Koreans, but there is limited research regarding riboflavin status in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine riboflavin intake and status of Korean adults. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 412 (145 men and 267 women) healthy adults, aged 20–64 years, living in South Korea and urine samples were collected from 149 subjects of all subjects. The dietary and total...

  14. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  15. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. This action will allow interested persons...

  16. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... conducted. On April 4, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010... document published in the Federal Register on May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26654-26655). We received 30 comments by... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal...

  17. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... (74 FR 651-664, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0126), that led to establishment of the Peruvian Hass avocado... effective on January 4, 2010 (75 FR 1-13), we stated that more research would need to be done in accordance... Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist...

  18. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  19. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  20. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  1. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  2. Perceptions of medical interactions between healthcare providers and American Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Sarkisian, Natalia; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra; Beals, Janette

    2008-08-01

    Cultural competence models assume that culture affects medical encounters, yet little research uses objective measures to examine how this may be true. Do providers and racial/ethnic minority patients interpret the same interactions similarly or differently? How might patterns of provider-patient concordance and discordance vary for patients with different cultural characteristics? We collected survey data from 115 medical visits with American Indian older adults at a clinic operated by the Cherokee Nation (in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA), asking providers and patients to evaluate nine affective and instrumental interactions. Examining data from the full sample, we found that provider and patient ratings were significantly discordant for all interactions (Wilcoxon signed-rank test pcultural subgroups of patients, comparing magnitude of provider-patient discordance on specific interactions for patients at different levels of American Indian and White American cultural identity. Patients who affiliated strongly with American Indian cultural identity more closely shared providers' reduced evaluation for several variables related to information exchange, as compared to patients who identified weakly. These results flag interactions that providers and their most culturally distinctive patients both experience as challenging. PMID:18524443

  3. Parental attendance and brood success in American Oystercatchers in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Janet M.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    Research on breeding American Oystercatchers has focused on identifying factors that affect reproductive success but little attention has been paid to parent behavior during chick-rearing. Parental attendance of American Oystercatchers was measured in Bulls Bay and along the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Waterway) within the Cape Romain Region, South Carolina, USA, during 2006. Parental attendance rates averaged 90.9% in Bulls Bay and 81.4% along the Waterway. Daily survival of chicks was higher in Bulls Bay (0.989 ± 0.007) compared to the Waterway (0.966 ± 0.012). The extent of shellfish reefs (i.e. foraging areas) adjacent to nest sites was greater in Bulls Bay (5,633 ± 658 m2) compared to the Waterway (3,273 ± 850 m2). Mean parental attendance in Bulls Bay was higher for successful broods (90.5%) compared to failed broods (79.8%). In contrast, mean parental attendance along the Waterway was higher for failed broods (93.4%) compared to successful broods (67.5%). Less extensive shellfish reefs adjacent to nest sites along the Waterway appeared to require parents to depart more frequently to forage and the resultant reduction in attendance may have negatively affected chick survival. Bulls Bay may provide higher quality nesting habitat compared to the Waterway with respect to proximity to food resources and parental attendance. Management and conservation efforts for American Oystercatchers should consider the relationship between foraging and nesting habitat and variability in behavioral attributes, such as parental attendance, in relationship to environmental conditions which ultimately affect reproductive success.

  4. The energy geopolitics interests: the Initiative for South American Regional Integration - ISARI; Os interesses da geopolitica energetica: a Iniciativa para Integracao Regional Sul Americana - IIRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronymo, Alexandre; Roig, Carla de Almeida; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: alexandre.jeronymo@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: carla.roig@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: sguerra@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This work adds itself to the debates on the project Integration of South America Regional Infrastructure - ISARI. Its focus is related with Energy Geopolitics and the South America integration under the world system of commodities production. The ISARI, as a project oriented to the viability of low value aggregated which should be transported from the south american continent for consumption at the world market.

  5. Genetic Differentiation within the Puccinia triticina Population in South America and Comparison with the North American Population Suggests Common Ancestry and Intercontinental Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the number of genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina that are currently present in South America, and to compare the South American ...

  6. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rubia Marília; Gräf, Tiago; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-01-01

    The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989–2013). Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48–3.30) to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups. PMID:27258369

  7. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rubia Marília; Gräf, Tiago; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-01-01

    The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989-2013). Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48-3.30) to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups. PMID:27258369

  8. Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Germán.; Jaramillo, Liliana; Vallejo, Luisa F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the seasonal dynamics of the eastern Pacific (CHOCO) and Caribbean low-level jets (LLJ), and aerial rivers (AR) acting on tropical and subtropical South America. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2012), we show that the convergence of both LLJs over the eastern Pacific-western Colombia contributes to the explanation of the region's world-record rainfall. Diverse variables involved in the transport and storage of moisture permit the identification of an AR over northern South America involving a midtropospheric easterly jet that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across the Andes, with stronger activity in April to August. Other major seasonal AR pathways constitute part of a large gyre originating over the tropical North Atlantic, veering to the southeast over the eastern Andes and reaching regions of northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. We illustrate the distribution of average seasonal precipitation along the LLJs and AR pathways with data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (1998-2011), combined with considerations of CAPE, topography, and land cover. In addition, the theory of the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) is tested at seasonal time scales, and found to hold in 8 out of 12 ARs, and 22 out of 32 forest-covered tracks (64% in distance) along the ARs. Deviations from BiPAM's predictions of rainfall distribution are explained by the effects of topography, orography, and land cover types different from forests. Our results lend a strong observational support to the BiPAM theory at seasonal time scales over South American forested flat lands.

  9. Patterns of Species Richness and Turnover for the South American Rodent Fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Renan; Patterson, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of species sheds light on the group's biogeographical history, offers clues to the drivers of diversity, and helps to guide conservation strategies. Here, we compile geographic range information for South America's diverse rodents, whose 14 families comprise ~50% of the continent's mammalian species. The South American rodent fauna is dominated by independent and temporally staggered radiations of caviomorph and sigmodontine groups. We mapped species richness and turnover of all rodents and the principal clades to identify the main predictors of diversity patterns. Species richness was highest in the Andes, with a secondary hotspot in Atlantic Forest and some regions of considerable richness in Amazonia. Differences in richness were evident between the caviomorphs and sigmodontines, the former showing the greatest richness in tropical forests whereas the latter show-and largely determine-the all-rodent pattern. Elevation was the main predictor of sigmodontine richness, whereas temperature was the principal variable correlated with richness of caviomorphs. Across clades, species turnover was highest along the Andes and was best explained by elevational relief. In South America, the effects of the familiar latitudinal gradient in species richness are mixed with a strong longitudinal effect, triggered by the importance of elevation and the position of the Andes. Both latitudinal and elevational effects help explain the complicated distribution of rodent diversity across the continent. The continent's restricted-range species-those seemingly most vulnerable to localized disturbance-are mostly distributed along the Andes and in Atlantic Forest, with the greatest concentration in Ecuador. Both the Andes and Atlantic Forest are known hotspots for other faunal and floral components. Contrasting patterns of the older caviomorph and younger sigmodontine radiations underscore the interplay of both historical and ecological factors in

  10. ENSO impacts on the South American rainfall during 1980s: Hadley and Walker circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, E.B.; Ambrizzi, T. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Instituto Astronomico y Geofisico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-04-01

    The changes in the Hadley and Walter cells and their respective impacts on the South American rainfall during the ENSO episodes observed in the decade of 80, were investigated through cross-sections analyses of the atmospheric circulation in altitude, averaged in the zonal and meridional planes. Such large-scale cells almost inverted their climatological circulation pattern, during El Nino events (1982-83 and 1986-87). In these years, manifestation of the anomalous descending branch of the Hadley and Walker cells affects most of the north-northeast of South America, which inhibited the convective activity associated to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and caused drought conditions in the rainy seasons of the Guyana, Surinam, French Guyana, center-east of the Amazon and most of the Northeast Brazil. On the other hand, conditions of excess of precipitation observed in the south-southeast of South America, were favored by the anomalous ascending branch of the Hadley cell. During La Nina events (1984-85 and 1988-89), it was observed an intensification of the ascending and descending branches associated to the Walker and Hadley cells. The anomalous large-scale ascending movement associated to these cells, was extended to the Northeast of Brazil and equatorial South Atlantic, favoring ITCZ to become more active than the normal, which resulted in an above normal rainy season in these areas. An intense subsidence was noticed in the mid latitudes of South America, which inhibited the large-scale convection in the region, explaining the deficient rainy season observed in most of the south-southeast of South America. [Spanish] Los cambios en las celulas de Hadley y Walker y sus respectivos impactos en Suramerica, en las lluvias, durante los episodios en ENOS, observados en la decada de los 80, son investigados a traves de analisis de reacciones cruzadas de la circulacion atmosferica en altitudes promediadas en planos zonal y meridional. Tales celulas de gran escala

  11. Precipitation changes in the South American Altiplano since 1300 AD reconstructed by tree-rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Morales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the second half of the 20th century, the Central Andes has experienced significant climatic and environmental changes characterized by a persistent warming trend, an increase in elevation of the 0 °C isotherm, and sustained glacier shrinkage. These changes have occurred in conjunction with a steadily growing demand for water resources. Given the short span of instrumental hydroclimatic records in this region, longer time span records are needed to understand the nature of climate variability and to improve the predictability of precipitation, a key factor modulating the socio-economic development in the South American Altiplano and adjacent arid lowlands. In this study we present the first quasi-millennial, tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction for the South American Altiplano. This annual (November–October precipitation reconstruction is based on the Polylepis tarapacana tree-ring width series and represents the closest dendroclimatological record to the Equator in South America. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 707 yr and provides a unique record characterizing the occurrence of extreme events and consistent oscillations in precipitation. It also allows an assessment of the spatial and temporal stabilities of the teleconnections between rainfall in the Altiplano and hemispheric forcings such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Since the 1930s to present, a persistent negative trend in precipitation has been recorded in the reconstruction, with the three driest years since 1300 AD occurring in the last 70 yr. Throughout the 707 yr, the reconstruction contains a clear ENSO-like pattern at interannual to multidecadal time scales, which determines inter-hemispheric linkages between our reconstruction and other precipitation sensitive records modulated by ENSO in North America. Our reconstruction points out that century-scale dry periods are a recurrent feature in the Altiplano climate, and that the

  12. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga (∼ 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga (∼16%), 2.7 - 2.6 (∼ 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining ∼ 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block, Contendas

  13. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa. PMID:24015829

  14. Cervical and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adult Women in American Samoa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Ka’opua, Lana S.; Scanlan, Luana; Ah Ching, John; Kamemoto, Lori E.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Zhu, Xuemei; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Tofaeono, Jennifer; Williams, Victor Tofaeono

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and risk factors associated with infections were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 211 adult women in American Samoa. Overall, 53% of women reported ever having a Pap smear. Cervical and anal HPV was detected in 10% and 16% of women, respectively; 4% of women had concurrent cervical and anal HPV. The most common cervical genotypes were HPV 6, HPV 16, and HPV 53. Cutaneous HPV types were detected in 40% of anal infections. Ce...

  15. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, 1) “metabolically healthy” obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and 2) “at risk” obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity det...

  16. The irrational beliefs inventory: cross-cultural comparisons between South African and previously published Dutch and American samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Marilize; Möller, André T; Steel, Henry R

    2004-12-01

    The Irrational Beliefs Inventory gives a measure of irrational beliefs, as postulated by Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior therapy. Given the increasing cross-cultural use of psychometric scales, it is important to assess whether the psychometric properties of the inventory are consistent across cultures. In the present study cross-cultural applicability, in terms of internal consistency and independence of subscales, was investigated for an ad hoc sample of White (n= 100, M age = 21.3 yr., SD=4.0) and Black (n=82, M age=19.8 yr., SD=2.2) undergraduate South African university students. Cronbach coefficients alpha for the subscales and Pearson correlations between subscales for American and Dutch students, as reported by Bridges and Sanderman, were compared with those indices for the South African students. The magnitude and rank order of Cronbach alpha, as well as the correlations between subscales for the three groups showed strong similarities. Values of alpha for the Black South African students were lower in magnitude on all subscales than those for American, Dutch, and White South African samples, but intercorrelations between subscale scores were consistent. Findings in the present study are supportive of the cross-cultural applicability of the Irrational Beliefs Inventory to White South African students but not to South African Black students. PMID:15666916

  17. "We Must Believe in Ourselves": Attitudes and Experiences of Adult Learners with Disabilities in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Peter; Modipa, Taadi Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Many adults with disabilities in South Africa never had a chance to attend school or dropped out at an early age because of poverty and discrimination. This article investigates the attitudes and experiences of adults with disabilities regarding education. It draws on an interactional model of disability and an embodied understanding of cognition…

  18. The Importance of Material Resources and Qualified Trainers in Adult Non-Formal Education and Training Centres in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term…

  19. Drainage Analysis of the South American Landscape and its Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Gareth G.

    2016-04-01

    last 25-30 Ma. Our results are consistent with a wide range of independent geological observations across South America (e.g. elevated marine deposits, thermochronology, paleoelevation estimates from paleobotany, standard/clumped isotopes analyses). Finally, an important test of our thesis concerns offshore sedimentary flux. For example, our calculated uplift history can be used to predict the history of sedimentary flux into the Foz do Amazonas basin. This prediction agrees with offshore studies of the Amazon delta which suggest a rapid increase in clastic deposition since middle Miocene times. In summary, we propose that South American drainage contains useful information about spatial and temporal patterns of regional uplift which can help our understanding of regional topographic growth and landscape evolution.

  20. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunke Alaba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1 construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2 estimate concentration indices (CI to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3 perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa.

  1. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  2. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wessels

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurturing while growing up. Although they indicated that they perceived fathers as somewhat less involved in young adulthood; they reported being satisfied with the level of father involvement. Daughters also reported high current paternal nurturance. The findings therefore indicate that a group of middle to upper middle-class South African daughters perceived their fathers as relatively involved in their lives and suggest that their fathers’ involvement extends beyond traditional father roles.

  3. Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups. PMID:23195518

  4. 7Be content in rainfall and soil deposition in South American coastal ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Research about input, circulation and accumulation of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems allows examining sources, establishing time scales and elucidating environmental processes. Thinking this way, researchers at UFF and UNSL have applied short-lived particle-reactive tracers to understand the behaviour of species evolution, functioning and restorations of natural and semi-natural ecosystems as well as to investigate the patterns and frequency of disturbances due to modern global changes. This can be accomplished through a detailed understanding on the hydrology and water circulation pattern, soil characteristics, erosion, resuspension, reduction/oxidation, speciation, precipitation and accumulation, diagenetic processes and microbial activities. 7Be is a natural radionuclide (Eγ = 477.6 keV, t1/2 = 53.3 d), which originates in the upper atmosphere as a result of bombardment by cosmic rays. The global distribution of this radionuclide provides a valuable means for testing and validating global circulation models on short time-scales. Its removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition provides a useful tool for developing and validation of models about transport processes from the troposphere to the land surface. Knowledge of site-specific atmospheric fluxes is also crucial to evaluate the impact of atmospherically delivered pollutants on terrestrial ecosystems. The distribution of South American lands on different latitudes and its diversified topography can influence the development and action of many atmospheric systems contributing to generate non-homogeneous climatic conditions in this region. Increasing anthropogenic loads can further modify the precipitation rates and hence the climate of this region. Therefore it is important to study intra-system and inter-system interactions in different South American terrestrial ecosystems. Since 2006, UNSL has been investigating the 7Be contents in rainfall and soil

  5. Pro-drinking messages and message environments for young adults: the case of alcohol industry advertising in African American, Latino, and Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620

  6. Annual South American Forest Loss Estimates (1989-2011) Based on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, M.; van der Werf, G.; de Jeu, R.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation dynamics, such as forest loss, are an important factor in global climate, but long-term and consistent information on these dynamics on continental scales is lacking. We have quantified large-scale forest loss over the 90s and 00s in the tropical biomes of South America using a passive-microwave satellite-based vegetation product. Our forest loss estimates are based on remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD), which is an indicator of vegetation water content simultaneously retrieved with soil moisture. The advantage of low-frequency microwave remote sensing is that aerosols and clouds do not affect the observations. Furthermore, the longer wavelengths of passive microwaves penetrate deeper into vegetation than other products derived from optical and thermal sensors. This has the consequence that both woody parts of vegetation and leaves can be observed. The merged VOD product of AMSR-E and SSM/I observations, which covers over 23 years of daily observations, is used. We used this data stream and an outlier detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Qualitatively, our results compared favorably to the newly developed Global Forest Change (GFC) maps based on Landsat data (r2=0.96), and this allowed us to convert the VOD outlier count to forest loss. Our results are spatially explicit with a 0.25-degree resolution and annual time step and we will present our estimates on country level. The added benefit of our results compared to GFC is the longer time period. The results indicate a relatively steady increase in forest loss in Brazil from 1989 until 2003, followed by two high forest loss years and a declining trend afterwards. This contrasts with other South American countries such as Bolivia and Peru, where forest losses increased in almost the whole 00s in comparison with the 90s.

  7. The type locality of the South American Tern, Sterna hirundinacea (Aves: Charadriiformes: Sternidae), with designation of a lectotype

    OpenAIRE

    Caio J. Carlos; Jean-François Voisin

    2013-01-01

    The type locality of the South American Tern, Sterna hirundinacea, has long been considered to be the state of Santa Catarina in South Brazil. This conclusion was probably based on two syntypes, from the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, France, one from Laguna and the other from an unspecified locality. The latter was probably shot on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. A recent molecular study has shown that Brazilian and Patagonian populations of S. hirundinacea are not completely pa...

  8. The phylogeography of trypanosomes from South American alligatorids and African crocodilids is consistent with the geological history of South American river basins and the transoceanic dispersal of Crocodylus at the Miocene

    OpenAIRE

    Fermino, Bruno R.; Viola, Laerte B; Paiva, Fernando; Garcia, Herakles A; de Paula, Catia D; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Takata, Carmen S. A.; Campaner, Marta; Hamilton, Patrick B; Camargo, Erney P.; Teixeira, Marta MG

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the diversity, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeography of trypanosomes infecting non-mammalian hosts. In this study, we investigated the influence of host species and biogeography on shaping the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship, and distribution of trypanosomes from South American alligatorids and African crocodilids. Methods Small Subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) and glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes were employed for ph...

  9. Demographic Correlates of Psychological Well-Being and Distress Among Older African Americans and Caribbean Black Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of psychological distress and psychological well-being among older African American and black Caribbean adults. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life revealed that psychological well-being and psychological distress are distinct concepts. Findings also identify distinct correlates of psychological well-being (e.g., happiness, life satisfaction, self-rated mental health) and psychological distress (e.g., depressive symptoms, serious psy...

  10. Estimated use of abacavir among adults and children enrolled in public sector antiretroviral therapy programmes in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Evans

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, abacavir (ABC is currently recommended as part of first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART for HIV-positive paediatric patients. Concerns about overprescribing of the drug, particularly to adults, led to an analysis of ABC use in public sector ART programmes. We investigated current prescription of the drug to adults and children accessing ART in 4 public sector programmes across Gauteng Province, South Africa. ABC was almost exclusively prescribed to children initiating ART and adults requiring regimen changes due to drug toxicities. Patterns of ABC use among HIV-positive paediatric patients followed national ART treatment guidelines on the application of the drug. Although ABC is commonly used in the private sector for adults, the current national ART treatment guidelines for adults and adolescents should include ABC as an alternative to standard first- or second-line ART.

  11. Behaviour of adult and juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima) moving toward a power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted over a 3-year period during the downstream migration of adult and juvenile American shad to assess their behavior while moving toward Hydro-Quebec's Riviere-des-Prairies hydroelectric power station. Much of the information was obtained using hydroacoustic and radio tracking techniques. In the forebay, adult distribution was related to flow. Their abundance increased as they approached the facility. Adult shad explored the facility for an average of 19 h, after which time they continued their downstream migration. Shutting down the power station and opening the spillway allowed the passage of 75% of these fish. Juveniles tended to form dense schools less than 5 m from turbine intakes. Their distribution in the water column was strongly influenced by daylight which in turn influenced their entrainment through the turbines. Attempts to repel the fish with a sonic deterrent gave unsatisfactory results under normal conditions at the site. The short range of the deterrent, and the fact that the fish become accustomed to it, does not make this a practical solution to entrainment. 22 refs., 15 figs

  12. Concordance of the Recently Published Body Adiposity Index With Measured Body Fat Percent in European-American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, William; Chumlea, William C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W

    2011-01-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI; hip circumference (cm)/height (m)1.5 − 18) has recently been shown to demonstrate a stronger correlation with percentage body fat (%fat) than that between the BMI and %fat in Mexican-American adults. Here, we compare the concordance between %fat from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BAI, and between %fat and BMI, in European-American adults (n = 623). Agreement between BAI, BMI, and %fat was assessed using Lin’s concordance coefficients (ρc), where val...

  13. South American oil and gas fields: Reasons for their presence and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratsch, J.C. (Consulting Petroleum Geologist, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    South American oil and gas fields occur in geographic clusters. Their concentration in relatively small producing areas depends on the present location of the hydrocarbon generating depocenter and results from the basinal oil and gas migration history. By defining both, existing field locations can be explained and new field occurrences can be predicted, including those in overthrust plays. One-and two-stage hydrocarbon migration processes exist: In one-stage migration oil and gas migrate directly from the generating source beds into reservoirs, like in Maturin Basin or Maranon Basin fields. In two-stage migration oil and gas first migrate into a primary reservoir level, from there during a second migration phase into a (commonly younger) secondary reservoir level. Here, the original source beds may be over-mature or even metamorphosed today; examples here are the Maturin, Llanos and Oriente Basins, possibly offshore Trinidad. Definition of generating depocenters is the task of regional exploration. Oil and gas migration analysis is one result of semi-detailed structural mapping using gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection and geochemical data. Oil and gas exploration in two-stage migration basins are especially challenging, like in the Austral Basin of southern Argentina and Chile or possibly in the Parana Basin.

  14. Overview of the South American biomass burning analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate.

  15. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. PMID:25680921

  16. Centennial-scale solar forcing of the South American Monsoon System recorded in stalagmites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Valdir F.; Vuille, Mathias; Cruz, Francisco W.; Stríkis, Nicolás M.; de Paula, Marcos Saito; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Karmann, Ivo; Jaqueto, Plínio F.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Moquet, Jean S.

    2016-04-01

    The South American Monsoon System (SAMS) is generally considered to be highly sensitive to Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature variations on multi-centennial timescales. The direct influence of solar forcing on moisture convergence in global monsoon systems on the other hand, while well explored in modeling studies, has hitherto not been documented in proxy data from the SAMS region. Hence little is known about the sensitivity of the SAMS to solar forcing over the past millennium and how it might compete or constructively interfere with NH temperature variations that occurred primarily in response to volcanic forcing. Here we present a new annually-resolved oxygen isotope record from a 1500-year long stalagmite recording past changes in precipitation in the hitherto unsampled core region of the SAMS. This record details how solar variability consistently modulated the strength of the SAMS on centennial time scales during the past 1500 years. Solar forcing, besides the previously recognized influence from NH temperature changes and associated Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifts, appears as a major driver affecting SAMS intensity at centennial time scales.

  17. Moisture and heat budgets of the south American monsoon system: climatological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Kayano, Mary T.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    The climatology of the moisture and heat budget equation terms for subareas within the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) region is investigated for the 1958-2014 period considering the distinct phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These budget equations are applied to the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis project. Sources or sinks of moisture and heat are equation residues, referred to as residue and diabatic terms, respectively. Analyses are done for the Central Amazon Basin (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) for three distinct periods, 1958-1976, 1977-1995, and 1996-2014, that correspond to the cold, warm, and undefined PDO phases. The differences among the PDO phases for each term are discussed. The CAM region acts dominantly as a moisture sink and heat source in all months during the three phases. On the other hand, in the WCB region, the monsoon characteristics are better defined, with a moisture sink (source) and a heat source (sink) during the wet (dry) season. The main result of the present analysis is the persistence of SAMS intensification signs in both CAM and WCB areas up to the last analyzed period (1996-2014), which is consistent with intense flooding in the Amazon Basin in 2008/2009, 2012, and 2014.

  18. Anthelmintic effects of a cationic toxin from a South American rattlesnake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, C; Moreira, J T; Pinto, S; Monte, G G; Nering, M B; Oliveira, E B; Gazarini, M L; Mori, M A; Hayashi, M A F

    2016-06-15

    Despite the unquestionable importance of the highly cationic feature of several small polypeptides with high content of positively charged amino acids for their biological activities, positively charged peptides do not necessarily have the capacity to cross the cell membranes. Interestingly, we found that crotamine, a positively charged amphiphilic peptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, has a unique cell-penetrating property with affinity for acidic vesicles, besides a well-characterized antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. In spite of a remarkable in vitro antifungal activity of crotamine against Candida spp., no significant effect of this peptide could be observed in the course of Candida albicans and Candida krusei infection on Caenorhabditis elegans asssed in vivo. These experiments, in which the nematode C. elegans was used as a living host, suggested, however, the potential anthelmintic activity of crotamine because of its uptake by the worms and accumulation in their acidic compartments. As described in the present work, this lysosomotropic property is consistent with a previously proposed mechanism of toxicity of crotamine on mammalian tumoral cell lines. This study also allowed us to propose the cationic peptides with lysosomotropic property, as crotamine, as a potential new class of anthelmentics with ability to overcome the challenging problems of drug resistance. PMID:26713409

  19. Tubulinosema pampeana sp. n. (Microsporidia, Tubulinosematidae), a pathogen of the South American bumble bee Bombus atratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Sanscrainte, Neil D; Becnel, James J; Estep, Alden S; Lange, Carlos E

    2015-03-01

    An undescribed microsporidium was detected and isolated from the South American bumble bee Bombus atratus collected in the Pampas region of Argentina. Infection intensity in workers averaged 8.2 × 10(7)spores/bee. The main site of infection was adipose tissue where hypertrophy of adipocytes resulted in cyst-like body formation. Mature spores were ovoid and monomorphic. They measured 4.00 μm × 2.37 μm (fresh) or 3.98 μm × 1.88 μm (fixed). All stages were diplokariotic and developed in direct contact with host cytoplasm. Isofilar polar filament was arranged in 16 coils in one or, posteriorly, two layers. Coiling angle was variable, between perpendicular and almost parallel to major spore axis. Late meronts and sporogonial stages were surrounded by vesicles of approximately 60 nm in diameter. Based on both new and already designed primers, a 1827 bp (SSUrRNA, ITS, LSUrRNA) sequence was obtained. Data analyses suggest that this microsporidium is a new species of the genus Tubulinosema. The name Tubulinosema pampeana sp. n. is proposed. PMID:25637516

  20. Comparison of precipitation datasets over the tropical South American and African Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Juarez, R. I.; Li, W.; Fu, R.; Fernandes, K.; Cardoso, A.

    2007-12-01

    Six rainfall datasets are compared over the Amazon basin, the Northeast Brazil and the Congo basin. These datasets include three gauge-only precipitation products from the Climatic Prediction Center (CPC), Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) and Brazilian Weather Forecast and Climate Studies Center (CLMNLS), and three combined gauge and satellite precipitation datasets from the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation, and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) product. The spatial pattern of the annual precipitation is consistently represented by these data, despite of the differences in methods and periods of averaging. Quantitatively, the differences in annual precipitation among these datasets are 3% over our Amazon domain (0-15S, 50-70W), 17% over the Northeast Brazil (5-10S, 35-45W) and 12% the Congo domain (5N-10S, 15-30E). However the seasonal differences were. Over the Amazon domain, the rainfall variations are well correlated between CPC, GPCC, TRMM, GPCP and GPCC (>0.9) except for the northwestern Amazon. Over the Congo basin, the correlation between these rainfall datasets is generally below 0.7. The Empirical Orthogonal Functions analysis suggests large discrepancies in interannual and decadal variations of rainfall among these datasets, especially for the Congo basin and for the South American region after 1998.

  1. Prediction of the burnout performance of some South American coals using a drop-tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richelieu Barranco; Michael Cloke; Edward Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Fuel Technology Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-10-01

    An experimental investigation into the combustion burnout behaviour of some South American coals was carried out in a drop-tube furnace. The samples, in two size fractions, were initially pyrolysed at a temperature of 1300{sup o}C, in a 1% of oxygen in nitrogen atmosphere for 200 ms. The re-firing of these pyrolysed chars was performed in the same apparatus, at the same temperature, during 400 ms, in an atmosphere containing 5% of oxygen in nitrogen. The coal samples used in this study were characterised by standard tests along with a specially developed image analysis technique (grey-scale histogram). Data of intrinsic reactivity, morphology, and burnout of the chars were correlated with maceral content of the feed coal by mean of linear regressions. In most cases, the results showed a poor correlation. Subsequently, when the rank of the coals was included in the regressions, the correlations remarkably improved in all cases. When further regressions of char properties with the grey-scale histogram of the coals were carried out, much better correlations were achieved. Therefore, the results indicate that the grey-scale histogram analysis provides a simple and objective technique to predict the combustion behaviour of these coals. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. The stationarity of consumption-income ratios: evidence from South American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Reis Gomes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the order of integration of the consumption-income ratio in 10 South American countries. To do this, the individual ADF test, its panel versions and theMinimumLMunit root test with structural break(s were employed. While the former tests found more favorable evidence of an integrated process, after controlling for structural breaks only Uruguay seems to be integrated. Thus, in general, the consumption-income ratio was diagnosed as a stationary process, as suggested by the relative income hypothesis, the habit persistence model, the permanent income hypothesis and the life cycle hypothesis.Este artigo analisa a ordem de integração da razão consumo-renda em 10 países da América do Sul. Para tanto, utilizamos o teste ADF e sua versão painel, além de um teste LM de raiz unitária com quebra estrutural(s. Enquanto os primeiros testes encontraram evidências mais favoráveis a processos integrados, após o controle de quebras estruturais apenas o processo do Uruguai parece ser integrado. Assim, em geral, a razão consumo-renda foi diagnosticada como um processo estacionário, como sugerido pelo modelo de hábito e pelas hipóteses de renda relativa, renda permanente e ciclo de vida.

  3. Continent-wide decoupling of Y-chromosomal genetic variation from language and geography in native South Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Roewer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs, the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3* in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under

  4. Continent-Wide Decoupling of Y-Chromosomal Genetic Variation from Language and Geography in Native South Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Leonor; Gomes, Veronica; González, Miguel; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea; Alechine, Evguenia; Palha, Teresinha; Santos, Ney; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Geppert, Maria; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Zweynert, Sarah; Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Builes, Juan José; Turbón, Daniel; Lopez Parra, Ana Maria; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Toscanini, Ulises; Borjas, Lisbeth; Barletta, Claudia; Ewart, Elizabeth; Santos, Sidney; Krawczak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR) markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3*) in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific

  5. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta

    OpenAIRE

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramm...

  6. Shared Legacies, Disparate Outcomes: Why American South Border Cities Turned the Tables on Crime and Their Mexican Sisters Did Not

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro H. Albuquerque

    2005-01-01

    The article evaluates crime trends in south border American and Mexican sister cities using panel data analysis. The region offers a unique assessment opportunity since cities are characterized by shared cultural and historical legacies, institutional heterogeneity, and disparate crime outcomes. Higher homicide rates on the Mexican side seem to result from deficient law enforcement. Higher population densities in Mexican cities appear to also be a factor. Cultural differences, on the other ha...

  7. First complete mitochondrial genome of the South American annual fish Austrolebias charrua (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): peculiar features among cyprinodontiforms mitogenomes

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Verónica; Rego, Natalia; Naya, Hugo; García, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Background Among teleosts, the South American genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) includes 42 taxa of annual fishes divided into five different species groups. It is a monophyletic genus, but morphological and molecular data do not resolve the relationship among intrageneric clades and high rates of substitution have been previously described in some mitochondrial genes. In this work, the complete mitogenome of a species of the genus was determined for the first time. We determ...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults living alone in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Kim, Kyeongmo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults who live alone. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview responses of 1,023 older adults living alone in a metropolitan area in South Korea, selected via stratified random sampling, which considered the population variables gender, age group, and district. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the prevalence of self-neglect, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant risk factors of self-neglect. At least 22.8% of the participants could be considered to have one form of elder self-neglect. Consistent with previous research, self-neglect was more prevalent in the older people living alone who had higher levels of depressive symptoms or a lack of family social support. Unexpectedly, self-neglect was more prevalent among respondents with higher levels of education and cognitive abilities, lower levels of medical comorbidities, and more children. Additionally, social networks of friends and use of social services (formal social support) did not affect the frequency of self-neglect. The findings have implications for gerontological practice and policy, especially for older people living alone in South Korea. PMID:24956921

  9. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the submarine slope environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 5 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  10. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  11. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  12. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  13. The Epidemic of Extreme Obesity Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults With Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Wilson, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN adults with diabetes and to examine the temporal trends for class I, II, and III obesity in this high-risk group during a 10-year period.MethodsWe used data on body mass index (BMI from the annual Diabetes Care and Outcomes Audit to estimate the prevalence of class I, II, and III obesity (class I = 30.0–34.9 kg/m2, class II = 35.0–39.9 kg/m2, and class III ≥40.0 kg/m2 in each year from 1995 through 2004. We also investigated trends in mean BMI during the 10-year period and the role of treatment in these trends using multivariable linear regression models.ResultsObesity was highly prevalent in this population in 2004 (class I, 28.9%; class II, 20.4%; class III, 20.3%. From 1995 through 2004, the percentage of obese adults increased from 16.7% to 20.4% in class II and 11.5% to 20.3% in class III (P <.001, and the mean BMI increased from 32.1 kg/m2 to 34.4 kg/m2. The increase in BMI was greater in the younger age groups. Adjusted mean BMI increased significantly over 10 years for each of three treatment categories.ConclusionExtreme degrees of obesity are a common and increasing problem among AI/AN adults with diabetes. We did not find an association between the type of diabetes treatment and the trend toward extreme degrees of obesity. The increase in extreme obesity could potentially affect the burden of morbidity and mortality among AI/AN adults with diabetes. Effective and culturally appropriate weight management interventions are needed.

  14. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  15. High-resolution Holocene South American monsoon history recorded by a speleothem from Botuverá Cave, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J. P.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Stríkis, Nicolás M.; Wang, Xianfeng; Deininger, Michael; Catunda, Maria Carolina A.; Ortega-Obregón, C.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S.

    2016-09-01

    A Holocene stalagmite from Botuverá Cave, southeastern Brazil was analyzed by LA-ICPMS for Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca. The observed variability in the record was demonstrated to be modulated by prior calcite precipitation, and, thus, is interpreted to reflect monsoon intensity. We find that the calcite δ18O is strongly correlated with Sr/Ca, indicating that atmospheric circulation over South America and monsoon intensity have been tightly correlated throughout most of the Holocene, both directly responding to solar precession. Comparison with other contemporaneous high-resolution hydroclimate records reveals that SAMS has shown a degree of complexity during the Holocene not previously detected, with periods where the South American Convergence Zone (SACZ) expanded to cover most of the South American sub-continent, and coincident with periods of low-SST in the north Atlantic. We also detect periods where rainfall amount in northeastern and southeastern Brazil are markedly anti-phased, suggesting a north-south migration of SACZ, which it appears to be mediated by solar irradiance. The high-resolution nature of our record allow us to examine the effect that Holocene climate anomalies had upon SAMS dynamics and hydroclimate in southeastern Brazil, in particular the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. In addition to confirm the internal structure of the events, we also detect the possible consequences of the climatic anomalies upon ocean-atmosphere interactions through its effects upon SAMS.

  16. The skill of empirical and combined/calibrated coupled multi-model South American seasonal predictions during ENSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. S. Coelho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses seasonal predictability of South American rainfall during ENSO. The skill of empirical and coupled multi-model predictions is assessed and compared. The empirical model uses the previous season August-September-October Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures as predictors for December-January-February rainfall. Coupled multi-model 1-month lead December-January-February rainfall predictions were obtained from the Development of a European Multi-model Ensemble system for seasonal to inTERannual prediction (DEMETER project. Integrated (i.e. combined and calibrated forecasts that incorporate information provided by both the empirical and the coupled multi-model are produced using a Bayesian procedure. This procedure is referred to as forecast assimilation. The skill of the integrated forecasts is compared to the skill of empirical and coupled multi-model predictions. This comparison reveals that when seasonally forecasting December-January-February South American rainfall at 1-month lead-time the current generation of coupled models have a level of deterministic skill comparable to those obtained using simplified empirical approaches. However, Bayesian combined/calibrated forecasts provide better estimates of forecast uncertainty than the coupled multi-model. This indicates that forecast assimilation improves the quality of probabilistic predictions. The tropics and the area of South Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Northern Argentina are found to be the two most predictable regions of South America. ENSO years are more predictable than neutral years, the latter having nearly null skill.

  17. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  18. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  19. Lithospheric structure beneath the Caribbean- South American plate boundary from S receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2010-12-01

    We have analyzed teleseismic S-wave data recorded by the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela and the BOLIVAR broadband array (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) deployed from 2003 to 2005. A total of 28 events with Mw > 5.7 occurring at epicentral distances from 55° to 85° were used. We made Sp receiver functions to estimate the rapid variations of lithospheric structure in the southern Caribbean plate boundary region to try to better understand the complicated tectonic history of the region. Estimated Moho depth ranges from ~20 km beneath the Caribbean Large Igneous Provinces to ~50 km beneath the Mérida Andes in western Venezuela and the Sierra del Interior in northeastern Venezuela. These results are consistent with previous receiver functions studies (Niu et al., 2007) and active source profiles (Schmitz et al., 2001; Bezada et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Guedez, 2008; Magnani et al., 2009). Beneath the Maracaibo Block we observe a signal at a depth of 100 km dipping ~24° towards the continent, which we interpret as the top of the oceanic Caribbean slab that is subducting beneath South America from the west. The deeper part of the slab was previously imaged using P-wave tomography (Bezada et al, 2010), and the upper part inferred from intermediate depth seismicity (Malavé and Suarez, 1995). These studies indicate flat slab subduction beneath northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela with the slab dipping between 20° - 30° beneath Lake Maracaibo. Like others we attribute the flat slab subduction to the uplift of the Mérida Andes (for example Kellogg and Bonini, 1982). In eastern Venezuela beneath the Sierra del Interior we also observe a deep signal that we interpret as deep South American lithosphere that is detaching from the overriding plate as the Atlantic subducts and tears away from SA (Bezada et al., 2010; Clark et al, 2008). The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB

  20. The Role of Spirituality in Learning Music: A Case of North American Adult Students of Japanese Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of spirituality in learning music for North American adult students is explored by examining the case of shakuhachi music. One distinctive character of engaging in music through the shakuhachi is that it facilitates the attainment of an "optimal relationship" between the practitioners" musical pursuit and self-cultivation…

  1. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  2. Standing on a Strong Foundation of Servitude: The 1960's Civil Rights Movement, Septima Clark and Other South Carolina African American Women Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Iris Renell

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…

  3. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgita Lekaviciute; Lubica Argalasova-Sobotova

    2013-01-01

    Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in a...

  4. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated. PMID:26361966

  5. Microbial diversity in European and South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra

    Spacecraft assembly clean rooms are unique environments for microbes: Due to low nutri-ent levels, desiccated, clean conditions, constant control of humidity and temperature, these environments are quite inhospitable to microbial life and even considered "extreme". Many procedures keep the contamination as low as possible, but these conditions are also highly se-lective for indigenous microbial communities. For space missions under planetary protection requirements, it is crucial to control the contaminating bioburden as much as possible; but for the development of novel cleaning/sterilization methods it is also important to identify and characterize (understand) the present microbial community of spacecraft clean rooms. In prepa-ration for the recently approved ESA ExoMars mission, two European and one South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms were analyzed with respect to their microbial diversity, using standard procedures, new cultivation approaches and molecular methods, that should shed light onto the presence of planetary protection relevant microorganisms. For this study, the Her-schel Space Observatory (launched in May 2009) and its housing clean rooms in Friedrichshafen (Germany), at ESTEC (The Netherlands) and CSG, Kourou (French Guyana) were sampled during assembly, test and launch operations. Although Herschel does not demand planetary protection requirements, all clean rooms were in a fully operating state during sampling. This gave us the opportunity to sample the microbial diversity under strict particulate and molecular contamination-control. Samples were collected from spacecraft and selected clean room surface areas and were subjected to cultivation assays (32 different media), molecular studies (based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis) and quantitative PCR. The results from different strategies will be compared and critically discussed, showing the advantages and limits of the selected methodologies. This talk will sum up the lessons

  6. The thermoregulatory function of thatched nests in the South American grass-cutting ant, Acromyrmex heyeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2010-01-01

    The construction of mound-shaped nests by ants is considered as a behavioral adaptation to low environmental temperatures, i.e., colonies achieve higher and more stables temperatures than those of the environment. Besides the well-known nests of boreal Formica wood-ants, several species of South American leaf-cutting ants of the genus Acromyrmex construct thatched nests. Acromyrmex workers import plant fragments as building material, and arrange them so as to form a thatch covering a central chamber, where the fungus garden is located. Thus, the degree of thermoregulation attained by the fungus garden inside the thatched nest largely depends on how the thatch affects the thermal relations between the fungus and the environment. This work was aimed at studying the thermoregulatory function of the thatched nests built by the grass-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Nest and environmental temperatures were measured as a function of solar radiation on the long-term. The thermal diffusivity of the nest thatch was measured and compared to that of the surrounding soil, in order to assess the influence of the building material on the nest's thermoregulatory ability. The results showed that the average core temperature of thatched nests was higher than that of the environment, but remained below values harmful for the fungus. This thermoregulation was brought about by the low thermal diffusivity of the nest thatch built by workers with plant fragments, instead of the readily-available soil particles that have a higher thermal diffusivity. The thatch prevented diurnal nest overheating by the incoming solar radiation, and avoided losses of the accumulated daily heat into the cold air during the night. The adaptive value of thatching behavior in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants occurring in the southernmost distribution range is discussed. PMID:20883129

  7. A cultural model of infidelity among African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauda, Mark M; Erickson, Pamela I; Singer, Merrill C; Santelices, Claudia C

    2011-12-01

    Having concurrent sexual partners is a risk factor for STIs and HIV/AIDS, yet few studies have investigated the cultural meanings and functions of concurrency. A multi-method qualitative/quantitative study of sexual ideas, attitudes, and behaviors among inner-city Puerto Rican and African American emergent adults (age 18-25) in Hartford, Connecticut, USA, suggests that having concurrent partners is common in this population. Using data from 12 focus groups and 40 participants in systematic data collection techniques (e.g., pile sorts), the underlying cognitive structure of concurrency and cheating/infidelity are explored. Results suggest that participants are less tolerant of multiple partners in more committed relationships, but that very few relationships can be considered committed. Furthermore, participants see cheating as inevitable even in committed relationships. Sexual transgressions are considered the most severe form of cheating. Having an outside partner for emotional reasons or to have access to one's child were seen as more acceptable/forgivable than doing so for sexual satisfaction, social status or material goods. Multiple partnerships must be seen in the context of the inner city where resources and opportunities are scarce and young adults attempt to protect themselves from emotional injury. Documenting new and changing social constructions of infidelity is important for understanding the social context of sexual behavior in our global world and for designing culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:22060128

  8. Lysophosphatidylcholine acts in the constitutive immune defence against American foulbrood in adult honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Hernández-López, Javier; Rechberger, Gerald; Crailsheim, Karl; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) imagines are resistant to the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), whereas honeybee larvae show susceptibility against this pathogen only during the first 48 h of their life. It is known that midgut homogenate of adult honeybees as well as a homogenate of aged larvae exhibit strong anti-P. larvae activity. A bioactivity-guided LC-HRMS analysis of midgut homogenate resulted in the identification of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC) pointing to a yet unknown immune defence in adult honeybees against P. larvae. Antimicrobial activity of LPC was also demonstrated against Melissococcus plutonius, causative agent of European Foulbrood. To demonstrate an AFB-preventive effect of LPC in larvae, artificially reared larvae were supplemented with LPC to evaluate its toxicity and to assess whether, after infection with P. larvae spores, LPC supplementation prevents AFB infection. 10 μg LPC per larva applied for 3 d significantly lowered mortality due to AFB in comparison to controls. A potential delivery route of LPC to the larvae in a colony via nurse bees was assessed through a tracking experiment using fluorescent-labelled LPC. This yet undescribed and non-proteinous defense of honeybees against P. larvae may offer new perspectives for a treatment of AFB without the utilization of classic antibiotics. PMID:27480379

  9. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims. PMID:27413658

  10. Gender Differences in Longitudinal Links between Neighborhood Fear, Parental Support, and Depression among African American Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition to adulthood is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among African Americans. In addition to stress related to emerging adulthood, neighborhood fear may contribute to depressive symptoms for African Americans. We examined gender differences in longitudinal associations between changes in perceived neighborhood fear, parental support, and depressive symptoms among African American youth who were in transition to adulthood. Five hundred and thirteen African American youths (235 males and 278 females were included in the study. An increase in perceived neighborhood fear was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms, and change in perceived maternal support was predictive of depressive symptoms among males, but not females. The findings suggest that policies and programs should help parents provide support to young adult children who live in violent neighborhoods as a strategy to prevent depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood.

  11. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  12. Morphometry Of Jugular Foramen Of Dry Adult Human Skulls Of South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Krishnamurthy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Jugular foramen (JF lies between the occipital and the petrosal part of the temporal bone, and allows the passage of important nerves and vascular elements i.e. the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves and the internal jugular vein. It is a potential site for development of schwannomas, metastatic lesions, and infiltrative inflammatory processes from the surrounding structures such as middle ear. JF is difficult to approach surgically, but recent advanced techniques especially image intensifier to guide the suboccipital lateral approach have made the treatment possible despite the difficulties. Hence a detailed morphological and anatomical knowledge of this region is required. The morphologic dimensions, presence or absence of septation etc varies in various races and ethnic groups as reported in previous literature. But such detailed study has been lacking in south Indian population .Thus the present descriptive study was conducted in department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore on 50 dried adult human skulls i.e. 100 JF of Dravidian (south Indian origin. The maximum antero-posterior and transverse diameter and depth of the jugular fossa of both sides were measured and septation was 6% on the right side and 8% on the left side using vernier calipers. The presence of spicules / septation of the jugular foramen were also observed on both sides. The obtained results presented variations regarding some parameters when compared to previous studies, thus making it evident the significance of race in the morphometric measurements and characteristics of the JF.

  13. Factors influencing the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valodia, P; Seymour, M A; Miller, R; McFadyen, M L; Folb, P I

    1999-02-01

    The influence of various covariates (including weight, race, smoking, gender, age, mild-to-moderate alcohol intake, and body surface area) on the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa was investigated. The parameters were the maximum metabolic rate (Vm) and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) constant (Km) of phenytoin. The study population comprised 332 black and colored epileptic patients (note: "black" refers to indigenous people of South Africa, who speak one of the Bantu languages as their native language; "colored" refers to people considered to be of mixed race, classified as such by the apartheid former government of South Africa). The influence of covariates on Vm and Km estimates was determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). Parameter models describing the factors that could potentially influence Vm and Km were tested using the Michaelis-Menten parallel MM and first-order elimination models, to which 853 steady state dose-to-serum concentration pairs were fitted. The results indicated that body weight, smoking, race, and age (65 years or older), in descending order of importance, significantly influenced Vm (p influence of race in Km in the final regression model did not improve the fit of the model to the data, which indicated that the variability in Km was accounted for by Vm. The scaling factors for smoking, colored patients and age (65 years or older) in Vm were 1.16, 1.10, and 0.88, respectively. These factors should be taken into account when adjusting phenytoin dose. PMID:10051055

  14. Educating and Training out of Poverty? Adult Provision and the Informal Sector in Fishing Communities, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at access to adult education and vocational education and training (VET) provision in fishing communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Fishing communities are being disadvantaged due to geographical and socio-political marginalisation, and the predominance of informal sector employment in the context of worldwide marine…

  15. Influência do tamanho e umidade do grão na expansão da pipoca South American Mushroom Influence of size and moisture of grain on the popping expansion of the cultivar South American Mushroom popcorn

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Sawazaki; Jener Fernando Leite de Morais; Antonio Augusto do Lago

    1986-01-01

    Utilizando sementes do cultivar de milho-pipoca South American Mushroom, obtido em 1984/85 em Campinas, SP, procurou-se avaliar os efeitos do teor de umidade e tamanho de grão na expansão da pipoca. Foram empregados tamanhos de grãos compreendidos entre as peneiras 14 e 18 e teores de umidade entre 9,4 e 19,8%. Os resultados mostraram que a capacidade de expansão foi maior nos grãos menores e nos teores de umidade de 10,5 a 11,5%.The effect of grain size and moisture on the popping expansion ...

  16. Pain and anxiety experiences of South African adult burn injury patients during physiotherapy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Morris

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A dequate management of procedural pain during physiotherapy management plays an important role in building a trusting relationship betweenthe burn victim and the physiotherapist, and in ensuring desirable functional outcomes. However, the burn pain management regimens currently utilized inburn units, primarily consist of traditional pharmacologic analgesics which areassociated with numerous side-effects and alone are often reported as inadequateto alleviate procedural pain, warranting safer and effective adjunct therapies.Prior to the introduction and implementation of adjunct therapies into a developing world, it is imperative that the current situation in a burn unit, in terms of whether or not the pain management regimens in place are adequate, is first assessed, due to cost concerns. The following short report exemplifies the pain and anxiety experiences of a small number of burn injury patients during physiotherapy at the Tygerberg Hospital adult burn unit, South A frica.  It was hypothesized that the results of this study would underpin whether adult burn injury patients in a developing countryrequire adjunct therapies during physiotherapy management to supplement traditional pharmacologic analgesics inmanaging their procedural pain and subsequent anxiety.

  17. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C ≅ 0

  18. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol

  19. Science and Technology vs. Defense and Security: Dual Use Consequences, a South American Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays we can say that science and technology are development driven forces in most countries, with some exceptions especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Even though, we have to take into account their link to and impact on defense and security and not only when it comes to WMD but also in the economy and academy areas, both in developed and developing countries. Within this framework, when we analyze the spread of technology and knowledge, it is important to consider: the media where it takes place (e.g. journals, internet, conferences, commercial agreements); which the actors involved are (e.g. scientists, governmental agencies, commercial firms); and the motive why it occurs (e.g. scientific discoveries; commercial exchange; international agreements). Once known all these elements, which vary both intracountry and intercountry, we may have a deep and broad enough framework to consider which policies to take in order to foster scientific and technologic development without collaborating with state and non state WMD programs. Although we already have a legal framework to fight against WMD proliferation and terrorism, the diverse degree of success of such instruments makes it necessary to continue analyzing and debating ways to strengthen them and/or find new ones. Therefore, in this paper we will analyze how the phenomena of science and technology development and spread impacts on defense and security from a South American perspective, taking into account the particular differences among developed and developing countries. Among the primary findings we can mention the existing differences between countries when it comes to the place (military, academic or commercial ones) where the critical science and technology innovative developments take place; the origin of funding (private or governmental); the existence and fulfillment of plans to foster science and technology development; and the scientific community awareness in WMD topics. All these elements have a

  20. STUDIES IN SOUTH AMERICAN AMARANTHACEAE V Estudios en Sudamérica Amaranthaceae V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Myndel Pedersen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The nomenclature, taxonomy, and synonymy of various South American Amaranthaceae are discussed. Two new genera are described, Hebanthodes Pedersen with only one new species
    from Peru, H. peruviana Pedersen, and Lecosia Pedersen with two new species from NE Brazil, L. formicarum Pedersen and L. oppositifolia Pedersen. Seven new species, Alternanthera
    piptantha Pedersen, Gomphrena Hatschbachiana Pedersen, G. riparia Pedersen, Guilleminea chacoensis Pedersen, G. fragilis Pedersen, G. hirsuta Pedersen and Pfaffia argyrea Pedersen, one new subspecies, Alternanthera Kurtzii subsp. sclerosperma Pedersen, and three varieties, Alternanthera hirtula var. hirsuta Pedersen, Alternanthera hirtula varo nitens Pedersen and Pfaffia fruticulosa varo diffusa Pedersen are described. Three new combinations, Hebanthe eriantha (Poir. Pedersen, Iresine diffusa forma Herbstii (Hook. Pedersen, and Pedersenia Hassleriana (Chodat Pedersen, are proposed. A key to the species of Guilleminea discussed in this paper and a key synthesizing the characters separating Hebanthodes from its immediate allies are provided.
    Se discute la nomenclatura, taxonomía y sinonimia de Amarantáceas Sudamericanas. Se describen dos nuevos géneros, Hebanthodes Pedersen, con una sola especie de Perú, H. peruviana Pedersen y Lecosia Pedersen, con dos especies del NE de Brasil, L. formicarum Pedersen y L. oppositifolia Pedersen. Además se describen siete especies nuevas, Alternanthera piptantha Pedersen, Gomphrena Hatschbachiana Pedersen, G. riparia Pedersen, Guilleminea chacoensis Pedersen, G. fragilis Pedersen, G. hirsuta Pedersen y Pfaffia argyrea Pedersen, una nueva subespecie, Alternanthera Kurtzii subsp. sclerosperma Pedersen y tres variedades, Alternanthera hirtula var. hirsuta Pedersen, A. hirtula var. nitens Pedersen y Pfaffia fruticulosa
    var. diffusa Pedersen. Se establecen tres nuevas combinaciones, Hebanthe eriantha (Poir

  1. Archeomagnetism of Jesuit Missions in South Brazil (1657-1706 AD) and assessment of the South American database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Wilbor; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Damiani, Nadir; Rech, Raquel M.

    2016-07-01

    South America contributes only a small fraction of the global archeomagnetic data. Recent work in the region has expanded significantly the previous database with new data being generated from Chile, Argentina, Northeast and Southeast Brazil. We report here new results from Jesuit Missions in South Brazil, at the triple border with Argentina and Paraguay. Our archeological collection comprises a total of 24 fragments of baked clay construction materials from three Jesuit Missions, São Luiz Gonzaga 1657-1687 AD (3 fragments), São João Batista 1667-1697 AD (4 fragments) and Santo Ângelo 1676-1706 AD (17 fragments). Archeointensity determinations were performed with the double-heating technique in its modified form, with pTRM checks and pTRM tail checks. Measurements were complemented by anisotropy and cooling-rate corrections. A total of 24 specimens (11 fragments) passed strict quality selection, corresponding to a success rate of 45%. We also performed an experimental test for the 6-specimen average anisotropy correction technique and we show that it does not correct for the effects of TRM anisotropy. Results were similar within error for the three missions: São Luiz Gonzaga (40.2 ± 2.4 μT), São João Batista (39.1 ± 1.6 μT) and Santo Ângelo (41.1 ± 2.0 μT). These data were then compared with the most reliable data from South America, after a critical assessment of the current database. According to our analysis, only 39 intensity data for the continent can be considered as high-quality, most within the last 700 years; only three data were retained for older periods (800-1100 AD). The filtered data match reasonably well the available models for the past five centuries. A combined curve for South and Southeast Brazil plus Argentina plot systematically below relocated data from NE Brazil and Chile. These differences are likely due to complexities in the geometry of the field in South America not appropriately accounted for by a simple axial dipole. Our

  2. First Chemical Analysis and Characterization of the Male Species-Specific Cephalic Labial-Gland Secretions of South American Bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasero, Nicolas; Martinet, Baptiste; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Torres, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Rasmont, Pierre; Lecocq, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of signals and reproductive traits involved in the pre-mating recognition has been in focus of abundant research in several model species, such as bumblebees (genus Bombus). However, the most-studied bumblebee reproductive trait, the male cephalic labial gland secretions (CLGS), remains unknown among bumblebee species from South America. In this study, the CLGS of five South American bumblebees of the subgenera Thoracobombus (Bombus excellens and B. atratus) and Cullumanobombus (B. rubicundus, B. hortulanus, and B. melaleucus) were investigated, by comparing the chemical compositions of their secretions to those of closely related European species. The results showed an obvious interspecific differentiation in both subgenera. The interspecific differentiation among the species of the Thoracobombus subgenus involved different compounds present at high contents (main compounds), while those of the Cullumanobombus subgenus shared the same main components. This suggests that among the species of the Cullumanobombus subgenus, the differentiation in minor components could lead to species discrimination. PMID:26460558

  3. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  4. Changes in American Adults' Sexual Behavior and Attitudes, 1972-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2015-11-01

    In the nationally representative General Social Survey, U.S. Adults (N = 33,380) in 2000-2012 (vs. the 1970s and 1980s) had more sexual partners, were more likely to have had sex with a casual date or pickup or an acquaintance, and were more accepting of most non-marital sex (premarital sex, teen sex, and same-sex sexual activity, but not extramarital sex). The percentage who believed premarital sex among adults was "not wrong at all" was 29 % in the early 1970s, 42 % in the 1980s and 1990s, 49 % in the 2000s, and 58 % between 2010 and 2012. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating time period, generation/birth cohort, and age showed that the trend toward greater sexual permissiveness was primarily due to generation. Acceptance of non-marital sex rose steadily between the G.I. generation (born 1901-1924) and Boomers (born 1946-1964), dipped slightly among early Generation X'ers (born 1965-1981), and then rose so that Millennials (also known as Gen Y or Generation Me, born 1982-1999) were the most accepting of non-marital sex. Number of sexual partners increased steadily between the G.I.s and 1960s-born GenX'ers and then dipped among Millennials to return to Boomer levels. The largest changes appeared among White men, with few changes among Black Americans. The results were discussed in the context of growing cultural individualism and rejection of traditional social rules in the U.S. PMID:25940736

  5. Grazing Scar Characteristics Impact Degree of Fungal Facilitation in Spartina alterniflora Leaves in a South American Salt Marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Franco Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Grazing scars of burrowing crabs and Hemiptera insects were simulated on leaves of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Simulations of crab feeding generated two-fold higher fungal (ergosterol content in leaves in comparison to that generated by insect scar simulations (1.26 ±0.55 and 0.57 ±0.25 µg per cm², respectively. This study provided evidence that herbivory could facilitate microbial infection by fungi in dominant South American salt marsh plants and indicated that specific feeding mechanisms used by different herbivores might differentially impact the strength of this interaction.

  6. A 2,300-year-long annually resolved record of the South American summer monsoon from the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Broxton W.; Abbott, Mark B.; Vuille, Mathias; Donald T. Rodbell; Stansell, Nathan D.; Rosenmeier, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Decadal and centennial mean state changes in South American summer monsoon (SASM) precipitation during the last 2,300 years are detailed using an annually resolved authigenic calcite record of precipitation δ18O from a varved lake in the Central Peruvian Andes. This unique sediment record shows that δ18O peaked during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) from A.D. 900 to 1100, providing evidence that the SASM weakened considerably during this period. Minimum δ18O values occurred during the Litt...

  7. Avian Schistosomes from the South American Endemic Gastropod Genus Chilina (Pulmonata: Chilinidae), with a Brief Review of South American Schistosome Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Verónica; Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S

    2015-10-01

    Our current knowledge of avian schistosomes from South America is scarce in all respects, including species and generic diversity, their life cycles, patterns of host use, potential to cause dermatitis outbreaks, and evolutionary affinities. As a step towards addressing this shortcoming, the goal of this study was to provide discrete reference points relating to snail hosts, locality records, morphological attributes, sequence for nuclear 28S and ITS, and partial mitochondrial cox1 genes, and phylogenetic relationships for schistosome cercariae recovered from different species of Chilina, which are gastropods endemic to South America. In total, 1,308 snails belonging to 6 species of Chilina were collected from 12 localities across Argentina. Thirty-eight snails (2.9%) had schistosome infections. Our data indicate the presence of 3 lineages of Chilina-transmitted schistosomes, all of which group within the major avian schistosome clade. However, none of the lineages grouped within or as sister to other known avian schistosome genera in the tree, indicating they probably represent undescribed genera. The relationships of these schistosomes from Chilina spp. are discussed in relation to their position in the global schistosome phylogenetic tree. PMID:26186680

  8. Influência do tamanho e umidade do grão na expansão da pipoca South American Mushroom Influence of size and moisture of grain on the popping expansion of the cultivar South American Mushroom popcorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sawazaki

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando sementes do cultivar de milho-pipoca South American Mushroom, obtido em 1984/85 em Campinas, SP, procurou-se avaliar os efeitos do teor de umidade e tamanho de grão na expansão da pipoca. Foram empregados tamanhos de grãos compreendidos entre as peneiras 14 e 18 e teores de umidade entre 9,4 e 19,8%. Os resultados mostraram que a capacidade de expansão foi maior nos grãos menores e nos teores de umidade de 10,5 a 11,5%.The effect of grain size and moisture on the popping expansion of popcorn was evaluated for the cultivar South American Mushroom, produced in 1984/85, in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Grain size classes ranging from 14/64 to 18/64 inch, and moisture contents from 9.4 to 19.8% were studied. The results indicated a higher expansion rate for the smaller grains and for moisture contents between 10.5 and 11.5%.

  9. How Amazonian deforestation can alter the South American circulation regime: Insights from a non-linear moisture transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Marwan, Norbert; Barbosa, Henrique; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    A key driver of South American climate are the low-level trade winds from the tropical Atlantic Ocean towards the continent. After crossing the Amazon Basin, they are blocked by the Andes mountain range, and forced southward to the subtropics. These winds are crucial for the atmospheric moisture supply in most parts of South America. In particular, the hydrology of the two largest river basins of the Continent, namely the Amazon and the La Plata Basins, strongly depend on the moisture inflow provided by the trade winds. In turn, the Amazon rainforest can be assumed to have a strong influence on this low-level moisture circulation over South America by exchanging moisture with the atmosphere through precipitation and evapotranspiration. A pronounced positive feedback in this context is established through precipitation-induced release of latent heat over the Amazon Basin, which significantly enhances the moisture inflow from the tropical Atlantic Ocean toward the continent and can thus be considered to be crucial for the existence of today's South American climate. Ongoing deforestation and resulting reduction in evapotranspiration rates in particular in the eastern Amazon carry the risk of a strongly nonlinear response in these interactions with the low-level atmosphere. We propose a simple differential transport model describing the cascading moisture transport from the eastern coast of South America across the Amazon Basin to the Andes, taking into account the nonlinearity associated with the release of latent heat. The results of the model suggest that the system is indeed very sensitive to relatively small reductions of the evapotranspiration rates in the eastern Amazon Basin. These reductions increase river runoff, but limit the moisture availability farther west. This leads to a reduction in precipitation rates and thereby diminishes the release of latent heat which, in turn, reduces the overall moisture inflow. We show that, according to our model, there

  10. Health Care Provider Advice for African American Adults Not Meeting Health Behavior Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Fallon, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle contribute to excessive morbidity and mortality. Healthy People 2010 goals are for 85% of physicians to counsel their patients about physical activity and for 75% of physician office visits made by patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or dyslipidemia to include dietary counseling. The purpose of this study was to 1 determine the rate of participant-reported health care provider advice for healthy lifestyle changes among African Americans who do not meet recommendations for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and healthy weight; 2 examine correlates of provider advice; and 3 assess the association between provider advice and stage of readiness for change for each of these health behaviors. Methods Data for this study were collected as part of a statewide faith-based physical activity program for African Americans. A stratified random sample of 20 African Methodist Episcopal churches in South Carolina was selected to participate in a telephone survey of members aged 18 years and older. The telephone survey, conducted over a 5-month period, asked participants a series of questions about sociodemographics, health status, physical activity, and nutrition. Analyses for moderate to vigorous physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and weight loss were conducted separately. For each of these behaviors, logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the independent association of sex, age, body mass index, education, number of diagnosed diseases, perceived health, and stage of change with health care provider advice for health behaviors. Results A total of 572 church members (407 women, 165 men; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 18–102 years completed the survey. Overall, participant-reported provider advice for lifestyle changes was 47.0% for physical activity, 38.7% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 39.7% for weight. A greater number of diagnosed

  11. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  12. The tectonic setting of the Caribbean region and the K/T turnover of the South American land-mammal fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E.; Pascual, R.

    2011-07-01

    According to the fossil record, a biotic interchange of land vertebrates (e.g. booid snakes, dinosaurs and mammals) occurred between the Americas during the Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeocene. The arrival of North American immigrants (particularly marsupials and placental) during the latest Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene had a profound influence on the composition of the South American mammal communities. During the Late Cretaceous these communities were dominated by native groups of Pangeic lineages, which represented more than 95% of the known genera, but during the Early Palaeocene 70% of South American mammals were derived from North American immigrants that had arrived during the Late Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene, and by the Late Palaeocene all the South American mammals (with the possible exception of the xenarthrans) were descendants of these North American immigrants. In spite of the fact that no geological evidence is currently available to support the existence of a continuous land connection between the Americas during the Late Cretaceousearly Palaeocene, the fossil record is substantial enough to point to a temporary inter-American connection that permitted the beginning of a land-mammal exchange by the end of the Cretaceous. This interpretation is supported by recent geographic reconstructions of the Caribbean region. (Author)

  13. Associations among Environmental Supports, Physical Activity, and Blood Pressure in African American Adults in the PATH Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K.; Egan, Brent M.

    2013-01-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkabi...

  14. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    OpenAIRE

    Sciolla, A.; Glover, DA; Loeb, TB; Zhang, M.; Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with h...

  15. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure Responsiveness to the Cold Pressor Test in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Males

    OpenAIRE

    BOND, VERNON; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; FRANKS, B. DON; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African...

  16. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. PMID:23307384

  17. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Pereira Almerão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts.

  18. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cesar C., E-mail: ccmart@ufpr.b [Centro de Estudos do Mar da Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 50.002, 83255-000, Pontal do Sul, Pontal do Parana, PR (Brazil); Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C. [Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by {sup 137}Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area. - The contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area indicated by molecular indicator of sewage input.

  19. Patient experiences and health system responsiveness among older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background As populations age, health systems must adapt and develop approaches that meet the needs of older patients with increasing multiple chronic conditions. Understanding older populations’ perceptions of quality of care is critical to developing measures to increase the utilization of primary healthcare services. Using the data from the Global Study on Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey, the current study aims to evaluate the degree of perceived responsiveness with outpatient and inpatient healthcare in South Africa. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or older in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare utilization and responsiveness, and other health variables. Results Healthcare utilization was 9% inpatient care in the past 3 years and 50% outpatient care in the past 12 months. The overall mean perceived responsiveness score for inpatient care was 71 and for outpatient care 69. According to the evaluation of inpatient care, autonomy and prompt attention showed the lowest while quality, confidentiality, and dignity showed the highest degree of perceived responsiveness among all the areas analyzed. Regarding outpatient care, prompt attention showed the lowest while quality, confidentiality, and dignity the highest degree of perceived responsiveness scores. Overall, perceived healthcare responsiveness was higher in private than in public inpatient and outpatient healthcare facilities. Multivariate analysis found that being from the White population group (OR=3.96, CI=1.54–19.19), not a public health facility (OR=0.34, CI=0.17–0.69), poor subjective health status (OR=0.53, CI=0.38–0.75) and having health insurance paying for the outpatient care visit (OR=3.39, CI=1.24–9.27) were associated with outpatient perceived healthcare responsiveness, whereas male gender (OR=0.36, CI=0.14–0.89), 80 years or older (OR=5

  20. Adherence with isoniazid for prevention of tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller F James

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Isoniazid (INH is recommended for treatment of latent TB infection, however non-adherence is common. The purpose of this study was to apply in-house prepared isoniazid (INH urine test strips in a clinical setting, and identify predictors of positive test results in an adherence questionnaire in HIV-infected adults taking INH for prevention of TB. Methods Cross-sectional study of adherence using a questionnaire and urine test strips for detection of INH metabolites at two hospitals in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Participants were aged at least 18 years, HIV positive, and receiving INH for prevention of tuberculosis disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses are used to identify factors relevant to adherence. Results 301 consecutive patients were recruited. 28% of participants had negative urine tests. 32 (37.2%, 95% CI25.4, 45.0 of the 86 patients who received INH from peripheral pharmacies said the pharmacy had run out of INH at some time, compared with central hospital pharmacies (p = 0.0001. In univariate analysis, a negative test was associated with self-reported missed INH doses (p = 0.043. Each 12-hour increment since last reported dose increased the likelihood of a negative test by 34% (p = 0.0007. Belief in INH safety was associated with a positive test (p = 0.021. In multivariate analysis, patients who believed INH is important for prevention of TB disease were more likely to be negative (p = 0.0086. Conclusion Adequate drug availability at peripheral pharmacies remains an important intervention for TB prevention. Key questions may identify potentially non-adherent patients. In-house prepared urine tests strips are an effective and cheap method of objectively assessing INH adherence, and could be used an important tool in TB control programs.

  1. Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities Observed in the South American Sector During the December 2006 Geomagnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Y.; de Jesus, R.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Abalde, J. R.; Brunini, C.; Gende, M.; Cintra, T.; de Souza, V.; Pillat, V.; Lima, W.

    2009-05-01

    This investigation presents studies related to the observations of equatorial ionospheric irregularities in the ionospheric F-region in the South American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm in December 2006, during the period of low solar activity. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -147 nT at 0700 UT on 15 December. In this work ionospheric sounding data obtained between 13 and 16 December 2006 at Palmas (PAL; 10.2o S, 48.2o W; dip latitude 6.6o S) and São José dos Campos (SJC, 23.2o S, 45.9o W; dip latitude 17.6o S), Brazil, and Jicamarca (JIC, 12.0o S, 76.8o W; dip latitude 0.05o S), Peru, have been used. Also, vertical total electron content (VTEC) and phase fluctuations (TECU/min) from GPS observations obtained at Brasilia (BRAZ, 15.9o S, 47.9o W; dip latitude 11.7o S), Presidente Prudente (PPTE, 22.12° S, 51.4° W; dip latitude 14,9° S), Curitiba (PARA, 25.43o S, 49.21o W; dip latitude 18.4o S), Santa Maria (SMAR, 29.71o S, 53.07o W; dip latitude 19.6o S), Brazil, Bahia Blanca (VBCA, 38.7o S, 62.3o W; dip latitude 22.4o S) and Puerto Deseado (PDES, 47.7o S, 65.9o W, dip latitude 27.1o S), Argentina, during the period 13 to 16 December are presented. An unusual uplifting of the F-region during pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) on 14 December was possibly associated with a prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin after the storm sudden commencement (1414 UT on 14 December). On this geomagnetically disturbed night of 14-15 December, intense equatorial ionospheric irregularities were observed up to southern most GPS station PDES in Argentina. It should be mentioned that on the other nights viz., 12-13 and 13-14 December (both nights before the storm), and 15-16 December (recovery phase), the ionospheric irregularities are limited to only the Brazilian GPS stations. On the geomagnetically disturbed night of 14-15 December, strong oscillations were observed in the F-region base height possibly associated with Joule heating

  2. Phylogenetic correlograms and the evolution of body size in South American owls (Strigiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, many models have been proposed to link microevolutionary processes to macroevolutionary patterns, defined by comparative data analysis. Among these, Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U processes have been used to model, respectively, genetic drift or directional selection and stabilizing selection. These models produce different curves of pairwise variance between species against time since divergence, in such a way that different profiles appear in phylogenetic correlograms. We analyzed variation in body length among 19 species of South American owls, by means of phylogenetic correlograms constructed using Moran's I coefficient in four distance classes. Phylogeny among species was based on DNA hybridization. The observed correlogram was then compared with 500 correlograms obtained by simulations of Brownian motion and O-U over the same phylogeny, using discriminant analysis. The observed correlogram indicates a phylogenetic gradient up to 45 mya, when coefficients tend to stabilize, and it is similar to the correlograms produced by the O-U process. This is expected when we consider that body size of organisms is correlated with many ecological and life-history traits and subjected to many constraints that can be modeled by the O-U process, which has been used to describe evolution under stabilizing selection.Nos últimos anos diversos modelos têm sido propostos a fim de realizar inferências sobre processos microevolutivos com base em padrões macroevolutivos obtidos a partir de dados comparativos. Dentre esses, o movimento Browniano e o processo Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U têm sido utilizados para modelar principalmente deriva genética e seleção estabilizadora, respectivamente. Esses modelos produzem curvas diferentes de relação entre variância interespecífica e distância no tempo, de modo que eles podem ser distingüidos com base em correlogramas filogenéticos. Neste trabalho, nós analisamos a varia

  3. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  4. From slave to litigant: African Americans in court in the postwar south, 1865–1920

    OpenAIRE

    Milewski, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on more than 600 higher court cases in eight southern states to show that African Americans succeeded in litigating certain kinds of civil cases against white southerners in southern appellate courts between 1865 and 1920. While historians have often concentrated on cases involving issues of race, the much more common, seemingly prosaic civil suits African Americans litigated against whites over transactions, wills, and property also had important implications for race rel...

  5. Pupil Rights in the "New" South Africa: Comparisons and Contrasts with American Constitutional Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delon, Floyd G.

    1996-01-01

    Examines provisions of the South African Constitution pertaining to pupil rights in conjunction with the construction the United States Supreme Court has placed on corresponding provisions of the U.S. Constitution. (46 footnotes) (MLF)

  6. Whole-Exome Sequencing in a South American Cohort Links ALDH1A3, FOXN1 and Retinoic Acid Regulation Pathways to Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramos, Oscar A; Olivares, Ana María; Haider, Neena B; de Autismo, Liga Colombiana; Lattig, María Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a range of complex neurodevelopmental conditions principally characterized by dysfunctions linked to mental development. Previous studies have shown that there are more than 1000 genes likely involved in ASD, expressed mainly in brain and highly interconnected among them. We applied whole exome sequencing in Colombian-South American trios. Two missense novel SNVs were found in the same child: ALDH1A3 (RefSeq NM_000693: c.1514T>C (p.I505T)) and FOXN1 (RefSeq NM_003593: c.146C>T (p.S49L)). Gene expression studies reveal that Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 are expressed in ~E13.5 mouse embryonic brain, as well as in adult piriform cortex (PC; ~P30). Conserved Retinoic Acid Response Elements (RAREs) upstream of human ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 and in mouse Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 genes were revealed using bioinformatic approximation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay using Retinoid Acid Receptor B (Rarb) as the immunoprecipitation target suggests RA regulation of Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 in mice. Our results frame a possible link of RA regulation in brain to ASD etiology, and a feasible non-additive effect of two apparently unrelated variants in ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 recognizing that every result given by next generation sequencing should be cautiously analyzed, as it might be an incidental finding. PMID:26352270

  7. Challenges and characteristics of the South American grain and oilseed postharvest system

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concerning grain production, South America is divided in two main regions: 1) the Mercosur region (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay) which produces more than 250 million tonnes of grains and oilseeds, and 2) the Andes Mountain region countries, which are net importers of these products. The main challenges related to grain postharvest that South America is facing are to minimize the quality and quantity losses; improve the food safety; enhance the capability for segregation and traceab...

  8. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  9. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  10. Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2013 US American Community Survey, this report considers the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of same-sex couples (married and unmarried), especially those raising children, in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Comparisons are made with their different-sex counterparts. In Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota, as of 2013, there are an estimated 19652 same-sex couples. An estimated 12% of these cou...

  11. Analyses of Genotypic Diversity among North, South, and Central American Isolates of Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus: Evidence for Colombian Origins and for Intraspecific Spatial Phylogenetic Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Moonan, Francis; Mirkov, T. Erik

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed the genotypic diversity of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) collected from North, South, and Central America by fingerprinting assays and selective cDNA cloning and sequencing. One group of isolates from Colombia, designated the C-population, has been identified as residing at the root node between a separable superpopulation structure of SCYLV and other members of the family Luteoviridae, indicating that the progenitor viruses of the North, South, and Central American iso...

  12. The gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors of young adults in Soweto, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Meagley; Brittany Schriver; Rebecca S. Geary; Rebecca Fielding-Miller; Aryeh D. Stein; Kristin L Dunkle; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young people constitute a major proportion of the general population and are influenced by a variety of factors, especially in regards to seeking help. An understanding of help-seeking behaviors among young people is important for designing and implementing effective targeted health services. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 23 young adults aged 21–22 years in Soweto, South Africa, to explore the gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors. Result...

  13. The gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors of young adults in Soweto, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Meagley, Kathryn; Schriver, Brittany; Rebecca S. Geary; Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Stein, Aryeh D.; Dunkle, Kristin L.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young people constitute a major proportion of the general population and are influenced by a variety of factors, especially in regards to seeking help. An understanding of help-seeking behaviors among young people is important for designing and implementing effective targeted health services.Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 23 young adults aged 21–22 years in Soweto, South Africa, to explore the gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors.Results:...

  14. Self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation for adult hearing aid users in a developing South African context

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Pienaar; Natalie Stearn; De Wet Swanepoel

    2010-01-01

    Hearing impairment has far reaching consequences for affected individuals, in terms of quality of life indicators. In a developing South African context the hearing impaired population is faced with limited aural rehabilitation services. This study evaluated self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation in a group of adults in the public healthcare sector with a standardized outcomes measurement tool (IOI-HA). Sixty-one respondents participated (44% males; 56% females), with a mean age of 69...

  15. Elder mistreatment and emotional symptoms among older adults in a largely rural population: The South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Begle, Angela M.; Strachan, Martha; Cisler, Joshua M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Hernandez, Melba; Acierno, Ron

    2010-01-01

    While two recent major studies provide some insight into the prevalence and correlates of elder mistreatment, the relationship between elder mistreatment and mental health remains unclear. This study begins to address this issue by examining the relationship between elder mistreatment (i.e., a recent history of emotional and physical abuse) and negative emotional symptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression) among 902 older adults aged 60 and above residing in South Carolina. Results demonstrate th...

  16. Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun; Yun, Sung-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 1...

  17. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  18. A Mid-South Perspective: African American Faith-based Organizations, HIV, and Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otey, Tamara D; Miller, Wendy Renee

    2016-01-01

    Shelby County, Tennessee has the fastest growing rate of HIV infection in the state, and the majority of new infections are in African Americans. In 2011, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report stated that Memphis (the largest city in Shelby County) ranked seventh highest in new HIV infections. Little research has addressed HIV-related themes in African American culture that could hinder HIV prevention measures. Our qualitative study engaged African American, faith-based leaders in areas with high rates of HIV in meaningful conversations regarding their attitudes toward HIV and those who are infected. Although faith-based leaders felt they had a role in HIV prevention, only 4% in our study had participated in HIV prevention activities, but they were open to HIV prevention programs. We found that faith-based leaders had limited knowledge of health disparities and ongoing stigma concerning HIV, which served as a major barrier to HIV prevention. PMID:27209431

  19. Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according the ENSO variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, G.A.M.; Ambrizzi, T. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Marengo, J.A. [National Inst. for Space Studies, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Center for Weather Forecasts and Climate Studies

    2009-07-01

    The differences on the phase and wavelength of the quasi-stationary waves over the South America generated by El Nino (EN) and La Nina (LN) events seem to affect the daily evolution of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes (SALLJ). For the austral summer period of 1977-2004 the SALLJ episodes detected according to Bonner criterion 1 show normal to above-normal frequency in EN years, and in LN years the episodes show normal to below-normal frequency. During EN and LN years the SALLJ episodes were associated with positive rainfall anomalies over the La Plata Basin, but more intense during LN years. During EN years the increase in the SALLJ cases were associated to intensification of the Subtropical Jet (SJ) around 30 S and positive Sea Level Pressure (SLP) anomalies over the western equatorial Atlantic and tropical South America, particularly over central Brazil. This favored the intensification of the northeasterly trade winds over the northern continent and it channeled by the Andes mountain to the La Plata Basin region where negative SLP are found. The SALLJ cases identified during the LN events were weaker and less frequent when compared to those for EN years. In this case the SJ was weaker than in EN years and the negative SLP anomalies over the tropical continent contributed to the inversion of the northeasterly trade winds. Also a southerly flow anomaly was generated by the geostrophic balance due to the anomalous blocking over southeast Pacific and the intense cyclonic transient over the southern tip of South America. As result the warm tropical air brought by the SALLJ encounters the cold extratropical air from the southerly winds over the La Plata basin. This configuration can increase the conditional instability over the La Plata basin and may explain the more intense positive rainfall anomalies in SALLJ cases during LN years than in EN years. (orig.)

  20. Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according the ENSO variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. M. Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The differences on the phase and wavelength of the quasi-stationary waves over the South America generated by El Niño (EN and La Niña (LN events seem to affect the daily evolution of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes (SALLJ. For the austral summer period of 1977–2004 the SALLJ episodes detected according to Bonner criterion 1 show normal to above-normal frequency in EN years, and in LN years the episodes show normal to below-normal frequency.

    During EN and LN years the SALLJ episodes were associated with positive rainfall anomalies over the La Plata Basin, but more intense during LN years. During EN years the increase in the SALLJ cases were associated to intensification of the Subtropical Jet (SJ around 30° S and positive Sea Level Pressure (SLP anomalies over the western equatorial Atlantic and tropical South America, particularly over central Brazil. This favored the intensification of the northeasterly trade winds over the northern continent and it channeled by the Andes mountain to the La Plata Basin region where negative SLP are found. The SALLJ cases identified during the LN events were weaker and less frequent when compared to those for EN years. In this case the SJ was weaker than in EN years and the negative SLP anomalies over the tropical continent contributed to the inversion of the northeasterly trade winds. Also a southerly flow anomaly was generated by the geostrophic balance due to the anomalous blocking over southeast Pacific and the intense cyclonic transient over the southern tip of South America. As result the warm tropical air brought by the SALLJ encounters the cold extratropical air from the southerly winds over the La Plata basin. This configuration can increase the conditional instability over the La Plata basin and may explain the more intense positive rainfall anomalies in SALLJ cases during LN years than in EN years.

  1. Early Life Predictors of Adult Depression in a Community Cohort of Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Kerry M.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Banda, Deliya R.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Depression among African Americans residing in urban communities is a complex, major public health problem; however, few studies identify early life risk factors for depression among urban African American men and women. To better inform prevention programming, this study uses data from the Woodlawn Study, a well-defined community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 years, to determine depression prevalence through midlife and identify childhood and adolescent risk fac...

  2. The Concrete Jungle: City Stress and Substance Abuse among Young Adult African American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C.; Braxton, Nikia D.; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, Afr...

  3. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  4. Failed Presidencies: Identifying and Explaining a South American Anomaly Presidencias fallidas: identificando y explicando una anomalía sudamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hochstetler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Are presidential democracies inherently unstable and prone to breakdown? Recent work on Latin America suggests that the region has seen the emergence of a new kind of instability, where individual presidents do not manage to stay in office to the end of their terms, but the regime itself continues. This article places the Latin American experiences in a global context, and finds that the Latin American literature helps to predict the fates of presidents in other regions. The first stage of a selection model shows that presidents who are personally corrupt and preside over economic decline in contexts where democracy is paired with lower levels of GDP/capita are more likely to face challenges to their remaining in office for their entire terms. For the challenged presidents in this set, the risk of early termination increases when they use lethal force against their challengers, but decreases if they are corrupt. These factors help account for the disproportionately large number of South American presidents who have actually been forced from office, the “South American anomaly” of the title. ¿Son las democracias presidenciales intrínsecamente inestables ypropensas a los quiebres? Los estudios recientes sobre América Latina sugierenque la región ha visto el surgimiento de un nuevo tipo de inestabilidad,donde presidentes no cumplen sus mandatos, pero el régimen mismocontinua. Este artículo coloca las experiencias latinoamericanas en un contextoglobal, y encuentra que la literatura latinoamericana ayuda a predecirlos destinos de los presidentes en otras regiones. La primera etapa de unmodelo de selección demuestra que es más probable que los presidentesquienes son personalmente corruptos y que presiden sobre un decliveeconómico en un contexto donde la democracia es acompañada de nivelesbajos de PIB per cápita sean enfrentados con esfuerzos de desbancarlos delcargo antes del fin del mandato. Para los presidentes desafiados en estegrupo

  5. Asthma 1-2-3: a low literacy multimedia tool to educate African American adults about asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials. PMID:19353250

  6. Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Increase Condom Use and Reduce HIV Risk Among Urban African American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Trotter, Jennie; Zellner, Tiffany; Lenoir, Shelia; Evans, Donoria; Rollins, Latrice; Miller, Assia

    2016-09-01

    African Americans comprise nearly half of people in the United States living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but compose one tenth of the population. Infection rate among young African American adults is 11 times that of Whites. The Color It Real Program was a seven-session, weekly administered, age-specific, and culturally tailored intervention designed to provide HIV education and address behavioral motivations (risk awareness, decisional balance exercises, partner negotiation, and attitudes) associated with HIV risk among African Americans ages 18 to 24 years in Atlanta, Georgia. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 88) and control (n = 52) groups completing a 45-item survey. When controlling for gender and education, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the intervention group had significant increases in HIV transmission knowledge (F = 4.84, p = .0305), condom use, and intentions to use condoms (F = 4.38, p = .0385). Risky sexual behavior means did not significantly differ between groups (F = 1.44, p = .2331). Results indicate the value of culturally tailored educational strategies toward improved HIV knowledge and adoption of risk reduction strategies. Future studies investigating the differential impact of programs by gender and sexual orientation are also critical. Continued innovation and tailoring of risk reduction strategies for minority young adults will contribute to reducing HIV incidence and prevalence over the life course. PMID:27216874

  7. The improvement of nuclear safety regulation : American, European, Japanese, and South Korean experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key concepts in South Korean nuclear safety regulation are safety and risk. Nuclear regulation in South Korea has required reactor designs and safeguards that reduce the risk of a major accident to less than one in a million reactor-years-a risk supposedly low enough to be acceptable. To data, in South Korean nuclear safety regulation has involved the establishment of many technical standards to enable administration enforcement. In scientific lawsuits in which the legal issue is the validity of specialized technical standards that are used for judge whether a particular nuclear power plant is to be licensed, the concept of uncertainty law is often raised with regard to what extent the examination and judgement by the judicial power affects a discretion made by the administrative office. In other words, the safety standards for nuclear power plants has been adapted as a form of the scientific technical standards widely under the idea of uncertainty law. Thus, the improvement of nuclear safety regulation in South Korea seems to depend on the rational lawmaking and a reasonable, judicial examination of the scientific standards on nuclear safety

  8. Community-based Music Education: Influences of Industrial Bands in the American South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, Hoyt F.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a case study focusing on the mill-supported Lindale Band in Lindale, Georgia in order to examine the influences of industry on instrumental music education in the U.S. South. Investigates the history of U.S. industrial bands and the philosophical parallels between industry and progressive education. (CMK)

  9. Food Safety by Using Machine Learning for Automatic Classification of Seeds of the South-American Incanut Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following paper deals with the classification of seeds and seed components of the South-American Incanut plant and the modification of a machine to handle this task. Initially the state of the art is being illustrated. The research was executed in Germany and with a relevant part in Peru and Ecuador. Theoretical considerations for the solution of an automatically analysis of the Incanut seeds were specified. The optimization of the analyzing software and the separation unit of the mechanical hardware are carried out with recognition results. In a final step the practical application of the analysis of the Incanut seeds is held on a trial basis and rated on the bases of statistic values

  10. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Flint

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable. It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  11. Food Safety by Using Machine Learning for Automatic Classification of Seeds of the South-American Incanut Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanzyk, Thomas; Anding, Katharina; Linss, Gerhard; Rodriguez Hernández, Jorge; Theska, René

    2015-02-01

    The following paper deals with the classification of seeds and seed components of the South-American Incanut plant and the modification of a machine to handle this task. Initially the state of the art is being illustrated. The research was executed in Germany and with a relevant part in Peru and Ecuador. Theoretical considerations for the solution of an automatically analysis of the Incanut seeds were specified. The optimization of the analyzing software and the separation unit of the mechanical hardware are carried out with recognition results. In a final step the practical application of the analysis of the Incanut seeds is held on a trial basis and rated on the bases of statistic values.

  12. Evaluation of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention Program to Decrease Blood Pressure in Low-Income African-American Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Palta, Priya; Page, G.; Piferi, R. L.; Gill, J. M.; Hayat, M. J.; Connolly, A. B.; Szanton, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension affects a large proportion of urban African-American older adults. While there have been great strides in drug development, many older adults do not have access to such medicines or do not take them. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been shown to decrease blood pressure in some populations. This has not been tested in low-income, urban African-American older adults. Therefore, the primary purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a ...

  13. Embracing Intercultural Diversification: Teaching Young Adult Literature with Native American Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kenan; Box, Andrea; Blasingame, James

    2013-01-01

    According to the most recent census, there are five million Native Americans in the United States. Of these, there are at least 500,000 Native Americans attending public schools. However, the educational system does not fully serve this population and in fact often ignores them. More importantly, each tribe and clan has its own distinct cultural…

  14. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  15. Southern Education and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: An Analysis of Historic Federal Funding to Improve the South's Low-Achieving Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The new federal stimulus law, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), offers Southern states a historic opportunity to improve public education from pre-school through college especially for low income students. ARRA allocates over $100 billion directly to the 15 states of the South for creating jobs and spurring economic…

  16. Gomphrena claussenii, the first South-American metallophyte species with indicator-like Zn and Cd accumulation and extreme metal tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaz Villafort Carvalho, M.; Amaral, D.C.; Guilherme, L.R.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant species with the capacity to tolerate heavy metals are potentially useful for phytoremediation since they have adapted to survive and reproduce under toxic conditions and to accumulate high metal concentrations. Gomphrena claussenii Moq., a South-American species belonging to the Amaranthaceae

  17. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: Transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Hotzel, H.; Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Seidler, T.; Ellenberger, C.; Hetzel, U.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and molecula

  18. Bleaching of melanin in the epidermis of South American fur seal and its application on enzyme immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis is an amphibious marine mammal distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. The species is well adjusted to different habitats due to the morphology of its fin-like members and due to some adaptations in their integumentary system. Immunohistochemical studies are very important to evaluate the mechanisms of skin adaptation due the differential expression of the antigens present in the tissue depending of the region of the body surface. However, its strongly pigmented (melanin epidermis prevents the visualization of the immuno-histochemical chromogens markers. In this study a melanin bleaching method was developed aimed to allow the visualization of the chromogens without interfering in the antigen-antibody affinity for immunohistochemistry. The analysis of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen index in the epidermis of A. australis by immunohistochemistry with diaminobenzidine (DAB as chromogen was used to test the method. The bleaching of the melanin allowed to obtain the cell proliferation index in epidermis and to avoid false positive results without affecting the immunohistochemical results.

  19. A Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF, coordinates and velocities for South American stations: contributions to Central Andes geodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mackern

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite positioning systems allow the fixing of the location of a point on the Earth's surface with very good precision and accuracy. To do this, however, it is necessary to determine the point coordinates taking account the reference system and the movements that affect them because of tectonic plate movements. These reference systems are materialized by a significant number of continuous measurement stations in South America. In SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas, there are four Analysis Centers that process the data collected from satellites of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, with the primary purpose to maintain the international terrestrial reference frame through calculation of the coordinates and velocities of the continuous GNSS stations of the SIRGAS-CON Network.

    In this work, we demonstrate the quality of the solutions from CIMA, one of the SIRGAS official processing centers operating in Mendoza, Argentina, in comparison with other South American processing centers. The importance of precise calculations of coordinates and velocities in a global frame is also shown. Finally, we give estimations of velocities from stations located within deformation zones in the Central Andes.

  20. The type locality of the South American Tern, Sterna hirundinacea (Aves: Charadriiformes: Sternidae, with designation of a lectotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio J. Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of the South American Tern, Sterna hirundinacea, has long been considered to be the state of Santa Catarina in South Brazil. This conclusion was probably based on two syntypes, from the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, France, one from Laguna and the other from an unspecified locality. The latter was probably shot on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. A recent molecular study has shown that Brazilian and Patagonian populations of S. hirundinacea are not completely panmictic, though genetic differentiation between them is low. No data from the Falkland Islands and Pacific coast populations have been available for comparison. If future analysis shows that Pacific and/or Falkland/Malvinas populations are genetically isolated from the Brazil-Patagonian ones, the name S. hirundinacea would apply only to birds from the latter populations. Given that the two syntypes were collected at two widely spaced localities, doubts exist as to the precise locality where one syntype was taken, and to clear up uncertainties, a lectotype of S. hirundinacea is herein designated.

  1. Trends in South American weapons purchases at the beginning of the new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with some frequency it is heard that Latin America, especially South America, is witnessing the rise of an arms race. Frequent reports in the press and strong statements made by politicians in the region have fueled this fear. At the same time, scholars have also reached to this conclusion, as pointed out by Malamud and Garcia: "The famous arms race in Latin America, led by Venezuela, is no longer just talk."

  2. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Mozer Sciani; Cláudia Blanes Angeli; Antoniazzi, Marta M.; Carlos Jared; Daniel Carvalho Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids) used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa) and Rhinella (South America). Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although R...

  3. The role of immigrants in the assembly of the South American rainforest tree flora.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, R. Toby; Dick, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    The Amazon lowland rainforest flora is conventionally viewed as comprising lineages that evolved in biogeographic isolation after the split of west Gondwana (ca. 100 Myr ago). Recent molecular phylogenies, however, identify immigrant lineages that arrived in South America during its period of oceanic isolation (ca. 100-3 Myr ago). Long-distance sweepstakes dispersal across oceans played an important and possibly predominant role. Stepping-stone migration from Africa and North America through ...

  4. Taxonomic revision of Parasarus (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.: Protandrenini), a South American genus of bees

    OpenAIRE

    Kelli dos Santos Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Parasarus Ruz, 1993 comprises small black bees (3-5 mm long) endemic to xeric regions of South America, mainly along of the Andean Cordillera. Prior to this study, the genus included only the type-species P. atacamensis Ruz, 1993 (from northern Chile) which has mesoscutum strongly reticulated and inner hind tibial spur curved apically. In this paper, a taxonomic revision of Parasarus is presented and two new species are described: P. specularis sp. nov. (from central to northwest Argentina) d...

  5. Young Darwin and the ecology and extinctionof pleistocene south american fossil mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Vizcaíno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringhis two years in South America Charles Darwin became fascinated not only withthe lush vegetation of Brazil, but also with the gigantic Pleistocene mammals that hefound in the drier areas of Uruguay, and in the pampas and Patagonian coast of Argentina. These findings includedvarious ground sloths and glyptodonts among xenarthrans, and hoofed herbivoreslike Toxodon and Macrauchenia, in addition to horses and smallrodents. He concluded that the general assumption that large animals requireluxuriant vegetation was false and that vitiated the reasoning of geologists onsome aspects of Earth's history. He also reflected on the evident changes thatoccurred in the continent, the extinct fauna of which suggested to him ananalogy to southern parts of Africa. He wondered about our ignorance of biological traits inextinct creatures and the reasons for their extinction. Thus, not only did Darwin inspire phylogeneticstudies on fossil mammal lineages, he also opened a gate to the research ontheir behaviour, physiology and extinction; i.e., their palaeobiology. Whereasthe first approach was largely developed in South America beginning about thesecond half of the 19th century due to the intellectual influence ofFlorentino Ameghino, palaeobiology became a much more recent line of work, inapparent relation to innovations in methodology and technology. Thiscontribution provides an overview of recent contributions on the palaeobiologyof Pleistocene fossil mammals of South America as attempts to provide answers for Darwin's questions.

  6. Emissions from pre-Hispanic metallurgy in the South American atmosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François De Vleeschouwer

    Full Text Available Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives, as well as evidence for global trace metal transport. We show in a peat record from Tierra del Fuego that anthropogenic metals likely have been emitted into the atmosphere and transported from NSA to southern South America (SSA over the last 4200 yrs. These findings are supported by modern time back-trajectories from NSA to SSA. We further show that apparent anthropogenic Cu and Sb emissions predate any archaeological evidence for metallurgical activities. Lead and Sn were also emitted into the atmosphere as by-products of Inca and Spanish metallurgy, whereas local coal-gold rushes and the industrial revolution contributed to local contamination. We suggest that the onset of pre-Hispanic metallurgical activities is earlier than previously reported from archaeological records and that atmospheric emissions of metals were transported from NSA to SSA.

  7. Influenza-Related Mortality Among Adults Aged 25–54 Years With AIDS in South Africa and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Cheryl; Simonsen, Lone; Sample, Jeannette; Kang, Jong-Won; Miller, Mark; Madhi, Shabir A; Campsmith, Michael; Viboud, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of highly active therapy antiretroviral (HAART), adults with AIDS experience substantially elevated influenza-associated mortality in South Africa and the United States. This elevated mortality risk declined with widespread HAART introduction in the United States but did not disappear entirely. These data support increased access to HAART and influenza vaccination for human immunodeficiency virus–infected adults globally.

  8. Social Factors in Childhood and Adulthood Associated with Adult Obesity in African American and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Milda R.; Kalycia Trishana Watson; Hyo Jung Tak

    2012-01-01

    Background. Few studies have examined how individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood influence the likelihood of adult obesity. We used a longitudinal cohort to examine these associations. Methods. Our cohort consisted of children born in Baltimore, MD, USA with followup as adults from ages 27 to 33. We used logistic regression to examine the multivariate association between individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood and adult obesity, (body mass index ...

  9. Late Quaternary environmental change in the interior South American tropics: new insight from leaf wax stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kyrstin L.; Whitney, Bronwen S.; Galy, Valier; Hughen, Konrad A.; Mayle, Francis E.

    2016-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis of leaf waxes in a sediment core from Laguna La Gaiba, a shallow lake located at the Bolivian margin of the Pantanal wetlands, provides new perspective on vegetation and climate change in the lowland interior tropics of South America over the past 40,000 years. The carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of long-chain n-alkanes reveal large shifts between C3- and C4-dominated vegetation communities since the last glacial period, consistent with landscape reconstructions generated with pollen data from the same sediment core. Leaf wax δ13C values during the last glacial period reflect an open landscape composed of C4 grasses and C3 herbs from 41-20 ka. A peak in C4 abundance during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21 ka) suggests drier or more seasonal conditions relative to the earlier glacial period, while the development of a C3-dominated forest community after 20 ka points to increased humidity during the last deglaciation. Within the Holocene, large changes in the abundance of C4 vegetation indicate a transition from drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene to wetter conditions in the late Holocene coincident with increasing austral summer insolation. Strong negative correlations between leaf wax δ13C and δD values over the entire record indicate that the majority of variability in leaf wax δD at this site can be explained by variability in the magnitude of biosynthetic fractionation by different vegetation types rather than changes in meteoric water δD signatures. However, positive δD deviations from the observed δ13C- δD trends are consistent with more enriched source water and drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene and LGM. Overall, our record adds to evidence of varying influence of glacial boundary conditions and orbital forcing on South American Summer Monsoon precipitation in different regions of the South American tropics. Moreover, the relationships between leaf wax stable

  10. Optimizing surveillance for South American origin influenza A viruses along the United States Gulf Coast through genomic characterization of isolates from blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul Karl; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Newsome, George M.; Spackman, Erica; Brown, J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Relative to research focused on intercontinental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes were detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g. the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast.

  11. Optimizing Surveillance for South American Origin Influenza A Viruses Along the United States Gulf Coast Through Genomic Characterization of Isolates from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, A M; Walther, P; Link, P; Poulson, R L; Wilcox, B R; Newsome, G; Spackman, E; Brown, J D; Stallknecht, D E

    2016-04-01

    Relative to research focused on inter-continental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes was detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g. the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast. PMID:25056712

  12. The importance of material resources and qualified trainers in adult non-formal education and training centres in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-03-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills often remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. The paper assesses the extent to which material and human resources have affected skills acquisition and graduate employment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The results show that material and human resource challenges in most public and some private centres have led to gaps in skills training. Programmes focus too strongly on academic credits and certificates and not enough on employment as an end goal. The authors argue that the existence of suitable training materials and qualified trainers with practical experience and specific technical skills constitutes favourable conditions ("enabling environments") for graduate employment. Without improvement in material and human resources, adult trainees will continue to experience difficulties integrating into the labour market, and the cycle of poverty and social exclusion will remain unbroken.

  13. The importance of material resources and qualified trainers in adult non-formal education and training centres in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-04-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills often remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. The paper assesses the extent to which material and human resources have affected skills acquisition and graduate employment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The results show that material and human resource challenges in most public and some private centres have led to gaps in skills training. Programmes focus too strongly on academic credits and certificates and not enough on employment as an end goal. The authors argue that the existence of suitable training materials and qualified trainers with practical experience and specific technical skills constitutes favourable conditions ("enabling environments") for graduate employment. Without improvement in material and human resources, adult trainees will continue to experience difficulties integrating into the labour market, and the cycle of poverty and social exclusion will remain unbroken.

  14. Solar Forcing of the Streamflow of a Continental Scale South American River

    CERN Document Server

    Mauas, P J D; Buccino, A P

    2008-01-01

    Solar forcing on climate has been reported in several studies although the evidence so far remains inconclusive. Here, we analyze the stream flow of one of the largest rivers in the world, the Parana in southeastern South America. For the last century, we find a strong correlation with the sunspot number, in multidecadal time scales, and with larger solar activity corresponding to larger stream flow. The correlation coefficient is r=0.78, significant to a 99% level. In shorter time scales we find a strong correlation with El Nino. These results are a step toward flood prediction, which might have great social and economic impacts.

  15. Solar forcing of the stream flow of a continental scale South American river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Pablo J D; Flamenco, Eduardo; Buccino, Andrea P

    2008-10-17

    Solar forcing on climate has been reported in several studies although the evidence so far remains inconclusive. Here, we analyze the stream flow of one of the largest rivers in the world, the Paraná in southeastern South America. For the last century, we find a strong correlation with the sunspot number, in multidecadal time scales, and with larger solar activity corresponding to larger stream flow. The correlation coefficient is r=0.78, significant to a 99% level. In shorter time scales we find a strong correlation with El Niño. These results are a step toward flood prediction, which might have great social and economic impacts. PMID:18999720

  16. New locality and host records for South American Acanthoscelides (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsolver, John M.

    2010-01-01

    C.D. Johnson (Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 116, 1990:425) described Acanthoscelides manieyi from near Guayaquil, Ecuador, but had no records of host plants for the species. In the collections of the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., are records of this species having been intercepted at U.S. ports of entry in mung beans (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata) from Peru, South America, in 1965, 1970, and 1971. More precise localities are not available. This is the...

  17. "An Elusive Bird": Perceptions of Music Learning among Canadian and American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Nathan B.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering the perceptions that non-professional adult musicians hold regarding their participation in community ensembles may help improve instruction as well as the ability to more fully understand the implications of lifelong music making. Andragogy, or the teaching and learning strategies associated with adult learning, provided the impetus…

  18. Respectfully Treating the Elderly: Affective and Behavioral Ways of American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyu-Taik; Kim, Bum Jung; Torres-Gil, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    There has been little research on how young people respect, or disrespect, older adults. This study explored the ways in which young adults connote elder respect by utilizing two different forms of data. Based on quantitative data from a survey of 521 college students, a set of 11 behavioral forms of elder respect was obtained. Out of these forms,…

  19. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  20. The South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS) 5-Year Retrospective Atmospheric Forcing Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGoncalves, Luis Gustavo G.; Shuttleworth, William J.; Vila, Daniel; Larroza, Elaine; Bottino, Marcus J.; Herdies, Dirceu L.; Aravequia, Jose A.; De Mattos, Joao G. Z.; Toll, David L.; Rodell, Matthew; Houser, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The definition and derivation of a 5-year, 0.125deg, 3-hourly atmospheric forcing dataset for the South America continent is described which is appropriate for use in a Land Data Assimilation System and which, because of the limited surface observational networks available in this region, uses remotely sensed data merged with surface observations as the basis for the precipitation and downward shortwave radiation fields. The quality of this data set is evaluated against available surface observations. There are regional difference in the biases for all variables in the dataset, with biases in precipitation of the order 0-1 mm/day and RMSE of 5-15 mm/day, biases in surface solar radiation of the order 10 W/sq m and RMSE of 20 W/sq m, positive biases in temperature typically between 0 and 4 K, depending on region, and positive biases in specific humidity around 2-3 g/Kg in tropical regions and negative biases around 1-2 g/Kg further south.

  1. Zoogeography of South American Forest-Dwelling Bats: Disjunct Distributions or Sampling Deficiencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício Adriano da Rocha

    Full Text Available Many forest-dwelling bats are purported to be widespread in South America, although records are scant from the vast diagonal belt of dry ecosystems that straddles the continent, implying possible sampling deficiencies. Here, we investigate this possibility in the case of four species of bat (Centronycteris maximiliani, Lampronycteris brachyotis, Peropteryx kappleri and Trinycteris nicefori, evaluating whether their disjunct present-day distributions reflect their true zoogeographic characteristics or the subsampling of intermediate zones. We use environmental niche modelling (ENM in an ensemble approach, combining four different modeling techniques, and using niche descriptors based on climatic and remote sensing data, to estimate the potential distribution of the four species. The models indicate that all four species have disjunct distributions in the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. The one possible exception is P. kappleri, which the models indicated might potentially occur in humid forest enclaves in western Brazil and eastern Bolivia. The present-day distribution of the species may date back to the Plio-Pleistocene, when the forested biomes of South America were more extensive and connected. Further studies of different chiropteran lineages may provide additional insights into the historic processes of faunal interchange between the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes.

  2. Zoogeography of South American Forest-Dwelling Bats: Disjunct Distributions or Sampling Deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Patrício Adriano; Ferrari, Stephen Francis; Feijó, Anderson; Gouveia, Sidney Feitosa

    2015-01-01

    Many forest-dwelling bats are purported to be widespread in South America, although records are scant from the vast diagonal belt of dry ecosystems that straddles the continent, implying possible sampling deficiencies. Here, we investigate this possibility in the case of four species of bat (Centronycteris maximiliani, Lampronycteris brachyotis, Peropteryx kappleri and Trinycteris nicefori), evaluating whether their disjunct present-day distributions reflect their true zoogeographic characteristics or the subsampling of intermediate zones. We use environmental niche modelling (ENM) in an ensemble approach, combining four different modeling techniques, and using niche descriptors based on climatic and remote sensing data, to estimate the potential distribution of the four species. The models indicate that all four species have disjunct distributions in the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. The one possible exception is P. kappleri, which the models indicated might potentially occur in humid forest enclaves in western Brazil and eastern Bolivia. The present-day distribution of the species may date back to the Plio-Pleistocene, when the forested biomes of South America were more extensive and connected. Further studies of different chiropteran lineages may provide additional insights into the historic processes of faunal interchange between the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. PMID:26186587

  3. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  4. Environmental noise and cardiovascular disease in adults: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    OpenAIRE

    L′ubica Argalášová-Sobotová; Jurgita Lekaviciute; Sonja Jeram; L′udmila Ševcíková; Jana Jurkovicová

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of noise on health have been intensely explored in the past 50 years. However, the scope of research conducted in the Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and Newly Independent States is not well-known. The aim of this review was to present studies on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults published since 1965 and to point out the most important issues that need to be addressed in the future. More than 100 papers on noise and health and about 20 ...

  5. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803

  6. Age-independent osteopathology in skeletons of a South American cervid, the Patagonian huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Werner T; Smith-Flueck, Jo Anne M

    2008-07-01

    The huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), an endemic Patagonian deer, has been endangered for decades. Although conservation in Argentina has been directed at the 350-600 remaining huemul, the population has not recovered. In initial studies on the potential effects of diseases on huemul population dynamics, skeletal remains collected between 1993 and 2007 in the Andes (41-45 degrees S, 71.5-72 degrees W) were examined macroscopically for osteopathologic changes. Bones from six huemul were free of lesions, findings were inconclusive in 13 huemul with less than three bones, and osteopathologic processes were detected in 13 adults. Considering the limited remains/case, the prevalence of osteopathy (52%) among adults probably is conservative; 63% showed mandibular, 100% maxillary, and 78% appendicular lesions. Although predation represented the actual cause of death, the observed skeletal lesions would affect predator avoidance, possibly explaining the low average adult age (3.1 yr) and lack of population recovery. Compared with other studies in ungulates, huemul were affected at a younger age, and they had more severe pathologic changes. Due to the chronic nature of disease, low huemul population density, physiognomy, and spatiotemporal pattern of lesions, we discard senescence; gender; fulminating infections; congenital anomalies; metabolic, endocrine, genetic, or neurologic disorders; parasitism or marasmus; and fluorosis as primary etiologic factors. We hypothesize that generalized secondary chronic alveolar osteomyelitis and osteoarthritis in huemul is related to the nutritional ecology of these animals. Selenium deficiency, which impairs bone metabolism and causes periodontitis in ruminants, occurs in the region and it is more prevalent at high altitudes. Traditional winter grounds at low elevations, sometimes far from high mountains, have been converted to livestock production, which has eliminated migratory behavior and keeps huemul in remote high-elevation refuges

  7. How useful are skills acquired at adult non-formal education and training centres for finding employment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-10-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education with courses which foster access to opportunities for skills acquisition and employment and bring about social and economic inclusion. However, many adults who were facing long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. This paper reports on a study which investigated what constitutes favourable conditions ("internal enabling environments") for skills acquisition inside NFET centres leading to employment and how they can be improved to contribute to coordinated efforts of increasing NFET graduates' paid and/or self-employment capacities. The authors found that centres focusing on activities suitable for self-employment during training were more likely to create internal enabling environments for skills acquisition and income generation than centres offering courses designed for entering paid employment. The authors conclude that there appears to be a significant correlation between NFET centres' training programme objectives, financial resources, trainee selection criteria, the process of training needs assessment, and skills acquisition for successful employment outcomes of NFET graduates. Without these internal enabling factors, adult trainees are likely to continue finding it difficult to integrate into the labour market or participate in economic activities and hence break the cycle of poverty and social exclusion.

  8. Two new species of freshwater flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Continenticola) from South American caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Stella; Morais, Ana Laura; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Leal-Zanchet, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of freshwater triclads in the Neotropical region is considered to be low, but extensive areas of South America remain almost unexplored. Herein we describe two cave-dwelling, new species of Girardia, one from a transition zone of the Cerrado and Caatinga phytophysiognomies and the other from the Cerrado phytophysiognomy. The species from the Cerrado-Caatinga transition is a troglobite, eyeless and whitish; the species from the Cerrado area is possibly a troglophile, since it shows heavily pigmented body and eyes. Each species is easily recognized by a unique combination of features in its external morphology and copulatory apparatus. The two new species of Girardia show a restricted distribution, even the troglophile, and occur in caves without legal protection. Therefore, they must be considered as vulnerable organisms in a conservation context. PMID:27394369

  9. Spacebased Observations of Oceanic Influence on the Annual Variation of South American Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Xie, Xiaosu; Tang, Wenqing; Zlotnicki, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The mass change of South America (SA) continent measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) imposes a constraint on the uncertainties in estimating the annual variation of rainfall measured by Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) and ocean moisture influx derived from QuikSCAT data. The approximate balance of the mass change rate with the moisture influx less climatological river discharge, in agreement with the conservation principle, bolsters not only the credibility of the spacebased measurements, but supports the characterization of ocean's influence on the annual variation of continental water balance. The annual variation of rainfall is found to be in phase with the mass change rate in the Amazon and the La Plata basins, and the moisture advection across relevant segments of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts agrees with the annual cycle of rainfall in the two basins and the Andes mountains.

  10. Simulation of late Cenozoic South American flat-slab subduction using geodynamic models with data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiashun; Liu, Lijun; Hermosillo, Armando; Zhou, Quan

    2016-03-01

    The formation mechanisms of flat slabs in South America remain unclear. To quantitatively evaluate the earlier proposed mechanisms, we simulate the post-100 Ma subduction history below South America using 4-D geodynamic models by progressively incorporating plate kinematics, seafloor ages and key tectonic features including the buoyant oceanic crust, continental cratons, oceanic plateaus (i.e. the inferred Inca plateau, subducting Nazca Ridge and Juan Fernandez Ridge), as well as deformable trench profiles according to recent geological reconstructions. We find that, in the absence of an overriding plate and subducting buoyancy features, the seafloor age affects slab dip angle by controlling the slab's mechanical strength (i.e., the resistance to bending) and negative buoyancy (integrated positive density anomaly that enhances bending). Our models show that slab strength dominates its buoyancy at age >30 Ma and the opposite for younger ages. The existence of a thick overriding plate reduces the slab dip by increasing dynamic suction, and individual cratonic roots further lead to along-trench variations of dip angle reduction. While dynamic suction from the overriding plate generates a permanent reduction of the long-wavelength slab dip angle, it is the final addition of subducting oceanic plateau and aseismic ridges that produces the transient and localized flat-slabs as observed. These results suggest that all mechanisms except the buoyancy features affect the slab dip only at large spatial scales. Our best-fit model with all the above tectonic features included provides a good match to both the upper mantle Benioff zones and the temporal evolution of volcanic arcs since the mid-Miocene. The imperfect match of the Peruvian flat-slab is likely associated with the uncertain 3-D configuration of the Amazonian craton.

  11. Rhoptry Proteins ROP5 and ROP18 Are Major Murine Virulence Factors in Genetically Divergent South American Strains of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Behnke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has evolved a number of strategies to evade immune responses in its many hosts. Previous genetic mapping of crosses between clonal type 1, 2, and 3 strains of T. gondii, which are prevalent in Europe and North America, identified two rhoptry proteins, ROP5 and ROP18, that function together to block innate immune mechanisms activated by interferon gamma (IFNg in murine hosts. However, the contribution of these and other virulence factors in more genetically divergent South American strains is unknown. Here we utilized a cross between the intermediately virulent North American type 2 ME49 strain and the highly virulent South American type 10 VAND strain to map the genetic basis for differences in virulence in the mouse. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of this new cross identified one peak that spanned the ROP5 locus on chromosome XII. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated deletion of all copies of ROP5 in the VAND strain rendered it avirulent and complementation confirmed that ROP5 is the major virulence factor accounting for differences between type 2 and type 10 strains. To extend these observations to other virulent South American strains representing distinct genetic populations, we knocked out ROP5 in type 8 TgCtBr5 and type 4 TgCtBr18 strains, resulting in complete loss of virulence in both backgrounds. Consistent with this, polymorphisms that show strong signatures of positive selection in ROP5 were shown to correspond to regions known to interface with host immunity factors. Because ROP5 and ROP18 function together to resist innate immune mechanisms, and a significant interaction between them was identified in a two-locus scan, we also assessed the role of ROP18 in the virulence of South American strains. Deletion of ROP18 in South American type 4, 8, and 10 strains resulted in complete attenuation in contrast to a partial loss of virulence seen for ROP18 knockouts in previously described type 1 parasites. These data show that ROP5

  12. HIV/AIDS related mortality among adult medical patients in a tertiary health institution in South-South, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyuse AN; Bassey IE; Udonwa NE; Okokon IB; Philip-Ephraim EE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients as a step to planning strategies to improve mortality from this condition.Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the mortality pattern of adult HIV/AIDS patients in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2007. The data were obtained from sexually transmitted infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STI/AIDS) clinic register, admissions and discharge/death registers as well as the patients' case records and the hospitals monthly mortality reviews. Information obtained included age, sex, diagnosis and cause(s) of death. The causes of death considered were the directcauses of death, since the originating antecedent cause of death is the same in all the patients, in this case, HIV/AIDS. Data was analysed using Epi Info 2002.Results: The total number of mortalities during the study period was 350,100 were HIV positive representing 28.6% of all deaths. While advanced HIV/AIDS disease was the leading cause of death in our study representing 27.0%, tuberculosis was the single leading cause of deaths in HIV/AIDS patients constituting about 24.0% of deaths. This was followed by sepsis and septicaemia (13.0%), meningitis and encephalitis, and anaemia accounting for 11.0%, while respiratory diseases constituted 5.0% of the mortality burden. The highest number of deaths occurred in those aged between 21-50 years (82.0%).Conclusions: The study has shown that HIV/AIDS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our hospital. The causes of death reflect the varied spectrum of infection and other forms of organ involvement that affect HIV/AIDS patients. The present dismal situation of adult patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to exercise per week, and overweight and obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for adults. PMID:11740312

  14. The South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from Brazil as another definitive host for Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Kerber, C E; Lindsay, D S; Kasai, N; Pena, H F

    2000-12-01

    The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is a definitive host for at least 3 species of Sarcocvstis: S. falcatula Stiles 1983, S. neurona Dubey, Davis, Speer, Bowman, de Lahunta, Granstrom, Topper, Hamir, Cummings, Suter 1991, and S. speeri Dubey and Lindsay 1999. In order to identify species of Sarcocystis in the South American opossum, D. inarsupialis, Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of a naturally infected opossum (D. marsupialis) from Brazil were fed to 4 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice, a nude mouse, and 2 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). All 4 KO mice became ill and 1 died 42 days post-feeding (p.f.) of sporocysts, 1 was killed 44 days p.f. because of neurological signs, and 2 were killed 52 and 53 days p.f. because of abnormal gaits. Numerous sarcocysts were seen in the skeletal muscles of all 4 KO mice and they were structurally identical to S. speeri seen in KO mice fed sporocysts from D. virginiana from the United States and D. albiventris from Argentina. The nude mouse was killed 41 days p.f. because it appeared weak; schizonts were seen in sections of its liver and sarcocysts were seen in sections of skeletal muscles. Sarcocystis speeri was cultured in bovine turbinate cells inoculated with liver homogenate from this mouse. Sarcocystis neurona was not demonstrable in tissues of mice. The two budgerigars remained asymptomatic and S. falcatula was not found in their tissues when they were killed 29 days p.i. This is the first report of S. speeri from D. marsupialis. PMID:11155929

  15. “Mama just won’t accept this”: Adult Perspectives on Engaging Depressed African American Teens in Clinical Research and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    BRELAND-NOBLE, ALFIEE M.; Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on qualitative data collected for AAKOMA Project, a 2-phase treatment engagement intervention trial for depressed African American adolescents and families. Data are presented from our phase I study of adult perspectives on African American adolescent depression, depression treatment, and research engagement. The research team conducted four focus groups (N = 24) and generated major themes from the data including ideas regarding the manifestations of depression in Afri...

  16. Low Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Saturated Fat, Fiber, and Sodium Found Among American Indians and Other U.S. Adults with Diabetes*

    OpenAIRE

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Zephier, Ellie; O’Leary, Veronica; Howard, Barbara V.; Resnick, Helaine E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate how well American Indians with diabetes met dietary recommendations and to compare adherence to dietary recommendations with those of U.S. adults with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary intake in both studies was assessed using a 24-h recall questionnaire. Dietary intakes were evaluated against American Diabetes Association (ADA) dietary recommendations. The analysis sample consisted of 1,008 partici...

  17. Longitudinal Variation in GPS -TEC and Topside Electron Density Associated with the Wave Number Four Structures over South American Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, P. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Bailey, G. J.; Shume, E. B.; Denardini, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent observations of the low-latitude ionospheric electron density have revealed a longitudinal structure in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) intensity, which is characterized by a wave number-four pattern when plotted at a constant-local-time frame. It has been proposed that neutral wind driven dynamo electric fields from the E-region due to non migrating tidal modes are responsible for this pattern. In the present work we have used measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) to investigate the four peaks structure in the topside electron density of the low latitude ionosphere. We also compare the climatology of the Total Electron Content (TEC) as observed by GPS receivers in two equatorial stations over South America, São Luís (2.33 S, 315.8E, declination = -19 degree) in Brazil and Arequipa (16.5S, 288.5E, declination = 0.5 degree) in Peru. TEC variations for three solar activity levels (high, moderate and low) have been analyzed. TEC values over São Luís are found to be larger than that ones over Arequipa independent of the season, local time and solar cycle conditions. We estimated the vertical plasma drifts over these stations using magnetometer data during daytime and using ionosonde data for evening hours. We fed the Sheffield University Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model (SUPIM) with this drifts in an attempt to partially explain the differences in the TEC over these stations. The SUPIM was also used to evaluate the effect of thermospheric wind to cause the four peaks structure in the plasma density. Therefore, we analyze the equatorial ionospheric response to combined effects of thermospheric neutral winds and zonal electric field causing the longitudinal variation in TEC observed in the South American longitude sector.

  18. The Caribbean-South American plate boundary at 65°W: Results from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Magnani, M. B.; Zelt, C. A.; Schmitz, M.; Levander, A.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of the analysis of new wide-angle seismic data across the Caribbean-South American plate boundary in eastern Venezuela at about 65°W. The ˜500 km long profile crosses the boundary in one of the few regions dominated by extensional structures, as most of the southeastern Caribbean margin is characterized by the presence of fold and thrust belts. A combination of first-arrival traveltime inversion and simultaneous inversion of PmP and Pn arrivals was used to develop a P wave velocity model of the crust and the uppermost mantle. At the main strike-slip fault system, we image the Cariaco Trough, a major pull-apart basin along the plate boundary. The crust under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt exhibits a thickness of ˜15 km, suggesting that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province extends to this part of the Caribbean plate. The velocity structures of basement highs and offshore sedimentary basins imaged by the profile are comparable to those of features found in other parts of the margin, suggesting similarities in their tectonic history. We do not image an abrupt change in Moho depth or velocity structure across the main strike-slip system, as has been observed elsewhere along the margin. It is possible that a terrane of Caribbean island arc origin was accreted to South America at this site and was subsequently bisected by the strike-slip fault system. The crust under the continental portion of the profile is thinner than observed elsewhere along the margin, possibly as a result of thinning during Jurassic rifting.

  19. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rhodes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture and assist Vietnamese immigrants and refugees to acculturate, while maintaining their own cultural heritage, beliefs and religious traditions; ultimately building a viable and sustainable Buddhist community that contributes greatly to its new host community.

  20. Now and Then - Diasporic Identity Processes among South Asian Young Adults in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    . The young adults are perceived as active actors in relation to their life situation. The results show the young adults as well as parental generations´ reinterpretation of the self, other and home. They also depict that the young adults’ diasporic identities involve the countries of origin as well as...

  1. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  2. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  3. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  4. Conflictual Independence, Adult Attachment Orientation, and Career Indecision among Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…

  5. Adolescent Precursors of Early Union Formation among Asian American and White Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a framework that emphasizes independent versus interdependent self-construals, this study investigates the relatively low rates of early marriage and cohabitation among Asian Americans compared with Whites. Data from Waves 1 and 3 of Add Health are used to test five hypotheses that focus on family value socialization and other precursors…

  6. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  7. Real time earthquake information and tsunami estimation system for Indonesia, Philippines and Central-South American regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Senda, J.; Fukuyama, E.; Kumagai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia as well as Central-South American regions are within the most active seismic regions in the world. To contribute to the understanding of source process of earthquakes the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention NIED maintains the international seismic Network (ISN) since 2007. Continuous seismic waveforms from 294 broadband seismic stations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Central-South America regions are received in real time at NIED, and used for automatic location of seismic events. Using these data we perform automatic and manual estimation of moment tensor of seismic events (Mw>4.5) by using the SWIFT program developed at NIED. We simulate the propagation of local tsunamis in these regions using a tsunami simulation code and visualization system developed at NIED, combined with CMT parameters estimated by SWIFT. The goals of the system are to provide a rapid and reliable earthquake and tsunami information in particular for large seismic, and produce an appropriate database of earthquake source parameters and tsunami simulations for research. The system uses the hypocenter location and magnitude of earthquakes automatically determined at NIED by the SeisComP3 system (GFZ) from the continuous seismic waveforms in the region, to perform the automated calculation of moment tensors by SWIFT, and then carry out the automatic simulation and visualization of tsunami. The system generates maps of maximum tsunami heights within the target regions and along the coasts and display them with the fault model parameters used for tsunami simulations. Tsunami calculations are performed for all events with available automatic SWIFT/CMT solutions. Tsunami calculations are re-computed using SWIFT manual solutions for events with Mw>5.5 and centroid depths shallower than 100 km. Revised maximum tsunami heights as well as animation of tsunami propagation are also calculated and displayed for the two double couple solutions by SWIFT

  8. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mozer Sciani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa and Rhinella (South America. Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition.

  9. Variability in land water storage from GRACE and ENVISAT, and rainfall in South American river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, L.; Cazenave, A.; Bonnet, M.; Rotunno, O.

    2008-12-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the capability of GRACE to capture important aspects of the hydrological cycle, in particular seasonal and interannual fluctuations in land water storage of large river basins. Part of this behaviour can be immediately assigned to seasonal/interannual fluctuations of precipitation. In this study, we investigate existing correlations between GRACE water storage (two GRACE products are used and compared, the GRGS and GSFC/Mascons solutions), ENVISAT-based surface water levels and precipitation data over four large river basins of South America (Orinoco, Amazon, Tocantins and Parana). At the seasonal time scale, precipitation and total water storage correlate well in the Parana basin, with a few weeks lag of storage with respect to forcing. Over the Amazon, Tocantins and Orinoco, the two variables also correlate well. But in some years, storage response to forcing is enhanced, suggesting that other terms of the water balance (e.g., runoff) play a significant role. To investigate this, discharge data at the most downstream stations in these river basins are analysed, while the water balance is studied using outputs of global hydrological models available over the same time span as GRACE data. We also analyse water level data from ENVISAT altimetry over the main rivers. Finally, we study the interannual connection between rainfall and water storage, using among others, Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF). Compared to the seasonal cycle, the interannual signal displays larger regional variability both in precipitation and water storage.

  10. High Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis Mixed Infections Detected by Microarray Assay in South American Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Entrocassi, Carolina; Portu, Ana I.; Castro, Erica; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Based on sequence variation in the ompA gene encoding the major outer membrane protein, the genotyping scheme distinguishes 17 recognized genotypes, i.e. A, B, Ba, C, D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, Ia, J, K, L1, L2, and L3. Genotyping is an important tool for epidemiological tracking of C. trachomatis infections, including the revelation of transmission pathways and association with tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Moreover, genotyping can be useful for clinicians to establish the correct treatment when LGV strains are detected. Recently a microarray assay was described that offers several advantages, such as rapidity, ease of standardization and detection of mixed infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the DNA microarray-based assay for C. trachomatis genotyping of clinical samples already typed by PCR-RFLP from South America. The agreement between both typing techniques was 90.05% and the overall genotype distribution obtained with both techniques was similar. Detection of mixed-genotype infections was significantly higher using the microarray assay (8.4% of cases) compared to PCR-RFLP (0.5%). Among 178 samples, the microarray assay identified 10 ompA genotypes, i.e. D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L2. The most predominant type was genotype E, followed by D and F. PMID:27082962

  11. Neuromuscular action of venom from the South American colubrid snake Philodryas patagoniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro da Costa, Roberta S; Prudêncio, Luiz; Ferrari, Erika Fonseca; Souza, Gustavo H M F; de Mello, Sueli Moreira; Prianti Júnior, Antonio Carlos Guimarães; Ribeiro, Wellington; Zamunér, Stella Regina; Hyslop, Stephen; Cogo, José Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Snakes of the opisthoglyphous genus Philodryas are widespread in South America and cause most bites by colubrids in this region. In this study, we examined the neurotoxic and myotoxic effects of venom from Philodryas patagoniensis in biventer cervicis and phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations and we compared the biochemical activities of venoms from P. patagoniensis and Philodryas olfersii. Philodryas patagoniensis venom (40 microg/mL) had no effect on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations but caused time-dependent neuromuscular blockade of chick biventer cervicis preparations. This blockade was not reversed by washing. The highest concentration of venom tested (40 microg/mL) significantly reduced (pPhilodryas venoms had low esterase and phospholipase A(2) but high proteolytic activities compared to the pitviper Bothrops jararaca. SDS-PAGE showed that the Philodryas venoms had similar electrophoretic profiles, with most proteins having a molecular mass of 25-80 kDa. Both of the Philodryas venoms cross-reacted with bothropic antivenom in ELISA, indicating the presence of proteins immunologically related to Bothrops venoms. RP-HPLC of P. patagoniensis venom yielded four major peaks, each of which contained several proteins, as shown by SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that P. patagoniensis venom has neurotoxic and myotoxic components that may contribute to the effects of envenoming by this species. PMID:18455482

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); O`Quinn, M. [South Carolina Governor`s School for Science and Mathematics, Hartsville, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  13. Genetic, geographic, and linguistic variation among South American Indians: possible sex influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nelson J R; Bonatto, S L; Callegari-Jacques, S M; Salzano, F M

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between genetic variability, geographical distance, and linguistic affiliation in South Amerinds, and to elucidate whether the migration rate is the same for both sexes, spatial autocorrelation, Mantel's test, and F(ST) analyses were performed in four sets of populations and alleles (group 1: 48 populations, 12 alleles; group 2: 16 (all belonging to the Tupi linguistic group) and 12; group 3: 21 and 17; and group 4: 28 and 4 haplotypes). Groups 1-3 included blood group and protein (i.e., serum protein, red cell enzymes, and immunoglobulin systems), while group 4 was concerned with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) only. The latter set was also subjected to a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) evaluation. The frequencies of statistically significant correlograms were lower than those obtained in other populations when the blood groups and protein systems were considered, but 3 of the 4 mtDNA haplogroups gave suggestions of population structure. The variability in this organelle is also significantly correlated with language when geography is held constant. Migration per generation is generally low, but higher estimates were obtained for females. The AMOVA results suggest that populations whose members speak the same language are genetically homogeneous and may be viewed as the ultimate evolutionary unit at this level of analysis. PMID:11748563

  14. The hibernating South American marsupial, Dromiciops gliroides, displays torpor-sensitive microRNA expression patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Moussa, Hanane; Moggridge, Jason A.; Luu, Bryan E.; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F.; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Nespolo, Roberto F.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2016-01-01

    When faced with adverse environmental conditions, the marsupial Dromiciops gliroides uses either daily or seasonal torpor to support survival and is the only known hibernating mammal in South America. As the sole living representative of the ancient Order Microbiotheria, this species can provide crucial information about the evolutionary origins and biochemical mechanisms of hibernation. Hibernation is a complex energy-saving strategy that involves changes in gene expression that are elicited in part by microRNAs. To better elucidate the role of microRNAs in orchestrating hypometabolism, a modified stem-loop technique and quantitative PCR were used to characterize the relative expression levels of 85 microRNAs in liver and skeletal muscle of control and torpid D. gliroides. Thirty-nine microRNAs were differentially regulated during torpor; of these, 35 were downregulated in liver and 11 were differentially expressed in skeletal muscle. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that the downregulated liver microRNAs were associated with activation of MAPK, PI3K-Akt and mTOR pathways, suggesting their importance in facilitating marsupial torpor. In skeletal muscle, hibernation-responsive microRNAs were predicted to regulate focal adhesion, ErbB, and mTOR pathways, indicating a promotion of muscle maintenance mechanisms. These tissue-specific responses suggest that microRNAs regulate key molecular pathways that facilitate hibernation, thermoregulation, and prevention of muscle disuse atrophy. PMID:27090740

  15. Land-Use and Land Cover Dynamics in South American Temperate Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Paruelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Río de la Plata grasslands (RPG biogeographical region of South America, agricultural activities have undergone important changes during the last 15–18 years because of technological improvements and new national and international market conditions. We characterized changes in the landscape structure between 1985–1989 and 2002–2004 for eight pilot areas distributed across the main regional environmental gradients. These areas incorporated approximately 35% of the 7.5 × 105 km² of the system. Our approach involved the generation of land-use and land cover maps, the analysis of landscape metrics, and the computation of annual transition probabilities between land cover types. All of the information was summarized in 3383 cells of 8 × 8 km. The area covered by grassland decreased from 67.4 to 61.4% between the study periods. This decrease was associated with an increase in the area of annual crops, mainly soybean, sunflower, wheat, and maize. In some subunits of the RPG, i.e., Flat Inland Pampa, the grassland-to-cropland transition probability was high (pG→C = 3.7 × 10−2, whereas in others, i.e., Flooding Pampa, this transition probability was low (pG→C = 6.7 × 10−3. Our description of the magnitude, direction, and spatial distribution of land-use and land cover changes provides a basis from which to develop spatially explicit scenarios of land cover change.

  16. Total mercury, organic mercury and selenium in liver and kidney of a South American coastal dolphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seixas, Tercia G. [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: tercia@rdc.puc-rio.br; Kehrig, Helena do A. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Monica [Departamento de Oceanografia, CTG-UFPE, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Fillmann, Gilberto [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Secchi, Eduardo R. [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Laboratorio de Tartarugas e Mamiferos Marinhos, Departamento de Oceanografia e Museu Oceanografico ' Prof. E.C. Rios' , FURG, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Souza, Cristina M.M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Selenium and total and organic mercury were determined in the liver and kidney of franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally caught in fishing nets along two Brazilian coastal areas (southeast and south). Regional differences in the concentrations of these contaminants were observed in P. blainvillei. Liver showed the highest organic and total mercury. In general, samples of individuals collected at the southern of Brazil had the highest concentrations of selenium and total and organic mercury. No significant gender differences were observed. Growth stage influenced the accumulation of these contaminants in both organs, and hepatic concentrations increased with the body length, according to the sampling area. Molar mercury and selenium concentrations in liver were significantly correlated, with a Se:Hg ratio close to 4. The among-site differences we found may be related to differences in preferred prey, bioavailability in the marine environment, environmental conditions, or these individuals may belong to distinct populations. - This study presents some useful data on the bioaccumulation of Hg, organic Hg and Se, and their inter-element relationships in a Brazilian small cetacean.

  17. Regional evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential for the South American thrust belts and adjacent foreland basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.; Cook, J.; Davis, M.; Eggers, L.; Spencer, S.; Toadvine, S. [Amoco Worldwide Exploration Business Group, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Andean thrust belts and adjacent foreland basins is varied and made complicated by regional-scale changes in stratigraphy and accompanying structural style. These changes appear to be controlled by an inherited Paleozoic structural grain and an early Mesozoic rifting fabric. Accompanying these factors are variations in source rock and evaporate distribution. Understanding the variability in the exploration and exploitation potential of the Andes is facilitated by a comparison with other thrust and fold belts from around the world. Using an integrated, modular approach, we have analyzed 27 petroliferous thrust belts and adjacent foreland basins from around the world to study the wide variety within these petroleum systems and their associated geotechnical risks. This global study indicates that the essential factors of productive systems are the volume and distribution of effective source rocks in conjunction with the timing of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and entrapment. This timing varies extensively from north to south. Hence, what works in one portion of the belt may not work in another. Integration of a global study of well-documented thrust belts and foreland basins systems with an Andean exploration or exploitation study helps narrow the range of possible interpretations developed from minimal data commonly available prior to bid rounds. It also helps in field exploitation and deeper pool wildcat exploration by suggesting new trap type potential.

  18. Mosquito community structure in phytotelmata from a South American temperate wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albicócco, Andrea Paola; Carbajo, Aníbal Eduardo; Vezzani, Darío

    2011-12-01

    Phytotelmata, or plant-held waters, are considered to be good model systems for the study of community ecology. The fauna of these natural container habitats, particularly the mosquitoes, have been extensively investigated in tropical regions, but there is little known about them in temperate South America. We assessed the structure of immature mosquito communities in leaf axils, tree holes, and bamboo stumps from a temperate wetland of Argentina. A total of 4,330 immature mosquitoes were collected among the 2,606 phytotelmata inspected. Leaf axils of eight plant species and tree holes were larval habitats for nine mosquito species belonging to the genus Culex, Wyeomyia, Isostomyia, and Toxorhynchites. The mosquito communities showed richness ranging from one to four species. Marked differences were detected in the plant specificity for the species collected. Some of them were exclusively found in one plant species (Isostomyia paranensis in Scirpus giganteus), whereas others were collected in up to five plant species but belonging to the same phytotelm class, the leaf axils. Those from tree holes are well-known dwellers of artificial containers and ground water habitats, such as Culex pipiens. Our results support the idea of low mosquito richness in phytotelmata from temperate regions in comparison with tropical areas, but the observed specificity patterns echo the findings of tropical forests. PMID:22129416

  19. Total mercury, organic mercury and selenium in liver and kidney of a South American coastal dolphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium and total and organic mercury were determined in the liver and kidney of franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally caught in fishing nets along two Brazilian coastal areas (southeast and south). Regional differences in the concentrations of these contaminants were observed in P. blainvillei. Liver showed the highest organic and total mercury. In general, samples of individuals collected at the southern of Brazil had the highest concentrations of selenium and total and organic mercury. No significant gender differences were observed. Growth stage influenced the accumulation of these contaminants in both organs, and hepatic concentrations increased with the body length, according to the sampling area. Molar mercury and selenium concentrations in liver were significantly correlated, with a Se:Hg ratio close to 4. The among-site differences we found may be related to differences in preferred prey, bioavailability in the marine environment, environmental conditions, or these individuals may belong to distinct populations. - This study presents some useful data on the bioaccumulation of Hg, organic Hg and Se, and their inter-element relationships in a Brazilian small cetacean

  20. Redescription of Spirura guianensis (Nematoda: Spiruridae) from a rare South American Gracile Opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E J Lopes; Maldonado, A; Anjos, D H da Silva; de Souza, W; Miranda, K

    2015-10-01

    Spirura genus Blanchard, 1849 comprise of nematode parasites that infect primate and marsupial species. Although several taxonomical studies have shown that the infection by this species occurs primarily in the esophagus of primates, evidence for the occurrence of these parasites in other hosts (marsupials, rodents and bats) has become the subject of investigation by several groups. In this work, we describe the presence of Spirura guianensis Ortlepp, 1924 in the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) found in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil. Structural characteristics of this nematode were identified using light microscopy (bright field and fluorescence stereomicroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Details of the surface topography such as cephalic projections, ventral boss, details of the caudal papillae and cuticular ornamentations were shown, providing taxonomic characteristics that may help in the establishment of diagnostic protocols. In addition, the presence of this species in a new host and new geographical area of Brazil provide grounds for a revision on the distribution of S. guianensis in South America. PMID:26187357

  1. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of the strictly Neotropical ophionine wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 are revised. New descriptions of all previously named species are provided, except Alophophion holosericeus (Taschenberg, 1875 for which the type series is lost and the name is herein considered a nomen dubium. The female of A. flavorufus (Brullé, 1846 is described for the first time. Four informal species groups are proposed based on the morphology of the mandibles, development of the malar space, and general proportions of the head (i.e., development of the face and gena. Whereas the genus previously included only seven named species, it is here expanded to include 49 species (not including the aforementioned nomen dubium, 43 of which are newly discovered and described and thereby increasing the diversity by over eight times. A key to the four species groups and their included taxa is provided. Alophophion is confined to cold and/or dry areas of subequatorial South America, with the exception of A. mancocapaci new species and A. pedroi new species which occur incloud forests around Cuzco, Peru. The genus is newly recorded from Bolivia and Ecuador, and more extensive and accurate distributions are summarized for A. chilensis, A. flavorufus, and A. politus. Alophophion flavorufus is newly recorded from Argentina.Traduce

  2. Taxonomic revision of Parasarus (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.: Protandrenini, a South American genus of bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli dos Santos Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasarus Ruz, 1993 comprises small black bees (3-5 mm long endemic to xeric regions of South America, mainly along of the Andean Cordillera. Prior to this study, the genus included only the type-species P. atacamensis Ruz, 1993 (from northern Chile which has mesoscutum strongly reticulated and inner hind tibial spur curved apically. In this paper, a taxonomic revision of Parasarus is presented and two new species are described: P. specularis sp. nov. (from central to northwest Argentina diagnosed mainly by pygidial plate of female extremely acute apically and labral plate yellow in male; and P. spiniventris sp. nov. (only recorded from central portion of Chile diagnosed by antennal socket below middle of face, subantennal area as long as broad, metapostnotum smooth, and sternum 3 of male with a tuft of stiff hairs. The morphological variation related to the type-species was studied and not considered sufficiently to recognized distinct species into P. atacamensis. Distribution maps, floral associations, key to species of the genus, and illustrations of general external morphology and genitalia are also provided.

  3. The hibernating South American marsupial, Dromiciops gliroides, displays torpor-sensitive microRNA expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Moussa, Hanane; Moggridge, Jason A; Luu, Bryan E; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Nespolo, Roberto F; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-01-01

    When faced with adverse environmental conditions, the marsupial Dromiciops gliroides uses either daily or seasonal torpor to support survival and is the only known hibernating mammal in South America. As the sole living representative of the ancient Order Microbiotheria, this species can provide crucial information about the evolutionary origins and biochemical mechanisms of hibernation. Hibernation is a complex energy-saving strategy that involves changes in gene expression that are elicited in part by microRNAs. To better elucidate the role of microRNAs in orchestrating hypometabolism, a modified stem-loop technique and quantitative PCR were used to characterize the relative expression levels of 85 microRNAs in liver and skeletal muscle of control and torpid D. gliroides. Thirty-nine microRNAs were differentially regulated during torpor; of these, 35 were downregulated in liver and 11 were differentially expressed in skeletal muscle. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that the downregulated liver microRNAs were associated with activation of MAPK, PI3K-Akt and mTOR pathways, suggesting their importance in facilitating marsupial torpor. In skeletal muscle, hibernation-responsive microRNAs were predicted to regulate focal adhesion, ErbB, and mTOR pathways, indicating a promotion of muscle maintenance mechanisms. These tissue-specific responses suggest that microRNAs regulate key molecular pathways that facilitate hibernation, thermoregulation, and prevention of muscle disuse atrophy. PMID:27090740

  4. D2 Region of the 28S RNA Gene: A Too-Conserved Fragment for Inferences on Phylogeny of South American Triatomines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ana Letícia; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Banho, Cecília Artico; de Oliveira, Jader; da Rosa, João Aristeu; Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília

    2016-09-01

    The brasiliensis complex is composed of five triatomine species, and different approaches suggest that Triatoma lenti and Triatoma petrochiae may be the new members. Therefore, this study sought to analyze the phylogenetic relationships within this complex by means of the D2 region of the 28S RNA gene, and to analyze the degree of polymorphism and phylogenetic significance of this gene for South American triatomines. Phylogenetic analysis by using sequence fragments of the D2 domain did not allow to perform phylogenetic inferences on species within the brasiliensis complex, because the gene alignment composed of a matrix with 37 specimens exhibited only two variable sites along the 567 base pairs used. Furthermore, if all South American species are included, only four variable sites were detected, reflecting the high degree of gene conservation. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of this gene for phylogenetic reconstruction for this group of Chagas disease vectors. PMID:27382073

  5. Lessons learned for a more efficient knowledge and technology transfer to South American countries in the fields of solid waste and contaminated sites management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Szarka, Nóra; Navia, Rodrigo; Konrad, Odorico; Lorber, Karl E

    2007-04-01

    The present paper describes the development, performance and conclusions derived from three know-how and technology transfer projects to South American countries. The first project comprised a collaborative study by European and South American universities to find sustainable solutions for Chilean and Ecuadorian leather tanneries which had underachieving process performances. The second project consisted of investigations carried out in a Brazilian municipality to enhance its municipal solid waste management system. The final collaborative programme dealt with the initial identification, evaluation and registration of suspected contaminated sites in an industrial region of Chile. The detailed objectives, methods and procedures applied as well as the results and conclusions obtained in each of the three mentioned projects are presented, giving special attention to the organizational aspects and to the practical approach of each programme, concluding with their main advantages and disadvantages for identifying a set of qualitative and quantitative suggestions, and to establish transferable methods for future applications. PMID:17439050

  6. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

  7. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Chailleux

    Full Text Available The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.

  8. Germs and Jim Crow: the impact of microbiology on public health policies in progressive era American South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Race proved not merely a disadvantage in securing access to prompt and appropriate medical care, but often became a life and death issue for blacks in the American South during the early decades of the twentieth century. This article investigates the impact some of the new academic disciplines such as anthropology, evolutionary biology, racially based pathology and genetics had in promoting scientific racism. The disproportionately high morbidity and mortality rates among blacks were seen as a consequence of inherent racial deficiencies that rendered any attempt to ameliorate their situation as futile. While the belief in a different pathology in blacks initially deterred most health officials from taking any action, advances in medicine and microbiology, in particular the germ theory, stirred a variety of responses out of sheer self preservation, as fears among whites at the first sign of an epidemic initiated sporadic and limited actions. Ironically, in an era of deepening scientific racism, public health initiatives based on a better understanding of disease causing microorganisms, gradually improved black health. However, some public health measures were hijacked by eugenicists and racists and, rather than addressing the ill health of blacks, public health policy complied with the new laws of heredity by promoting drastic measures such as involuntary sterilization or even abortion. This further complicated the strained relationship between southern blacks and health care professionals and effected ongoing distrust towards public healthcare services. PMID:20027786

  9. Acupuncture for locomotor disabilities in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamillo-Szabó, Márcia Valéria Rizzo; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Andrade, Mariana Batista

    2008-12-01

    The literature contains numerous reports of the effect of acupuncture on domestic or experimental animals, but only a few involving wild animals. This paper reports on acupuncture treatment for locomotor disabilities in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria, SPIX, 1824), an endangered land tortoise found in Brazils Cerrado region. The animal was captured and kept in an aquatic pen, subsequently developing respiratory symptoms and locomotor disabilities. The respiratory symptoms resolved in response to antibiotic treatment. However, despite the use of nutritional supplements, the motor symptoms remained unchanged. After 16 months, the tortoise was given six acupuncture sessions. No other changes were made to its environment or management. The location of the acupuncture points was transposed from canine charts. After acupuncture, the animals motor functions, which had remained unchanged during the preceding 16 months, were restored, enabling it to eat and walk unaided. The improvement persisted during 18 months follow up. The transposition of acupuncture points from canine charts is a viable alternative for chelonians. PMID:19098697

  10. A Spectrophotometric Study of Plumage Color in the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata, the Most Abundant South American Columbiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Javier Valdez

    Full Text Available For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species. In the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata, perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range (300-700 nm. The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis (hue, chroma and brightness show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females. The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection (e.g. the crown. The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication.

  11. A Spectrophotometric Study of Plumage Color in the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), the Most Abundant South American Columbiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Diego Javier; Benitez-Vieyra, Santiago Miguel

    2016-01-01

    For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species. In the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range (300-700 nm). The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis (hue, chroma and brightness) show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females. The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection (e.g. the crown). The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication. PMID:27213273

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American ground beetle subgenus Chilioperyphus Jeannel (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini: Bembidion Latreille).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, David R; Toledano, Luca; Sallenave, Soledad; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries and relationships of the ground beetle group Chilioperyphus Jeannel (a subgenus of the cosmopolitan genus Bembidion Latreille) are examined using DNA and morphological data. DNA sequence data from seven genes (six nuclear and one mitochondrial) indicates that Chiliopeiyphus (as newly defined) is monophyletic, and is related to the subgenera Antipetyphanes Jeannel and Plocanoperyphus Jeannel, within the South American Antiperyphanes Complex. Chilioperyphus includes two described species, B. iendocinum Jensen-Haarup and B. orregoi Germain. Beinbidion cassinense Roig-Juñent and Gianuca as well as Bembidion cuyanum Roig-Juñent and Scheibler, formerly placed in subgenus Chilioperyphus, are transferred to subgenus Antipetyphanes. Bembidion cuyanum is considered a junior synonym of B. hirtipes Jeannel. The male genitalia of Chilioperyphus is unique in having a very long flagellum that is folded twice, allowing it to fit much of its length within the walls of the median lobe. However, the brush sclerite and basal part of the flagellum are not contained within the median lobe, as they extend anterior to its base. PMID:26042310

  13. Molecular systematics of the South American caviomorph rodents: relationships among species and genera in the family Octodontidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Rodney L; Rowe, Diane L; Gallardo, Milton H

    2003-03-01

    Nucleotide sequences from mitochondrial (12S rRNA) and nuclear (growth hormone receptor) genes were used to investigate phylogenetic relationships among South American hystricognath rodents of the superfamily Octodontoidea, with special emphasis on the family Octodontidae. Relationships among most taxa were well resolved by a combined analysis of both genes, and the molecular phylogeny was used to address several long-standing phylogenetic problems. The family Abrocomidae was the most basal lineage within the superfamily Octodontoidea, sensu stricto, and the family Ctenomyidae was sister to the family Octodontidae, followed by a monophyletic group containing the families Myocastoridae and Echimyidae. A basic dichotomy was observed within the family Octodontidae. The Argentine desert specialists, Tympanoctomys and Octomys, grouped separate from Octodontomys, which was sister to a clade containing a monophyletic Octodon and a clade represented by species of Aconaemys and Spalacopus. Aconaemys was paraphyletic relative to Spalacopus. The phylogeny was used as an interpretive framework for an examination of variation in several non-molecular characters. The primitive diploid number for most of the octodontoids was determined to be between 46 and 56, and the primitive genome size 8.2 pg. Members of the Octodontidae appeared to be derived from an ancestral stock occupying lower elevations in scrub habitat. Furthermore, estimates of divergence time from the molecular data provided a temporal perspective for changes in plant communities, which demonstrated turnover and diversification in response to climatic and geologic events occurring in the Miocene through the Pleistocene. PMID:12644405

  14. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaicka, Ligia; Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena de; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E; Wayne, Robert K; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  15. Can red flowers be conspicuous to bees? Bombus dahlbomii and South American temperate forest flowers as a case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Harms, J; Palacios, A G; Márquez, N; Estay, P; Arroyo, M T K; Mpodozis, J

    2010-02-15

    It has been argued that trichromatic bees with photoreceptor spectral sensitivity peaks in the ultraviolet (UV), blue and green areas of the spectrum are blind to long wavelengths (red to humans). South American temperate forests (SATF) contain a large number of human red-looking flowers that are reported to be visited by the bumblebee Bombus dahlbomii. In the present study, B. dahlbomii's spectral sensitivity was measured through electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. No extended sensitivity to long wavelengths was found in B. dahlbomii. The spectral reflectance curves from eight plant species with red flowers were measured. The color loci occupied by these flowers in the bee color space was evaluated using the receptor noise-limited model. Four of the plant species have pure red flowers with low levels of chromatic contrast but high levels of negative L-receptor contrast. Finally, training experiments were performed in order to assess the role of achromatic cues in the detection and discrimination of red targets by B. dahlbomii. The results of the training experiments suggest that the bumblebee relies on achromatic contrast provided by the L-receptor to detect and discriminate red targets. These findings are discussed in the context of the evolutionary background under which the relationship between SATF species and their flower visitors may have evolved. PMID:20118307

  16. Climate change and the distribution and conservation of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyckens, G. A. E.; Christie, D. A.; Domic, A. I.; Malizia, L. R.; Renison, D.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Consequently, methods for delineation, establishment and management of protected areas must consider the species' future distribution in response to future climate conditions. Biodiversity in high altitude semiarid regions may be particularly threatened by future climate change. In this study we assess the main environmental variables that best explain present day presence of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano, and model how climate change may affect the future distribution of this unique ecosystem under different climate change scenarios. These woodlands are dominated by Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), a species that forms unique biological communities with important conservation value. Our results indicate that five environmental variables are responsible for 91% and 90.3% of the present and future P. tarapacana distribution models respectively, and suggest that at the end of the 21st century, there will be a significant reduction (56%) in the potential habitat for this species due to more arid conditions. Since it is predicted that P. tarapacana's potential distribution will be severely reduced in the future, we propose a new network of national protected areas across this species distribution range in order to insure the future conservation of this unique ecosystem. Based on an extensive literature review we identify research topics and recommendations for on-ground conservation and management of P. tarapacana woodlands.

  17. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results: The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  18. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Davids, Adlai; Ramlagan, Shandir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most. PMID:24054088

  19. Transgene transmission in South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen) larvae by sperm-mediated gene transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiago Collares; Vinicius Farias Campos; Fabiana Kömmling Seixas; Paulo V Cavalcanti; Odir A Dellagostin; Heden Luiz M Moreira; João Carlos Deschamps

    2010-03-01

    The silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) is an endemic American fish species. The sperm of each species has its own peculiarities and biological characteristics, which influence the success of mass DNA transfer methods. Our objective in this study was to evaluate different sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) methods to obtain transgenic silver catfish. Different treatments for the incorporation of a foreign pEGFP plasmid group were used: (1) dehydrated/rehydrated (DR), (2) dehydrated/rehydrated/electroporated (DRE), (3) electroporated (E), (4) incubated with seminal plasma (INC); and (5) incubated in the absence of seminal plasma (INCSP). Sperm motility, time of activity duration (TAD), fertilization rate (FR), hatching rate (HR) and sperm morphology were also evaluated. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity rates for the presence of the transgene were: DRE 60%; DR 40%; E 25%; INC 5% and INCSP 25%. The rates of embryo EGFP expression were: DRE 63%; DR 44%; E 34%; INC 8% and INCSP 38%. The fertilization rate in the control and DRE treatments groups were higher than in the DR group, but the E, INC and INCSP treatment groups had the lowest rate. The hatching rates of the DRE, DR and control groups were higher than in the INCSP, INC and E treatment groups ( > 0.05). There were no differences among the DRE and DR, E and DR, E and INCSP groups in expression and PCR positivity rates of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in embryos. Scanning electron microscopy also did not show any change in sperm morphology among treatment groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on transgene transmission of exogenous DNA into silver catfish larvae through SMGT technology

  20. First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic coastal waters, with notes on the use of macrociliary patterns for beroid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Migotto, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Beroe forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 is an oceanic ctenophore with a global distribution. The present study provides the first record of Beroe forskalii for the South American Atlantic coast, including a redescription of the species and a discussion on the utility of macrociliary patterns for the correct identification of at least some beroid species, exemplified by a comparison of the macrociliary patterns of Beroe forskalii and Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821). PMID:24871741

  1. Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control ani...

  2. Linking nursery nutritional status and water availability post-planting under intense summer drought: the case of a South American Mediterranean tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Ovalle JF; Arellano EC; Oliet JA; Becerra P; Ginocchio R

    2016-01-01

    Drought-avoidance traits of South American Mediterranean tree species are crucial attributes to be considered in nursery practices aimed at improving the performance of seedlings exposed to intense summer drought in dryland reforestation projects. In this study, we determined the relation between nursery fertilization doses and the development of drought-avoidance traits of the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria (Mol.) under contrasting watering regimes following post-planting. Seedlings were g...

  3. Ecological Diversity in South American Mammals: Their Geographical Distribution Shows Variable Associations with Phylogenetic Diversity and Does Not Follow the Latitudinal Richness Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Nilda Fergnani; Adriana Ruggiero

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the latitudinal gradient in species richness may be paralleled by a similar gradient of increasing functional or phylogenetic diversity is a matter of controversy. We evaluated whether taxonomic richness (TR) is informative in terms of ecological diversity (ED, an approximation to functional diversity) and phylogenetic diversity (AvPD) using data on 531 mammal species representing South American old autochthonous (marsupials, xenarthrans), mid-Cenozoic immigrants (hystrico...

  4. An analysis on the implementation of the convention on the rights of the child in south american and european countries1

    OpenAIRE

    Da Cunha Frota, Maria Guiomar; Gomes Quintao, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the recognized rights’ implementation made in the Convention on the Rights of the Child in South American and European countries. The empirical research used, as its mains source, data from the State Party Reports, write by governments and Alternative Reports write by non governmental organizations, which were sent to the “Committee on the rights of the child” –an organization created to monitor the implementation of the Convention–, in these countries...

  5. The border as a marker of territoriality : multi-scalar perspectives and multi-agent processes in a south american borderland region

    OpenAIRE

    Perrier Bruslé, Laetitia

    2013-01-01

    The ambivalence of borders, as both bridges and barriers, is analysed in the South American borderlands, in the cross-border region between Bolivia, Peru and Brazil. The main hypothesis behind this work is that borders not only refer to the state but they are also a result of a social construction. Through their practices and narratives, the actors involved shape the border configuration. Through a multi-scalar approach (from a continental to a local level) and by collating practices and repr...

  6. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua

  7. A numerical study of the Plata River plume along the southeastern South American continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Pimenta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rio de la Plata, one of the largest rivers on Earth, discharges into the ocean waters from basin that covers a large area of South America. Its plume extends along northern Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil shelves strongly influencing the ecosystems. In spite of this, little is known about the mechanisms that control it. Here we report results of simulations with POM carried out to investigate the roles of wind and river discharge in Plata plume dynamics. Different outflows were explored, including an average climatological value and magnitudes representative of La Niña and El Niño. Forcing the model with river discharge the average plume speed was directly related to the outflow intensity. The Plata northward extension varied from 850 to 1550 km and for average discharge a band of low salinity waters formed from the estuary up to 30ºN of South Brazilian Shelf. Upwelling and downwelling winds were applied after 130 days. The distribution of low salinity waters over the shelf was more sensitive to the wind direction than to the river outflow variability. Downwelling winds were very capable of advecting the low salinity signal downshelf. Upwelling winds were efficient in eroding the plume, which was basically detached from the coast by Ekman drift. Abnormal plume intrusions toward low latitudes may be a result of the original plume position coupled with events of persistent strong downwelling favorable winds.O Rio da Prata, um dos maiores rios da Terra, descarrega no oceano águas de uma bacia de drenagem que cobre uma ampla área da América do Sul. Sua pluma extende-se ao longo do norte da Argentina, Uruguay e sul do Brasil influenciando amplamente os ecossistemas costeiros. A despeito disso, pouco se sabe a respeito dos mecanismos que a controlam. Relatamos aqui simulações conduzidas com o modelo POM na investigação do papel dos ventos e da descarga fluvial na dinâmica da pluma do Prata. Descargas com valores médios climatol

  8. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  9. Digging Deeper: A Case Study of Farmer Conceptualization of Ecosystem Services in the American South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Courtney E.; Quinn, John E.; Halfacre, Angela C.

    2015-10-01

    The interest in improved environmental sustainability of agriculture via biodiversity provides an opportunity for placed-based research on the conceptualization and articulation of ecosystem services. Yet, few studies have explored how farmers conceptualize the relationship between their farm and nature and by extension ecosystem services. Examining how farmers in the Southern Piedmont of South Carolina discuss and explain the role of nature on their farm, we create a detail-rich picture of how they perceive ecosystem services and their contributions to the agroeconomy. Using 34 semi-structured interviews, we developed a detail-rich qualitative portrait of these farmers' conceptualizations of ecosystem services. Farmers' conceptualization of four ecosystem services: provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural are discussed, as well as articulation of disservices. Results of interviews show that most interviewees expressed a basic understanding of the relationship between nature and agriculture and many articulated benefits provided by nature to their farm. Farmers referred indirectly to most services, though they did not attribute services to biodiversity or ecological function. While farmers have a general understanding and appreciation of nature, they lack knowledge on specific ways biodiversity benefits their farm. This lack of knowledge may ultimately limit farmer decision-making and land management to utilize ecosystem services for environmental and economic benefits. These results suggest that additional communication with farmers about ecosystem services is needed as our understanding of these benefits increases. This change may require collaboration between conservation biology professionals and extension and agriculture professionals to extended successful biomass provisioning services to other ecosystem services.

  10. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in dogs from Vietnam suggests their South American origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Huong, Lam Thi Thu; Sundar, N; Su, C

    2007-05-31

    Dogs are considered a potential risk for transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans because they can mechanically transmit oocysts to people and in certain parts of the world dog meat is consumed by humans. The prevalence of T. gondii in 42 dogs from rural Vietnam was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test, and found in 21 (50%) of 42 dogs with titers of 1:20 in six, 1:40 in seven, 1:80 in two, 1:160 in two, 1:320 in two, 1:640 in one, and 1:1280 or higher in one. Hearts, tongues and brains of 21 seropositive dogs were bioassayed in cats, mice or both. Tissues from eight seropositive dogs were fed to eight T. gondii-free cats. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts. T. gondii was isolated from eight dogs by bioassay in cats. Genotyping of these eight T. gondii isolates using polymorphisms at 10 nuclear markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and a new SAG2, and an apicoplast marker Apico revealed two genotypes. Both genotypes were previously identified from the dog isolates in Colombia, suggesting their South America origin. However, they are different from the predominant Type I, II and III lineages that are widely spread in North America and Europe. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from any host in Vietnam. PMID:17442492

  11. Diet of the South American frog Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura, Leptodactylidae in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Maneyro

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Leptodactylus ocellatus (L., 1758 was studied in specimens collected at Maldonado Department (Uruguay, where monthly surveys were made between August 1998 and March 2000. A total of 143 frogs were collected, measured, sexed, and dissected, to assess stomach contents. The anurans were grouped into three age classes and four categories (considering sex and capture date. The trophic amplitude for each age class and sex-season category was quantified using Shannon-Weaver Index, and the trophic niche overlap between ages and categories by using the Pianka Index. Comparisons among treatments were made by G-tests. The most important prey items were coleopterans (IRI = 2547, and significant correlations were found between predator and prey sizes. The major differences on diet composition were found between extreme age classes (froglets and adults. Significant differences were also detected between sexes in the cold season but not in the warm season. Any of these changes in diet may be related with the availability of prey.

  12. The Association Between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Activities Among African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Brunner Huber, Larissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform varying forms of self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association between self-efficacy to manage hypertension and six clinically prescribed hypertension self-care behaviors. We interviewed 190 African Americans with hypertension who resided in the greater metropolitan Charlotte area about their self-efficacy a...

  13. Shark Predation on Migrating Adult American Eels (Anguilla rostrata) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence

    OpenAIRE

    Mélanie Béguer-Pon; José Benchetrit; Martin Castonguay; Kim Aarestrup; Campana, Steven E.; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Dodson, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to document the migratory pathways and the environmental conditions encountered by American eels during their oceanic migration to the Sargasso Sea, we tagged eight silver eels with miniature satellite pop-up tags during their migration from the St. Lawrence River in Québec, Canada. Surprisingly, of the seven tags that successfully transmitted archived data, six were ingested by warm-gutted predators, as observed by a sudden increase in water temperature. Gut temperatures were i...

  14. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North American Coastline-South from 09 June 1982 to 06 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600133)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North American Coastline - South from 09 June 1982 to 06...

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Baltimore Canyon Study, 17 April 1981 - 01 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8500009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South from April 17, 1981 to November 1, 1982. Data were...

  16. CRED Simrad em3002d multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  17. CRED Simrad em3002d multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 16 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  18. CRED Simrad em3002d multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 16 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  19. CRED Simrad em3002d multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  20. Phylogeny of Amazona barbadensis and the Yellow-headed Amazon complex (Aves: Psittacidae): a new look at South American parrot evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantówka, Adam Dawid; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Strzała, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) is the sole parrot of the genus Amazona that inhabits only dry forests. Its population has been dropping; therefore it has been the topic of many studies and conservation efforts. However, the phylogenetic relationship of this species to potential relatives classified within the Yellow-Headed Amazon (YHA) complex are still not clear. Therefore, we used more extensive data sets, including the newly sequenced mitochondrial genome of A. barbadensis, to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Various combinations of genes and many phylogenetic approaches showed that A. barbadensis clustered significantly with A. ochrocephala ochrocephala from Colombia and Venezuela, which created the Northern South American (NSA) lineage, clearly separated from two other lineages within the YHA complex, the Central (CA) and South American (SA). Tree topology tests and exclusion of rapidly evolving sites provided support for a NSA+SA grouping. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the YHA complex and its colonization of the American mainland. The NSA lineage likely represents the most ancestral lineage, which derived from Lesser Antillean Amazons and colonized the northern coast of Venezuela about a million years ago. Then, Central America was colonized through the Isthmus of Panama, which led to the emergence of the CA lineage. The southward expansion to South America and the origin of the SA lineage happened almost simultaneously. However, more intensive or prolonged gene flow or migrations have led to much weaker geographic differentiation of genetic markers in the SA than in the CA lineage. PMID:24823658

  1. Cognitive testing of PAINReportIt in adult African Americans with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L; Ferrans, Carol E; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J

    2010-01-01

    PAINReportIt, a computerized version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (Pain. 1975, 1:277-299), presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with sickle cell disease and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended and appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants' responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrence over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality, and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with sickle cell disease. PMID:20431356

  2. Barriers to Participation in Adult Education for African Americans Attending a Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…

  3. Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Latino and Asian American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report…

  4. Program Planning for the Training and Continuing Education of Adults: North American Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Peter S., Ed.

    This book provides an overview of program planning for adult learning from philosophical and pedagogical perspectives. It contains 19 papers and an introduction by the editor, Peter S. Cookson. The following are included: "A Conceptual Context for Program Planning" (Peter S. Cookson); "Prototypical Program Planning Models"--"Houle's Fundamental…

  5. Motives in American Men and Women across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroff, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigates stability and change in four social motives (achievement, affiliation, fear of weakness, hope of power) over the adult life cycle. Motives were assessed in 1957 and 1976 by coding thematic apperceptive content in stories told about six pictures. Some age differences and cohort stability were evident for both sexes. (Author/CB)

  6. The Status of Adult and Continuing Education within American Institutions of Higher Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David M.; Bowker, Lee H.

    Data gathered from a national survey on the status of adult and continuing education in the United States are presented. Chapters cover: continuing education in 410 institutions of higher education (description of the sample, relationships among institutional characteristics, staffing patterns, and support for grants acquisition); the continuing…

  7. Differential Outcomes for American College Students Engaged in Community Service-Learning Involving Youth and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…

  8. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  9. Research capacity building and collaboration between South African and American partners: the adaptation of an intervention model for HIV/AIDS prevention in corrections research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Priscilla; Taylor, Sandra E; Sifunda, Sibusiso

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a partnership between researchers from the United States who are involved in corrections health issues and scientists from South Africa who conduct prison health research, a previously underresearched area in South Africa. The article discusses some of the challenges as well as opportunities for knowledge and skills exchange via capacity building and collaboration strategies. Through historical and contemporary perspectives, it also discusses barriers and benefits of collaboration when forging links between researchers from developed and less developed nations. A focus on conducting public health research in South Africa, and on HIV/AIDS studies in particular, is placed within the context of the 2001 document of the Council on Health Research for Development. The South African prison health study represents a collaborative between the South African National Health Promotion Research and Development Group of the Medical Research Council, the South African Department of Correctional Services, and Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. The article illuminates the process of adapting a model for a postapartheid prison study from one designed for use in the American correctional system. PMID:12413197

  10. Main animal welfare problems in ruminant livestock during preslaughter operations: a South American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C B; Huertas, S M

    2016-02-01

    Animals destined for meat production are usually exposed to many stressful conditions during production and particularly during preslaughter operations. Handling animals on farm, loading into and unloading from vehicles, transportation, passing through livestock markets, fasting, lairage and stunning can all affect their welfare. How badly welfare can be affected will depend on both the intrinsic factors of the specific type of animal involved and the extrinsic factors of the environment where those animals live or are being handled, including the animal handlers. In South America (SA), it has been part of a strategy for improving animal welfare (AW) to address not only ethical aspects, but to emphasize the close relationship existing between handling ruminants preslaughter and the quantity and quality of the meat they produce. This has resulted not only in improvements in AW, but has also brought economic rewards to producers which in turn can lead to higher incomes for them and hence better human welfare. For producers with a high number of animals, considering AW during production and preslaughter operations can determine the possibility of exporting and/or getting better prices for their products. At smallfarmer level, particularly in some less developed countries, where human welfare is impaired, using this strategy together with education has also been relevant. It is important that education and training in AW are done not only considering global knowledge, but also including specific geographical and climatic characteristics of each country and the cultural, religious and socio-economical characteristics of its people; therefore, research within the context of each country or region becomes relevant. The aim of this review was to show the results of research dealing with AW of ruminant livestock in Chile and some other SA countries. Some of the main problems encountered are related to lack of proper infrastructure to handle animals; long distance transport

  11. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  12. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  13. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracers Transport model with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of total and fine mode fraction (FMF AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon basin the model systematically underestimated total AOD, as expected, since smoke contribution is not dominant as it is in the southern portion and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Better agreement was obtained comparing the model results with observed FMF AOD, which pointed out the relevance of coarse mode aerosol emission in that region. Likewise, major discrepancies over cerrado during high AOD events were found to be associated with coarse mode aerosol omission in our model. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon was related to difficulties in predicting the smoke AOD field, which was discussed in the context of emissions shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable for both total and FMF AOD. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square error (RMSE between the model and observed FMF AOD decreased from 0.34 to 0.19 when extreme AOD events (FMF AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from the analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extreme AOD were excluded

  14. Fatty acids composition in seeds of the South American glasswort Sarcocornia ambigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G.M. D'oca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocornia ambigua (Michx. M.A. Alonso & M.B. Crespo is the most widely distributed species of the perennial genus of glasswort in South America, and it shows great biotechnological potential as a salt-water irrigated crop. Qualitative and quantitative compositions of fatty acids were determined in the seeds of S. ambigua that were cultivated in southern Brazil. Hexane extraction of the seed oil from S. ambigua yielded 13% of total lipids. The GC-FID (Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector analysis of the hexane extracts showed five prominent peaks for the seed oil: 42.9 wt.% linoleic-Ω6 acid (18:2, 20.4 wt.% palmitic acid (16:0, 18.5 wt.% oleic acid (18:1, 4.5 wt.% stearic acid (18:0 and 4.0 wt.% linolenic-Ω3 acid (18:3. The sum of the saturated palmitic and stearic acids (24.8% in S. ambigua seed oil exceeded values cited for commercial oils use, as well as the seed oil from the cultivated annual glasswort Salicornia bigelovii. No undesirable fatty acid components were found in S. ambigua seed oil, and it could be recommended for animal consumption or biofuel production.Sarcocornia ambigua (Michx. M.A. Alonso & M.B. Crespo é a espécie mais amplamente distribuída na América do Sul deste gênero de erva-sal com hábito perene e apresenta um grande potencial biotecnológico como uma cultivar capaz de ser irrigada com água salgada. As composições qualitativas e quantitativas dos ácidos graxos foram determinadas nas sementes de S. ambigua cultivada no extremo sul do Brasil. A extração de óleo das sementes com hexano obteve um rendimento de lipídeos totais de 13%. A análise em um sistema cromatográfico GC-DIC (cromatografia em fase gasosa com detecção por ionização de chama dos extratos de hexano do óleo das sementes mostrou cinco picos proeminentes: 42,9% ácido linoleico-Ω6 (18:2, 20,4% ácido palmítico (16:0, 18,5% ácido oleico (18:1, 4,5% ácido esteárico (18:0 e 4,0% ácido linolênico-Ω3 (18:3. O somatório dos

  15. A review of the South American Monsoon history as recorded in stable isotopic proxies over the past two millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vuille

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of the South American summer monsoon (SASM over the past ~2000 yr based on high-resolution stable isotope proxies from speleothems, ice cores and lake sediments. Our review is complemented by an analysis of an isotope-enabled atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM for the past 130 yr. Proxy records from the monsoon belt in the tropical Andes and SE Brazil show a very coherent behavior over the past 2 millennia with significant decadal to multidecadal variability superimposed on large excursions during three key periods, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, the Little Ice Age (LIA and the Current Warm Period (CWP. We interpret these three periods as times when the SASM's mean state was significantly weakened (MCA and CWP and strengthened (LIA, respectively. During the LIA each of the proxy archives considered contains the most negative δ18O values recorded during the entire record length. On the other hand the monsoon strength is currently rather weak in a 2000-yr historical perspective, rivaled only by the low intensity during the MCA. Our climatic interpretation of these archives is consistent with our isotope-based GCM analysis, which suggests that these sites are sensitive recorders of large-scale monsoon variations.

    We hypothesize that these centennial-scale climate anomalies were at least partially driven by temperature changes in the Northern Hemisphere and in particular over the North Atlantic, leading to a latitudinal displacement of the ITCZ and a change in monsoon intensity over the tropical continent. This interpretation is supported by several independent proxy archives and modeling studies. Although ENSO is the main forcing for δ18O variability over tropical South America on interannual time scales, our results suggest that its influence may be significantly modulated by North Atlantic climate variability on longer time scales.

    Finally our analyses indicate that

  16. A review of the South American monsoon history as recorded in stable isotopic proxies over the past two millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vuille

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of the South American summer monsoon (SASM over the past ~2000 yr based on high-resolution stable isotope proxies from speleothems, ice cores and lake sediments. Our review is complemented by an analysis of an isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation model (GCM for the past 130 yr. Proxy records from the monsoon belt in the tropical Andes and SE Brazil show a very coherent behavior over the past 2 millennia with significant decadal to multidecadal variability superimposed on large excursions during three key periods: the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, the Little Ice Age (LIA and the current warm period (CWP. We interpret these three periods as times when the SASM's mean state was significantly weakened (MCA and CWP and strengthened (LIA, respectively. During the LIA each of the proxy archives considered contains the most negative δ18O values recorded during the entire record length. On the other hand, the monsoon strength is currently rather weak in a 2000-yr historical perspective, rivaled only by the low intensity during the MCA. Our climatic interpretation of these archives is consistent with our isotope-based GCM analysis, which suggests that these sites are sensitive recorders of large-scale monsoon variations.

    We hypothesize that these centennial-scale climate anomalies were at least partially driven by temperature changes in the Northern Hemisphere and in particular over the North Atlantic, leading to a latitudinal displacement of the ITCZ and a change in monsoon intensity (amount of rainfall upstream over the Amazon Basin. This interpretation is supported by several independent records from different proxy archives and modeling studies. Although ENSO is the main forcing for δ18O variability over tropical South America on interannual time scales, our results suggest that its influence may be significantly modulated by North Atlantic climate variability on longer time scales

  17. Spatiotemporal variability of rainfall extremes in monsoonal climates - examples from the South American Monsoon and the Indian Monsoon Systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhagen, B.; Boers, N.; Marwan, N.; Malik, N.; Kurths, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monsoonal rainfall is the crucial component for more than half of the world's population. Runoff associated with monsoon systems provide water resources for agriculture, hydropower, drinking-water generation, recreation, and social well-being and are thus a fundamental part of human society. However, monsoon systems are highly stochastic and show large variability on various timescales. Here, we use various rainfall datasets to characterize spatiotemporal rainfall patterns using traditional as well as new approaches emphasizing nonlinear spatial correlations from a complex networks perspective. Our analyses focus on the South American (SAMS) and Indian (ISM) Monsoon Systems on the basis of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) using precipitation radar and passive-microwave products with horizontal spatial resolutions of ~5x5 km^2 (products 2A25, 2B31) and 25x25 km^2 (3B42) and interpolated rainfall-gauge data for the ISM (APHRODITE, 25x25 km^2). The eastern slopes of the Andes of South America and the southern front of the Himalaya are characterized by significant orographic barriers that intersect with the moisture-bearing, monsoonal wind systems. We demonstrate that topography exerts a first-order control on peak rainfall amounts on annual timescales in both mountain belts. Flooding in the downstream regions is dominantly caused by heavy rainfall storms that propagate deep into the mountain range and reach regions that are arid and without vegetation cover promoting rapid runoff. These storms exert a significantly different spatial distribution than average-rainfall conditions and assessing their recurrence intervals and prediction is key in understanding flooding for these regions. An analysis of extreme-value distributions of our high-spatial resolution data reveal that semi-arid areas are characterized by low-frequency/high-magnitude events (i.e., are characterized by a ';heavy tail' distribution), whereas regions with high mean annual rainfall have a

  18. High Precision U/Pb Geochronology of Eocene-Miocene South American Land Mammal Ages at Gran Barranca, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, R. E.; Kohn, M. J.; Madden, R. H.; Strömberg, C. E.; Carlini, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Constraining the ages and duration of Cenozoic South American Land Mammal Ages (SALMAs) has been based on 40Ar/39Ar dating and magnetic polarity stratigraphy. At Gran Barranca (68.7°W, 45.7°S) - South America’s most important site and sequence for constraining SALMAs -uncertainties of ~ 1 Myr persist. To better constrain the ages of mammalian and plant assemblages and stable isotope stratigraphies, we employed high-precision (±50 kyr) single-crystal zircon U/Pb dating. These results generally confirm previous chronologies, but change the timing or duration of some SALMAs at Gran Barranca by 0.5-1 Myr. We collected 23 tuffs from six members of the Sarmiento Formation that contain 7 successive formally recognized SALMAs spanning the middle Eocene through the early Miocene. These strata include the type faunas for the Barrancan, Mustersan and Colhuehuapian SALMAs. Zircons were separated and chemically treated using standard techniques, spiked with EARTHTIME ET535, and analyzed for U-Pb ratios at Boise State University. Simpson’s Y, a prominent marker tuff within the Barrancan SALMA, yielded a date of ˜40.0 Ma. The Rosado Tuff, in the Rosado Member, contains Mustersan SALMA age mammals and yields a date of ˜38.3 Ma. Two tuffs in the Lower Puesto Almendra Member (Bed 10 and the Kay Tuff, stratigraphically above a Mustersan SALMA mammal assemblage) yielded ages of ˜37.0 and ˜36.9 Ma respectively. The Big Mammal Tuff at the base of the Colhuehuapian SALMA is ˜20.9 Ma, and the MMZ24.5 Tuff between the Colhuehuapian and Pinturan SALMAs is ˜19.1 Ma. Together with published magnetostratigraphy, these U/Pb dates have the following implications: (a) The known duration of the Barrancan SALMA is shortened by ~ 1 Myr and spans 40.5-39.0 Ma, (b) The Mustersan SALMA at Gran Barranca is between ˜38.3 and ˜37.0 Ma, (c) The Colhuehuapian SALMA must fall between ˜20.9 and ˜19.8 Ma, and (d) the fossil levels referred to the Pinturan SALMA are bracketed between ˜19.1 and

  19. Paleoseismic and Geomorphic Evidence for Quaternary Fault Slip on the Central Range Fault, South American-Caribbean Plate Boundary, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, C. S.; Weber, J.; Crosby, C. J.

    2001-12-01

    The island of Trinidad is located along the transform plate boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates. GPS measurements show that relative motion along this boundary is nearly E-W right-lateral shear (Weber et al., 2001). Analysis and comparison of historic triangulation and GPS data suggest that a significant fraction (14+/-3 mm/yr) of the total plate-boundary motion (about 20 mm/yr) is being accommodated across the Central Range Fault in central Trinidad. Our new paleoseismic studies demonstrate that Quaternary surface rupture has occurred on this previously unrecognized, historically aseismic, active fault. Geomorphic evidence of Quaternary faulting along the Central Range Fault includes linear drainages, aligned topographic saddles and troughs, offset ridges, right-laterally deflected streams, and linear scarps. We mapped these features using 1:20,000 scale aerial photographs and field reconnaissance along a 25-km-long section between Pointe-a-Pierre on the west coast and Navet Dam. Geomorphic features near Manzanilla Bay on the east coast suggest that the Central Range Fault continues across the island as a Quaternary feature for another 25 km to the northeast. Marine geophysical surveys suggest this fault continues offshore to the west (Warm Springs fault), and steps to the north across the Gulf of Paria pull-apart basin to the El Pilar Fault. The extent of the fault offshore to the east is unknown. We exposed a 6-m-wide shear zone within Pliocene(?) material in a trench cut into a fluvial terrace, south of Samlalsingh Road near Bonne Aventure. The overlying Quaternary fluvial gravel is faulted and folded across the shear zone, and Quaternary fluvial deposits are faulted against the shear zone on the north side. A second excavation across a prominent scarp near Tabaquite, 12 km northeast of Samlalsingh Road, exposed a colluvial wedge and overlying unfaulted sediments. We interpret the colluvial wedge to represent deposits shed off the scarp in

  20. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of