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Sample records for adult south american

  1. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of…

  2. The fry patterns in the South-American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The fry pattern of aquarium-bred species of the South-American catfish genus Corydoras, contribute to discriminate between species of the so-called ‘acutus’-group, showing a greyish adult colour pattern.

  3. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal... are amending the South American cactus moth regulations by adding the State of Louisiana to the list of areas quarantined because of South American cactus moth. As a result of this action,...

  4. Not "What Little Kids Can Be Like": Cultural Appropriation and Adults Watching "South Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Gwynne Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Responds to an article in a prior issue of this journal. Argues that "South Park" is a deconstruction of the reality of American constructions of media, fame, and pop culture, and that more adolescents than adults understand that "South Park" is about the adult world of media. Includes a response by the author of the earlier article. (SR)

  5. Organotin contamination in South American coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Italo Braga; Perina, Fernando Cesar; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-03-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) were used in antifouling paints for more than four decades. However, due to their widespread intensive use and high toxicity, undesirable effects in non-target marine organisms have been detected since the early 1980s. Consequently, the International Maritime Organization banned new maritime applications of these products on January 1, 2003 and their presence on ship hulls from January 1, 2008. Although extensively studied in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia, environmental levels and effects of organotin contamination are still poorly known for South America. Thus, the current review aimed to present the actual status of this problem in South America by summarizing and comparing the available data in the literature. An overview of the OTs concentrations in sediment and biota and their effects, mainly imposex in marine gastropods, are presented. This work showed that in Atlantic coastal areas of South America there are "hot spots" of OTs contamination, similar to that observed in industrialized countries of Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the number of accomplished studies in the Pacific coast is extremely low. Despite the limitation on studies about OTs environmental levels and their related effects, the available data pointed out for a widespread TBT contamination along the South American coastal areas. Therefore, the establishment of baselines of organotin contamination in the Pacific coast and the implementation of temporal trend studies in the South American coastal areas is crucial to verify the effectiveness of local regulations and OTs global ban, and to map the most sensitive areas related to present and future antifouling impacts.

  6. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26.

  7. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , emphasizing black and white racial binaries and outdated geographical boundaries, The American South and the Atlantic World seeks larger thematic and spatial contexts. This is the first book to focus explicitly on how contacts with the peoples, cultures, ideas, and economies of the Atlantic World have...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...... of The Postsouthern Sense of Place in Contemporary Fiction. William A. Link, Richard J. Milbauer Professor of History at the University of Florida, is the author of Links: My Family in American History....

  8. Frederick Douglass: An American Adult Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jerry Paul

    2010-01-01

    Throughout his life, Frederick Douglass struggled to be something extraordinary. He rose from a life in slavery to become the most prominent African-American of his day and a leading figure in the abolitionist movement. Lost in the discussion of his life are the adult education roles that he played throughout his life and career. Beginning while…

  9. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik;

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....

  10. Curare: the South American arrow poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M R

    2005-02-01

    The history of curare is both curious and convoluted. A product of South American culture it emerged in the sixteenth century from the mists of antiquity at the same time as quinine, coca, and chocolate. Like quinine, at first came the extract but no plant, and later the plant but no chemical compound. It took more than 300 years and the efforts of many explorers and scientists to resolve the problem. These included Condamine, Humboldt, Brodie, Waterton, Bernard, Dale, Walker, and King. Finally, the pure compound d-tubocurarine was isolated from the liana Chondrodendron and synthesised. Its specific physiological action was blockade of the effect of acetylcholine at the neuro-muscular junction. Such a paralytic poison could be used to kill oneself or others. The bizarre plot to kill the Prime Minister, Lloyd George, during the First World War is described. Fortunately this nefarious plan was thwarted by the Secret Service!

  11. Interannual variability of South American monsoon circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Gan, Manoel; Rafaele Araújo Lima, Jeane

    2016-04-01

    The South America Monsoon System (SAMS) is responsible for influencing the atmospheric circulation and precipitation over most of tropical South America (SA) during the summer season. Studies for aiming to understand the temporal variability of this system have great value to the scientific community, because the processes that control the monsoon climate are not totally clear. Thus, the main objective of this research is to investigate the possible large-scale climatic factors and the remote interaction mechanisms, which may be associated with summer season interannual variability focusing on identifying the main differences between dry and wet extremes rainy season in the South-eastern Amazon Basin (SAB), Central-West (WC) and Southeast (SE) of Brazil, which are areas influenced by the summer monsoon regime. For such analyzes, Pearson correlations, quantile method and composite analysis were used during the period from 1979 to 2014. The correlation between precipitation anomaly in SAB and the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and wind at 850hPa and 300hPa indicate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence. Precipitation anomalies in WC did not show significant correlation with SSTA. However, a pattern similar to ENSO Modoki type was observed in the composite analysis. At 850 hPa, the presence of an anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation was observed over the central region of SA during wet (dry) summers seasons. Over SE region of Brazil, a dipole SSTA pattern over the South Atlantic was identified, as well the presence of anomalous circulations with an equivalent barotropic structure over these SSTA areas. This pattern is more evident in case of dry summer on the SE. At 300 hPa, the wave train between 30°S-60°S was observed presenting a feature curvature from 120°W reaching SA, similar to the Pacific-South American pattern (PSA). Analysis of the summer interannual variability indicated the manifestation of wet summers more frequently than dry

  12. Gridded bathymetry of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved...

  13. South American regionalism: explaining the foundation of UNASUR

    OpenAIRE

    Linke-Behrens, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    As the first exclusively South American cooperation scheme and the new centerpiece of post-hegemonic regionalism in the region, the foundation of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) has recently attracted scholarly attention. While this event has been studied by means of descriptive narratives and frequently from the angle of post-hegemonic approaches, this paper draws on neofunctionalism, intergovernmentalism, the regional powers approach, and the security community approach to expl...

  14. The Meaning of "Being Chinese" and "Being American." Variation among Chinese American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…

  15. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  16. IMPROVING MASS REARING TECHNOLOGY FOR SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on availability of suitable and economic diets for adults and larvae of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 were carried out at the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria with the aim to find the best diets to fit in a large scale mass rearing production. The best diet for adult was the combination of Hydrolysate Corn Protein + Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (3:1:3. This diet resulted in the highest numbers of egg/female/day, spermatozoid in the spermathecae, percentages of egg hatch, the lowest mortality rate of adults and the highest average mating duration compared with the standard adult diet based on Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (1:3. Among eleven larval diets tested, diets based on sugarcane and sugarbeet bagases plus 7% brewer yeast, 8% sugar, 0.2% sodium benzoate, 0.8% of hydrochloric acid and 60% water (adjusted, yielded the highest percentages of egg hatching, pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. There was no statistical difference with the standard larval diet based on wheat germ 3%, corncob 15%, corn flower 8%, brewer yeast 6%, sugar 8%, sodium benzoate 0.23%, hydrochloric acid 0.63%, nipagin 0.14% and water 59% (adjusted. The significant performance of these adult and larval diets open discussion for future researches on improvement of rearing techniques required for the establishment of sterile insect technique (SIT program focused on the South American fruit fly.

  17. Studies on South American Gomphidae (Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J.

    1970-01-01

    The present paper deals with some gomphids from South America. Besides descriptions of a number of new species additional notes on several Selysian and other, little-known species, elucidated with illustrations of important details, are offered in order to obtain a better insight into the characteri

  18. Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.

    2017-01-01

    Echimyidae is one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse rodent families in the world, occupying a wide range of habitats in the Neotropics. However, a resolved phylogeny at the genus-level is still lacking for these 22 genera of South American spiny rats, including the coypu (Myocastorinae...

  19. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbe, Alex; Neves, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates) and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix) of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá) were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene. PMID:26465141

  20. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hubbe

    Full Text Available Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene.

  1. Electricity consumption and economic growth in seven South American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea); Kwak, So-Yoon [Department of Economics, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth among seven South American countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela using widely accepted time-series techniques for the period 1975-2006. The results indicate that the causal nexus between electricity consumption and economic growth varies across countries. There is a unidirectional, short-run causality from electricity consumption to real GDP for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, and Ecuador. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth in those countries. In Venezuela, there is a bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This implies that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption in that country. However, no causal relationships exist in Peru. The documented evidence from seven South American countries can provide useful information for each government with regard to energy and growth policy. (author)

  2. 2009 South American benchmarking study: natural gas transportation companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Nathalie [Gas TransBoliviano S.A. (Bolivia); Walter, Juliana S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the current business environment large corporations are constantly seeking to adapt their strategies. Benchmarking is an important tool for continuous improvement and decision-making. Benchmarking is a methodology that determines which aspects are the most important to be improved upon, and it proposes establishing a competitive parameter in an analysis of the best practices and processes, applying continuous improvement driven by the best organizations in their class. At the beginning of 2008, GTB (Gas TransBoliviano S.A.) contacted several South American gas transportation companies to carry out a regional benchmarking study in 2009. In this study, the key performance indicators of the South American companies, whose reality is similar, for example, in terms of prices, availability of labor, and community relations, will be compared. Within this context, a comparative study of the results, the comparative evaluation among natural gas transportation companies, is becoming an essential management instrument to help with decision-making. (author)

  3. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAZAKI, Mutsumi; KOUTAKA, Mitsuru; Une, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tis...

  4. LULAC: Mexican-American Adult Learning, Collectivism, and Social Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    The development of the League of United Latino American Citizens (LULAC) is often viewed as a method of cultural assimilation through adult education. However, LULAC can be viewed through a collectivist's lens wherein the members established a shared philosophy, teaching adults to mobilize and expand their cause quickly and effectively. The social…

  5. Reproduction in female South American domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumar, J B

    1999-01-01

    Alpacas and llamas are induced ovulators. They show marked reproductive seasonality in the Andean region, but under Northern Hemisphere conditions of feeding and management, they are non-seasonal breeders. Puberty is attained when they reach 50% of adult body weight. When they are not exposed to a male, females show successive waves of follicular maturation and atresia. Growth, maintenance and regression of a follicle each require an average of 4 and 6 days in alpacas and llamas, respectively. After sterile mating, progesterone concentrations in blood were increased from day 5, reached maximum concentrations on day 7-8, and declined rapidly at 9-10 days after mating. A fertile mating results in formation of a corpus luteum that remains functional throughout gestation. The duration of gestation is 340-346 days. Almost all fetuses were found to occupy the left uterine horn, even though ovulation occurs from both ovaries with equal frequency. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis have been described. Mating is recommended within 15-20 days after parturition to obtain good fertility rates and one offspring per year. The factors that contribute to high rates of embryonic mortality are unknown. Reproductive technologies, such as AI, superovulation, embryo transfer and IVF, have not been used very extensively in these species but can be successfully applied.

  6. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of... South American cactus moth regulations by adding the entire State of Louisiana to the list of... American cactus moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on December 27, 2010,...

  7. Comparison of North and South American biomes from AVHRR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Dye, Dennis; Kerber, Arlene; Kalb, Virginia

    1987-01-01

    Previous analysis of the North American continent with AVHRR-derived vegetation index measurements showed a strong relation between known patterns of vegetation seasonality, productivity and the spectral vegetation index measurements. This study extends that analysis to South America to evaluate the degree to which these findings extend to tropical regions. The results show that the spectral vegetation index measurements provide a general indicator of vegetation activity across the major biomes of the Western Hemisphere of the earth, including tropical regions. The satellite-observed patterns are strongly related to the known climatology of the continents and may offer a means to improve understanding of global bioclimatology. For example, South America is shown to have a longer growing season with much earlier spring green-up than North America. The time integral of the measurements, computed from 12 composited monthly values, produces a value that is related to published net primary productivity data. However, limited net primary production data does not allow complete evaluation of satellite-observed contrasts between North and South American biomes. These results suggest that satellite-derived spectral vegetation index measurements are of great potential value in improving knowledge of the earth's biosphere.

  8. Regionalism and South American orientation: UNASUR and ALBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Diamint

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether or not integration in South America is shaping a new type of regionalism. The author takes the cases of UNASUR and ALBA and shows – on the basis of the characteristics of institutionality, leaderships and identities – what the incentives for cooperation are. One of the essential elements for all integration is the defence agreements that are articulated in different ways in each of the organisations. The article attempts to show that both UNASUR and ALBA were structured using a new logic, by prioritising political agreements over commercial ones. The author describes a new South American notion that is still under construction, but which is more narrative- and discourse-oriented than involving formalised actions. As a result, we cannot conclude that this represents a new type of regionalism.

  9. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Herdy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR. In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Rehabilitation from the Department of Exercise, Ergometry, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology has created a committee of experts to review the Portuguese version of the guideline and adapt it to the national reality. The mission of this document is to help health professionals to adopt effective measures of CVDPR in the routine clinical practice. The publication of this document and its broad implementation will contribute to the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO, which is the reduction of worldwide cardiovascular mortality by 25% until 2025. The study group's priorities are the following: • Emphasize the important role of CVDPR as an instrument of secondary prevention with significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; • Join efforts for the knowledge on CVDPR, its dissemination, and adoption in most cardiovascular centers and institutes in South America, prioritizing the adoption of cardiovascular prevention methods that are comprehensive, practical, simple and which have a good cost/benefit ratio; • Improve the education of health professionals and patients with education programs on the importance of CVDPR services, which are directly targeted at the health system, clinical staff, patients, and community leaders, with the aim of decreasing the barriers to CVDPR implementation.

  10. Prevalence of Lens Opacities in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study (CHES)

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Rohit; Sun, Jie; Torres, Mina; Wu, Shuang; Hsu, Chunyi; Azen, Stanley Paul; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; ,

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We determined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of posterior subcapsular (PSC), nuclear, cortical, and mixed lens opacities in a population-based sample of Chinese-American adults. Methods A population-based sample of Chinese-Americans 50 years and older, from 10 census tracts in Monterey Park, CA, USA, underwent a detailed interview and a comprehensive clinical examination that included assessment of different types of lens opacities by the slit-lamp–based Lens Opacities Classific...

  11. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  12. Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Cid, Pedro; de la Torre, Pilar; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Dos Santos, M Cristina; Borges, Adolfo; Bremo, Adolfo; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2010-01-01

    We report a comparative venomic and antivenomic characterization of the venoms of newborn and adult specimens of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus, and of the subspecies cumanensis, durissus, ruruima, and terrificus of South American Crotalus durissus. Neonate and adult C. simus share about 50% of their venom proteome. The venom proteome of 6-week-old C. simus is predominantly made of the neurotoxic heterodimeric phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) crotoxin) (55.9%) and serine proteinases (36%), whereas snake venom Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (SVMPs), exclusively of class PIII, represent only 2% of the total venom proteins. In marked contrast, venom from adult C. simus comprises toxins from 7 protein families. A large proportion (71.7%) of these toxins are SVMPs, two-thirds of which belong to the PIII class. These toxin profiles correlate well with the overall biochemical and pharmacological features of venoms from adult (hemorrhagic) and newborn (neurotoxic) C. simus specimens. The venoms of the South American Crotalus subspecies belong to one of two distinct phenotypes. C. d. cumanensis exhibits high levels of SVMPs and low lethal potency (LD(50)), whereas C. d. subspecies terrificus, ruruima, and durissus have low SVMP activity and high neurotoxicity to mice. Their overall toxin compositions explain the outcome of envenomation by these species. Further, in all C. simus and C. durissus venoms, the concentration of neurotoxins (crotoxin and crotamine) is directly related with lethal activity, whereas lethality and metalloproteinase activity show an inverse relationship. The similar venom toxin profiles of newborn C. simus and adult C. durissus terrificus, ruruima, and durissus subspecies strongly suggests that the South American taxa have retained juvenile venom characteristics in the adult form (paedomorphism) along their North-South stepping-stone dispersal. The driving force behind paedomorphism is often competition or predation pressure. The increased

  13. Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

  14. Campylobacter Insulaenigrae: First Isolation Report from South American sea lion (Otaria Flavescens, (Shaw, 1800).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mario; Paz Villanueva, Maria; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fernández, Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

  15. Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)

    OpenAIRE

    Mario González; Maria Paz Villanueva; Lies Debruyne; Peter Vandamme; Heriberto Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

  16. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians.

  17. A South American Brazil and a Europeised Spain: relations within the Ibero-American framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Sanahuja

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relationship between Brazil and Spain, by considering the bilateral level, the Ibero-American Community and the European Union-Latin America and the Caribbean interregional frameworks. Bilateral relations have been characterised by rapid development, as well as by continuity and pragmatism which is visible despite the ideological differences between the governments of both parties. However, Brazil’s growing leadership in South America and the Europeanisation process of Spain’s foreign policy have introduced new elements into the relationship, which weaken the Ibero-American commitment in Brazil, and point to an increase in policy coherence problems for Spain and the EU. Bearing in mind an eventually successful negotiation between EU and Mercosur, the article identifies strategies to strengthen the “strategic alliance” between Spain and Brazil.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  19. Teaching of undergraduate veterinary parasitology: the South American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Bressan, M C R

    2002-10-02

    Undergraduate teaching of veterinary parasitology in South American countries is basically similar to most of the veterinary schools and offers lectures and practicals in parasitology (P) predominantly in the second year of the curriculum, and parasitic diseases (PD) in the third year, but in some schools also in the fourth and fifth years. However, there is a great variation in teaching hours allocated to P/PD between totals of about 50-169 h during the full curriculum. In addition to the lectures and practicals, schools are increasingly using tools (CD-ROMs) for self-instruction and new forms of education, such as workshops, round tables, and field practicals. The large number of important parasite species of large and small animals in tropical and subtropical areas would require additional hours for teaching--at least in some of the schools--considering the multidisciplinary characteristics of veterinary parasitology.

  20. Gutierrezia mendocina (Asteraceae, Astereae, a new South American species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratto, F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of the South American species of Gutierrezia has revealed a new species from Argentina, characterised by its stems with the base prostrate and rooting, turbinate heads and white ray florets. This species, found in the Department of Tunuyán of Mendoza Province (Argentina, is described and illustrated and a key to differentiate it from allied species is given.En el marco de la revisión taxonómica del género Gutierrezia para Sudamérica fue hallada una nueva especie de Argentina, caracterizada por sus tallos con la porción basal postrada, enraizante en los nudos, capítulos con involucro turbinado y flores liguladas blancas. Se describe e ilustra la especie encontrada en el Departamento de Tunuyán de la Provincia de Mendoza (Argentina, y se incluye una clave para diferenciarla de las especies afines.

  1. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mutsumi; Koutaka, Mitsuru; Une, Yumi

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for epithelium markers. Ductal growth, keratinocytes or signet ring cells were absent. The tumor was classified as an undifferentiated carcinoma using the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide to international classification of tumors in domestic animals. This is the first report of a primary gastric carcinoma in a pinniped.

  2. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAZAKI, Mutsumi; KOUTAKA, Mitsuru; UNE, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for epithelium markers. Ductal growth, keratinocytes or signet ring cells were absent. The tumor was classified as an undifferentiated carcinoma using the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guide to international classification of tumors in domestic animals. This is the first report of a primary gastric carcinoma in a pinniped. PMID:27052463

  3. Linking adults and immatures of South African marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Dirk; Connell, Allan D; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-11-01

    The early life-history stages of fishes are poorly known, impeding acquisition of the identifications needed to monitor larval recruitment and year-class strength. A comprehensive database of COI sequences, linked to authoritatively identified voucher specimens, promises to change this situation, representing a significant advance for fisheries science. Barcode records were obtained from 2526 early larvae and pelagic eggs of fishes collected on the inshore shelf within 5 km of the KwaZulu-Natal coast, about 50 km south of Durban, South Africa. Barcodes were also obtained from 3215 adults, representing 946 South African fish species. Using the COI reference library on BOLD based on adults, 89% of the immature fishes could be identified to a species level; they represented 450 species. Most of the uncertain sequences could be assigned to a genus, family, or order; only 92 specimens (4%) were unassigned. Accumulation curves based on inference of phylogenetic diversity indicate near-completeness of the collecting effort. The entire set of adult and larval fishes included 1006 species, representing 43% of all fish species known from South African waters. However, this total included 189 species not previously recorded from this region. The fact that almost 90% of the immatures gained a species identification demonstrates the power and completeness of the DNA barcode reference library for fishes generated during the 10 years of FishBOL.

  4. The Diversity among Us: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Caribbean Americans, and Central and South Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vasti

    2004-01-01

    Research on Latino college students is largely based on the experiences of Mexican Americans. In this chapter, diverse experiences of other groups in terms of immigration, educational achievement, and economic attainment are highlighted, and implications for student services are explored. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  5. Netizenship Politics: Youth, Anti-Americanism, and Rhetorical Agency in South Korea's 2002 Candlelight Vigils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a rhetorical analysis of the 2002 South Korean Candlelight Vigils ["ch'otpul siwi"] with a focus on the role of the Internet in public opinion building, the rise in anti-American sentiment in South Korea, and rhetorical agency residing in the collective. In 2002, two South Korean schoolgirls walking along a rural road…

  6. Netizenship Politics: Youth, Anti-Americanism, and Rhetorical Agency in South Korea's 2002 Candlelight Vigils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a rhetorical analysis of the 2002 South Korean Candlelight Vigils ["ch'otpul siwi"] with a focus on the role of the Internet in public opinion building, the rise in anti-American sentiment in South Korea, and rhetorical agency residing in the collective. In 2002, two South Korean schoolgirls walking along a rural road near Seoul…

  7. Daily atmospheric variability in the South American monsoon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, V. [Institute of Global Environment and Society (IGES), Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA), Calverton, MD (United States); George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences, Fairfax, VA (United States); Misra, Vasubandhu [Florida State University, Department of Meteorology and Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The space-time structure of the daily atmospheric variability in the South American monsoon system has been studied using multichannel singular spectrum analysis of daily outgoing longwave radiation. The three leading eigenmodes are found to have low-frequency variability while four other modes form higher frequency oscillations. The first mode has the same time variability as that of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and exhibits strong correlation with the Pacific sea surface temperature (SST). The second mode varies on a decadal time scale with significant correlation with the Atlantic SST suggesting an association with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The third mode also has decadal variability but shows an association with the SST of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). The fourth and fifth modes describe an oscillation that has a period of about 165 days and is associated with the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). The sixth and seventh modes describe an intraseasonal oscillation with a period of 52 days which shows strong relation with the Madden-Julian oscillation. There exists an important difference in the variability of convection between Amazon River Basin (ARB) and central-east South America (CESA). Both regions have similar variations due to ENSO though with higher magnitude in ARB. The AMO-related mode has almost identical variations in the two regions, whereas the PDO-related mode has opposite variations. The interseasonal NAO-related mode also has variations of opposite sign with comparable magnitudes in the two regions. The intraseasonal variability over the CESA is robust while it is very weak over the ARB region. The relative contributions from the low-frequency modes mainly determine the interannual variability of the seasonal mean monsoon although the interseasonal oscillation may contribute in a subtle way during certain years. The intraseasonal variability does not seem to influence the interannual variability in either region

  8. South American Summer Monsoon history recorded in Brazilian speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.

    2008-12-01

    We have obtained three high-resolution oxygen isotopic records of cave calcites from Caverna Botuverá, southern Brazil, Gruta do Padre, central Brazil, and Caverna Paraíso, Amazonian Brazil. All three records have chronologies determined by U-Th dates and span the last 90, 20 and 50 thousand years, respectively. Tests for equilibrium conditions show that their oxygen isotopic variations are primarily caused by climate change. The three records thus can provide information about precipitation history and fluctuations of the South American Summer Monsoon along a latitudinal transect from 28° S to 4° S. During the last glacial period, the three oxygen isotopic profiles show abrupt millennial-scale variations, which are anti- correlated with the Chinese speleothem monsoon records and northern high-latitude ice core records. This is likely related to the displacement of the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and associated asymmetry of Hadley cells, consistent with an oceanic meridional overturning circulation mechanism for driving the abrupt climate events. However, the three records show distinct isotopic patterns in Holocene epoch. The δ18O values in the Botuvera record decrease steadily throughout Holocene, while in the Padre record, the δ18O drops slightly until ~6-7 thousand years ago and then gradually increases until the present. The Paraiso Holocene record is similar to the Padre one, but with a much greater amplitude. Together with Andean ice core and lake records, our observations suggest asynchronous changes in Holocene monsoonal precipitation in South America, possibly related to strengthened zonal tropical air-sea interactions after the melting of the large northern ice sheets.

  9. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  10. Deforestation changes land-atmosphere interactions across South American biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alvaro; Katzfey, Jack; Thatcher, Marcus; Syktus, Jozef; Wong, Kenneth; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-04-01

    South American biomes are increasingly affected by land use/land cover change. However, the climatic impacts of this phenomenon are still not well understood. In this paper, we model vegetation-climate interactions with a focus on four main biomes distributed in four key regions: The Atlantic Forest, the Cerrado, the Dry Chaco, and the Chilean Matorral ecosystems. We applied a three member ensemble climate model simulation for the period 1981-2010 (30 years) at 25 km resolution over the focus regions to quantify the changes in the regional climate resulting from historical deforestation. The results of computed modelling experiments show significant changes in surface fluxes, temperature and moisture in all regions. For instance, simulated temperature changes were stronger in the Cerrado and the Chilean Matorral with an increase of between 0.7 and 1.4 °C. Changes in the hydrological cycle revealed high regional variability. The results showed consistent significant decreases in relative humidity and soil moisture, and increases in potential evapotranspiration across biomes, yet without conclusive changes in precipitation. These impacts were more significant during the dry season, which resulted to be drier and warmer after deforestation.

  11. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas.

  12. Carbon reservoirs in temperate South American Nothofagus forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böswald, Klaus; Lencinas, José D; Loguercio, Gabriel

    2002-01-08

    Humans are influencing the global carbon (C) cycle due to the combustion of fossil fuels and due to changes in land use management. These activities are fostering the manmade greenhouse effect and thus global climate change. Negative effects for life on earth are accounted for. Among others the international climate debate focused attention on forests and forestry, knowing about their considerable influence on global climate change. Whilst the global C budget is described fairly well, there is a lack of regional data describing the C reservoirs and flows in detail. This has to be constituted especially for forests in developing countries. This paper presents an investigation at regional scale of the C reservoirs in a South American forest ecosystem. The investigation puts emphasis on the area and stand volume estimation and the development of expansion and reduction factors. Vegetation types are classified and stratified, determining the corresponding areas and estimating the stand volume. Converting factors are developed to calculate C in branches and roots as a percentage of standing wood measured by inventories.

  13. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  14. Soil Quality Impacts of Current South American Agricultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Wingeyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yields, but the use of purchased inputs, monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., and marginal land cultivation have also increased. These changes have significantly altered the global food and feed supply role of these countries, but they have also resulted in various levels of soil degradation through wind and water erosion, soil compaction, soil organic matter (SOM depletion, and nutrient losses. Sustainability is dependent upon local interactions between soil, climate, landscape characteristics, and production systems. This review examines the region’s current soil and crop conditions and summarizes several research studies designed to reduce or prevent soil degradation. Although the region has both environmental and soil resources that can sustain current agricultural production levels, increasing population, greater urbanization, and more available income will continue to increase the pressure on South American croplands. A better understanding of regional soil differences and quantifying potential consequences of current production practices on various soil resources is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences.

  15. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Schneider

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo, the kodkod (Leopardus guigna, and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi. To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species, achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  16. 10m Gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific (netCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (10 m cell size) bathymetry of the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  17. Status Report for South Dakota Refuges: American Burying Beetle Searches, 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo describes the efforts made throughout South Dakota attempting to locate American Burying Beetles. No beetles were found, but plans for a 1996 involve a...

  18. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  19. The Impact of the Great Migration on Mortality of African Americans: Evidence from the Deep South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Migration—the massive migration of African Americans out of the rural South to largely urban locations in the North, Midwest, and West—was a landmark event in U.S. history. Our paper shows that this migration increased mortality of African Americans born in the early twentieth century South. This inference comes from an analysis that uses proximity of birthplace to railroad lines as an instrument for migration. PMID:26345146

  20. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hermosilla; Liliana M R Silva; Mauricio Navarro; Anja Taubert

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) tech...

  1. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  2. Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Plasma of American Alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, Jacqueline T.; Bowden, John A.; Brunell, Arnold M.; Christie, Ian; Finnell, Brendan; Guillette, Matthew P.; Jones, Martin; Lowers, Russell H.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitate fourteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at twelve sites across the southeastern US. Of those fourteen PFAAs, nine were detected in 65% - 100% of the samples: PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTriA, PFTA, PFHxS, and PFOS. Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of four PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Kiawah Nature Conservancy both exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length (SVL) were observed in both sexes suggesting PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. This study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, reveals potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and provides and additional contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health.

  3. Testing Bergmann's rule and the Rosenzweig hypothesis with craniometric studies of the South American sea lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Oliva, Doris; Duran, L René; Urra, Alejandra; Pedraza, Susana N; Majluf, Patrícia; Goodall, Natalie; Crespo, Enrique A

    2013-04-01

    We tested the validity of Bergmann's rule and Rosenzweig's hypothesis through an analysis of the geographical variation of the skull size of Otaria flavescens along the entire distribution range of the species (except Brazil). We quantified the sizes of 606 adult South American sea lion skulls measured in seven localities of Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, and the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Geographical and environmental variables included latitude, longitude, and monthly minimum, maximum, and mean air and ocean temperatures. We also included information on fish landings as a proxy for productivity. Males showed a positive relationship between condylobasal length (CBL) and latitude, and between CBL and the six temperature variables. By contrast, females showed a negative relationship between CBL and the same variables. Finally, female skull size showed a significant and positive correlation with fish landings, while males did not show any relationship with this variable. The body size of males conformed to Bergmann's rule, with larger individuals found in southern localities of South America. Females followed the converse of Bergmann's rule at the intraspecific level, but showed a positive relationship with the proxy for productivity, thus supporting Rosenzweig's hypothesis. Differences in the factors that drive body size in females and males may be explained by their different life-history strategies. Our analyses demonstrate that latitude and temperature are not the only factors that explain spatial variation in body size: others such as food availability are also important for explaining the ecogeographical patterns found in O. flavescens.

  4. Secondary Education and Emancipation: Secondary Schools for Freed Slaves in the American South, 1862-1875

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Ronald E.; Rolleri, Amy F.

    2004-01-01

    Slavery in the United States denied education to the enslaved. Yet within fifteen years of the beginning of the American Civil War and the freeing of four million American slaves, the freed people and their supporters elaborated a full system of universal education in the South, including over 120 secondary and higher institutions. Historians have…

  5. English or Perish: How Contemporary South Korea Received, Accommodated, and Internalized English and American Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongHwa; Han, Min Wha; McKerrow, Raymie E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the positionality of English in South Korea as a form of symbolic capital that represents the discursive power of Americanism and East Asian Social Darwinism. By employing Bourdieu's and Foucault's theoretical orientations, this paper traces how South Korean linguistic policies to incorporate English loan words coincide with…

  6. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea Clave de taxones superiores de gorgojos sudamericanos basada en caracteres de los adultos (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E. MARVALDI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from South America are currently classified in the following families and subfamilies: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae and Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae and Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae and Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae and Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae and Platypodinae. In the present contribution we bring a dichotomous key for the identification of seven families and 28 subfamilies of Curculionoidea from South America, and for 21 tribes of the highly heterogeneous subfamilies Curculioninae and Molytinae. These tribes are Curculionini Anthonomini, Ceutorhynchini, Derelomini, Otidocephalini, Erodiscini, Camarotini, Piazorhinini, Prionobrachiini, Smicronychini, Rhamphini and Tychiini, within Curculioninae; and Hylobiini, Pissodini, Conotrachelini, Cleogonini, Sternechini, Pacholenini, Cholini, Petalochilini and Amalactini, within Molytinae. Most of them have been classified as subfamilies in traditional schemes. The key is mainly based on external morphological characters, but also includes data on genitalia, mouth parts and other biological features. Definitions and illustrations of diagnostic characters used in the key are providedLos gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea de América del Sur se clasifican actualmente en las siguientes familias y subfamilias: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae y Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae y Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae y Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae y Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American Doradoidea (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. O. Birindelli

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis based on 311 morphological characters is presented for most species of the Doradidae, all genera of the Auchenipteridae, and representatives of 16 other catfish families. The hypothesis that was derived from the six most parsimonious trees support the monophyly of the South American Doradoidea (Doradidae plus Auchenipteridae, as well as the monophyly of the clade Doradoidea plus the African Mochokidae. In addition, the clade with Sisoroidea plus Aspredinidae was considered sister to Doradoidea plus Mochokidae. Within the Auchenipteridae, the results support the monophyly of the Centromochlinae and Auchenipterinae. The latter is composed of Tocantinsia, and four monophyletic units, two small with Asterophysusand Liosomadoras, and Pseudotatiaand Pseudauchenipterus, respectively, and two large ones with the remaining genera. Within the Doradidae, parsimony analysis recovered Wertheimeriaas sister to Kalyptodoras, composing a clade sister to all remaining doradids, which include Franciscodorasand two monophyletic groups: Astrodoradinae (plus Acanthodorasand Agamyxis and Doradinae (new arrangement. Wertheimerinae, new subfamily, is described for Kalyptodoras and Wertheimeria. Doradinae is corroborated as monophyletic and composed of four groups, one including Centrochirand Platydoras, the other with the large-size species of doradids (except Oxydoras, another with Orinocodoras, Rhinodoras, and Rhynchodoras, and another with Oxydorasplus all the fimbriate-barbel doradids. Based on the results, the species of Opsodoras are included in Hemidoras; and Tenellus, new genus, is described to include Nemadoras trimaculatus, N. leporhinusand Nemadoras ternetzi. Due to conflicting hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Acanthodoras, Agamyxis, and Franciscodoras, these are considered as incertae sedisin Doradidae. All suprageneric taxa of the Doradoidea are diagnosed based on synapomorphic morphological characteristics.

  8. 75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... regulations for the interstate movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of South American cactus... American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose, Program Manager, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ,...

  9. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  10. Occupancy dynamics of South American sea-lions in Brazilian haul-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanato, H; Silva, K G; Estima, S C; Monteiro, D S; Kinas, P G

    2013-11-01

    Along the Brazilian coast only two haul-outs of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) are known: Ilha dos Lobos and Molhe Leste, both located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. Most sea lions observed in these haul-outs are adult and sub-adult males. It is supposed that the species' presence in these areas is due to food supply and absence of parental assistance by males. This study analysed the use of these haul-outs by O. flavescens between 1993 and 2002 based on counting data of observed individuals. Bayesian generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in abundance between areas, long term trends and seasonal patterns. Results showed that for O. flavescens abundance had a long term trend of increased average occupancy over the study period, with seasonal variation reaching the highest within-year value in August (Ilha dos Lobos) and October (Molhe Leste). The novel application of this powerful statistical modelling approach resulted in a useful tool to quantify occupancy dynamic.

  11. Occupancy dynamics of South American Sea-Lions in Brazilian Haul-outs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pavanato

    Full Text Available Along the Brazilian coast only two haul-outs of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens are known: Ilha dos Lobos and Molhe Leste, both located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. Most sea lions observed in these haul-outs are adult and sub-adult males. It is supposed that the species' presence in these areas is due to food supply and absence of parental assistance by males. This study analysed the use of these haul-outs by O. flavescens between 1993 and 2002 based on counting data of observed individuals. Bayesian generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in abundance between areas, long term trends and seasonal patterns. Results showed that for O. flavescens abundance had a long term trend of increased average occupancy over the study period, with seasonal variation reaching the highest within-year value in August (Ilha dos Lobos and October (Molhe Leste. The novel application of this powerful statistical modelling approach resulted in a useful tool to quantify occupancy dynamic.

  12. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1 in 2008. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. Results: The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Conclusions: Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems, can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults.

  13. Poor consistency in evaluating South African adults with neurogenic dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mckinley Andrews

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech-language therapists are specifically trained in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Incidence of dysphagia following acute stroke is high in South Africa, and health implications can be fatal, making optimal management of this patient population crucial. However, despite training and guidelines for best practice in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke, there are low levels of consistency in these practice patterns.Objective: The aim was to explore the clinical practice activities of speech-language therapists in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Practice activities reviewed included the use and consistency of clinical components and resources utilised. Clinical components were the individual elements evaluated in the clinical evaluation of swallowing (e.g. lip seal, vocal quality, etc.Methods: The questionnaire used in the study was replicated and adapted from a study increasing content- and criterion-related validity. A narrative literature review determined what practice patterns existed in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults. A pilot study was conducted to increase validity and reliability. Purposive sampling was used by sending a self-administered, electronic questionnaire to members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Thirty-eight participants took part in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and the small qualitative component was subjected to textual analysis.Results: There was high frequency of use of 41% of the clinical components in more than 90% of participants (n = 38. Less than 50% of participants frequently assessed sensory function and gag reflex and used pulse oximetry, cervical auscultation and indirect laryngoscopy. Approximately a third of participants showed high (30.8%, moderate (35.9% and poor (33.3% consistency of practice each. Nurses, food and liquids and

  14. Literacy, Knowledge and Development: South-South Policy Dialogue on Quality Education for Adults and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.; Castro Mussot, Luz-Maria, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains the results of the conference "South-South Policy Dialogue on Quality Education for Adults and Young People" that took place in Mexico City in 2005. Articles were written by participants who presented their national programmes from the governmental perspective, which were reflected in the literacy policies, but…

  15. Network companies: a new phenomenon in South American farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clasadonte, L.; Vries, de E.; Trienekens, J.H.; Arbeletche, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – South America is an important agricultural producer. Farming is characterized by the availability of vast areas of land, a reasonable climate and low cost. These conditions have led South America to be an important supplier of agricultural goods on the world market. Traditionally farmers o

  16. Declines in Sexual Frequency among American Adults, 1989-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2017-03-06

    American adults had sex about nine fewer times per year in the early 2010s compared to the late 1990s in data from the nationally representative General Social Survey, N = 26,620, 1989-2014. This was partially due to the higher percentage of unpartnered individuals, who have sex less frequently on average. Sexual frequency declined among the partnered (married or living together) but stayed steady among the unpartnered, reducing the marital/partnered advantage for sexual frequency. Declines in sexual frequency were similar across gender, race, region, educational level, and work status and were largest among those in their 50s, those with school-age children, and those who did not watch pornography. In analyses separating the effects of age, time period, and cohort, the decline was primarily due to birth cohort (year of birth, also known as generation). With age and time period controlled, those born in the 1930s (Silent generation) had sex the most often, whereas those born in the 1990s (Millennials and iGen) had sex the least often. The decline was not linked to longer working hours or increased pornography use. Age had a strong effect on sexual frequency: Americans in their 20s had sex an average of about 80 times per year, compared to about 20 times per year for those in their 60s. The results suggest that Americans are having sex less frequently due to two primary factors: An increasing number of individuals without a steady or marital partner and a decline in sexual frequency among those with partners.

  17. The South American monsoon variability over the last millennium in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maisa; Arias, Paola A.; Flores-Aqueveque, Valentina; Seth, Anji; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we assess South American monsoon system (SAMS) variability in the last millennium as depicted by global coupled climate model simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small external forcing during the past 1000 years, model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, in contrast with the rainfall reconstructions in South America. Therefore, we used an ad hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation in order to account for model-specific signals. Thereby, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies are identified. The models feature a stronger monsoon during the LIA associated with (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer; (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-tropospheric anticyclone; (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results in a poleward shift of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone; and (iv) a weaker upper-level subtropical jet over South America. The diagnosed changes provide important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  18. The South American Monsoon Variability over the Last Millennium in CMIP5/PMIP3 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rojas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess South American Monsoon System (SAMS variability throughout the Last Millennium as depicted by the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project version 5/Paleo Modelling Intercomparison Project version 3 (CMIP5/PMIP3 simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly period and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA. Due to the small forcing during the past 1000 years, CMIP5/PMIP3 model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, as suggested by rainfall reconstructions in South America. However, with an ad-hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies were identified. The models feature a stronger Monsoon during the LIA associated with: (i an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer, (ii a stronger monsoon-related upper-troposphere anticyclone, (iii activation of the South American dipole, which results to a certain extent in a poleward shift in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and (iv a weaker upper-level sub tropical jet over South America, this providing important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  19. New South American species of Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of cerambycid beetles are described from South America: Ataxia camiriensis (Pteropliini), from Bolivia, and Falsamblesthis uniformis (Forsteriini), from Peru. The new species are included in previous keys. PMID:28138276

  20. Rapid coastal spread of First Americans: novel insights from South America's Southern Cone mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Perego, Ugo A; Huber, Gabriela; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander W; Zimmermann, Bettina; Olivieri, Anna; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Lancioni, Hovirag; Angerhofer, Norman; Bobillo, Maria Cecilia; Corach, Daniel; Woodward, Scott R; Salas, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Parson, Walther

    2012-05-01

    It is now widely agreed that the Native American founders originated from a Beringian source population ~15-18 thousand years ago (kya) and rapidly populated all of the New World, probably mainly following the Pacific coastal route. However, details about the migration into the Americas and the routes pursued on the continent still remain unresolved, despite numerous genetic, archaeological, and linguistic investigations. To examine the pioneering peopling phase of the South American continent, we screened literature and mtDNA databases and identified two novel mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clades, here named D1g and D1j, within the pan-American haplogroup D1. They both show overall rare occurrences but local high frequencies, and are essentially restricted to populations from the Southern Cone of South America (Chile and Argentina). We selected and completely sequenced 43 D1g and D1j mtDNA genomes applying highest quality standards. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive variation within each of the two clades and possibly distinct dispersal patterns. Their age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America and indicate that the Paleo-Indian spread along the entire longitude of the American double continent might have taken even Paleo-Indian migrations, by targeting, if possible, both the general mixed population of national states and autochthonous Native American groups, especially in South America.

  1. Uncinaria hamiltoni (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berón-Vera, B; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Pedraza, S N

    2004-08-01

    Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were concentrated in the small intestine. Transmammary transmission is assumed because only adult hookworms were found in the pups. The mean intensity of hookworms per pup was 135; the mean intensity in females (92.78) was significantly different (P 0.05) in intensity was found between the 2 breeding areas, although prevalence was higher in the traditional breeding area than in the other area. Location was the only factor affecting hookworm prevalence (P log-linear model: 0.9552; chi2: 1.5629). No apparent trend between body condition and intensity of hookworms was observed.

  2. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted.

  3. Skull morphometrics of adult male Antartic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, and South American fur seal A. australis Morfometría craneana comparada de ejemplares machos adultos de lobo fino antártico, Arctocephalus gazella y lobo fino sudamericano, A. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Daneri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull morphometrics of adult male Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875 and South American fur seal, A. australis (Zimmermann, 1783 were investigated using a collection of 45 and 38 skulls, respectively. Eighteen measurements were taken for each specimen. Comparative univariate and multivariate statistical analyses included standard statistics, one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis. Individual variation was relatively high for some variables, as expressed by the coefficient of variation. Skulls of A. gazella were larger than those of A. australis for all but two variables: squamosal jugal suture and rostral length. Both species differed significantly as shown by both univariate and multivariate analyses. The discriminant function correctly classified all specimens. The standardized canonical coefficients showed that the variables which most contribute to the differentiation between species were, in decreasing order, the rostral length, palatal length, palatal width at postcanine 5 and braincase width. The present study corroborates that A. gazella and A. australis are phenotipically distinct species.Se estudió la morfometría craneana de especímenes machos adultos de lobo fino Antártico, Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875 y lobo fino sudamericano, A. australis (Zimmermann, 1783, consultando una colección de 45 y 38 cráneos respectivamente. Para cada ejemplar se tomó un total de 18 medidas. El análisis comparativo univariado y multivariado incluyó estadística standard, análisis de varianza, análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. La variación individual, según lo expresado por el coeficiente de variación, fue relativamente alta para algunas variables. Los cráneos de A. gazella fueron proporcionalmente más grandes que aquellos de A. australis para todas las variables estudiadas, excepto dos: longitud de la sutura escamoso-yugal y longitud

  4. Trends and variability of the South American hydrological cycle for the last 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Heitor; Gonzalez Arango, Catalina; Nogueira, Juliana; Monteiro, Leonardo; von Gunten, Lucien; Khodri, Myriam; Neukom, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    The South American continent encloses two of the largest global river basins: The Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. Its hydrological cycle is highly dependent on the water vapour transport advected from tropical-equatorial Atlantic as well as the polar advections. The Pacific Ocean contribution in the continental water budget is largely restricted to the western Andes region. Nevertheless, moderate-to-intense ENSO periods strongly affect more than half of the South American hydrology, influencing the availability of water resources from mountainous regions that are vital to ecosystems and the human economy and wellbeing. Intense droughts and floods observed continentally during the modern epoch have pointed to the need of better understanding the regional climate related issue. Recent paleoclimate advances, especially the creation of high-standard regional proxy record databases, allow describing the South American climate from a new perspective. However, large areas of tropical South America are still underrepresented in those databases. Here we present an effort of the South American PAGES 2k paleo-community LOTRED-SA to fill this gap. The group aims at producing a South American hydro-climate reconstruction from 267 proxy records (mostly tree rings, ice cores, pollen, instrumental precipitation and river flow) and 14 high resolved speleothems data covering the common era. For this study we plan to reanalyse new and existing tree ring and pollen data with respect to instrumental climate data. The well calibrated tree-ring index will be compared to an independently developed hydro-climate reconstruction for the last 2K based on speleothem records (Khodri et al., in prep) using coherence and singular spectral analyses to depict the temporal evolution of the dominant cyclicities the time series. For the more recent period, we will also use long-term instrumental data of precipitation, river flow and air temperature.

  5. High-energy physics, the South American way

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The 6th CERN–Latin American School of High-Energy Physics (CLASHEP) was held in Brazil from 23 March to 5 April. With its record-breaking attendance and strong international spirit, CLASHEP is yet another sign of the continent's growing particle physics community.   Participants in the 6th CERN–Latin American School of High-Energy Physics outside the Hotel Porto do Mar, Natal (Brazil), where the School was held. CLASHEP was established in 2001 as a way of engaging young Latin American scientists in the field of particle physics - particularly in the experimental aspects of research. It has played an important role in encouraging Latin American institutes to collaborate with CERN and showing how non-Member-State physicists can work as equals with Member-State nationals. “CLASHEP reflects some of CERN’s guiding policies: enlarging its membership and involving new nations in its programmes,” says Nick Ellis, director of the CERN Schools of High-Ene...

  6. Child Care in the American South: Poverty, Costs, and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Vikki K.

    2012-01-01

    High-quality child care has been shown to improve the academic success and life adjustments of children living in poverty. During the past decade, many American states have adopted voluntary Quality Rating and Improvement (QRI) systems in an attempt to increase the level of quality in child care. Using data compiled by the National Association of…

  7. Sources of Anti-Americanism in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    a laser projector, some people are wearing interesting costumes. People are holding impromptu concerts complete with guitars and violins, singing...automobile manufacturing .90 Militarily, South Korea has the fourth largest active duty military in Asia and continues to seek advanced military technologies...government. And, while manufacturing jobs are decreasing and being outsourced, the standard of living has improved, the democratic politics have

  8. Critical Discourse Analysis of American News Reports on South China Sea Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佳琪

    2014-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is an influential and useful approach to comprehend a discourse, which helps reveal the embedded ideology within the discourse. According to the CDA and systemic-functional grammar, this paper tries to analyze two American news reports on South China Sea issue and to explore the hidden ideology behind them.

  9. South American energy integration: new perspectives; Novas perspectivas para a integracao energetica sul-americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Malhaes da [Malhaes da Silva Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salomao, Luiz Alfredo [Universidade Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Politicas Publicas e Governo

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the South American energy integration, the advantages related to this process as well as the existing obstacles . What is the scope in terms of projects and initiatives, and the role of political and institutional barriers to be overcome. (author)

  10. Teaching English Vocabulary to Elementary Mexican American Students in South Texas: Some Responsive Modern Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiaka Nzai, Valentin; Reyna, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Teaching reading and vocabulary to Mexican American children in the United States of America today requires an acknowledgment of historical social injustice that continues to affect many communities in South Texas. This article debriefs some vocabulary teaching strategies--such as mnemonics and game play under the learning centers…

  11. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control.

  12. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  13. The Mexican-Americans of the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotia, Elizabeth R.; Calvin, Richmond

    Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Mexican Americans in South Bend, Indiana, is intended to increase cultural awareness of minority groups. The document opens with historical background information beginning in 1877 during the presidency of Porfirio Diaz of Mexico. The narrative follows migration…

  14. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound. ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  15. 78 FR 50135 - CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order... securities of Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  16. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  17. Coping with Discrimination: The Subjective Well-Being of South Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…

  18. Depressive symptoms and carotid intima-media thickness in South American Hispanics: results from the PREVENCION study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Diana A; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Salinas-Najarro, Belissa; Arguelles, William; Llabre, Maria M; Schneiderman, Neil; Paz-Manrique, Roberto; Bolanos, Juan F; Khan, Zubair; Chirinos, Julio A

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to: (1) examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT); and, (2) Determine the moderating effect of gender in this relationship among South American Hispanics. We studied 496 adults enrolled in the population-based PREVENCION study. Carotid IMT was measured with high-resolution ultrasonography. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mean carotid IMT was 0.66 mm. (SD = 0.17) and mean depression score was 5.6 (SD = 3.5). Depressive symptoms were not associated with carotid IMT (β = 0.04, p = 0.222) in multivariate analyses. A significant moderating effect of gender was found (β for interaction = 0.10, p = 0.030), resulting from a significant association between depressive symptoms and carotid IMT in men but not women. Depressive symptoms were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in South American Hispanic men but not women after controlling for demographic characteristics and traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  20. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  1. Perspectives of the mercosur parliament performance according to south american political organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Franzoi Dri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The signature of the MERCOSUR Parliament Constitutive Protocol, in 2005, has opened new parliamentary perspectives to the integration process which takes place in the South Cone. The nomination “parliament”, the universal suffrage prevision and new legislative and control functions evidence possibilities for an outstanding actuation. But is it possible to consider that this new organ was created in the middle of political conditions favorable to an effective functionality? Looking for traces to an answer, the paper examines political and electoral characteristics common to the South American States. First, we study the daily relations between the Executive and Legislative Powers in South American presidential regimes. Then, we verify to what extent the proportional open-list electoral system, largely used in the election of the lower houses members in the continent, influences such relations. At the end, we discuss the new assembly perspectives of effectiveness based on the regional characteristics studied.

  2. Employing Strategic Thinking in South American 4icrofinance Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONCARI, GUSTAVO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the use of strategic thinking in microfinance in South America. Microfinance is an important business in South America today, its importance lies in its ability to transform poor people and informal enterprises into citizens and formal companies making human beings grow as individuals at the same time. The sector is very strong in the region despite its youth and maybe it's time to use the ideas of business strategy developed for traditional businesses. The goal of this paper is then to use the ideas of business strategy in microfinance. A classic strategy scheme called the Ansoff matrix is used for this. It proposes two axes (product and market as possible ways for developing a business. The work includes the theoretical development of this scheme and evaluations from experts interviewed to give their opinion on it, evaluations that make the idea richer while pointing the possible weaknesses of the model

  3. Anembryonic Gestation in Wild South American Sea Lion, Otaria flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, M F; Crespo, E A; Dans, S L

    2016-10-01

    We present the first record and description of an anembryonic gestation in a wild South America sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora, Pinniped). This is the first report of an anembryonic gestation in a wild marine mammal species. This description furthers the knowledge of general aspects of the reproduction of an otariid species, which presents the particularities of delayed implantation and polygynic breeding system, and adds information on a reproductive abnormality in marine mammals.

  4. Rapid coastal spread of First Americans: Novel insights from South America's Southern Cone mitochondrial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Perego, Ugo A.; Huber, Gabriela; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander W.; Zimmermann, Bettina; Olivieri, Anna; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Lancioni, Hovirag; Angerhofer, Norman; Bobillo, Maria Cecilia; Corach, Daniel; Woodward, Scott R.; Salas, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely agreed that the Native American founders originated from a Beringian source population ∼15–18 thousand years ago (kya) and rapidly populated all of the New World, probably mainly following the Pacific coastal route. However, details about the migration into the Americas and the routes pursued on the continent still remain unresolved, despite numerous genetic, archaeological, and linguistic investigations. To examine the pioneering peopling phase of the South American continent, we screened literature and mtDNA databases and identified two novel mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clades, here named D1g and D1j, within the pan-American haplogroup D1. They both show overall rare occurrences but local high frequencies, and are essentially restricted to populations from the Southern Cone of South America (Chile and Argentina). We selected and completely sequenced 43 D1g and D1j mtDNA genomes applying highest quality standards. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive variation within each of the two clades and possibly distinct dispersal patterns. Their age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America and indicate that the Paleo-Indian spread along the entire longitude of the American double continent might have taken even <2000 yr. This study confirms that major sampling and sequencing efforts are mandatory for uncovering all of the most basal variation in the Native American mtDNA haplogroups and for clarification of Paleo-Indian migrations, by targeting, if possible, both the general mixed population of national states and autochthonous Native American groups, especially in South America. PMID:22333566

  5. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation: American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.

  6. Examining the perceptions, preferences, and practices that influence healthy aging for African American older adults: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Cheryl

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the healthy aging and health promotion perceptions, preferences, and practices of a purposive sample of African American older adults who resided in two communities in the south. An ecological framework was used to capture environmental factors, perceptions regarding access to health promotion resources, and health behavior preferences and practices. A mixed-method approach was used. Health supporting amenities were mapped, focus groups were conducted, and demographic information was obtained. The data were merged to create consolidated themes. The results indicated that health promotion amenities were available, but with some limitations. Convenient access to transportation strongly affected ability to use resources. Older adults were interested in preserving their health and independence, but some had difficulty staying motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle. They wanted easier access to amenities. Implications for best practice include attention to culturally responsive outreach, motivating with social support and incentives, and developing community-based culturally compatible programming.

  7. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted.

  8. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  9. Redeeming Immigrant Parents: How Korean American Emerging Adults Reinterpret Their Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeyoung; Okazaki, Sumie; Abelmann, Nancy; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Lan, Shanshan

    2010-01-01

    Korean American youth experience immigration-related parent-child challenges including language barriers, parent-child conflicts, and generational cultural divides. Using grounded theory methods, this article examines the ways in which 18 Korean American college-enrolled emerging adults retrospectively made sense out of their experiences of…

  10. Prejudice and Pride: Japanese Americans in the Young Adult Novels of Yoshiko Uchida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiffett, Danton

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five books for young adults by author Yoshiko Uchida. Notes that these books, accessible to children in grades 5 and above, describe the prejudice against Japanese Americans, internment camps, and upheaval, sorrow, and anger spawned by the American government's racist actions. Shows how the books can prompt discussions about cultural…

  11. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wanda Lott Collins; Moore, Sharon E.

    2004-01-01

    Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the profess...

  12. Long-term solar activity influences on South American rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Mauas, Pablo; Buccino, Andrea P.; Flamenco, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    River streamflows are excellent climatic indicators since they integrate precipitation over large areas. Here we follow up on our previous study of the influence of solar activity on the flow of the Parana River, in South America. We find that the unusual minimum of solar activity in recent years have a correlation on very low levels in the Parana's flow, and we report historical evidence of low water levels during the Little Ice Age. We also study data for the streamflow of three other river...

  13. South American leafhoppers of the tribe Typhlocybini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Dietrich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of Typhlocybini (sensu stricto, excluding Empoascini endemic to South America is reviewed and comprises seven closely related genera, five described herein as new, and 55 species, 52 here described as new. The genera and species are described and keys and illustrations are provided to aid in their identification. Columbonirvana Linnavuori comprises 17 species, 16 new. Eualebra Baker comprises 19 species, 17 new. Euzyginella gen. nov., comprises four new species. Neozyginella gen. nov., comprises six new species. Pseudhadina gen. nov., comprises one new species. Pseudozyginella gen. nov., comprises three new species. Tahurella gen. nov., comprises five new species. One new synonym is recognized: Eualebra smithii Baker, 1899 equals Dikraneura (Hyloidea reticulata Osborn, 1928, syn. nov. One previously described species placed in Eualebra belongs in tribe Dikraneurini; thus, a new combination is proposed: Alconeura (Hyloidea rubra (Van Duzee, comb. nov. Most of the specimens available for this study were from Malaise trap and canopy fogging samples obtained at very few localities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, suggesting that further sampling in South America, particularly in the Amazonian rainforest and eastern foothills of the Andes Mountains, will reveal large numbers of additional species.

  14. Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American 'ungulates'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Michael

    2015-05-07

    Since the late eighteenth century, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas, revealing a previously unimagined chapter in the history of mammals. The most bizarre of these are the 'native' South American ungulates thought to represent a group of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America, but with an uncertain affinity to any particular placental lineage. Many authors have considered them descended from Laurasian 'condylarths', which also includes the probable ancestors of perissodactyls and artiodactyls, whereas others have placed them either closer to the uniquely South American xenarthrans (anteaters, armadillos and sloths) or the basal afrotherians (e.g. elephants and hyraxes). These hypotheses have been debated owing to conflicting morphological characteristics and the hitherto inability to retrieve molecular information. Of the 'native' South American mammals, only the toxodonts and litopterns persisted until the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene. Owing to known difficulties in retrieving ancient DNA (aDNA) from specimens from warm climates, this research presents a molecular phylogeny for both Macrauchenia patachonica (Litopterna) and Toxodon platensis (Notoungulata) recovered using proteomics-based (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) sequencing analyses of bone collagen. The results place both taxa in a clade that is monophyletic with the perissodactyls, which today are represented by horses, rhinoceroses and tapirs.

  15. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Huamaní

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7% and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country.

  16. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Romaní, Franco; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Mejia, Miluska O.; Ramos, José Manuel; Espinoza, Manuel; Cabezas, César

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7%) and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country. PMID:25229217

  17. Generational Differences in Fast Food Intake Among South-Asian Americans: Results From a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States. PMID:25474383

  18. The Impact of Brown on the Brown of South Texas: A Micropolitical Perspective on the Education of Mexican Americans in a South Texas Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Miguel A.; Guajardo, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    This article identifies the Edcouch-Elsa High School Walkout of 1968 as a pivotal event in the educational history of Mexican American students in south Texas. It presents elements of the Civil Rights Movement, including the Brown decision, the rise of Mexican American political organizations, and the actions of community youth. The authors use…

  19. Perceptions about high blood pressure among mexican american adults diagnosed with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Sara E; Zarate-Abbott, Perla R; Gillespie, Maria; Deliganis, Jean; Norgan, Gary H

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension affects approximately 73 million Americans. Clients and providers working together to control the disease can help prevent life-threatening illnesses. Patient perceptions about their illness can influence health behaviors, but little is known about the perceptions of Mexican American adults in relation to hypertension. This descriptive study used semistructured interviews to elicit Patient Explanatory Models of hypertension among 15 hypertensive Mexican American adults. Findings revealed that personal models of cause, treatment, and outcomes were often vague. This information can be useful for planning individual education and treatment that provides meaningful care.

  20. Civic Engagement in Relation to Outcome Expectations among African American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…

  1. Typification of names of South American taxa related to Woodsia montevidensis (Woodsiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Marcelo D.; Mynssen, Claudine M.; Zimmer, Brigitte; Ponce, M. Monica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the nomenclature of six South American taxa related to Woodsia is presented, as a part of a taxonomic revision of the genus in South America. Lectotypes are selected for Cheilanthes crenata, Woodsia crenata var. pallidipes, Woodsia incisa, Woodsia montevidensis var. fuscipes and the second step lectotypification for Dicksonia montevidensis and Woodsia peruviana, based on the analysis of their protologues and original herbarium material. All names are currently synonyms of Woodsia montevidensis. Physematium incisum (Gillies ex Hook. & Grev.) Kunze constitutes an illegitimate name and Physematium cumingianum is considered as nomen inquirendum. PMID:27489474

  2. The Mexican American Cultural Values Scale for Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; German, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosav, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The article discusses the items derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans' (adolescents, mothers, and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups…

  3. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  4. Language Brokering, Acculturation, and Empowerment: Evidence from South Asian Canadian Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cila, Jorida; Lalonde, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the practice of language brokering (LB) among South Asian Canadian college-age adults and how such practice relates to acculturation to mainstream and heritage cultures, as well as personal empowerment. One hundred and twenty-four young adults reported on three different indices of LB (brokering frequency, diversity of…

  5. Long-term solar activity influences on South American rivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mauas, Pablo; Flamenco, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    River streamflows are excellent climatic indicators since they integrate precipitation over large areas. Here we follow up on our previous study of the influence of solar activity on the flow of the Parana River, in South America. We find that the unusual minimum of solar activity in recent years have a correlation on very low levels in the Parana's flow, and we report historical evidence of low water levels during the Little Ice Age. We also study data for the streamflow of three other rivers (Colorado, San Juan and Atuel), and snow levels in the Andes. We obtained that, after eliminating the secular trends and smoothing out the solar cycle, there is a strong positive correlation between the residuals of both the Sunspot Number and the streamflows, as we obtained for the Parana. Both results put together imply that higher solar activity corresponds to larger precipitation, both in summer and in wintertime, not only in the large basin of the Parana, but also in the Andean region north of the limit with Patago...

  6. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  7. A Bayesian Approach to Genome/Linguistic Relationships in Native South Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Guerra Amorim; Rafael Bisso-Machado; Virginia Ramallo; Maria Cátira Bortolini; Sandro Luis Bonatto; Francisco Mauro Salzano; Tábita Hünemeier

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the evolution of genes and languages has been studied for over three decades. These studies rely on the assumption that languages, as many other cultural traits, evolve in a gene-like manner, accumulating heritable diversity through time and being subjected to evolutionary mechanisms of change. In the present work we used genetic data to evaluate South American linguistic classifications. We compared discordant models of language classifications to the current Native ...

  8. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B; Haywood, J.; LONGO, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field ...

  9. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic): American Eel,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    economic importance, if applicable. A three-ring binder is used for this series so that new profiles can be added as they are prepared . This project is...bands of small, pectinate or setiform teeth. A long The American eel is an important tooth patch also occurs on the vomer. prey species of larger marine...Fahay 1978). et al. (1978) collected glass eels Prior to completion of the differenti- from the Cooper River, South Carolina, ation process , some

  10. Comparing fairness perceptions of personnel selection techniques of American, French and South African job applicants.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether job applicants' perceptions of commonly used selection procedures vary across nationalities, because a negative impression of prospective employers that use selection techniques that are viewed as unfair, may result. In this study the fairness perceptions of 179 South African employees were compared with results obtained with 142 American and 117 French participants with regard to ten selection techniques using the framework of organisational ...

  11. Mr. Red in the American South: a response to Lisa Borgerding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Lee

    2017-03-01

    This review essay affirms the work Mr. Red does with his students to support their learning about evolution and how his approach agrees with the realities of teaching evolution in the American South. It then shows how focusing on understanding, but not necessarily belief, adds to Mr. Red's apparent neutrality a complimentary pedagogical approach that legitimizes more strongly accepted science while at the same time attending to the deep conflict many rural students feel when they are asked to learn evolution.

  12. Splendid oddness: revisiting the curious trophic relationships of South American Pleistocene mammals and their abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, Richard A; Czerwonogora, Ada; di Giacomo, Mariana

    2014-03-01

    The South American Pleistocene mammal fauna includes great-sized animals that have intrigued scientists for over two centuries. Here we intend to update the knowledge on its palaeoecology and provide new evidence regarding two approaches: energetics and population density and relative abundance of fossils per taxa. To determine whether an imbalance exists, population density models were applied to several South American fossil faunas and the results compared to those that best describe the palaeoecology of African faunas. The results on the abundance study for Uruguay and the province of Buenos Aires during the Lujanian stage/age reveal that bulk-feeding ground sloths (Lestodon and Glossotherium) were more represented in the first territory, while the more selective Scelidotherium and Megatherium were more abundant in the second. Although the obtained values were corrected to avoid size-related taphonomic biases, linear regressions of abundance vs. body mass plots did not fit the expected either for first or second consumers. South American Pleistocene faunas behave differently from what models suggest they should. Changes in sea level and available area could account for these differences; the possibility of a floodplain in the area then emerged could explain seasonal changes, which would modify the calculations of energetics and abundance.

  13. Splendid oddness: revisiting the curious trophic relationships of South American Pleistocene mammals and their abundance

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    RICHARD A. FARIÑA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American Pleistocene mammal fauna includes great-sized animals that have intrigued scientists for over two centuries. Here we intend to update the knowledge on its palaeoecology and provide new evidence regarding two approaches: energetics and population density and relative abundance of fossils per taxa. To determine whether an imbalance exists, population density models were applied to several South American fossil faunas and the results compared to those that best describe the palaeoecology of African faunas. The results on the abundance study for Uruguay and the province of Buenos Aires during the Lujanian stage/age reveal that bulk-feeding ground sloths (Lestodon and Glossotherium were more represented in the first territory, while the more selective Scelidotherium and Megatherium were more abundant in the second. Although the obtained values were corrected to avoid size-related taphonomic biases, linear regressions of abundance vs. body mass plots did not fit the expected either for first or second consumers. South American Pleistocene faunas behave differently from what models suggest they should. Changes in sea level and available area could account for these differences; the possibility of a floodplain in the area then emerged could explain seasonal changes, which would modify the calculations of energetics and abundance.

  14. Stigma of poverty. The discursive construction of ­"South" term in Latin American countries

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    GÓMEZ QUINTERO, Juan David

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects a general knowledge and a macro-paradigmatic contribution of developmentalist discourses, in particular, its modernist and Eurocentric roots. In particular we analyze the artificiality of the discursive construction of certain categories that represent geopolitical stigma of poverty, such as ­Third World® or ­South® or ­underdeveloped® adopted in the field of international relations and the development cooperation. It notes that there are not metaphors opposite (North-South in its own right, the ­South® is not the opposite of the ­North®, but its negative extension, as evidenced by the imaginarium of most Latin American countries. The metaphors that stigmatize poverty are symbolic discourse used to define in a European way the identity of the winner (rich people.

  15. Satellite Elevation Magnetic and Gravity Models of Major South American Plate Tectonic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some MAGSAT scalar and vector magnetic anomaly data together with regional gravity anomaly data are being used to investigate the regional tectonic features of the South American Plate. An initial step in this analysis is three dimensional modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies of major structures such as the Andean subduction zone and the Amazon River Aulacogen at satellite elevations over an appropriate range of physical properties using Gaus-Legendre quadrature integration method. In addition, one degree average free-air gravity anomalies of South America and adjacent marine areas are projected to satellite elevations assuming a spherical Earth and available MAGSAT data are processed to obtain compatible data sets for correlation. Correlation of these data sets is enhanced by reduction of the MAGSAT data to radial polarization because of the profound effect of the variation of the magnetic inclination over South America.

  16. Aerosol particle properties in a South American megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulke, Ana; Torres-Brizuela, Marcela; Raga, Graciela; Baumgardner, Darrel; Cancelada, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    The subtropical city of Buenos Aires is located on the western shore of Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of Argentina. It is the second largest metropolitan area in South America, with a population density of around 14 thousand people per km2. When all 24 counties of the Great Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area are included it is the third-largest conurbation in Latin America, with a population of around fifteen million inhabitants. The generalized worldwide trend to concentrate human activities in urban regions that continue to expand in area, threatens the local and regional environment. Air pollution in the Buenos Aires airshed is due to local sources (mainly the mobile sources, followed by the electric power plants and some industries) and to distant sources (like biomass burning, dust, marine aerosols and occasionally volcanic ash) whose products arrive in the city area due to the regional transport patterns. Previous research suggests that ambient aerosol particle concentrations should be considered an air quality problem. A field campaign was conducted in Buenos Aires in 2011 in order to characterize some aerosol particles properties measured for the first time in the city. Measurements began in mid- April and continued until December. The field observations were done in a collaborative effort between the Universities of Mexico (UNAM) and Buenos Aires (UBA). A suite of instruments was installed on the roof of an UBA laboratory and classroom buildings (34.54° S, 58.44° W) at an altitude of approximately 30 m above sea level. The measurements included the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN) larger than approximately 50 nm, the mass concentration of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), the scattering (Bscat) and absorption (Babs) coefficients at 550 nm and the vertical profiles of backscattered light from aerosols at a wavelength of 910 nm using a ceilometer. In addition, a weather station recorded the meteorological

  17. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need.

  18. Social justice in climate services: Engaging African American farmers in the American South

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    C. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts

  19. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  20. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks.

  1. Prevalence of HBV genotypes in South American immigrants affected by HBV-related chronic active hepatitis

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    Emilio Palumbo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of HBV infection in a population of South American immigrants in Italy and to determine in patients with detectable serum HBV-DNA the HBVgenotypes. Between April 2005 and April 2006 a total of 130 South American immigrants were tested for HBsAg. In HBsAg positive patients the biochemical and virological activity of infection and the possible presence of co-infections (HCV, HDV, HIV were evaluated. In patients with detectable serum HBV DNA, the HBV genotype was determined by INNOLiPA. Among the 130 subjects tested, 14 (10.7% resulted HBsAg positive. All were men, with a mean age of 22 years (range 19-37 and 12 (85.7 % came from Brazil, while 2 (14.3% came from Ecuador. All patients infected by HBV had elevated alanine-aminotransferase serum levels (mean level was 127 IU/L, range 74-312 and serum HBV DNA detectable by PCR-Real Time (mean level 1,037,652 copies/mL, range 19,876-1,377,648. Genotype distribution was as follow: genotype D, 9 (64.2%, genotype A, 5 (35.8%. All patients infected by genotype D came from Brazil, while among the patients infected by genotype A, three came from Brazil and two from Ecuador. Our study evidences a moderate prevalence of HBV-infection in South American immigrants with the identification of two genotypes, D and A. These genotypes are not the most prevalent in the South America and this is probably the expression of a possible geographical redistribution of HBV genotypes.

  2. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  3. Barriers, Motivations, and Preferences for Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults

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    Neha P. Gothe PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20. Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.

  4. Redefining Religious Nones: Lessons from Chinese and Japanese American Young Adults

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    Russell Jeung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.

  5. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

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    Wanda Lott Collins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the professional realm. The vignettes include a scenario for a supervisor and a client.

  6. Climate change and American Bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America?

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    Javier Nori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled the potential distribution of the bullfrog in its native range based on different climate models and green-house gases emission scenarios, and projected the results onto South America for the years of 2050 and 2080. We also overlaid projected models onto the South American network of protected areas. Our results indicate a slight decrease in potential suitable area for bullfrog invasion, although protected areas will become more climatically suitable. Therefore, invasion of these sites is forecasted. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence supporting the vulnerability of the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot to bullfrog invasion and call attention to optimal future climatic conditions of the Andean-Patagonian forest, eastern Paraguay, and northwestern Bolivia, where invasive populations have not been found yet. We recommend several management and policy strategies to control bullfrog invasion and argue that these would be possible if based on appropriate articulation among government agencies, NGOs, research institutions and civil society.

  7. South American mammal zoogeography: evidence from convergent evolution in desert rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, M A

    1975-05-01

    Current theories regarding colonization of South America by mammals are divided between those supported by fossil evidence, which suggest the original mammal fauna of the isolated continent was augmented by early immigrants (primates, caviomorph rodents, and later, procyonids) with a final large influx of northern mammals occurring with the formation of the Panama land bridge, and an opposing view which states that the purported "recent invaders" are too taxonomically and ecologically differentiated to have colonized since the land bridge arose. The second theory suggests that most extant mammals entered before the Plio-Pleistocene land connection. An analysis of degree of physiological adaptation, natural history, distribution patterns, and a multivariate assessment of convergent evolution of Monte Desert rodents indicate that South American cricetine rodents are not highly specialized for desert life. Their degree of adaptation could be accounted for, in large part, by adaptations for arid or semiarid Andean habitats. No Monte Desert rodent has developed the specialized desert traits that have evolved in most desert rodent faunas of the world, although extinct marsupials similar to living bipedal desert rodents were present in the Monte as recently as late Pliocene. Evidence suggests that Monte caviomorphs have been associated with the desert for a longer period than cricetines, and that the latter represent a fairly recent invasion of the Monte Desert. The data thus support the first hypothesis of South American mammal colonization.

  8. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800

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    L.O. Artico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande, both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7, with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%. Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62% and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%. Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  9. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

    2010-09-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  10. Improving the Evidence Base for Treating Older Adults With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurria, Arti; Levit, Laura A; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Muss, Hyman B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Magnuson, Allison; Lichtman, Stuart M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Tew, William P; Postow, Michael A; Cohen, Harvey J

    2015-11-10

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a subcommittee to develop recommendations on improving the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer in response to a critical need identified by the Institute of Medicine. Older adults experience the majority of cancer diagnoses and deaths and make up the majority of cancer survivors. Older adults are also the fastest growing segment of the US population. However, the evidence base for treating this population is sparse, because older adults are underrepresented in clinical trials, and trials designed specifically for older adults are rare. The result is that clinicians have less evidence on how to treat older adults, who represent the majority of patients with cancer. Clinicians and patients are forced to extrapolate from trials conducted in younger, healthier populations when developing treatment plans. This has created a dearth of knowledge regarding the risk of toxicity in the average older patient and about key end points of importance to older adults. ASCO makes five recommendations to improve evidence generation in this population: (1) Use clinical trials to improve the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer, (2) leverage research designs and infrastructure for generating evidence on older adults with cancer, (3) increase US Food and Drug Administration authority to incentivize and require research involving older adults with cancer, (4) increase clinicians' recruitment of older adults with cancer to clinical trials, and (5) use journal policies to improve researchers' reporting on the age distribution and health risk profiles of research participants.

  11. Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J; Thomas, Jessica A; Wadsley, Marc; Brace, Selina; Cappellini, Enrico; Turvey, Samuel T; Reguero, Marcelo; Gelfo, Javier N; Kramarz, Alejandro; Burger, Joachim; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashford, David A; Ashton, Peter D; Rowsell, Keri; Porter, Duncan M; Kessler, Benedikt; Fischer, Roman; Baessmann, Carsten; Kaspar, Stephanie; Olsen, Jesper V; Kiley, Patrick; Elliott, James A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Mullin, Victoria; Hofreiter, Michael; Willerslev, Eske; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Orlando, Ludovic; Barnes, Ian; MacPhee, Ross D E

    2015-06-04

    No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as 'South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the 'strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the elephants and sirenians of superorder Afrotheria than with the euungulates (cattle, horses, and allies) of superorder Laurasiatheria. Morphology-based analyses have proved unconvincing because convergences are pervasive among unrelated ungulate-like placentals. Approaches using ancient DNA have also been unsuccessful, probably because of rapid DNA degradation in semitropical and temperate deposits. Here we apply proteomic analysis to screen bone samples of the Late Quaternary South American native ungulate taxa Toxodon (Notoungulata) and Macrauchenia (Litopterna) for phylogenetically informative protein sequences. For each ungulate, we obtain approximately 90% direct sequence coverage of type I collagen α1- and α2-chains, representing approximately 900 of 1,140 amino-acid residues for each subunit. A phylogeny is estimated from an alignment of these fossil sequences with collagen (I) gene transcripts from available mammalian genomes or mass spectrometrically derived sequence data obtained for this study. The resulting consensus tree agrees well with recent higher-level mammalian phylogenies. Toxodon and Macrauchenia form a monophyletic group whose sister taxon is not Afrotheria or any of its constituent clades as recently claimed, but instead crown Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses). These results are consistent with the origin of at least some South American native ungulates from 'condylarths', a paraphyletic assembly of archaic placentals. With ongoing

  12. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae - Erratum

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    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In: Alvarado M. 2014. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae. Revista peruana de biología 21(1: 003 - 060 (Mayo 2014, doi: http://doi.org/10.15381/rpb.v21i1.8245The following information on depository of the type material was not provided: Holotype of Alophophion atahualpai is housed in the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru (MUSM; and, the holotype of A. carcanchoi, A. coquimboensis and A. yestay are housed in the American Entomological Institute, USA (AEIC.I thank Gavin Broad for bringing this problem to my attention.

  13. Genome sequence of the South American clover-nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain WSM597.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Held, Brittany; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-12-20

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain WSM597 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod isolated from a root nodule of the annual clover Trifolium pallidum L. growing at Glencoe Research Station near Tacuarembó, Uruguay. This strain is generally ineffective for nitrogen (N2) fixation with clovers of Mediterranean, North American and African origin, but is effective on the South American perennial clover T. polymorphum Poir. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain WSM597, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,634,384 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 2 scaffolds of 53 contigs, contains 7,394 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program.

  14. Parasite fauna of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) in South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Aho, J.M.; Murphy, T.M.; Esch, G.W.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Twelve American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were obtained from three different areas of South Carolina. One species of pentastome (Sebekia oxycephala), two species of nematodes (Dujardinascaris waltoni and Multicaecum tenuicolle), four species of trematodes (Polycotyle ornata, Acanthostomum coronarium, Archaeodiplostomum acetabulatum and Pseudocrocodilicola americaniense) and one species of hemogregarine (Haemogregarina crocodilnorum) were recovered. Polycotyle ornata was observed only in alligators from Par Pond while P. americaniense was found in Par Pond and coastal hosts, A. acetabulatum from Kiawah island and coastal alligators, and A. coronarium only at Kiawah Island. These patterns suggest disjunct distributions for the trematode species in South Carolina alligators. The other parasites were found in alligators from all three locations. The only parasite observed to initiate damage or lesions in the alligator was the pentastome.

  15. The Ultrastructure of Secretory Cells of the Islets of Langerhans in South American Catfish Rhamdia quelen

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    Laura Luchini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows that a detailed description of the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the South American catfish Rhamdia quelen pancreatic islets is presented. Evidence is offered to support the contention that the α-granules consist of a central and an outer portion of different electron densities and solubilities, that the δ-cells are most probably morphologically altered but viable α-cells, and that the β-granules possibly possess a repeating substructure and may therefore represent an intracellular crystalline storage form of insulin.

  16. Ovarian interstitial cell tumor in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancani, Barbara; Lacave, Geraldine; Magi, Gian Enrico; Rossi, Giacomo

    2010-07-01

    A case of an ovarian tumor is reported in an 8-yr-old South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) kept in a marine park in Malta (35.57 degrees N, 14.25 degrees E). The neoplasm was a solid mass of dense sheets and nests of round to polyhedral, irregularly shaped cells with abundant, finely vacuolated cytoplasm. The nuclei were uniformly small and round to oval. The supporting stroma contained thecal cells. The tumor cells were positive for positive inhibin and vimentin and focally positive for cytokeratin by immunohistochemistry. The neoplasm was diagnosed as an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, specifically an interstitial cell tumor.

  17. THE REGIONAL EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY: THE CASE OF THE AMERICAN SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beckworth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies over the past decade find that US monetary policy generates asymmetric effects on regional economies. These studies further find that the variation in industry composition across US regions is a key reason for these regional effects of monetary policy. One implication from these findings is that should a US region undergo a major restructuring of its economy that region would likely find its response to monetary policy shocks to change as well. This possibility is explored in this article by examining the regional effect of monetary policy shocks during and after the dramatic economic transformations of the American South in the twentieth century.

  18. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  19. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  20. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  1. "Smoking": Use of Cigarettes, Cigars and Blunts among Southeast Asian American Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…

  2. Young Adult Fiction by African American Writers, 1968-1993: A Critical and Annotated Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutenplon, Deborah; Olmstead, Ellen

    This bibliography presents annotations and critical appraisals of all fiction titles published between 1968 and 1993 by African American authors and targeting young adult readers--166 titles by 57 authors. Only works of fiction--historical fiction, modern realistic fiction, fantasy and science fiction, and mystery and suspense--by African American…

  3. Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…

  4. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  5. How Useful Are Skills Acquired at Adult Non-Formal Education and Training Centres for Finding Employment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education…

  6. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  7. Neuroticism, acculturation and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah; Mintz, Jim; Javors, Martin; Marino, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Neuroticism is associated with greater susceptibility to the adverse effects of stress and greater exposure to the stressors associated with acculturation in U.S. born Mexican Americans. Neuroticism and acculturation have been associated with injury to crucial stress response systems and are known risk factors for certain mood and anxiety disorders. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of neuroticism, and acculturation on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in healthy Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18 to 38 years. Participants were assessed for level of neuroticism and acculturation. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Results showed a significant Neuroticism×Acculturation×Time interaction. The CAR was virtually eliminated in highly acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Anglo orientation and high neuroticism compared with less acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Mexican orientation and lower neuroticism. Findings suggest that some Mexican Americans with high levels of neuroticism may be particularly susceptible to certain challenges and stressors associated with acculturation leading over time to the development of allostatic load, desensitization of the Hypothalamic CRF system and attenuation of the CAR.

  8. Agrotis Ochsenheimer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): a systematic analysis of South American species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Blas, Germán

    2014-03-03

    The genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) contains about 300 described species distributed worldwide, excepting the Poles. For South America 93 species have been described. Different diagnostic characters have been proposed for species from the northern Hemisphere, mostly from male genitalia. Recently, numerous South American species of the genus have been transferred to other genera. In this work, a systematic revision was undertaken of the South American species of Agrotis, restricting to 20 the number of species of this genus for the region and transferring the other species to different genera and/or synonymizing with other species.Based on a detailed study of the external morphology and genitalia of both sexes, several nomen clatural changes are proposed. New generic synonymy: Mesembreuxoa Hampson = Feltia Walker. New Agrotis synonymies include: Scotia forsteri Köhler = A. propriens (Dyar); Agrotis peruviana hampsoni Draudt, Rhizagrotis triclava Draudt, and Euxoa andina Köhler = A. peruviana (Hampson); Lycophotia achromatica Hampson, Feltia malefida patagiata Aurivillius, Prout and Meyrick, Agrotis psammophila Köhler, and Scotia (Feltia) canietensis Köhler = A. malefida Guenée; Chorizagrotis benefida Draudt = A. experta (Walker); Agrotis livens Köhler and Agrotis capayana Köhler = A. araucaria (Hampson). Species transferred to Feltia Walker tent. include: Scotia aspersula Köhler, n. comb.; Porosagrotis brachystria Hampson, n. comb.; Agrotis carrascoi Köhler, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa chilensis Hampson, n. comb.; Euxoa clavisigna Dognin, n. comb.; Euxoa conifrons Draudt, n. comb.; Agrotis consternans Hayes, n. comb.; Euxoa coquimbensis Hampson, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa fasicola Dyar, n. comb.; Chorizagrotis forasmicans Köhler, n. comb.; Agrotis giselae León, n. comb.; Agrotis gypaetina Guenée, n. comb.; Agrotis hispidula Guenée, n. comb.; Euxoa incarum Cockerell, n. comb.; Agrotis india Köhler, n. comb.; Scotia mansa Köhler, n

  9. Stature estimation from the femur and tibia in Black South African sub-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brits, Desiré M; Bidmos, Mubarak A; Manger, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Stature estimation can play a role in the positive identification of unknown individuals and as such it is routinely assessed during the examination of adult remains. Unfortunately, this is not a standard procedure when dealing with sub-adult remains due to the general lack of standard procedures for the estimation of sub-adult stature. The aim of this study was therefore to derive regression equations for the estimation of stature in black South African sub-adults. Fifty nine black South African sub-adult males and females, aged 10-17 years, voluntarily participated in the study by undergoing a full body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan. Living stature was measured with a stadiometer and the maximum and diaphyseal lengths of the femur and tibia were measured from the MRI scans using the image processing software OsiriX. Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear least square regression analyses were used to assess the correlations between living stature and the measurements and to generate sub-adult stature estimation equations for males, females and a combined sex sample. Measurements of the femur, tibia and the combined measures thereof showed strong statistically significant positive correlations with living stature, while the obtained regression equations were characterized by low standard error of estimates. The strong correlations and low standard error of estimates are comparable to stature estimation models reported for Black South African adults and therefore these variables can be considered good estimators of sub-adult stature which will contribute valuable information to the biological profile of unidentified sub-adult skeletal remains.

  10. Adult Education & Training in South Africa. A Selected Chronology from 1910 to 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gush, Cathy; Walters, Shirley

    The history of adult education and training in South Africa is a story of the simultaneous and sometimes conflicting activities of three major actors: organizations of civil society, the state, and capital. Organizations of civil society have led many activities in response to social class, race, and gender inequalities. Strongly motivated within…

  11. Journey to J'Burg: My Travels in South African Young Adult Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Discusses five South African writers for young adults and highlights representative works dealing with family relationships, AIDS, natural disaster, interracial relationships and marriage, racial prejudice, and incest. Although most of the books are not currently available in the United States, a bibliography and a list of addresses for the South…

  12. Transformative Adult Learning in New Social Movement – a Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čubajevaitė Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New social movements in South Africa could play a prominent role in mobilizing the communities to reflect critically and address the repercussions of the neo-liberal agenda which manifests itself in perpetual exclusion of under-educated adults and provision of poor quality education.

  13. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  14. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  15. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duggirala Sivaram Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative.

  16. Comparing Canadian and American normative scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations.

  17. A deforestation-induced tipping point for the South American monsoon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Marwan, Norbert; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-01-25

    The Amazon rainforest has been proposed as a tipping element of the earth system, with the possibility of a dieback of the entire ecosystem due to deforestation only of parts of the rainforest. Possible physical mechanisms behind such a transition are still subject to ongoing debates. Here, we use a specifically designed model to analyse the nonlinear couplings between the Amazon rainforest and the atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the South American continent. These couplings are associated with a westward cascade of precipitation and evapotranspiration across the Amazon. We investigate impacts of deforestation on the South American monsoonal circulation with particular focus on a previously neglected positive feedback related to condensational latent heating over the rainforest, which strongly enhances atmospheric moisture inflow from the Atlantic. Our results indicate the existence of a tipping point. In our model setup, crossing the tipping point causes precipitation reductions of up to 40% in non-deforested parts of the western Amazon and regions further downstream. The responsible mechanism is the breakdown of the aforementioned feedback, which occurs when deforestation reduces transpiration to a point where the available atmospheric moisture does not suffice anymore to release the latent heat needed to maintain the feedback.

  18. Effectiveness of two common antivenoms for North, Central, and South American Micrurus envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Paniagua-Solis, Jorge F; Dolab, Jorge A; Estévez-Ramiréz, Judith; Ramos-Cerrillo, Blanca; Litwin, Silvana; Dokmetjian, José C; Alagón, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Micrurus snakes (coral snakes) may produce severe envenomation that can lead to death by peripheral respiratory paralysis. Only few laboratories produce specific antivenoms, and despite the cross-reactivity found in some Micrurus species venoms, the treatment is not always effective. To test two therapeutic antivenoms against the venom of four species of Micrurus from Southern America, North of South America, Central America, and North America, the determination of the lethal potency of the venoms, the study of some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics, and the determination of the neutralizing activity of both antivenoms were studied. North American and South American antivenoms neutralized well venoms from Micrurus species of the corresponding hemisphere but displayed lower effectiveness against venoms of species from different hemispheres. It was concluded that the neutralization of Micrurus venoms by regional antivenoms could be useful to treat the envenomation by some Micrurus snakes but is necessary to evaluate carefully the antivenoms to be used with the venoms from the snakes of the region. Also, considering the difficulties for coral snake antivenom production, the development of a polyvalent antivenom is useful to treat the envenomation by coral snakes from different regions is necessary.

  19. A deforestation-induced tipping point for the South American monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Marwan, Norbert; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest has been proposed as a tipping element of the earth system, with the possibility of a dieback of the entire ecosystem due to deforestation only of parts of the rainforest. Possible physical mechanisms behind such a transition are still subject to ongoing debates. Here, we use a specifically designed model to analyse the nonlinear couplings between the Amazon rainforest and the atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the South American continent. These couplings are associated with a westward cascade of precipitation and evapotranspiration across the Amazon. We investigate impacts of deforestation on the South American monsoonal circulation with particular focus on a previously neglected positive feedback related to condensational latent heating over the rainforest, which strongly enhances atmospheric moisture inflow from the Atlantic. Our results indicate the existence of a tipping point. In our model setup, crossing the tipping point causes precipitation reductions of up to 40% in non-deforested parts of the western Amazon and regions further downstream. The responsible mechanism is the breakdown of the aforementioned feedback, which occurs when deforestation reduces transpiration to a point where the available atmospheric moisture does not suffice anymore to release the latent heat needed to maintain the feedback. PMID:28120928

  20. Evolution of placental specializations in viviparous African and South American lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Alexander F; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2003-09-01

    Phylogenetic information offers an important resource in analyses of reproductive diversity, including interpretations of fetal membrane evolution. In this paper, we draw upon ongoing studies of South American and African lizards to consider the value of combining phylogenetic and reproductive evidence in the construction of evolutionary interpretations. South American lizards of the genus Mabuya exhibit several reproductive specializations that are convergent on those of eutherian mammals, including viviparity, long gestation periods, ovulation of tiny eggs, and placental supply of the nutrients for development. Studies of placental morphology and development indicate that New World Mabuya share several other derived features, including chorionic areolae and a "Type IV" epitheliochorial placenta with a villous, mesometrial placentome. Some characteristics of these lizards are shared by two African skinks, M. ivensii and Eumecia anchietae, including minuscule eggs, placentotrophy, an absorptive chorioallantois, and features of the yolk sac. Available evidence is consistent with two explanations: (1) placentotrophy originated in Africa, predating a trans-Atlantic colonization by Mabuya of the New World; and (2) placentotrophy arose two or three separate times among these closely related skinks. As illustrated by analysis of these animals, not only can data on fetal membrane morphology yield phylogenetic information, but phylogenetic evidence in turn provides a valuable way to reconstruct the evolution of fetal membranes in a biogeographic context. When appropriately interpreted, morphological and phylogenetic evidence can be combined to yield robust evolutionary conclusions that avoid the pitfalls of circular reasoning.

  1. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids.

  2. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  3. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging "Urban" South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging "urban" colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health.

  4. Digenetic trematodes in South American sea lions from southern Brazilian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E M; Müller, G; Secchi, E; Pereira, J; Valente, A L S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study to detect and quantify the digenetic trematode infections in South American sea lions from the southern Brazilian coast. Twenty-four South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otaridae), were found dead along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, between June 2010 and September of 2011. Two trematode species were found in the intestines of O. flavescens, i.e., Stephanoprora uruguayense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Digenea: Heterophyidae). Ascocotyle (P.) longa reached a prevalence of 33.3% and mean intensity of 248,500, whereas S. uruguayense showed a prevalence of 4.2% and mean intensity of 202. The 2 trematode species infecting sea lions were likely transmitted by feeding on mullets, Mugil platanus, that commonly harbor heterophyid metacercariae. The present work is the first report of digenetic trematodes infecting O. flavescens in Brazil. The high prevalence and mean intensity values of the 2 trematode species infecting sea lions in the present study suggest caution in human consumption of mullets and other fish, which can be infected with the metacercariae of these trematodes known to have zoonotic potential.

  5. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Liliana M. R.; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health. PMID:27051860

  6. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hermosilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium. Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health.

  7. PHENYLTHIOCARBAMIDE (PTC) TASTER STATUS IN SOUTH INDIAN ADULT MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin Rathod; Pallavi Jawale; Suresh Babu Kondaveeti; Chitra Pillai

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taster status in adults who are studying medicine and its relationship with anthropometric variables such as Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Fat Percentage (BFP) and pleasantness of sugar, salt, and fat. A total of 112 subjects rated the intensity of Phenylthiocarbamide and sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions using the labelled magnitude scale. For pleasantness evaluation, it was used with concentrated l...

  8. A new phylogeny for basal Trechnotheria and Cladotheria and affinities of South American endemic Late Cretaceous mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianov, Alexander O.; Martin, Thomas; Lopatin, Alexey V.

    2013-04-01

    The endemic South American mammals Meridiolestida, considered previously as dryolestoid cladotherians, are found to be non-cladotherian trechnotherians related to spalacotheriid symmetrodontans based on a parsimony analysis of 137 morphological characters among 44 taxa. Spalacotheriidae is the sister taxon to Meridiolestida, and the latter clade is derived from a primitive spalacolestine that migrated to South America from North America at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous. Meridiolestida survived until the early Paleocene ( Peligrotherium) and early Miocene ( Necrolestes) in South America, and their extinction is probably linked to the increasing competition with metatherian and eutherian tribosphenic mammals. The clade Meridiolestida plus Spalacotheriidae is the sister taxon to Cladotheria and forms a new clade Alethinotheria. Alethinotheria and its sister taxon Zhangheotheria, new clade (Zhangheotheriidae plus basal taxa), comprise Trechnotheria. Cladotheria is divided into Zatheria (plus stem taxa, including Amphitherium) and Dryolestida, including Dryolestidae and a paraphyletic array of basal dryolestidans (formerly classified as "Paurodontidae"). The South American Vincelestes and Groebertherium are basal dryolestidans.

  9. Ascaridoid nematodes of South American mammals, with a definition of a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprent, J F

    1982-09-01

    Ascaridoid nematodes occurring in South American mammals are divided into categories based on their possible origin. The affinities are discussed of five species so far known only from the Neotropical Region. Toxocara alienata (Rudolphi 1819) is reported from Nasua rufa socialis, Procyon cancrivorus, and Tayassus torquatus. The specimens from T. torquatus are described and found most closely to resemble Toxocara mackerrasae from south-east Asian and Austrialian rodents. Anisakis insignis from Inia geoffrensis is transferred back to Peritrachelius Diesing, 1851, on account of the structure of the lips and spicules. P. insignis is shown to exhibit remarkable convergence of lip structure with Lagochilascaris turgida from Didelphis marsupialis. Galeiceps longispiculum (Freitas & Lent, 1941) from Pteronura brasiliensis is confirmed as a species distinct from G. cucullus (Linstow, 1899) and G. spinicollis (Baylis, 1923), but G. simiae (Mosgovoy, 1951) is considered to be a synonym of G. spinicollis. An error in the host record of G. spinicollis is corrected from Cercopithecus leucampyx kandti to Lutra maculicollis kivuana. Ascaris dasypodina Baylis, 1922 from armadillos, including Cabassous unicinctus and Tolypeutes matacos, is redescribed and placed in a new genus Bairdascaris. The question is raised as to whether some species in Lagochilascaris, Galeiceps, and Toxocara may have crossed directly by sea from Africa to South America, rather than entering via North America.

  10. Morphological differentiation of aboriginal human populations from Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia): implications for South American peopling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S Ivan; Bernal, Valeria; Gonzalez, Paula N

    2007-08-01

    This study aims to integrate the craniofacial morphological variation of southern South American populations with the results of mtDNA haplogroup variation, to discuss the South America peopling. Because the causes of morphological differentiation of Fueguian populations are still a controversial subject, the comparison with neutral variation could contribute to elucidate them. Samples of human remains from South America regions were used to analyze the evolutionary relationships. Several craniofacial traits observed in frontal and lateral view were analyzed by means of geometric morphometrics techniques, and the evolutionary relationships based on morphological and molecular data were established in base to ordination analyses. The results from the facial skeleton agree with those obtained from mtDNA haplogroup frequencies, with La Pampa/Chaco samples detached from the Patagonian samples. Hence, the same mechanism that accounts for the pattern of frequency of haplogroups could explain the variation found in facial skeleton among the samples. It is suggested that such geographic pattern of craniofacial and molecular diversity may reflect the effect of genetic drift that occurred in the small founding populations isolated by distance or geographic barriers. Conversely, the results obtained using the traits from the lateral view slightly differ from the molecular results, showing differences between southernmost Patagonian and the other samples. Therefore, mechanisms other than genetic drift (e.g., natural selection) could have acted to shape the pattern observed in some craniofacial structures present in the lateral view, characterized by the fact that the southernmost Patagonian samples display the most robust and dolichocephalic crania.

  11. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  12. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  13. In the Wake of Invasion: Tracing the Historical Biogeography of the South American Cricetid Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Rafael N; Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis; Francisca C Almeida; Werneck, Fernanda P.; Duke S Rogers; Marcelo Weksler

    2014-01-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early e...

  14. Population dynamics of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae) in pups from South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, in Northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, F J; Leonardi, M S; Berón Vera, B; Vales, D G; Ameghino, S; Raga, J A; Crespo, E A

    2009-03-01

    We analysed population dynamics of the louse Antarctophthirus microchir in pups of the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, at the Punta León rookery (Argentina) over a period of 2 years. A total of 136 pups were aged and marked at the beginning of the lactation period ashore, then sampled for lice at different times within 30 days. Sampling was restricted to the chest and belly, two sites where lice were especially abundant. This concentration on ventral areas might protect lice from thermal stress in the austral summer. Infestation patterns in pups 3 days old suggested that the potential for transmission increased from first nymphs to adults. Population trends of each instar with pup age, based on standardised values of abundance, were conserved between years, reflecting the basic dynamics of recruitment and reproduction. However, trends based on log-transformed abundances varied significantly between years; apparently, environmental conditions affected growth of lice populations differently each year. Stage-based deterministic models for population growth of A. microchir suggested generation times from 18 to 23 days. Accordingly, only 2 lice generations might be produced before pups start going to the sea. Shortening the cycle to accommodate a third generation might be risky, whereas a 2-generation cycle might at least result in larger females producing higher numbers of viable offspring.

  15. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    OpenAIRE

    Juan David Carrillo; Analía eForasiepi; Carlos eJaramillo; Marcelo R. eSánchez-Villagra

    2015-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review...

  16. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  17. Correlates of self-perceptions of spirituality in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Leila; Powell, Lynda H; Musick, Marc A; Pargament, Kenneth I; Thoresen, Carl E; Williams, David; Underwood, Lynn; Ory, Marcia A

    2002-01-01

    To advance knowledge in the study of spirituality and physical health, we examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and attitudinal correlates of self-perceptions of spirituality. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1,422 adult respondents to the 1998 General Social Survey. They were asked, among other things, to rate themselves on the depth of their spirituality and the depth of their religiousness. Results indicated that, after adjustment for religiousness, self-perceptions of spirituality were positively correlated with being female (r = .07, p political conservatism (both r = -.08, p intolerant than either of the nonreligious groups (p intolerance to the religious-only group. We conclude that sociodemographicfactors could confound any observed association between spirituality and health and should be controlled. Moreover, individuals who perceive themselves to be both spiritual and religious may be at particularly low risk for morbidity and mortality based on their good psychological status and ongoing restorative activities.

  18. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used.

  19. Anti - H. pylori IgG seroprevalence rates in asymptomatic children and adults from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate V

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of H.pylori in asymptomatic children and compare it with that seen in the asymptomatic adult population from south India. One hundred and five children and one hundred adults admitted to the wards for conditions other than gastrointestinal disorders were included for this study. H.pylori status was determined by ELISA for IgG. The prevalence of H.pylori in children of various ages varied from 44% to 46% with an overall prevalence of H.pylori in children of 45%. 67% of adults were infected with H.pylori which was significantly higher than children (P = 0.002. The prevalence of H.pylori increased markedly with age with the maximum colonization (74% occurring in young adults (16-30 years. The antibody levels too followed a similar pattern. In conclusion, it was seen that almost half the children in south India acquire H.pylori infection early in life which increases slowly and steadily with a peak prevalence in the young adults. Gender does not affect the prevalence in children and adults. As age advances further there is a slight decline in the prevalence of H.pylori infection. The immune response reflected by the levels of the antibody levels also follows the same pattern.

  20. LULAC v. Richards: The Class Action Lawsuit That Prompted the South Texas Border Initiative and Enhanced Access to Higher Education for Mexican Americans Living along the South Texas Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegon, Ricardo Ray

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined the trials and tribulations a predominantly Mexican-American community in South Texas went through to obtain higher education opportunities for its residents. This study focuses on the "LULAC v. Richards" lawsuit and the South Texas Border Initiative. In 1987, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational…

  1. Depression among Asian-American Adults in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jun Kim

    Full Text Available In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors.Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics.A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults. Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%-43.7% and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%-51.3%. Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003. Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%; however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino.There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care, including increased screening

  2. Fission-track dating of South American natural glasses: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigazzi, G. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, C.N.R., Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: g.bigazzi@igg.cnr.it; Hadler Neto, J.C. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas SP (Brazil); Iunes, P.J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas SP (Brazil); Osorio Araya, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia, Universidade do Estado de Sao Paulo, UNESP, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente SP (Brazil)

    2005-12-01

    Although many glass-bearing horizons can be found in South American volcanic complexes or sedimentary series, only a relatively few tephra and obsidian-bearing volcanic fields have been studied using the fission-track (FT) dating method. Among them, the volcanics located in the Sierra de Guamani (east of Quito, Ecuador) were studied by several authors. Based upon their ages, obsidians group into three clusters: (1) very young obsidians, {approx}0.2Ma old (2) intermediate-age obsidians, {approx}0.4-{approx}0.8Ma old, and (3) older obsidians, {approx}1.4-{approx}1.6Ma old. The FT method is also an efficient alternative technique for identification of the sources of prehistoric obsidian artefacts. Provenance studies carried out in South America have shown that the Sierra de Guamani obsidian occurrences were important sources of raw material for tool making during pre-Columbian times. Glasses originated from these sources were identified in sites distributed over relatively wide areas of Ecuador and Colombia. Only a few systematic studies on obsidians in other sectors were carried out. Nevertheless, very singular glasses have been recognised in South America, such as Macusanite (Peru) and obsidian Quiron (Argentina), which are being proposed as additional reference materials for FT dating. Analyses of tephra beds interstratified with sedimentary deposits revealed the performance of FT dating in tephrochronological studies. A remarkable example is the famous deposit outcropping at Farola Monte Hermoso, near Bahia Blanca (Buenos Aires Province), described for the first time by the middle of the 19th century by Charles Darwin. Considering the large number of volcanic glasses that were recognised in volcanic complexes and in sedimentary series, South America is a very promising region for the application of FT dating. The examples given above show that this technique may yield important results in different disciplinary fields.

  3. Cocaine use among American adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, P M; Johnston, L D; Bachman, J G

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter, we have tried to provide some objective information about the levels of and recent trends in cocaine use among America's adolescents and young adults, as well as some of their attitudes and beliefs about the drug and their reasons for using it. We have also examined cross-time patterns of use, certain predictors of use, and some of the conditions of the social and physical environments which are associated with use. Overall, we have found levels of use to be relatively stable for the past several years after a period of rapid increase between 1976 and 1979. We also found a strong age effect, with cocaine use increasing in the first few years after high school. The levels of use, though stable recently, are disturbingly high, particularly among young adults in their early to mid twenties. Self reported use has followed patterns that parallel exposure to use and use by friend, as would be expected, assuming valid measures. Perceived availability also has moved in tandem with these other measures. The great majority of today's seniors believe regular use to be dangerous, and 77% disapprove of even experimenting with cocaine. Use is found most frequently in the western and northeastern regions of the country, in more urban areas, among males, and among those who are not college-bound. Neither socioeconomic status nor personal income are very strongly associated with use; but a history of truancy, going out frequently in the evenings, and having relatively low religious involvement are. Cocaine users tend to use other illicit drugs (particularly marijuana) and to be cigarette smokers and heavy drinkers much more frequently than nonusers. Thus, there is little evidence that cocaine involves a separate drug-using syndrome. In fact, it is not uncommon for cocaine users to use marijuana or alcohol concurrently. When taking cocaine, high school students most often snort it, though some (24% of recent users) smoke it while only 4% of the users inject it. It

  4. Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from south american sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)

    OpenAIRE

    González, M.; M. P. Villanueva; Debruyne, L.; Vandamme, P.; Fernández, H.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

  5. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  6. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-23

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  7. Ancestral proportions and admixture dynamics in geographically defined African Americans living in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E J; Kittles, R A; Argyropoulos, G; Pfaff, C L; Hiester, K; Bonilla, C; Sylvester, N; Parrish-Gause, D; Garvey, W T; Jin, L; McKeigue, P M; Kamboh, M I; Ferrell, R E; Pollitzer, W S; Shriver, M D

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed admixture in samples of six different African-American populations from South Carolina: Gullah-speaking Sea Islanders in coastal South Carolina, residents of four counties in the "Low Country" (Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, and Dorchester), and persons living in the city of Columbia, located in central South Carolina. We used a battery of highly informative autosomal, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome markers. Two of the autosomal markers (FY and AT3) are linked and lie 22 cM apart on chromosome 1. The results of this study indicate, in accordance with previous historical, cultural, and anthropological evidence, a very low level of European admixture in the Gullah Sea Islanders (m = 3.5 +/- 0.9%). The proportion of European admixture is higher in the Low Country (m ranging between 9. 9 +/- 1.8% and 14.0 +/- 1.9%), and is highest in Columbia (m = 17.7 +/- 3.1%). A sex-biased European gene flow and a small Native American contribution to the African-American gene pool are also evident in these data. We studied the pattern of pairwise allelic associations between the FY locus and the nine other autosomal markers in our samples. In the combined sample from the Low Country (N = 548), a high level of linkage disequilibrium was observed between the linked markers, FY and AT3. Additionally, significant associations were also detected between FY and 4 of the 8 unlinked markers, suggesting the existence of significant genetic structure in this population. A continuous gene flow model of admixture could explain the observed pattern of genetic structure. A test conditioning on the overall admixture of each individual showed association of ancestry between the two linked markers (FY and AT3), but not between any of the unlinked markers, as theory predicts. Thus, even in the presence of genetic structure due to continuous gene flow or some other factor, it is possible to differentiate associations due to linkage from spurious associations due to genetic structure.

  8. U.S. Foreign Policy, The South American Integration, and the case of the military bases in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias-Cavicchioli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the nature of the conflict generated in South America by the adoption of the new military agreement between the U.S. and Colombia. The article will evaluate the political and the geostrategic implications of this agreement, especially its repercussions for the regional integration process of South America. It will also analyze the stances of the local actors in order to consider prospective scenarios, and will assess the U.S. approach to South American integration under the Obama administration.

  9. Nursing assistants' communication styles in Korean American older adults with dementia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haesook; Woods, Dianna Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Ruiz, Maria Elena; Salem, Benissa; Jeffers-Skrine, Kia; Salem, Nancy

    2015-03-01

    As ethnic diversity increases in the United States with the anticipated increase in dementia, it is critical to understand the implications of dementia and culturally appropriate communication for ethnic minority older adults with dementia. Utilizing the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing model and the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model, this article describes the relationship between nursing assistants' communication style and behavioral symptoms of dementia, focused on Korean American older adults with dementia residing in nursing homes. The discussion includes reviewing currently available studies, nursing implications, and suggestions for future studies.

  10. Racial identity, racial discrimination, perceived stress, and psychological distress among African American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Robert M; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2003-09-01

    This study examines the direct and indirect relationships among racial identity, racial discrimination, perceived stress, and psychological distress in a sample of 555 African American young adults. A prospective study design was used to assess the influence of two dimensions of racial identity attitudes (i.e., centrality and public regard) on other study variables to investigate the relationship between racial identity attitudes and psychological distress. The results show some evidence of a direct relationship between racial centrality and psychological distress, as well as evidence of indirect relationships for both centrality and public regard through the impact of racial discrimination and perceived stress. In addition, racial centrality was both a risk factor for experiencing discrimination and a protective factor in buffering the negative impact of discrimination on psychological distress. Results are discussed within the context of identifying multiple pathways to psychological well-being for African American young adults within the context of racial discrimination.

  11. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  12. Fear factors: cross validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Vines, Lauren; Petrie, Jenny

    2011-05-01

    The current study attempted a cross-validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults based on a previous model of phobia domains in a college student sample of African Americans. Subjects were 100 African American community-dwelling adults who completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II). Domains of fear were created using a similar procedure as the original, college sample of African American adults. A model including all of the phobia domains from the FSS-II was initially tested and resulted in poor model fit. Cross-validation was subsequently attempted through examining the original factor pattern of specific phobia domains from the college sample (Chapman, Kertz, Zurlage, & Woodruff-Borden, 2008). Data from the current, community based sample of African American adults provided poor fit to this model. The trimmed model for the current sample included the animal and social anxiety factors as in the original model. The natural environment-type specific phobia factor did not provide adequate fit for the community-based sample of African Americans. Results indicated that although different factor loading patterns of fear may exist among community-based African Americans as compared to African American college students, both animal and social fears are nearly identical in both groups, indicating a possible cultural homogeneity for phobias in African Americans. Potential explanations of these findings and future directions are discussed.

  13. Knowledge of young African American adults about heart disease: a cross-sectional survey

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    Jones Kathleen M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality than other ethnic groups. Young adults are prime targets for intervention strategies to prevent and reduce disease risk. The study purpose was to determine the level of knowledge of lifestyle risk factors for CVD among young African American adults in Phoenix. The results will be used to guide the development of CVD outreach programs targeted to this population. The Health Belief Model was used as a conceptual framework. Methods A convenience sample of 172 African American men and women aged 18-26 years completed a questionnaire adapted from the American Heart Association national surveys. Descriptive statistics were compared by age, gender, education level, and health status variables including BMI, smoking status, and physical activity. Results Some aspects of heart-disease were well known among young adult African Americans. Knowledge of certain other important risk factors (menopause and preventive behaviors (eating fewer animal products, however, was more variable and inconsistent among the respondents. Differences in knowledge of individual variables was greater by education level than by gender overall. Predictors of a summary CVD knowledge score included higher education, female gender, and high self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = 0.158, p 2 = 0.064, p Conclusions Evaluation of baseline knowledge of CVD is essential before designing and implementing health promotion programs. Existing strengths and weaknesses in knowledge can guide tailoring of programs to be more effective. Further research would help to identify the range of other characteristics that determine knowledge and risk perception.

  14. PHENYLTHIOCARBAMIDE (PTC TASTER STATUS IN SOUTH INDIAN ADULT MEDICAL STUDENTS

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    Sachin Rathod

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC taster status in adults who are studying medicine and its relationship with anthropometric variables such as Body Mass Index (BMI, Body Fat Percentage (BFP and pleasantness of sugar, salt, and fat. A total of 112 subjects rated the intensity of Phenylthiocarbamide and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions using the labelled magnitude scale. For pleasantness evaluation, it was used with concentrated lemon juice (sugar and mashed potato (salt and fat. The subjects were classified as non-tasters (n=32, medium-tasters (n=31 and super-tasters (n=49. In this study, no relationship was found between phenylthiocarbamide taster status and age, sex, weight, body mass index, and pleasantness. Although genetic markers may influence the degree of liking of certain foods, one must consider that the mechanisms influencing eating behaviour in humans are complex, and that psychological, social, and economic factors play a key role in response to food.

  15. Comparison of Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms between Turkish and European-American Adults

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    Ahmet Arif Celebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is the evaluation of the patient’s soft tissue profile. The main purpose of this study was to develop soft-tissue cephalometric standards for Turkish men and women and compare them with the cephalometric standards of normal European-American white people. The sample included 96 Turkish adults (48 women, 48 men, aged 20 to 27 years. Turkish subjects have increased facial convexity associated with retruded mandible, more obtuse lower face-throat angle, increased nasolabial angle and upper lip protrusion, deeper mentolabial sulcus, and smaller interlabial gap compared with European-American white people. It is appropriate to consider these differences during routine diagnosis and treatment planning of a Turkish patient or an American patient of European ancestry. Turkish males reveal more obtuse mandibular prognathism and upper lip protrusion, and smaller nasolabial angle than females.

  16. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Makey, Colleen M.; McClean, Michael D.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M; Webster, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. Objectives: We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. Methods: From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at ...

  17. An Exploration of Human Nature and a Challenge Against Conventional Morality of American South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉平

    2005-01-01

    文章通过对马克·吐温名著主题的分析,深刻探讨了马克·吐温对人的本性的探索和对美国南方传统道德的挑战,并进而提出了与现今社会紧密联系的人文关怀问题.%By analyzing the theme of Mark Twain's work The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,we can learn that Mark Twain makes an exploration of human nature and a challenge against conventional morality in American South through the depiction of Huck's mental conflict, his final determination to help Jim acquire freedom as well as the friendship between Huck and Jim established during their escape journey down the Mississippi River.

  18. Global climate change attitudes and perceptions among south American zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Jerry F; Clayton, Susan; Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Grajal, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There is a substantial gap between the scientific evidence for anthropogenic climate change and the human response to this evidence. Perceptions of and responses to climate change can differ among regions of the world, as well as within countries. Therefore, information about the public's attitudes and perceptions related to climate change is essential to the development of relevant educational resources. In the present study, zoo visitors in four South American countries responded to a questionnaire regarding their attitudes and perceptions toward global climate change. Results indicated that most respondents are already highly concerned about global climate change and are interested in greater engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Visitors also perceive various obstacles to engagement in climate change mitigation behaviors. We discuss the results of our study in terms of addressing visitors' climate change attitudes and perceptions within the social and emotional context of zoo settings.

  19. A taxonomic bibliography of the South American snakes of the Crotalus durissus complex (Serpentes, Viperidae

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    VANZOLINI PAULO E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made of the taxonomic literature on South American rattlesnakes (genus Crotalus, family Viperidae. Two main areas are emphasized: the attribution of the names proposed in the eighteenth century by Linnaeus and Laurenti, and the current scheme of division in subspecies. The attribution of names is examined based on the original descriptions and on relevant previous and contemporary literature. The presently adopted scheme, proposed by Klauber (1941, 1972 is found not entirely satisfactory, but reasonable enough - besides being hallowed by use. The scheme of geographical differentiation, intrinsically important and with broad practical implications (differentiation of the venom is found to be the culmination of a long series of deficient analyses, and in urgent need of proper investigation.

  20. THE DIALECT OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN OLD-BELIEVERS (HANDWRITTEN DATA

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    O. G. Rovnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the material of a manuscript The Tale and the Life of Danila Terentievich Zaicev, a voluminous treatise on the life of South American Old-Believers. It was composed by the Old-Believer Danila Terentievich Zaicev himself, inArgentinaduring 2009-2012. The author writes in Cyrillic civic alphabet used as a phonetic script, so that a plenty of features of spontaneous speech is reflected. The dialect is identified as Central Russian one, with such feature as akanye, but formed on Northern foundation. I analyze phonetic, morphological and syntactic peculiarities of the document; special attention is paid to its rich vocabulary, especially archaisms and neologisms. Besides, I consider borrowings from Spanish and mechanisms of its adaptation to the Russian dialect.

  1. Invasion of South American suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Loricariidae in Kerala, India - a case study

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    A. Bijukumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the occurrence of the exotic South American suckermouth armoured catfishes (Loricariidae of the genus Pterygoplichthys spp. in the drainages of Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala.  The morphological taxonomy revealed that the specimens are closely related to Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991 and P. pardalis (Castelnau, 1855, in addition to intermediary forms of unknown identity.  DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1 also failed to establish the identity of the invaded species.  There may be possible hybridisation in aquariums or in fish farms or in the wild, but this needs to be found out aided by detailed studies incorporating different molecular markers and with sequences of topotypes.  The possible threats due to Pterygoplichthys spp. invasion and management options are discussed in the paper. 

  2. IMPOSEX IN THE MARINE SNAIL XANTHOCHORUS BUXEA (BRODERIP, 1833 (MURICIDAE FROM THE SOUTH AMERICAN PACIFIC

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    Guabloche, Angélica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The imposex phenomenon is the emergence of male sexual characteristics on the reproductive system of female prosobranch gastropod snails. This alteration was historically associated with contamination with organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT. In this study we evaluated the incidence of imposex in the marine snail Xanthochorus buxea (Broderip, 1833 (Muricidae from Hermosa Beach, Ancon, Lima, Peru. Imposex percentage was 97.6%. The rate of the relative length of the penis (RPLI was equal to 94.3. Astatistically significant relationship was found between the shell length and length of the penis in males and females. This research is the first application of X. buxea as a bioindicator of organotin components in Peru from the South American Pacific coast.

  3. Early evolutionary differentiation of morphological variation in the mandible of South American caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Caviomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A; Perez, S I; Verzi, D H

    2011-12-01

    Caviomorphs are a clade of South American rodents recorded at least since the early Oligocene (> 31.5 Ma) that exhibit ample eco-morphological variation. It has been proposed that phylogenetic structure is more important than ecological factors for understanding mandibular shape variation in this clade. This was interpreted as a result of the long-standing evolutionary history of caviomorphs and the early divergence of major lineages. In this work, we test this hypothesis through the analysis of morphological variation in the mandible of living and extinct species and compare this information with that obtained through comparative phylogenetic analyses. Our results support the hypothesis of early origin of mandibular variation; moreover, they suggest the conservation of early differentiated morphologies, which could indicate the existence of constrained evolutionary diversification.

  4. Organochlorine residues in South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800): bioaccumulation and time trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, A; Garcia-Solà, A; Aguilar, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A

    2010-06-01

    Blubber from stranded South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) was sampled between 1991 and 2005 on the Peninsula Valdés in Argentina and analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pollutants. Mean blubber concentrations, expressed on an extractable basis, were 686 (SD = 1,060) ng g(-1) for dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (tDDT) and 735 (SD = 787) ng g(-1) for polychlorinated byphenils (PCB). The OC levels were well below those associated with adverse sublethal effects and lethality in mammals. OC concentrations showed statistically significant associations with age that were positive in males and negative in females. These trends are consistent with the majority of marine mammal populations studied. There were no trends in the levels of tDDT or PCB over time. In spite of the low levels detected, OC contamination was present consistently over the 14-year period, suggesting continuous inputs from geographic redistribution.

  5. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Araceli; Villanueva, María Paz; González, Mario; Fernández, Fabiola; Latif, Fadua; Flores, Sandra Nonier; Fernández, Heriberto

    2014-01-01

    Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds. PMID:25477948

  6. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwardsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Araceli; Villanueva, María Paz; González, Mario; Fernández, Fabiola; Latif, Fadua; Flores, Sandra Nonier; Fernández, Heriberto

    2014-01-01

    Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  7. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Fernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  8. Stainable hepatic iron in 341 African American adults at coroner/medical examiner autopsy

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    Acton Ronald T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of previous autopsy studies indicate that increased hepatic iron stores or hepatic iron overload is common in African Americans dying in hospitals, but there are no reports of hepatic iron content in other cohorts of African Americans. Methods We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls' acid ferrocyanide-reactive iron in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of 341 consecutive African American adults who were autopsied in the coroner/medical examiner office. Heavy staining was defined as grade 3 or 4 hepatocyte iron or grade 3 Kupffer cell iron. Results There were 254 men and 85 women (mean age ± 1 SD: 44 ± 13 y vs. 48 ± 14 y, respectively; p = 0.0255; gender was unstated or unknown in two subjects. Approximately one-third of subjects died of natural causes. Heavy staining was observed in 10.2% of men and 4.7% of women. 23 subjects had heavy hepatocyte staining only, six had heavy Kupffer cell staining only, and one had a mixed pattern of heavy staining. 15 subjects had histories of chronic alcoholism; three had heavy staining confined to hepatocytes. We analyzed the relationships of three continuous variables (age at death in years, hepatocyte iron grade, Kupffer cell iron grade and two categorical variables (sex, cause of death (natural and non-natural causes in all 341 subjects using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. This revealed two positive correlations: hepatocyte with Kupffer cell iron grades (p Conclusions The present results confirm and extend previous observations that heavy liver iron staining is relatively common in African Americans. The pertinence of these observations to genetic and acquired causes of iron overload in African Americans is discussed.

  9. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  10. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY... Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is safeguarded... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados......

  11. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is safeguarded... regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados imported from...

  12. Prevalence and genetic diversity of haematozoa in South American waterfowl and evidence for intercontinental redistribution of parasites by migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M.; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the role of migratory birds in the movement and transmission of haematozoa within and between continental regions, we examined 804 blood samples collected from eleven endemic species of South American waterfowl in Peru and Argentina for infection by Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and/or Leucocytozono blood parasites. Infections were detected in 25 individuals of six species for an overall apparent prevalence rate of 3.1%. Analysis of haematozoa mitochondrial DNA revealed twelve distinct parasite haplotypes infecting South American waterfowl, four of which were identical to lineages previously observed infecting ducks and swans sampled in North America. Analysis of parasite mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed close phylogenetic relationships between lineages originating from waterfowl samples regardless of continental affiliation. In contrast, more distant phylogenetic relationships were observed between parasite lineages from waterfowl and passerines sampled in South America for Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon, suggesting some level of host specificity for parasites of these genera. The detection of identical parasite lineages in endemic, South American waterfowl and North American ducks and swans, paired with the close phylogenetic relationships of haematozoa infecting waterfowl on both continents, provides evidence for parasite redistribution between these regions by migratory birds.

  13. Return Migrations of African-Americans to the South: Reclaiming a Land of Promise, Going Home, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, William F.; Hunt, Larry L.; Hunt, Matthew O.

    2004-01-01

    Using samples of census data from the university of Minnesota Population Center's "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series" (IPUMS), we describe trends in African-American migration to the South across recent decades, and explore the applicability of the concept of "return migration" to various demographic patterns. Our findings suggest that the…

  14. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae.

  15. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions.

  16. Biomarkers of Organic Contamination in the South-American Fishes Poecilia vivipara and Jenynsia multidentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacke Ferreira, Roger; Monserrat, José Maria; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler Luís; Kalb, Ana Cristina; Stegeman, John; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso; Zanette, Juliano

    2017-01-01

    South American Cyprinodontiform fishes are potential candidates to be used as model species in environmental toxicology. We sought for molecular and biochemical biomarkers of pollution in Poecilia vivipara (Poecilidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae). Partial nucleotide sequences for the cytochrome P450 1A (cyp1A), a classical biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants in fish, were identified in P. vivipara and J. multidentata (∼ 650 nucleotides) using degenerated primers and PCR. These sequences shared ∼ 90 % identity in the predicted amino acid sequence with the corresponding Cyp1A region of Fundulus heteroclitus. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that cyp1A transcription was strongly induced in the liver and gills of J. multidentata (∼185-fold and ∼20-fold, respectively) and P. vivipara (122-fold and 739-fold, respectively), after 24-hrs exposure to 1 μM of the synthetic cyp1A inducer β-naphthoflavone (BNF). After 24 hs of injection with 1 μg.g-1 of the environmental carcinogenic contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a decreased total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals was observed both in liver of J. multidentata and gills of P. vivipara. BaP injection in both fishes did not cause changes in lipid peroxides (TBARS) levels, suggesting an absence of an oxidative stress situation caused by BaP injection in this study. The newly identified cyp1As would serve as general biomarkers of exposure to organic contaminant in future studies using P. vivipara and J. multidentata. The results also points out to the important species-specific differences in the biomarker responses in those South American cyprinodontiform fishes, which would suggests distinct resistance/susceptibility to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:22852852

  17. Revision of the Bee Genus Chlerogella (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Part II: South American Species and Generic Diagnosis

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    Michael Engel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The South American species of the rare bee genus Chlerogella Michener (Halictinae: Augochlorini are revised, completing the study of the genus. Chlerogella diversity is significantly expanded beyond the five previously described South American species of Cherlogella azurea (Enderlein, comb. n., C. nasus (Enderlein, C. mourella Engel, C. octogesima (Brooks & Engel, comb. n., and C. buyssoni (Vachal. Twenty-two new species are described – C. agaylei sp. n., C. arhyncha sp. n., C. borysthenis sp. n., C. breviceps sp. n., C. cochabambensis sp. n., C. cooperella sp. n., C. cyranoi sp. n., C. dolichorhina sp. n., C. elysia sp. n., C. eumorpha sp. n., C. euprepia sp. n., C. hauseri sp. n., C. hypermeces sp. n., C. materdonnae sp. n., C. oresbios sp. n., C. picketti sp. n., C. rostrata sp. n., C. silvula sp. n., C. terpsichore sp. n., C. tychoi sp. n., C. vachali sp. n., C. xuthopleura sp. n. – and the distribution of the genus is expanded beyond Perú and Ecuador to include Bolivia, Colombia, and Venezuela. The female of C. azurea is described for the first time while the placement of Halictus buyssoni Vachal in Chlerogella is considered tentative, following the usage of previous authors, as the holotype and sole specimen is untraceable. The genus is newly diagnosed based on a greater understanding of variation in malar length across the species and a dichotomous key is provided. New floral records for species of Chlerogella include Psychotria pongoana Standl. (Rubiaceae and a putative record on Phragmopedium longifolium (Warsz. & Rchb.f. Rolfe (Orchidaceae.

  18. Characterization of bovine MHC class II DRB3 diversity in South American Holstein cattle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S-N; Giovambattista, G; Okimoto, N; Matsumoto, Y; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Acosta, T J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-12-01

    Holstein cattle dominate the global milk production industry because of their outstanding milk production, however, this breed is susceptible to tropical endemic pathogens and suffers from heat stress and thus fewer Holstein populations are raised in tropical areas. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA)-DRB3 class II gene is used as a marker for disease and immunological traits, and its polymorphism has been studied extensively in Holstein cattle from temperate and cold regions. We studied the genetic diversity of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in South American Holstein populations to determine whether tropical populations have diverged from those bred in temperate and cold regions by selection and/or crossbreeding with local native breeds. We specifically studied Exon 2 of this gene from 855 South American Holstein individuals by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing method. We found a high degree of gene diversity at the allelic (Na > 20 and He > 0.87) and molecular (π > 0.080) levels, but a low degree of population structure (FST = 0.009215). A principal components analysis and tree showed that the Bolivian subtropical population had the largest genetic divergence compared with Holsteins bred in temperate or cold regions, and that this population was closely related to Bolivian Creole cattle. Our results suggest that Holstein genetic divergence can be explained by selection and/or gene introgression from local germplasms. This is the first examination of BoLA-DRB3 in Holsteins adapted to tropical environments, and contributes to an ongoing effort to catalog bovine MHC allele frequencies by breed and location.

  19. Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

    2014-08-01

    Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation.

  20. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability.

  1. Acculturation, childhood trauma and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah; Wand, Gary; Javors, Martin; Mintz, James

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to chronic and traumatic stress has been associated with the dysregulation of crucial stress response systems. Acculturation has been associated with unique forms of chronic psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to early traumatic stress and acculturation on dysregulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican-American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18-38 years. Participants were assessed for level of acculturation and exposure to early trauma. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Mixed effects regression results indicated a significant Early Trauma x Time interaction (p=.0029) and a significant Acculturation x Time interaction (p=.0015), after controlling for age and sex. Subsequent analyses of the interaction of Trauma x Acculturation x Time showed that more than minimal exposure to either risk factor was associated with attenuation of the awakening cortisol response (p=.0002). Higher levels of acculturation with greater Anglo-orientation were associated with attenuation of the CAR in Mexican-American adults. Both moderate and higher levels of exposure to early trauma were associated with an attenuated CAR. However, greater exposure to both risk factors was only incrementally worse than exposure to either one.

  2. Empowering Adult Education in Namibia and South Africa during and after Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christiane

    1997-01-01

    After more than 40 years of education for Apartheid, the development of empowering adult education with the formerly disadvantaged population groups is one of the major challenges for the democratically elected governments in South Africa and Namibia. One of the strongest forces that sustained Apartheid in Namibia until 1990, and in South Africa until 1994, was an education system with different schools and resources for the different population groups. Despite the strict implementation of the Bantu Education System by the white government, some groups of people could still organise alternative education projects aiming at participants' gaining more control over their own lifes. Groups of women in the Western Cape initiated autonomous pre-school projects and took part in in-service training for pre-school teachers in the 1980s. A similar process took place with adult literacy learners in the National Literacy Programme in Namibia.

  3. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  4. The energy geopolitics interests: the Initiative for South American Regional Integration - ISARI; Os interesses da geopolitica energetica: a Iniciativa para Integracao Regional Sul Americana - IIRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronymo, Alexandre; Roig, Carla de Almeida; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: alexandre.jeronymo@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: carla.roig@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: sguerra@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This work adds itself to the debates on the project Integration of South America Regional Infrastructure - ISARI. Its focus is related with Energy Geopolitics and the South America integration under the world system of commodities production. The ISARI, as a project oriented to the viability of low value aggregated which should be transported from the south american continent for consumption at the world market.

  5. Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2008-04-01

    Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution.

  6. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  7. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rubia Marília; Gräf, Tiago; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-01-01

    The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989-2013). Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48-3.30) to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups.

  8. Impact of land surface processes on the South American warm season climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H.-Y.; Mechoso, C.R.; Xiao, H.; Wu, C.-M. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Xue, Y. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California Los Angeles, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Li, J.-L. [California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Sales, F.De [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The present study demonstrates that (1) the simulation of the South American warm season (December-February) climate by an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is sensitive to the representation of land surface processes, (2) the sensitivity is not confined to the ''hot spot'' in Amazonia, and (3) upgrading the representation of those processes can produce a significant improvement in AGCM performance. The reasons for sensitivity and higher success are investigated based on comparisons between observational datasets and simulations by the AGCM coupled to either a simple land scheme that specifies soil moisture availability or to the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB) that allows for consideration of soil and vegetation biophysical process. The context for the study is the UCLA AGCM. The most notable simulation improvements are along the lee of the Andes in the lower troposphere, where poleward flow transports abundant moisture from the Amazon basin to high latitudes, and in the monsoon region where the intensity and pattern of precipitation and upper level ice water content are more realistic. It is argued that a better depiction of the Chaco Low, which is controlled by local effects of land surface processes, decisively contributes to the superior model performance with low-level flows in central South America. The better representation of the atmospheric column static stability and large-scale moisture convergence in tropical South America contribute to more realistic precipitation over the monsoon region. The overall simulation improvement is, therefore, due to a combination of different regional processes. This finding is supported by idealized AGCM experiments. (orig.)

  9. Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Germán.; Jaramillo, Liliana; Vallejo, Luisa F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the seasonal dynamics of the eastern Pacific (CHOCO) and Caribbean low-level jets (LLJ), and aerial rivers (AR) acting on tropical and subtropical South America. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2012), we show that the convergence of both LLJs over the eastern Pacific-western Colombia contributes to the explanation of the region's world-record rainfall. Diverse variables involved in the transport and storage of moisture permit the identification of an AR over northern South America involving a midtropospheric easterly jet that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across the Andes, with stronger activity in April to August. Other major seasonal AR pathways constitute part of a large gyre originating over the tropical North Atlantic, veering to the southeast over the eastern Andes and reaching regions of northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. We illustrate the distribution of average seasonal precipitation along the LLJs and AR pathways with data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (1998-2011), combined with considerations of CAPE, topography, and land cover. In addition, the theory of the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) is tested at seasonal time scales, and found to hold in 8 out of 12 ARs, and 22 out of 32 forest-covered tracks (64% in distance) along the ARs. Deviations from BiPAM's predictions of rainfall distribution are explained by the effects of topography, orography, and land cover types different from forests. Our results lend a strong observational support to the BiPAM theory at seasonal time scales over South American forested flat lands.

  10. ENSO impacts on the South American rainfall during 1980s: Hadley and Walker circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, E.B.; Ambrizzi, T. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Instituto Astronomico y Geofisico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-04-01

    The changes in the Hadley and Walter cells and their respective impacts on the South American rainfall during the ENSO episodes observed in the decade of 80, were investigated through cross-sections analyses of the atmospheric circulation in altitude, averaged in the zonal and meridional planes. Such large-scale cells almost inverted their climatological circulation pattern, during El Nino events (1982-83 and 1986-87). In these years, manifestation of the anomalous descending branch of the Hadley and Walker cells affects most of the north-northeast of South America, which inhibited the convective activity associated to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and caused drought conditions in the rainy seasons of the Guyana, Surinam, French Guyana, center-east of the Amazon and most of the Northeast Brazil. On the other hand, conditions of excess of precipitation observed in the south-southeast of South America, were favored by the anomalous ascending branch of the Hadley cell. During La Nina events (1984-85 and 1988-89), it was observed an intensification of the ascending and descending branches associated to the Walker and Hadley cells. The anomalous large-scale ascending movement associated to these cells, was extended to the Northeast of Brazil and equatorial South Atlantic, favoring ITCZ to become more active than the normal, which resulted in an above normal rainy season in these areas. An intense subsidence was noticed in the mid latitudes of South America, which inhibited the large-scale convection in the region, explaining the deficient rainy season observed in most of the south-southeast of South America. [Spanish] Los cambios en las celulas de Hadley y Walker y sus respectivos impactos en Suramerica, en las lluvias, durante los episodios en ENOS, observados en la decada de los 80, son investigados a traves de analisis de reacciones cruzadas de la circulacion atmosferica en altitudes promediadas en planos zonal y meridional. Tales celulas de gran escala

  11. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis.

  12. Knowledge of memory functions in European and Asian American adults and children: the relation to autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.

  13. Precipitation changes in the South American Altiplano since 1300 AD reconstructed by tree-rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the 20th century, the Central Andes has experienced significant climatic and environmental changes characterized by a persistent warming trend, an increase in elevation of the 0 °C isotherm, and a sustained shrinkage of glaciers. These changes have occurred in conjunction with a steady growing demand for water resources. Given the short span of instrumental hidroclimatic records in this region, longer records are needed to understand the nature of climate variability and improve the predictability of precipitation, a key factor modulating the socio-economic development in the South American Altiplano and the adjacent arid lowlands. In this study we present the first quasi-millennial, tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction for the South American Altiplano. This annual (November–October precipitation reconstruction is based on Polylepis tarapacana tree-ring series and represents the closest dendroclimatological record to the Equator in South America. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 707 yr and provides a unique record to characterize the occurrence of extreme events and consistent oscillations in precipitation, as well as to check the spatial and temporal stabilities of the teleconnections between rainfall in the Altiplano and hemispheric forcings such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Since the 1930s up to present a persistent negative trend in precipitation is recorded in the reconstruction, with the three driest years since 1300 AD occurring in the last 70 yr. The reconstruction contains a clear ENSO-like pattern at interannual to multicentennial time scales which determines inter-hemispheric linkages between our reconstruction and other precipitation-sensitive records modulated by ENSO in North America. Our reconstruction points out that century-scale dry periods are a recurrent feature in the Altiplano climate, and that the potential coupling of natural and anthropogenic

  14. Precipitation changes in the South American Altiplano since 1300 AD reconstructed by tree-rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Morales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the second half of the 20th century, the Central Andes has experienced significant climatic and environmental changes characterized by a persistent warming trend, an increase in elevation of the 0 °C isotherm, and sustained glacier shrinkage. These changes have occurred in conjunction with a steadily growing demand for water resources. Given the short span of instrumental hydroclimatic records in this region, longer time span records are needed to understand the nature of climate variability and to improve the predictability of precipitation, a key factor modulating the socio-economic development in the South American Altiplano and adjacent arid lowlands. In this study we present the first quasi-millennial, tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction for the South American Altiplano. This annual (November–October precipitation reconstruction is based on the Polylepis tarapacana tree-ring width series and represents the closest dendroclimatological record to the Equator in South America. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 707 yr and provides a unique record characterizing the occurrence of extreme events and consistent oscillations in precipitation. It also allows an assessment of the spatial and temporal stabilities of the teleconnections between rainfall in the Altiplano and hemispheric forcings such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Since the 1930s to present, a persistent negative trend in precipitation has been recorded in the reconstruction, with the three driest years since 1300 AD occurring in the last 70 yr. Throughout the 707 yr, the reconstruction contains a clear ENSO-like pattern at interannual to multidecadal time scales, which determines inter-hemispheric linkages between our reconstruction and other precipitation sensitive records modulated by ENSO in North America. Our reconstruction points out that century-scale dry periods are a recurrent feature in the Altiplano climate, and that the

  15. Distribution, host range, and climatic constraints on Centistes gasseni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a South American parasitoid of cucumber beetles, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Walsh, G; Athanas, M M; Salles, L A B; Schroder, R F W

    2003-12-01

    The genus Diabrotica includes a large number of pest species, including some of the most important crop pests of the Americas. The parasitoid Centistes gasseni Shaw is the first braconid to be described parasitizing Diabrotica in South America, and high natural infestations are reported. Field and experimental observations on the host range, distribution and biology of this parasitoid are described. Centistes gasseniwas collected in southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, in a region comprising humid lowlands and highlands, and cool temperate to warm subtropical climates, with regular rainfall in excess of 1300 mm. Three Diabroticaspecies, D. limitata (Sahlberg), D. speciosa (Germar) and D. viridula (Fabricius) were found to host the parasitoid, with mean percent parasitism of 5.4, 2.0 and 1.0%, respectively. Diabrotica speciosa and D. viridula are the two most important pest Diabroticaspecies in South America. Laboratory experiments with field-collected beetles and parasitoid cocoons indicated that C. gasseni overwinters in adult host beetles, remaining dormant in its live host below developmental temperatures. A potential distribution of C. gasseni in North America is proposed based on its known climatic range and the distribution of the main pest species of adult overwintering North American Diabrotica.

  16. The South African triage scale (adult version) provides valid acuity ratings when used by doctors and enrolled nursing assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Michèle Twomey; Lee A. Wallis; Mary Lou Thompson; Myers, Jonathan E

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the validity of triage ratings by South African nurses and doctors with training and practical experience using the South African Triage Scale. Methods: Five emergency physicians and 10 enrolled nursing assistants, who had been trained in the use of the South African Triage Scale, were selected via convenience sampling to retrospectively triage adult emergency centre vignettes. Participants independently assigned triage ratings to 100 written vignettes unaware of the...

  17. Drainage Analysis of the South American Landscape and its Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Gareth G.

    2016-04-01

    last 25-30 Ma. Our results are consistent with a wide range of independent geological observations across South America (e.g. elevated marine deposits, thermochronology, paleoelevation estimates from paleobotany, standard/clumped isotopes analyses). Finally, an important test of our thesis concerns offshore sedimentary flux. For example, our calculated uplift history can be used to predict the history of sedimentary flux into the Foz do Amazonas basin. This prediction agrees with offshore studies of the Amazon delta which suggest a rapid increase in clastic deposition since middle Miocene times. In summary, we propose that South American drainage contains useful information about spatial and temporal patterns of regional uplift which can help our understanding of regional topographic growth and landscape evolution.

  18. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa.

  19. First complete mitochondrial genome data from ancient South American camelids - The mystery of the chilihueques from Isla Mocha (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Michael; Prost, Stefan; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Ramírez, José-Miguel; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Knapp, Michael

    2016-12-08

    In South American societies, domesticated camelids were of great cultural importance and subject to trade and translocation. South American camelids were even found on remote and hard to reach islands, emphasizing their importance to historic and pre-historic South American populations. Isla Mocha, a volcanic island 35 km offshore of Central-South Chile, is an example of such an island. When Dutch and Spanish explorers reached the island in the early 17th century, they found that domesticated camelids called "chilihueque" played a major role in the island's society. The origin and taxonomy of these enigmatic camelids is unclear and controversial. This study aims to resolve this controversy through genetic analyses of Isla Mocha camelid remains dating from pre-Columbian to early historic times. A recent archaeological excavation of site P21-3 on Isla Mocha yielded a number of camelid remains. Three complete mitochondrial genomes were successfully recovered and analysed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that "chilihueque" was a local term for a domesticated guanaco. Results from phylogeographic analyses are consistent with Isla Mocha camelids being sourced from Southern Chilean guanaco populations. Our data highlights the capability of ancient DNA to answer questions about extinct populations which includes species identity, potential translocation events and origins of founding individuals.

  20. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  1. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  2. American Geriatrics Society abstracted clinical practice guideline for postoperative delirium in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The abstracted set of recommendations presented here provides essential guidance both on the prevention of postoperative delirium in older patients at risk of delirium and on the treatment of older surgical patients with delirium, and is based on the 2014 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Guideline. The full version of the guideline, American Geriatrics Society Clinical Practice Guideline for Postoperative Delirium in Older Adults is available at the website of the AGS. The overall aims of the study were twofold: first, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the prevention of postoperative delirium in older adults; and second, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the treatment of postoperative delirium in older adults. Prevention recommendations focused on primary prevention (i.e., preventing delirium before it occurs) in patients who are at risk for postoperative delirium (e.g., those identified as moderate-to-high risk based on previous risk stratification models such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management. Clinical Guideline 103; London (UK): 2010 July 29). For management of delirium, the goals of this guideline are to decrease delirium severity and duration, ensure patient safety and improve outcomes.

  3. Community engagement: an essential component of well-being in older African-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Active engagement in life is a critical factor for successful aging. Research indicates that community engagement is strongly associated with health and well-being in late life. However, less is understood regarding the influence of neighborhood conditions on health and well-being, particularly in older African-American adults. The current study describes a convenience sample of older African Americans (N = 501, mean age = 70.7 [range 55-95] years) living in Detroit. The specific goal is to examine the relationships between their perceptions of neighborhood conditions, level of community engagement, and their health and well-being. Survey findings reveal a sample of highly engaged older African Americans in reasonable health who perceive their neighborhoods favorably. Regression analysis results indicate that community engagement is closely associated with both neighborhood perceptions and well-being in this sample. We propose that community engagement or "participation" mediates the relationship between neighborhood conditions and well-being for older African Americans living in Detroit.

  4. Shear-wave splitting and mantle anisotropy in the southern South American subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, J. G.; Fischer, K. M.; Anderson, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this study is to constrain mantle flow above and below the subducting Nazca plate at latitudes of 30°-41° S. In this segment of the South American subduction zone, slab dip varies dramatically, including a region of flat slab subduction in the north and greater dip angles (~30°) in the south, where the segment ends at a slab gap associated with Chile Ridge. We measured shear-wave splitting in over 200 S arrivals from local earthquakes at permanent stations PLCA (USGS/GTSN) and PEL (Geoscope) and 14 stations of the 2000-2002 CHARGE (Chile Argentina Geophysical Experiment) PASSCAL array. We also made splitting measurements in 17 SKS and SKKS phases recorded by PLCA and permanent station TRQA (IRIS/GSN). Splitting parameters for a sub-set of local S, SKS and SKKS phases were determined using a range of filters from 0.05-0.2 to 0.05-2, and were generally stable as a function of frequency; frequency-dependence was observed in a small number of cases, and will be investigated further. The results reported below correspond to a 0.05-2 Hz bandpass filter. Local S splitting times range from 0.1-0.9 seconds, and for back-arc stations, splitting times correlate with path length in the mantle wedge. These results indicate that wedge anisotropy is a dominant factor in the observed splitting, although shallower anisotropy also appears to be present. Splitting fast polarizations at back-arc stations show a coherent variation with latitude. Fast polarizations vary from NE at 40°-41°S, to N (roughly slab-strike parallel) at 35°-36°S, to NE-ESE at 30°-33°S, curving as the slab flattens where the Juan Fernandez Ridge is subducting beneath the South American lithosphere. For SKS and SKKS phases at PLCA (in the western back-arc at 41°S), fast directions are predominantly ENE-ESE and splitting times range from 1.0-2.3 s. At TRQA (much farther to the east and at 38°S), teleseismic fast polarizations are E-SE and splitting times vary from 0.8-2.4 s. At PLCA, because

  5. "We Must Believe in Ourselves": Attitudes and Experiences of Adult Learners with Disabilities in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Peter; Modipa, Taadi Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Many adults with disabilities in South Africa never had a chance to attend school or dropped out at an early age because of poverty and discrimination. This article investigates the attitudes and experiences of adults with disabilities regarding education. It draws on an interactional model of disability and an embodied understanding of cognition…

  6. The Importance of Material Resources and Qualified Trainers in Adult Non-Formal Education and Training Centres in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term…

  7. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  8. The relation of hypertension to changes in ADL/IADL limitations of Mexican american older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Grace I L; Sutton, Maryann C; Margrett, Jennifer A

    2010-05-01

    Hypertension, highly prevalent and often undiagnosed among older Mexican Americans, is associated with greater limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) that can lead to greater dependency for older adults. Using data from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly study, the rate of increase in ADL/IADL limitations for a 7-year period was examined for 3,046 older Mexican Americans classified either as reporting hypertension at baseline, first reporting hypertension at subsequent waves, or never reporting hypertension. Latent growth models indicated increased ADL/IADL limitations over time; individuals with hypertension evidenced greater increases than those without hypertension. Age, comorbidities, and depression were positively related to greater ADL/IADL limitations at baseline for all groups; only age was consistently related to ADL/IADL change over time. Development of hypertension may increase the risk of ADL/IADL decline, but early diagnosis and treatment may attenuate this effect.

  9. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  10. American Geriatrics Society updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) continue to be prescribed and used as first-line treatment for the most vulnerable of older adults, despite evidence of poor outcomes from the use of PIMs in older adults. PIMs now form an integral part of policy and practice and are incorporated into several quality measures. The specific aim of this project was to update the previous Beers Criteria using a comprehensive, systematic review and grading of the evidence on drug-related problems and adverse drug events (ADEs) in older adults. This was accomplished through the support of The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) and the work of an interdisciplinary panel of 11 experts in geriatric care and pharmacotherapy who applied a modified Delphi method to the systematic review and grading to reach consensus on the updated 2012 AGS Beers Criteria. Fifty-three medications or medication classes encompass the final updated Criteria, which are divided into three categories: potentially inappropriate medications and classes to avoid in older adults, potentially inappropriate medications and classes to avoid in older adults with certain diseases and syndromes that the drugs listed can exacerbate, and finally medications to be used with caution in older adults. This update has much strength, including the use of an evidence-based approach using the Institute of Medicine standards and the development of a partnership to regularly update the Criteria. Thoughtful application of the Criteria will allow for (a) closer monitoring of drug use, (b) application of real-time e-prescribing and interventions to decrease ADEs in older adults, and (c) better patient outcomes.

  11. Association between Perceived Built Environment and Prevalent Hypertension among South African Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasmore Malambo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association between perceived built environmental attributes and hypertension among adults has received little attention in an African context. We investigated the association between the perceived built environment and prevalent hypertension in adult South Africans. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2008-2009 Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology data among South African (n=671 adults aged ≥35 years. Perceived built environment was assessed using the neighborhood environment walkability scale questionnaire. Prevalent hypertension was defined as previously diagnosed by a physician, screen-detected hypertension as ≥140/90 mmHg, and a combination of both as any hypertension. Logistic regressions were applied for analyses. Results. In crude logistic regressions, self-reported hypertension was associated with land use mix-diversity, street connectivity, infrastructure for walking/cycling, aesthetics, traffic, and crime. In adjusted model, land use mix-diversity was significantly associated with self-reported hypertension. In similar multivariable models, the direction and magnitude of the effects were mostly similar to the outcomes of “screen-detected hypertension” which was further predicted by perceived lack of safety from traffic. Conclusion. Perceived built environment attributes were significantly associated with hypertension. This has relevance to population-based approaches to hypertension prevention and control.

  12. The effects of possibly buoyant flat slab segments on Nazca and South American plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Shea, R.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    factor in matching plate velocities today is not the density structure of the slab but its geometry. A slab that dips at 30 degrees reproduces the Nazca plate motions almost exactly, with minor improvements when the real morphology is added. The lower mantle buoyancy remains important for the South American motions. Changes in plate or plate boundary rheology are not needed.

  13. Undersampling Taxa Will Underestimate Molecular Divergence Dates: An Example from the South American Lizard Clade Liolaemini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Schulte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for estimating divergence times from molecular data have improved dramatically over the past decade, yet there are few studies examining alternative taxon sampling effects on node age estimates. Here, I investigate the effect of undersampling species diversity on node ages of the South American lizard clade Liolaemini using several alternative subsampling strategies for both time calibrations and taxa numbers. Penalized likelihood (PL and Bayesian molecular dating analyses were conducted on a densely sampled (202 taxa mtDNA-based phylogenetic hypothesis of Iguanidae, including 92 Liolaemini species. Using all calibrations and penalized likelihood, clades with very low taxon sampling had node age estimates younger than clades with more complete taxon sampling. The effect of Bayesian and PL methods differed when either one or two calibrations only were used with dense taxon sampling. Bayesian node ages were always older when fewer calibrations were used, whereas PL node ages were always younger. This work reinforces two important points: (1 whenever possible, authors should strongly consider adding as many taxa as possible, including numerous outgroups, prior to node age estimation to avoid considerable node age underestimation and (2 using more, critically assessed, and accurate fossil calibrations should yield improved divergence time estimates.

  14. Decompressive Hemicraniectomy in a South American Population--Morbidity and Outcomes Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bezerra Vital

    Full Text Available Malignant cerebral artery strokes have a poor prognosis, with nearly 80% of mortality in some series despite intensive care. After a large randomized trial, decompressive hemicraniectomy has been performed more often in stroke patients. Here, we describe patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in Brazil, emphasizing the impact of age on outcomes.A retrospective cohort of patients, with malignant strokes which received a decompressive hemicraniectomy, from paper and electronic medical records, from January 2010 to December 2013 was divided into two groups according to age.The final analysis included 60 patients. The overall mortality was higher among patients older than 60 yrs (67% vs. 41%; p = 0.039, whose group also had a worse outcome (76% with mRS 5 or 6 at 90 days (OR 3.91 CI95% 1.30-11.74, whereas only 24% had mRS of 0-4 (p = 0.015. All patients who presented with sepsis died (p = 0.003. The incidence of pulmonary infection was very high in the elderly group (76% with significant intergroup differences (p = 0.027, OR 8.32 CI95% 0.70-98.48.Older patients present more commonly with infections, more disabilities and a higher mortality, highlighting very poor results in elderly population. These results should be proved with a South American trial, and if confirmed, it can impact on future decisions regarding decompressive craniectomy for acute ischemic stroke in our region.

  15. The stationarity of consumption-income ratios: evidence from South American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Reis Gomes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the order of integration of the consumption-income ratio in 10 South American countries. To do this, the individual ADF test, its panel versions and theMinimumLMunit root test with structural break(s were employed. While the former tests found more favorable evidence of an integrated process, after controlling for structural breaks only Uruguay seems to be integrated. Thus, in general, the consumption-income ratio was diagnosed as a stationary process, as suggested by the relative income hypothesis, the habit persistence model, the permanent income hypothesis and the life cycle hypothesis.Este artigo analisa a ordem de integração da razão consumo-renda em 10 países da América do Sul. Para tanto, utilizamos o teste ADF e sua versão painel, além de um teste LM de raiz unitária com quebra estrutural(s. Enquanto os primeiros testes encontraram evidências mais favoráveis a processos integrados, após o controle de quebras estruturais apenas o processo do Uruguai parece ser integrado. Assim, em geral, a razão consumo-renda foi diagnosticada como um processo estacionário, como sugerido pelo modelo de hábito e pelas hipóteses de renda relativa, renda permanente e ciclo de vida.

  16. A possible explanation for the dominant effect of South American thunderstorms on the Carnegie curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartalev, M. D.; Rycroft, M. J.; Fuellekrug, M.; Papitashvili, V. O.; Keremidarska, V. I.

    2006-02-01

    The Carnegie curve shows the variation of the vertical electric field near the Earth's surface with Universal Time. The largest of the three maxima in this variation occurs at the time of maximum thunderstorm activity over the Americas, although this is weaker than that over Africa. This paradoxical effect may be explained by the fact that South American thunderstorms are close to the magnetic dip equator, whereas most African thunderstorms occur over the Congo at a higher (Southern) dip latitude. Kartalev et al. [2004. A quantitative model of the effect of global thunderstorms on the global distribution of ionospheric electrostatic potential. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 66, 1233 1240.] modeled the global distribution of ionospheric electrostatic potential where the equatorial (within 11 magnetic latitude of the equator) lower ionosphere accumulates all upward thunderstorm currents into one line—the dip equator. Currents flow on a spherical shell of the magnetic coordinates model, and so change the distribution of the ionospheric potential on a global scale. That global distribution of ionospheric potential determines the vertical electric field near the Earth's surface everywhere. Thus, the Carnegie curve reflects preferentially the longitudinal distribution of thunderstorms within 11 of the magnetic dip equator.

  17. Resting metabolic rate and heat increment of feeding in juvenile South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassis, M; Rodríguez, D H; Ieno, E N; Denuncio, P E; Loureiro, J; Davis, R W

    2014-02-01

    Bio-energetic models used to characterize an animal's energy budget require the accurate estimate of different variables such as the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the heat increment of feeding (HIF). In this study, we estimated the in air RMR of wild juvenile South American fur seals (SAFS; Arctocephalus australis) temporarily held in captivity by measuring oxygen consumption while at rest in a postabsorptive condition. HIF, which is an increase in metabolic rate associated with digestion, assimilation and nutrient interconversion, was estimated as the difference in resting metabolic rate between the postabsorptive condition and the first 3.5h postprandial. As data were hierarchically structured, linear mixed effect models were used to compare RMR measures under both physiological conditions. Results indicated a significant increase (61%) for the postprandial RMR compared to the postabsorptive condition, estimated at 17.93±1.84 and 11.15±1.91mL O2 min(-1)kg(-1), respectively. These values constitute the first estimation of RMR and HIF in this species, and should be considered in the energy budgets for juvenile SAFS foraging at-sea.

  18. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Magalhães Campião

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR. We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

  19. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  20. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse.

  1. Distribution and abundance of flatfish on the South American continental shelf from Suriname to Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickchand-Heileman, Sherry C.

    This study is based on data collected during four trawl surveys conducted in 1988 on the South American continental shelf from Suriname to Colombia. Members of four flatfish families were caught in depths ranging from 15 to 410 m at 264 of the 1200 stations trawled: Bothidae (13 genera, 30 species), Cynoglossidae (1 genus, 4 species), Soleidae (3 genera, 4 species) and Pleuronectidae (1 genus, 3 species). Flatfish comprised less than 5% of total catch by weight at most stations. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed between 4 and 6 groups of stations in each survey characterized according to depth, temperature and species associations. Cynoglossids, soleids and some bothids characterized shallow-water stations while bothids and pleuronectids characterized intermediate and deep-water stations. Highest catches were taken off northern Venezuela and Colombia during times of increased upwelling and in areas influenced by river runoff. Mean density of flatfish was less than 0.0005 ind·m -2. The major species caught were Paralichthys tropicus, Paralichthys lethostigma, Cyclopsetta chittendeni, Syacium micrurum, Syacium papillosum,, Syacium sp. and Symphurus plagiusa and range extensions were found for six species.

  2. Child health insurance coverage and household activity toward child development in four South American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship.

  3. Infant growth and the thymus: data from two South American native societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veile, Amanda; Winking, Jeffrey; Gurven, Michael; Greaves, Russell D; Kramer, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    The thymus plays an important role in the development of the immune system, yet little is known about the patterns and sources of variation in postnatal thymic development. The aim of this study is to contribute cross-cultural data on thymus size in infants from two South American native populations, the Tsimane of Bolivia and the Pumé of Venezuela. Thymic ultrasonography was performed and standard anthropometric measures collected from 86 Tsimane and Pumé infants. Patterns of infant growth and thymus size were compared between the two populations and the relationship between nutritional status and thymus size was assessed. Despite nearly identical anthropometric trajectories, Tsimane infants had larger thymuses than Pumé infants at all ages. Population, infant age, and infant mid-upper arm circumference were significant predictors of thymus area in the Tsimane and Pumé infants. This finding reveals a cross-cultural difference in thymus size that is not driven by nutritional status. We suggest that future studies focus on isolating prenatal and postnatal environmental factors underlying cross-cultural variation in thymic development.

  4. Moisture and heat budgets of the south American monsoon system: climatological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Kayano, Mary T.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    The climatology of the moisture and heat budget equation terms for subareas within the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) region is investigated for the 1958-2014 period considering the distinct phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These budget equations are applied to the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis project. Sources or sinks of moisture and heat are equation residues, referred to as residue and diabatic terms, respectively. Analyses are done for the Central Amazon Basin (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) for three distinct periods, 1958-1976, 1977-1995, and 1996-2014, that correspond to the cold, warm, and undefined PDO phases. The differences among the PDO phases for each term are discussed. The CAM region acts dominantly as a moisture sink and heat source in all months during the three phases. On the other hand, in the WCB region, the monsoon characteristics are better defined, with a moisture sink (source) and a heat source (sink) during the wet (dry) season. The main result of the present analysis is the persistence of SAMS intensification signs in both CAM and WCB areas up to the last analyzed period (1996-2014), which is consistent with intense flooding in the Amazon Basin in 2008/2009, 2012, and 2014.

  5. Prediction of the burnout performance of some South American coals using a drop-tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richelieu Barranco; Michael Cloke; Edward Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Fuel Technology Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-10-01

    An experimental investigation into the combustion burnout behaviour of some South American coals was carried out in a drop-tube furnace. The samples, in two size fractions, were initially pyrolysed at a temperature of 1300{sup o}C, in a 1% of oxygen in nitrogen atmosphere for 200 ms. The re-firing of these pyrolysed chars was performed in the same apparatus, at the same temperature, during 400 ms, in an atmosphere containing 5% of oxygen in nitrogen. The coal samples used in this study were characterised by standard tests along with a specially developed image analysis technique (grey-scale histogram). Data of intrinsic reactivity, morphology, and burnout of the chars were correlated with maceral content of the feed coal by mean of linear regressions. In most cases, the results showed a poor correlation. Subsequently, when the rank of the coals was included in the regressions, the correlations remarkably improved in all cases. When further regressions of char properties with the grey-scale histogram of the coals were carried out, much better correlations were achieved. Therefore, the results indicate that the grey-scale histogram analysis provides a simple and objective technique to predict the combustion behaviour of these coals. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. ISOLATION AND GENOTYPING OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS FROM FREE-LIVING SOUTH AMERICAN COATI (NASUA NASUA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo O S; Almeida, Lara R; Oliveira Junior, Carlos A; Lima, Paula C S; Soares, Danielle F M; Pereira, Pedro L L; Silva, Israel J; Lobato, Francisco C F

    2016-03-01

    The importance of Clostridium perfringens for most wild animal species remains unclear. This study aimed to isolate and genotype C. perfringens in stool samples from free-living South American coati (Nasua nasua) in Brazil. Forty-six free-living N. nasua were trapped and stool samples were collected. Two different protocols for C. perfringens isolation were tested: direct plating onto selective agar and pre-enrichment in broth followed by plating in selective agar. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from 15 (32.6%) animals by direct plating and 36 (78.3%) animals by broth PE, and the rate of isolation was significantly different between these two methods (P < 0.01). Twelve of the 36 (33.3%) isolated strains by the PE protocol were positive for the β-2 toxin-encoding gene (cpb2) whereas the enterotoxin-encoding gene (cpe) and necrotic enteritis like-B toxin gene (netb) were not found. These results suggest that C. perfringens is commonly part of the microbiota of free-living coatis. Additionally, the use of a PE protocol appears to be essential for studies on C. perfringens in this species.

  7. Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.B.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

  8. Centennial-scale solar forcing of the South American Monsoon System recorded in stalagmites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Valdir F; Vuille, Mathias; Cruz, Francisco W; Stríkis, Nicolás M; de Paula, Marcos Saito; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Karmann, Ivo; Jaqueto, Plínio F; Trindade, Ricardo I F; Hartmann, Gelvam A; Moquet, Jean S

    2016-04-21

    The South American Monsoon System (SAMS) is generally considered to be highly sensitive to Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature variations on multi-centennial timescales. The direct influence of solar forcing on moisture convergence in global monsoon systems on the other hand, while well explored in modeling studies, has hitherto not been documented in proxy data from the SAMS region. Hence little is known about the sensitivity of the SAMS to solar forcing over the past millennium and how it might compete or constructively interfere with NH temperature variations that occurred primarily in response to volcanic forcing. Here we present a new annually-resolved oxygen isotope record from a 1500-year long stalagmite recording past changes in precipitation in the hitherto unsampled core region of the SAMS. This record details how solar variability consistently modulated the strength of the SAMS on centennial time scales during the past 1500 years. Solar forcing, besides the previously recognized influence from NH temperature changes and associated Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifts, appears as a major driver affecting SAMS intensity at centennial time scales.

  9. Computed tomographic examination of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) with suspected Mycobacterium pinnipedii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczynski, K; Scharpegge, J; Ley-Zaporozhan, J; Ley, S; Cracknell, J; Lyashchenko, K; Greenwald, R; Schenk, J P

    2011-12-03

    Ten South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) were presented for clinical evaluation and diagnosis of tuberculosis following known exposure to Mycobacterium pinnipedii. CT was used to determine whether foci of calcification in mediastinal lymph nodes, typically associated with pinniped tuberculosis, could be detected and whether CT was a useful diagnostic modality, in conjunction with other tests, for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in this species. Blood was collected from the caudal gluteal vein of each animal for serological testing using commercially available serological tests (ElephantTB STAT-PAK and DPP Vet; Chembio Diagnostic Systems) and a multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), carried out at Chembio to verify the in-house kits. In four of nine animals that underwent CT scanning, lesions consistent with pinniped tuberculosis were apparent and these were confirmed at subsequent postmortem examination. The five remaining animals did not show any abnormalities on CT, with three being negative on serological tests, which were considered to be normal and potentially used as reference images for healthy sea lions. One animal could not be CT scanned due to its large size and weight (510 kg).

  10. Blood gases and cardiovascular shunt in the South American lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) during normoxia and hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Mirian; Giusti, Humberto; da Silva, Glauber S; Amin-Naves, Jalile; Glass, Mogens L

    2010-08-31

    The South American lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) has an arterial P(O(2)) (Pa(O(2))) as high as 70-100 mmHg, corresponding to Hb-O(2) saturations from 90% to 95%, which indicates a moderate cardiovascular right to left (R-L) shunt. In hyperoxia (50% O(2)), we studied animals in: (1) aerated water combined with aerial hyperoxia, which increased Pa(O(2)) from 78+/-2 to 114+/-3 mmHg and (2) and aquatic hyperoxia (50% O(2)) combined room air, which gradually increased Pa(O(2)) from 75+/-4 mmHg to as much as 146+/-10 mmHg. Further, the hyperoxia (50%) depressed pulmonary ventilation from 58+/-13 to 5.5+/-3.0 mLBTPSkgh(-1), and Pa(CO(2)) increased from 20+/-2 to 31+/-4 mmHg, while pHa became reduced from 7.56+/-0.03 to 7.31+/-0.09. At the same time, venous P(O(2)) (Pv(O(2))) rose from 40.0+/-2.3 to 46.4+/-1.2 mmHg and, concomitantly, Pv(CO(2)) increased from 23.2+/-1.1 to 32.2+/-0.5 mmHg. R-L shunts were estimated to about 19%, which is moderate when compared to most amphibians.

  11. Continent-wide decoupling of Y-chromosomal genetic variation from language and geography in native South Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz; Nothnagel, Michael; Gusmão, Leonor; Gomes, Veronica; González, Miguel; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea; Alechine, Evguenia; Palha, Teresinha; Santos, Ney; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea; Geppert, Maria; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Zweynert, Sarah; Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Builes, Juan José; Turbón, Daniel; Lopez Parra, Ana Maria; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Toscanini, Ulises; Borjas, Lisbeth; Barletta, Claudia; Ewart, Elizabeth; Santos, Sidney; Krawczak, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR) markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3*) in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific

  12. Continent-Wide Decoupling of Y-Chromosomal Genetic Variation from Language and Geography in Native South Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Leonor; Gomes, Veronica; González, Miguel; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea; Alechine, Evguenia; Palha, Teresinha; Santos, Ney; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Geppert, Maria; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Zweynert, Sarah; Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Builes, Juan José; Turbón, Daniel; Lopez Parra, Ana Maria; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Toscanini, Ulises; Borjas, Lisbeth; Barletta, Claudia; Ewart, Elizabeth; Santos, Sidney; Krawczak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR) markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3*) in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific

  13. Continent-wide decoupling of Y-chromosomal genetic variation from language and geography in native South Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Roewer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs, the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3* in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under

  14. Amanita viscidolutea, a new species from Brazil with a key to Central and South American species of Amanita section Amanita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolli, Nelson; Capelari, Marina; Baseia, Iuri Goulart

    2009-01-01

    We described and illustrated Amanita viscidolutea sp. nov. from specimens collected in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. The main characteristics of the new species are its yellow pileus with white margin, the viscidity of the pileal surface, an exannulate stipe and inamyloid basidiospores. We also present an artificial dichotomous key to Central and South American species of Amanita (subgenus Amanita) section Amanita.

  15. A taxonomic revision of the Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Cecilia Dominguez

    2007-01-01

    The Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy are revised. Twenty five valid species are recognized for the region in the present study: Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia anthracina (Walker), Fannia bigoti Stein, Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus), Fannia confusa Pont & Carvalho, Fannia coxata Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia flavicornis Stein, Fannia flavipalpis Stein, Fannia fusconotata (Rondani), Fannia heydenii (Wiedemann), Fannia hirtifemur (Stei...

  16. In the wake of invasion: tracing the historical biogeography of the South American cricetid radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael N Leite

    Full Text Available The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early episode of North American invasion. Here, we provide a temporal and spatial framework to address key aspects of the historical biogeography and diversification of this diverse mammal group by using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets coupled with methods of divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction and comparative phylogenetics. Relaxed-clock time estimates indicate that divergence of the Sigmodontinae began in the middle-late Miocene (ca. 12-9 Ma. Dispersal-vicariance analyses point to the arrival of a single lineage of northern invaders with a widespread ancestral distribution and imply that the initial differentiation between Central and South America gave rise to the most basal groups within the subfamily. These two major clades diversified in the late Miocene followed by the radiation of main tribes until the early Pliocene. Within the Oryzomyalia, tribes diverged initially in eastern South America whereas multiple dispersals into the Andes promoted further diversification of the majority of modern genera. A comparatively uniform background tempo of diversification explains the species richness of sigmodontines across most nodes, except for two akodontine genera with recent increases in diversification rates. The bridging of the Central American seaway and episodes of low sea levels likely facilitated the invasion of South America long before the onset of the post-Isthmian phase of the GABI.

  17. In the wake of invasion: tracing the historical biogeography of the South American cricetid radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Rafael N; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Almeida, Francisca C; Werneck, Fernanda P; Rogers, Duke S; Weksler, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early episode of North American invasion. Here, we provide a temporal and spatial framework to address key aspects of the historical biogeography and diversification of this diverse mammal group by using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets coupled with methods of divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction and comparative phylogenetics. Relaxed-clock time estimates indicate that divergence of the Sigmodontinae began in the middle-late Miocene (ca. 12-9 Ma). Dispersal-vicariance analyses point to the arrival of a single lineage of northern invaders with a widespread ancestral distribution and imply that the initial differentiation between Central and South America gave rise to the most basal groups within the subfamily. These two major clades diversified in the late Miocene followed by the radiation of main tribes until the early Pliocene. Within the Oryzomyalia, tribes diverged initially in eastern South America whereas multiple dispersals into the Andes promoted further diversification of the majority of modern genera. A comparatively uniform background tempo of diversification explains the species richness of sigmodontines across most nodes, except for two akodontine genera with recent increases in diversification rates. The bridging of the Central American seaway and episodes of low sea levels likely facilitated the invasion of South America long before the onset of the post-Isthmian phase of the GABI.

  18. Now and Then - Diasporic Identity Processes among South Asian Young Adults in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores some social-psychological aspects for South Asian Young Adults in Denmark such as identity processes through social relations across the geographical borders and psychological diaspora consciousness and is a follow up of the project conducted in the mid-nineties, in Denmark (N......= 14). The diasporic conceptualisations focussing on human centeredness and processes in migration combined with life course perspective provide theoretical framework for this study. The method used is in-depth interviews, analysed through condensation and meaningful categorisation of the narratives...

  19. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the submarine slope environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 5 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  20. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 16 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters. The...

  1. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North American Coastline-South from 01 February 1979 to 10 October 1979 (NODC Accession 9200031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North American Coastline-South from 01 February 1979 to 10 October 1979. Data were...

  2. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  3. American Geriatrics Society 2015 Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria are presented. Like the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria, they include lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults. New to the criteria are lists of select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual's kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. The specific aim was to have a 13-member interdisciplinary panel of experts in geriatric care and pharmacotherapy update the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria using a modified Delphi method to systematically review and grade the evidence and reach a consensus on each existing and new criterion. The process followed an evidence-based approach using Institute of Medicine standards. The 2015 AGS Beers Criteria are applicable to all older adults with the exclusion of those in palliative and hospice care. Careful application of the criteria by health professionals, consumers, payors, and health systems should lead to closer monitoring of drug use in older adults.

  4. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Disadvantaged African American Adults using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J.; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1,535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographics, and psychological functioning factors helps explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  5. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems.

  6. High-resolution Holocene South American monsoon history recorded by a speleothem from Botuverá Cave, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J. P.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Stríkis, Nicolás M.; Wang, Xianfeng; Deininger, Michael; Catunda, Maria Carolina A.; Ortega-Obregón, C.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S.

    2016-09-01

    A Holocene stalagmite from Botuverá Cave, southeastern Brazil was analyzed by LA-ICPMS for Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca. The observed variability in the record was demonstrated to be modulated by prior calcite precipitation, and, thus, is interpreted to reflect monsoon intensity. We find that the calcite δ18O is strongly correlated with Sr/Ca, indicating that atmospheric circulation over South America and monsoon intensity have been tightly correlated throughout most of the Holocene, both directly responding to solar precession. Comparison with other contemporaneous high-resolution hydroclimate records reveals that SAMS has shown a degree of complexity during the Holocene not previously detected, with periods where the South American Convergence Zone (SACZ) expanded to cover most of the South American sub-continent, and coincident with periods of low-SST in the north Atlantic. We also detect periods where rainfall amount in northeastern and southeastern Brazil are markedly anti-phased, suggesting a north-south migration of SACZ, which it appears to be mediated by solar irradiance. The high-resolution nature of our record allow us to examine the effect that Holocene climate anomalies had upon SAMS dynamics and hydroclimate in southeastern Brazil, in particular the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. In addition to confirm the internal structure of the events, we also detect the possible consequences of the climatic anomalies upon ocean-atmosphere interactions through its effects upon SAMS.

  7. Final Gondwana breakup: The Paleogene South American native ungulates and the demise of the South America-Antarctica land connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, Marcelo A.; Gelfo, Javier N.; López, Guillermo M.; Bond, Mariano; Abello, Alejandra; Santillana, Sergio N.; Marenssi, Sergio A.

    2014-12-01

    The biogeographic hypothesis more accepted today is that Antarctica (West Antarctica) and southern South America (Magellan region, Patagonia) were connected by a long and narrow causeway (Weddellian Isthmus) between the Antarctic Peninsula and South America since the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) until the Early Paleogene allowing terrestrial vertebrates to colonize new frontiers using this land bridge. Stratigraphically calibrated phylogenies including large, terrestrial native ungulates Litopterna and Astrapotheria taxa reveal long ghost lineages that extended into the Late Paleocene and provide evidence for the minimum times at which these "native ungulates" were present both on Antarctica and South America. Based on these results we estimate that the Weddellian Isthmus was functional as a land bridge until the Late Paleocene. Our data place the disconnection between Antarctica and South America in the Late Paleocene, indicating that the terrestrial faunistic isolation (Simpson's "splendid isolation") in South America begun at the end of the Paleocene (~ 56 to 57 m.y.). This faunistic isolation is documented to have occurred at least 25 Ma before the existence of deep-water circulation conditions in Drake Passage (~ 30 m.y.) based on the onset of seafloor spreading in the west Scotia Sea region. We hypothesize that in the early stages of extension (Late Paleocene, ~ 55 m.y.) a wide and relatively shallow epicontinental sea developed between the Antarctic Peninsula and South America drowning the Weddellian Isthmus and preventing the faunal interchange for obligate cursorial terrestrial forms.

  8. Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min; Joung, Hyojee

    2010-04-01

    North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake.

  9. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  10. Estimated use of abacavir among adults and children enrolled in public sector antiretroviral therapy programmes in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Evans

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, abacavir (ABC is currently recommended as part of first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART for HIV-positive paediatric patients. Concerns about overprescribing of the drug, particularly to adults, led to an analysis of ABC use in public sector ART programmes. We investigated current prescription of the drug to adults and children accessing ART in 4 public sector programmes across Gauteng Province, South Africa. ABC was almost exclusively prescribed to children initiating ART and adults requiring regimen changes due to drug toxicities. Patterns of ABC use among HIV-positive paediatric patients followed national ART treatment guidelines on the application of the drug. Although ABC is commonly used in the private sector for adults, the current national ART treatment guidelines for adults and adolescents should include ABC as an alternative to standard first- or second-line ART.

  11. Knowledge About and Perceptions of Advance Care Planning and Communication of Chinese-American Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Cote, Sarah; Enguidanos, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Although advance care planning (ACP) is associated with better care at the end of life, better quality of death, and less psychological distress in survivors, ethnic disparities in ACP completion rates have been documented and may be attributable to lack of knowledge about ACP or differences in cultural values and preferences. Despite rapid increases in the size of the Asian-American population, little is known about ACP preferences of Chinese Americans. The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and preferences of older Chinese Americans toward ACP. Focus groups with Chinese older adults (n = 34) were conducted in Mandarin, Cantonese, and English, and transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Identified themes included knowledge and experience with ACP and end-of-life care options, health as a factor in timing of ACP and communication, and communication of end-of-life care preferences. Knowledge of and experience with ACP and end-of-life decision-making varied according to focus group, although few participants had an advance directive. Findings suggest that Chinese older adults prefer to use indirect communication strategies, such as commenting on the circumstances of others rather than directly stating their wishes, and informal contexts, such as during a family dinner rather than formal meeting, to convey their care preferences to loved ones and may employ similar tactics when communicating with clinicians. This is particularly important given the recent decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to provide reimbursement to physicians for engaging in advance care planning conversations.

  12. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  13. Standing on a Strong Foundation of Servitude: The 1960's Civil Rights Movement, Septima Clark and Other South Carolina African American Women Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Iris Renell

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…

  14. CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 variants and level of neuroticism in young adult Mexican American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, José R; Gizer, Ian R; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-01

    A lifetime history of alcohol dependence has been associated with elevations in neuroticism in Mexican American young adults. The identification of genetic markers associated with neuroticism and their influence on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) may contribute to our understanding of the relationship between personality traits and the increased risk of AUD in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neuroticism and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α5-subunit (CHRNA5) and α3-subunit (CHRNA3) genes in young adult Mexican American men and women. Participants were 465 young adult Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Neuroticism was assessed using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The minor alleles of four CHRNA5 polymorphisms (rs588765, rs601079, rs680244 and rs555018) and three CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776, rs6495307 and rs3743078) showed associations with neuroticism. Several of these SNPs also displayed nominal associations with DSM-IV alcohol and nicotine dependence, but tests of mediation suggested that these relations could be partially explained by the presence of co-occurring neuroticism. These findings suggest that genetic variations in nicotinic receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism, which in turn is involved in the development of AUDs and nicotine dependence in Mexican American young adults.

  15. The thermoregulatory function of thatched nests in the South American grass-cutting ant, Acromyrmex heyeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2010-01-01

    The construction of mound-shaped nests by ants is considered as a behavioral adaptation to low environmental temperatures, i.e., colonies achieve higher and more stables temperatures than those of the environment. Besides the well-known nests of boreal Formica wood-ants, several species of South American leaf-cutting ants of the genus Acromyrmex construct thatched nests. Acromyrmex workers import plant fragments as building material, and arrange them so as to form a thatch covering a central chamber, where the fungus garden is located. Thus, the degree of thermoregulation attained by the fungus garden inside the thatched nest largely depends on how the thatch affects the thermal relations between the fungus and the environment. This work was aimed at studying the thermoregulatory function of the thatched nests built by the grass-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Nest and environmental temperatures were measured as a function of solar radiation on the long-term. The thermal diffusivity of the nest thatch was measured and compared to that of the surrounding soil, in order to assess the influence of the building material on the nest's thermoregulatory ability. The results showed that the average core temperature of thatched nests was higher than that of the environment, but remained below values harmful for the fungus. This thermoregulation was brought about by the low thermal diffusivity of the nest thatch built by workers with plant fragments, instead of the readily-available soil particles that have a higher thermal diffusivity. The thatch prevented diurnal nest overheating by the incoming solar radiation, and avoided losses of the accumulated daily heat into the cold air during the night. The adaptive value of thatching behavior in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants occurring in the southernmost distribution range is discussed.

  16. Fast nonlinear gravity inversion in spherical coordinates with application to the South American Moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valéria C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the relief of the Moho from gravity data is a computationally intensive nonlinear inverse problem. What is more, the modelling must take the Earths curvature into account when the study area is of regional scale or greater. We present a regularized nonlinear gravity inversion method that has a low computational footprint and employs a spherical Earth approximation. To achieve this, we combine the highly efficient Bott's method with smoothness regularization and a discretization of the anomalous Moho into tesseroids (spherical prisms). The computational efficiency of our method is attained by harnessing the fact that all matrices involved are sparse. The inversion results are controlled by three hyperparameters: the regularization parameter, the anomalous Moho density-contrast, and the reference Moho depth. We estimate the regularization parameter using the method of hold-out cross-validation. Additionally, we estimate the density-contrast and the reference depth using knowledge of the Moho depth at certain points. We apply the proposed method to estimate the Moho depth for the South American continent using satellite gravity data and seismological data. The final Moho model is in accordance with previous gravity-derived models and seismological data. The misfit to the gravity and seismological data is worse in the Andes and best in oceanic areas, central Brazil and Patagonia, and along the Atlantic coast. Similarly to previous results, the model suggests a thinner crust of 30-35 km under the Andean foreland basins. Discrepancies with the seismological data are greatest in the Guyana Shield, the central Solimões and Amazonas Basins, the Paraná Basin, and the Borborema province. These differences suggest the existence of crustal or mantle density anomalies that were unaccounted for during gravity data processing.

  17. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  18. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

  19. Hypothesis on the cause of extinction of the South American mastodonts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficcarelli, G.; Azzaroli, A.; Bertini, A.; Coltorti, M.; Mazza, P.; Mezzabotta, C.; Espinosa, M. Moreno; Rook, L.; Torre, D.

    1997-01-01

    Paleontological, geomorphological and sedimentological investigations on the Cangahua Formation in the Interandean depression of Northern and Central Ecuador have provided information on the evolution of the Andean paleoenvironment during the Late Pleistocene. Pyroclastic and windblown sediments were deposited during cold and dry phases of the last glaciation, interrupted many times by the development of forest-steppe and steppe paleosoils during interstadials. An erosional phase which closed the Cangahua sedimentation was followed by the deposition of colluvial sediments, characterized by a high number of minor pedogenetic episodes. The colluviums are confidently referable to the Holocene. The upper part of the Cangahua Formation is rich in mammal fossils and is probably referable to the Last Glacial Maximum. The fossiliferous sequences suggest that mastodonts disappeared before mylodonts and equids. We hypothesize that the increased cold and aridity of the Last Glacial Maximum, which deeply affected the Cordillera, caused the extinction of most of the megafauna and the mastodonts seem to have been the most sensitive to the environmental degradation. The final history of South American mastodonts, represented by Haplomastodon and Stegomastodon, spans the latest Pleistocene and probably the earliest Holocene. Haplomastodon was dispersed in the highlands within the tropical belt and Stegomastodon in plains of the southernmost part of Brazil, in Paraguay, Uraguay, Argentine, central and northern Chile. Both Haplomastodon and Stegomastodon suffered the same negative effects of the Last Glacial Maximum when their habitats underwent intense desertifications under dry and cold conditions. They disappeared in a mosaic way in the course of the latest Pleistocene, the last representatives probably surviving in favorable restricted areas where however the considerably increased selective pressure was in the long run devastating. In our opinion the human impact was not a

  20. Reaching into the Digital Divide: Technological Use of Computers by African American Male Youth in the American South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Antionette L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how the computer is utilized in the daily lives of seven African American male youth in the southeastern region of the United States. Critical pedagogy was selected as the theoretical framework using Paulo Freire ideas of problem-posing education to promote awareness towards using the computer…

  1. Male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of colorectal cancer screening among young adult African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.

  2. Association Study of Candidate Gene Polymorphisms and Obesity in a Young Mexican-American Population from South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Gonzalez, Jorge; Ortiz, Ixiu; Gonzales, Enrique; Ruiz, Nicole; Ortiz, Manti; Gonzalez, Arthur; Sanchez, Edna K.; Curet, Eugenia; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; Rentfro, Anne; Qu, Huiqi; Nair, Saraswathy

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity is increasingly a health problem and a risk factor for diabetes in young Mexican-American populations. Genetic association studies in older, mostly non-Hispanic populations have reported that polymorphisms in the candidate genes HSD11B1, CRP, ADIPOQ, PPARG, ANKK1, ABCC8 and SERPINF1 are associated with obesity or diabetes. We analyzed the polymorphisms rs846910, rs1205, rs1501299, rs1801282, rs1800497, rs757110 and rs1136287in these candidate genes, for association with obesity and metabolic traits in a young Mexican-American population from south Texas. Methods Genotyping of the seven common SNPs were performed by allelic discrimination assays in 448 unrelated Mexican Americans (median age = 16 years) from south Texas. χ2 tests and regression analyses using additive models were used for genetic association analyses adjusting for covariates; p values were corrected for multiple testing by permutation analyses. Results rs1800497 (ANKK1) shows association with waist circumference (p = 0.009) and retains the association (p = 0.03) after permutation testing. Analysis of metabolic quantitative traits shows that rs846910 (HSD11B1) was associated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.04) and triglycerides (p = 0.03), and rs1205 (CRP) with HOMA-IR (p = 0.03) and fasting glucose levels (p = 0.007). However, the quantitative traits associations are not maintained after permutation analysis. None of the other SNPs in this study showed associations with obesity or metabolic traits in this young Mexican-American population. Conclusions We report a potential association between rs1800497 (linked to changes in brain dopamine receptor levels) and central obesity in a young Mexican-American population. PMID:22056417

  3. Coalescent Simulation and Paleodistribution Modeling for Tabebuia rosealba Do Not Support South American Dry Forest Refugia Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Warita Alves; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.; Terribile, Levi Carina

    2016-01-01

    Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM). We specifically tested the dry forest refugia hypothesis; i.e., if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the LGM. We sampled 235 individuals across 18 populations in Central Brazil and analyzed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. We performed coalescence simulations of alternative hypotheses under demographic expectations from two a priori biogeographic hypotheses (1. the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis and, 2. a range shift to Amazon Basin) and other two demographic expectances predicted by ENMs (3. expansion throughout the Neotropical South America, including Amazon Basin, and 4. retraction during the LGM). Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed haplotype sharing among populations with evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed smaller effective population sizes for T. roseoalba during the LGM compared to the present-day. Simulations and ENM also showed that its current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range retraction during the LGM instead of the fragmentation from a once extensive and largely contiguous SDTF across South America, not supporting the South

  4. Anomalies of the South American summer monsoon associated with the 1997-99 El Niño-southern oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K.-M.; Zhou, Jiayu

    2003-04-01

    We describe the rainfall and circulation anomalies of the South American summer monsoon (SASM) during December-January-February (DJF) of 1997-98 (El Niño) and 1998-99 (La Niña). The most pronounced rainfall signals in DJF 1997-98 include (a) excessive rainfall over northern Peru and Ecuador, (b) deficient rainfall over northern and central Brazil, and (c) above-normal rainfall over southeastern subtropical South America. The rainfall anomalies in (a) and (b) are associated with the excitation of an anomalous east-west overturning cell with rising motion and low-level westerlies over the equatorial eastern Pacific, coupled to sinking motion and low-level easterlies over northern Brazil. The easterlies turn sharply southeastward on encountering the steep topography of the Andes, enhancing the summertime low-level jet (LLJ) along the eastern foothills of the Andes near 15-20° S, possibly contributing to the increased rainfall in (c).During DJF 1997-98, the sea-surface temperature-induced warming spreads and expands over the entire tropical troposphere. The eastward expansion of a warm upper tropospheric geopotential and temperature ridge from the Niño-3 region, across subtropical South America to the southeast Atlantic, enhances warming over the Altiplano Plateau, hydrostatically strengthening the Bolivia high. Similar to previous warming events, the South Pacific high is weakened, and the South Atlantic high is strengthened. During DJF 1998-99, as cold water develops over the equatorial central Pacific, the SASM anomalies in the tropics are weaker and less organized and appear to be in transition to the opposite phase to those found in DJF 97-98. In the subtropics, notable features include a weakening of the LLJ, a rainfall pattern associated with a poleward shift of the South Atlantic convergence zone, and development of the Pacific-South America teleconnection pattern. Published in 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  6. The Epidemic of Extreme Obesity Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults With Diabetes

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    Charlton Wilson, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN adults with diabetes and to examine the temporal trends for class I, II, and III obesity in this high-risk group during a 10-year period.MethodsWe used data on body mass index (BMI from the annual Diabetes Care and Outcomes Audit to estimate the prevalence of class I, II, and III obesity (class I = 30.0–34.9 kg/m2, class II = 35.0–39.9 kg/m2, and class III ≥40.0 kg/m2 in each year from 1995 through 2004. We also investigated trends in mean BMI during the 10-year period and the role of treatment in these trends using multivariable linear regression models.ResultsObesity was highly prevalent in this population in 2004 (class I, 28.9%; class II, 20.4%; class III, 20.3%. From 1995 through 2004, the percentage of obese adults increased from 16.7% to 20.4% in class II and 11.5% to 20.3% in class III (P <.001, and the mean BMI increased from 32.1 kg/m2 to 34.4 kg/m2. The increase in BMI was greater in the younger age groups. Adjusted mean BMI increased significantly over 10 years for each of three treatment categories.ConclusionExtreme degrees of obesity are a common and increasing problem among AI/AN adults with diabetes. We did not find an association between the type of diabetes treatment and the trend toward extreme degrees of obesity. The increase in extreme obesity could potentially affect the burden of morbidity and mortality among AI/AN adults with diabetes. Effective and culturally appropriate weight management interventions are needed.

  7. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

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    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  8. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  9. Associations Among Religiousness and Community Volunteerism in National Random Samples of American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.

  10. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  11. Relationship between bicultural identity and psychological well-being among American and Japanese older adults

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    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a large national sample of American and Japanese older adults, this study investigated how bicultural identity affects perception of health and well-being in 11 individual psychological variables (i.e. positive well-being: self-esteem, optimism, subjective well-being Japanese equivalent, gratitude, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–positive adjectives, and satisfaction with life; negative well-being: depression, pessimism, social anxiety, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–negative adjectives, and perceived stress. This sample consisted of 1248 Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey, 2004–2006, and 380 Japanese from the Midlife in Japan survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008–2010. Results showed that bicultural individuals (having both highly independent and interdependent self-construals in both countries tend to exhibit higher scores across most perceived health and well-being measures when compared to other groups (i.e. marginal, interdependent, and independent. Cultural-specific aspects of self-construal, health, and well-being are explained to support the findings. Discussion of these findings and their implications is also provided.

  12. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function.

  13. Sleep paralysis and trauma, psychiatric symptoms and disorders in an adult African American population attending primary medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas A; Aigbogun, Notalelomwan; Graves, Ruth Elaine; Lawson, William B; Alim, Tanya N

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of sleep paralysis (SP) absent narcolepsy appears to not be uncommon in African Americans and probably other non-European groups. Prior research has linked SP to trauma and psychiatric disorders and suggested a specific relationship to panic disorder in African Americans. The objective of our study was to evaluate relationships of SP with trauma, concurrent psychiatric symptoms and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in an adult African American population recruited from primary care. Cross sectional study with surveys and diagnostic interviews; Patients attending primary care clinics filled out a survey that determined the 6 month prevalence and associated features of SP, a panic disorder screen, the self-rated Hamilton Depression Scale, and an inventory of trauma exposure. A subset of trauma-exposed participants (N = 142) received comprehensive diagnostic interviews that incorporated the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician Assessed PTSD Scale. Four hundred and forty-one adults participated (mean age-40.0 SD = 13.3, 68% female, 95% African American). Fourteen percent endorsed recent SP. In approximately 1/3 of those with SP, episodes also featured panic symptoms. SP was strongly associated with trauma history, and concurrent anxiety and mood symptoms. SP was not associated with specific psychiatric disorders other than lifetime (but not current) alcohol or substance use disorders. Our findings suggest that SP is not uncommon in adult African Americans and is associated with trauma and concurrent distress but not with a specific psychiatric diagnosis.

  14. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, Lower Mississippi Delta, African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...

  15. PROPOXUR SELECTION OF THE ADULTS OF ANOPHELES STEPHENSI FROM MINAB, SOUTH OF IRAN

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    H. Edalat

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in south of Iran. It has been known to be resistant to DDT, malathion and dieldrin. After appearance of resistance the area was treated with propoxur, at the rate of 2 g/m2 twice a year for 14 successive years. This species is still susceptible to propoxur. In order to forecast the possibility of development of propoxur resistance in An.stephensi, the females of this species were put under the pressure of propoxur for 14 generations in 1988. Fourteen generations of propoxur selection on the adult females of An.stephensi resulted in an increase in LT60 from 8.5 min to 24.30 minutes, i.e. 2.86 fold increase in tolerance.

  16. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  17. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

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    J. Brito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol

  18. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C ≅ 0

  19. Archeomagnetism of Jesuit Missions in South Brazil (1657-1706 AD) and assessment of the South American database

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    Poletti, Wilbor; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Damiani, Nadir; Rech, Raquel M.

    2016-07-01

    South America contributes only a small fraction of the global archeomagnetic data. Recent work in the region has expanded significantly the previous database with new data being generated from Chile, Argentina, Northeast and Southeast Brazil. We report here new results from Jesuit Missions in South Brazil, at the triple border with Argentina and Paraguay. Our archeological collection comprises a total of 24 fragments of baked clay construction materials from three Jesuit Missions, São Luiz Gonzaga 1657-1687 AD (3 fragments), São João Batista 1667-1697 AD (4 fragments) and Santo Ângelo 1676-1706 AD (17 fragments). Archeointensity determinations were performed with the double-heating technique in its modified form, with pTRM checks and pTRM tail checks. Measurements were complemented by anisotropy and cooling-rate corrections. A total of 24 specimens (11 fragments) passed strict quality selection, corresponding to a success rate of 45%. We also performed an experimental test for the 6-specimen average anisotropy correction technique and we show that it does not correct for the effects of TRM anisotropy. Results were similar within error for the three missions: São Luiz Gonzaga (40.2 ± 2.4 μT), São João Batista (39.1 ± 1.6 μT) and Santo Ângelo (41.1 ± 2.0 μT). These data were then compared with the most reliable data from South America, after a critical assessment of the current database. According to our analysis, only 39 intensity data for the continent can be considered as high-quality, most within the last 700 years; only three data were retained for older periods (800-1100 AD). The filtered data match reasonably well the available models for the past five centuries. A combined curve for South and Southeast Brazil plus Argentina plot systematically below relocated data from NE Brazil and Chile. These differences are likely due to complexities in the geometry of the field in South America not appropriately accounted for by a simple axial dipole. Our

  20. More cultivation with lower intensity in the South American Chaco: A double hydrological challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Gimenez, R.; Mercau, J. L.; Houspanossian, J.; Baldi, G.; Kuppel, S.

    2014-12-01

    As in other semi-arid plains of the world, long-scale deforestation to establish croplands in the South American Chaco may disrupt the regional water balance. As annual crops use less water than the native perennial system, water in excess usually translates into serious degradation processes such as run-off driven erosion, or the onset of groundwater recharge which can develop flooding and dryland salinization. Agriculturally, water excess could be reduced by using more intensive crop systems which consume water exhaustively. We used MODIS imagery (2000-present) from Bandera, Argentina (28.8S 62.2W), a major agricultural cluster in the region, to assess deforestation, to identify the main crop systems, and to analyze the impact of crop expansion and phenological shifts on the regional water balance. Three cover classes (Dry Forest DF, Agriculture AG, and Pastures PA) and five AG crop types were distinguished (winter W, spring Sp,summer S, and late-summer LS single crops, winter/summer DCWS and spring/summer DCSpS double crops). Each season, water use (annual evapotranspiration, ET) for each cover/crop type (10 pixels/class) was computed with a daily water balance based on meteorological data and 2 remote sensing-derived indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, to capture canopy conditions, and Dead Fuel Index to represent mulch cover conditions. Throughout 14 crop seasons AG expanded from 20 to 50% of the study area (1M ha) mostly replacing DF. Also, AG gradually evolved from a more intensive and diversified pattern dominated by DC (45-50%), S (28%) and Sp (16%) systems, to a more water-conservative system dominated by LS (60-80% in the last 3 seasons). Crop type differences in ET (DCWS≈DCSpS≈FG>S>Sp>LS≈W) were stronger in wet years (>1000mm) but nil in dry ones (crop types in the driest year to >250mm for the less intensive W and LS in wet years. Weighting each cover/crop class by their area, we found that the current expansion and reduced intensity

  1. Seasonal pelage color change: news based on a South American Rodent

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    Carolina R. Camargo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian seasonalmolting and color change are known to be influencedby photoperiod changes. Calomys laucha, a South American rodent, exhibits seasonal pelage color change; however, unlike Northern hemisphere rodents, which present a gray or brown color during summer and a whitish color during winter, C. laucha pelage changes from an orange color during summer to a dark gray color during winter. Animals maintained for over a year in stationary photoperiod (LD 12:12h, 22ºC presented orange pelage color during the summer corresponding month (January, and gray color during the winter corresponding month (July. Same age animals were evaluated during summer or winter months, and also showed different colors. Animals exposed for 12 weeks to summer or winter artificial conditions displayed color change, not according to the environmental conditions, as expected, but similar to that of animals maintained in stationary photoperiod. These results suggest that pelage color change in C. laucha is controlled by an endogenous circannual rhythm. The adaptive function of C. laucha color change is discussed.A muda e a mudança de cor sazonal da pelagem de mamíferos são influenciadas por variações no fotoperíodo. Calomys laucha, um roedor sul-americano, exibe mudança de cor de pelagem sazonal; entretanto, diferentemente dos roedores do hemisfério Norte, os quais apresentam cor cinza ou marrom durante o verão e branca durante o inverno, a pelagem de C. laucha muda de uma cor alaranjada durante o verão para cinza escuro durante o inverno. Animais mantidos por mais de um ano em fotoperíodo estacionário (CE 12:12h, 22ºC apresentaram pelagem alaranjada durante o mês correspondente ao verão (Janeiro, e cor cinza durante o mês de inverno (Julho. Animais de mesma idade foram avaliados durante os meses de verão ou inverno, e também apresentaram pelagem de cores diferentes. Animais expostos a condições artificiais de verão ou de inverno durante 12

  2. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Weliton D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Bento, José Maurício S

    2016-01-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard), a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini.

  3. Meeting American Geriatrics Society Competencies: Are Residents Meeting Expectations for Quality Care of Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Debra L; Wilson, Lindsay A; Ong, Thuan; Callahan, Kathryn E; Dalton, Thomas; Ohuabunwa, Ugochi

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine how often internal medicine and family medicine residents performed specific actions related to the geriatric competencies established by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) when caring for older hospitalized adults, a cross-sectional anonymous survey of residents at the University of North Carolina, University of Washington, Wake Forest University, Duke University, and Emory University was undertaken. Data on frequency of self-reported behaviors were analyzed, with comparisons made for different levels of training, institution, and program. A total of 375 residents responded for an overall response rate of 48%. Residents reported that they often do not demonstrate all of the AGS recommended core competencies when caring for older adults in the hospital setting. Residents report more frequently performing activities that are routinely integrated into hospital systems such as reviewing medication lists, working with an interdisciplinary team, evaluating for inappropriate bladder catheters, and evaluating for pressure ulcers. There were no consistent differences between institutions and only minor differences noted between Family Medicine and Internal Medicine residents. Operationalizing core competencies by integrating them into hospital systems' quality process indicators may prompt more consistent high-quality care and ensure systems support residents' competence.

  4. Educating and Training out of Poverty? Adult Provision and the Informal Sector in Fishing Communities, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at access to adult education and vocational education and training (VET) provision in fishing communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Fishing communities are being disadvantaged due to geographical and socio-political marginalisation, and the predominance of informal sector employment in the context of worldwide marine…

  5. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

  6. Racial Stratification and Socioeconomic Change in the American North and South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dennis P.; Featherman, David L.

    1977-01-01

    Recent change in the life-cycle processes of educational, occupational, and earnings attainments is analyzed among black men native to the South, those native to the North, and black male migrants from the South to the North. It is concluded that changes in the last decade have supported the development of more distinct socioeconomic strata.…

  7. Racial Stratification and Socioeconomic Change in the American North and South. Discussion Paper #377-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dennis P.; Featherman, David L.

    Recent change in the life cycle processes of educational, occupational, and earnings attainments among blacks native to the South, native to the North, and among black migrants from the South to the North is analyzed. Native northerners begin from relatively superior social origins and are better able to capitalize on these processes in the…

  8. Pain and anxiety experiences of South African adult burn injury patients during physiotherapy management

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    L.D. Morris

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A dequate management of procedural pain during physiotherapy management plays an important role in building a trusting relationship betweenthe burn victim and the physiotherapist, and in ensuring desirable functional outcomes. However, the burn pain management regimens currently utilized inburn units, primarily consist of traditional pharmacologic analgesics which areassociated with numerous side-effects and alone are often reported as inadequateto alleviate procedural pain, warranting safer and effective adjunct therapies.Prior to the introduction and implementation of adjunct therapies into a developing world, it is imperative that the current situation in a burn unit, in terms of whether or not the pain management regimens in place are adequate, is first assessed, due to cost concerns. The following short report exemplifies the pain and anxiety experiences of a small number of burn injury patients during physiotherapy at the Tygerberg Hospital adult burn unit, South A frica.  It was hypothesized that the results of this study would underpin whether adult burn injury patients in a developing countryrequire adjunct therapies during physiotherapy management to supplement traditional pharmacologic analgesics inmanaging their procedural pain and subsequent anxiety.

  9. Genetics, Gene Flow, and Glaciation: The Case of the South American Limpet Nacella mytilina

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Rosenfeld, Sebastián; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Hüne, Mathias; Gérard, Karin; Ojeda, Jaime; Mansilla, Andrés; Brickle, Paul; Díaz, Angie; Poulin, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Glacial episodes of the Quaternary, and particularly the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically altered the distribution of the Southern-Hemisphere biota, principally at higher latitudes. The irregular coastline of Patagonia expanding for more than 84.000 km constitutes a remarkable area to evaluate the effect of Quaternary landscape and seascape shifts over the demography of near-shore marine benthic organisms. Few studies describing the biogeographic responses of marine species to the LGM have been conducted in Patagonia, but existing data from coastal marine species have demonstrated marked genetic signatures of post-LGM recolonization and expansion. The kelp-dweller limpet Nacella mytilina is broadly distributed along the southern tip of South America and at the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Considering its distribution, abundance, and narrow bathymetry, N. mytilina represents an appropriate model to infer how historical and contemporary processes affected the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity and structure along the southern tip of South America. At the same time, it will be possible to determine how life history traits and the ecology of the species are responsible for the current pattern of gene flow and connectivity across the study area. We conducted phylogeographic and demographic inference analyses in N. mytilina from 12 localities along Pacific Patagonia (PP) and one population from the Falkland/Malvinas Islands (FI). Analyses of the mitochondrial gene COI in 300 individuals of N. mytilina revealed low levels of genetic polymorphism and the absence of genetic differentiation along PP. In contrast, FI showed a strong and significant differentiation from Pacific Patagonian populations. Higher levels of genetic diversity were also recorded in the FI population, together with a more expanded genealogy supporting the hypothesis of glacial persistence of the species in these islands. Haplotype genealogy, and mismatch analyses in the FI population

  10. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  11. The tectonic setting of the Caribbean region and the K/T turnover of the South American land-mammal fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E.; Pascual, R.

    2011-07-01

    According to the fossil record, a biotic interchange of land vertebrates (e.g. booid snakes, dinosaurs and mammals) occurred between the Americas during the Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeocene. The arrival of North American immigrants (particularly marsupials and placental) during the latest Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene had a profound influence on the composition of the South American mammal communities. During the Late Cretaceous these communities were dominated by native groups of Pangeic lineages, which represented more than 95% of the known genera, but during the Early Palaeocene 70% of South American mammals were derived from North American immigrants that had arrived during the Late Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene, and by the Late Palaeocene all the South American mammals (with the possible exception of the xenarthrans) were descendants of these North American immigrants. In spite of the fact that no geological evidence is currently available to support the existence of a continuous land connection between the Americas during the Late Cretaceousearly Palaeocene, the fossil record is substantial enough to point to a temporary inter-American connection that permitted the beginning of a land-mammal exchange by the end of the Cretaceous. This interpretation is supported by recent geographic reconstructions of the Caribbean region. (Author)

  12. The Great American Biotic Interchange in frogs: multiple and early colonization of Central America by the South American genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Ibáñez, Roberto; Madriñán, Santiago; Sanjur, Oris I; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crawford, Andrew J

    2012-03-01

    The completion of the land bridge between North and South America approximately 3.5-3.1 million years ago (Ma) initiated a tremendous biogeographic event called the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), described principally from the mammalian fossil record. The history of biotic interchange between continents for taxonomic groups with poor fossil records, however, is not well understood. Molecular and fossil data suggest that a number of plant and animal lineages crossed the Isthmus of Panama well before 3.5 Ma, leading biologists to speculate about trans-oceanic dispersal mechanisms. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the frog genus Pristimantis based on 189 individuals of 137 species, including 71 individuals of 31 species from Panama and Colombia. DNA sequence data were obtained from three mitochondrial (COI, 12S, 16S) and two nuclear (RAG-1 and Tyr) genes, for a total of 4074 base pairs. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis showed statistically significant conflict with most recognized taxonomic groups within Pristimantis, supporting only the rubicundus Species Series, and the Pristimantis myersi and Pristimantis pardalis Species Groups as monophyletic. Inference of ancestral areas based on a likelihood model of geographic range evolution via dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis (DEC) suggested that the colonization of Central America by South American Pristimantis involved at least 11 independent events. Relaxed-clock analyses of divergence times suggested that at least eight of these invasions into Central America took place prior to 4 Ma, mainly in the Miocene. These findings contribute to a growing list of molecular-based biogeographic studies presenting apparent temporal conflicts with the traditional GABI model.

  13. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea

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    Mauricio Pereira Almerão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts.

  14. Foraging behavior of lactating South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) and spatial-temporal resource overlap with the Uruguayan fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Costa, Daniel P.; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Marín, Yamandú; Chocca, Julio; González, Bernardo; Beathyate, Gastón; Louise Chilvers, B.; Hückstadt, Luis A.

    2013-04-01

    Resource competition between fisheries and marine mammal continue to raise concern worldwide. Understanding this complex conflict requires data on spatial and dietary overlap of marine mammal and fisheries. In Uruguay the South American sea lions population has been dramatically declining over the past decade. The reasons for this population decline are unknown but may include the following: (1) direct harvesting; (2) reduced prey availability and distribution as a consequence of environmental change; or (3) biological interaction with fisheries. This study aims to determine resource overlap and competition between South American sea lions (SASL, Otaria flavescens, n=10) and the artisanal fisheries (AF), and the coastal bottom trawl fisheries (CBTF). We integrated data on sea lions diet (scat analysis), spatial and annual consumption estimates; and foraging behavior-satellite-tracking data from lactating SASL with data on fishing effort areas and fisheries landings. We found that lactating SASL are benthic divers and forage in shallow water within the continental shelf. SASL's foraging areas overlapped with CBTF and AF fisheries operational areas. Dietary analysis indicated a high degree of overlap between the diet of SASL and the AF and CBTF fisheries catch. The results of our work show differing degrees of spatial resource overlap with AF and CBTF, highlighting that there are differences in potential impact from each fishery; and that different management/conservation approaches may need to be taken to solve the fisheries-SASL conflict.

  15. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  16. A culturally adapted depression intervention for African American adults experiencing depression: Oh Happy Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Earlise C; Brown, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe development of a culturally adapted depression intervention (Oh Happy Day Class, OHDC) designed for African American adults experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). This project included 2 pilot studies testing the feasibility and acceptability of the OHDC and examining short-term effects of the OHDC in reducing symptoms of MDD. The OHDC is a 2.5-hr weekly, culturally specific, cognitive behavioral, group counseling intervention for 12 weeks. Cultural adaptations of the OHDC are based on the ecological validity and culturally sensitive framework, along with an Afrocentric paradigm. Fifty African American participants with MDD were enrolled (15 in Pilot I and 35 in Pilot II). All participants in Pilots I and II received the 12-week intervention and completed assessments at baseline, mid-intervention, end-intervention, and 3 months postintervention. General linear mixed modeling for assessment of pre-post longitudinal data analysis was conducted. Results for Pilot I showed 73% of participants completed the full OHDC, a statistically significant decline in depression symptoms from pre- to postintervention, and a 0.38 effect size. Participants were very satisfied with the OHDC. In Pilot II, 66% of participants completed the full OHDC, and there was a significant pre-post intervention decrease in depression symptoms. For men, the OHDC showed a 1.01 effect size and for women, a 0.41 effect size. Both men and women were very satisfied with the OHDC based on the satisfaction measure. These promising findings are discussed with a focus on future plans for examining efficacy of the OHDC in a large-scale, randomized, control trial.

  17. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

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    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  18. Phylogenetic correlograms and the evolution of body size in South American owls (Strigiformes

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    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, many models have been proposed to link microevolutionary processes to macroevolutionary patterns, defined by comparative data analysis. Among these, Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U processes have been used to model, respectively, genetic drift or directional selection and stabilizing selection. These models produce different curves of pairwise variance between species against time since divergence, in such a way that different profiles appear in phylogenetic correlograms. We analyzed variation in body length among 19 species of South American owls, by means of phylogenetic correlograms constructed using Moran's I coefficient in four distance classes. Phylogeny among species was based on DNA hybridization. The observed correlogram was then compared with 500 correlograms obtained by simulations of Brownian motion and O-U over the same phylogeny, using discriminant analysis. The observed correlogram indicates a phylogenetic gradient up to 45 mya, when coefficients tend to stabilize, and it is similar to the correlograms produced by the O-U process. This is expected when we consider that body size of organisms is correlated with many ecological and life-history traits and subjected to many constraints that can be modeled by the O-U process, which has been used to describe evolution under stabilizing selection.Nos últimos anos diversos modelos têm sido propostos a fim de realizar inferências sobre processos microevolutivos com base em padrões macroevolutivos obtidos a partir de dados comparativos. Dentre esses, o movimento Browniano e o processo Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U têm sido utilizados para modelar principalmente deriva genética e seleção estabilizadora, respectivamente. Esses modelos produzem curvas diferentes de relação entre variância interespecífica e distância no tempo, de modo que eles podem ser distingüidos com base em correlogramas filogenéticos. Neste trabalho, nós analisamos a varia

  19. Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities Observed in the South American Sector During the December 2006 Geomagnetic Storm

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    Sahai, Y.; de Jesus, R.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Abalde, J. R.; Brunini, C.; Gende, M.; Cintra, T.; de Souza, V.; Pillat, V.; Lima, W.

    2009-05-01

    This investigation presents studies related to the observations of equatorial ionospheric irregularities in the ionospheric F-region in the South American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm in December 2006, during the period of low solar activity. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -147 nT at 0700 UT on 15 December. In this work ionospheric sounding data obtained between 13 and 16 December 2006 at Palmas (PAL; 10.2o S, 48.2o W; dip latitude 6.6o S) and São José dos Campos (SJC, 23.2o S, 45.9o W; dip latitude 17.6o S), Brazil, and Jicamarca (JIC, 12.0o S, 76.8o W; dip latitude 0.05o S), Peru, have been used. Also, vertical total electron content (VTEC) and phase fluctuations (TECU/min) from GPS observations obtained at Brasilia (BRAZ, 15.9o S, 47.9o W; dip latitude 11.7o S), Presidente Prudente (PPTE, 22.12° S, 51.4° W; dip latitude 14,9° S), Curitiba (PARA, 25.43o S, 49.21o W; dip latitude 18.4o S), Santa Maria (SMAR, 29.71o S, 53.07o W; dip latitude 19.6o S), Brazil, Bahia Blanca (VBCA, 38.7o S, 62.3o W; dip latitude 22.4o S) and Puerto Deseado (PDES, 47.7o S, 65.9o W, dip latitude 27.1o S), Argentina, during the period 13 to 16 December are presented. An unusual uplifting of the F-region during pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) on 14 December was possibly associated with a prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin after the storm sudden commencement (1414 UT on 14 December). On this geomagnetically disturbed night of 14-15 December, intense equatorial ionospheric irregularities were observed up to southern most GPS station PDES in Argentina. It should be mentioned that on the other nights viz., 12-13 and 13-14 December (both nights before the storm), and 15-16 December (recovery phase), the ionospheric irregularities are limited to only the Brazilian GPS stations. On the geomagnetically disturbed night of 14-15 December, strong oscillations were observed in the F-region base height possibly associated with Joule heating

  20. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record.

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    Carrillo, Juan D; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10-7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI.

  1. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

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    Juan David Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI. In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data supports the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias towards higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI.

  2. Constraining the time of extinction of the South American fox Dusicyon avus (Carnivora, Canidae) during the late Holocene.

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    Prevosti, Francisco; Santiago, Fernando; Prates, Luciano; Salemme, Mónica; Martin, Fabiana

    2010-05-01

    The mass extinction at the end of the Pleistocene affected South America during the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene, when megamammals and large mammals disappeared. Several carnivores became extinct, like the sabretooth Smilodon, the short face bear (Arctotherium) and some large canids (i.e. Protocyon, Canis dirus). After this mass event virtually no carnivores became extinct in South America. The only exception is the fox Dusicyon avus, a middle sized canid (estimated body mass between 10-15 kg) with a more carnivore diet than the living South American foxes (i.e. Lycalopex culpaeus). The last record of the species comes from middle-late Holocene archaeological sites in the Pampean Region (Argentina) and Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). During the Late Pleistocene D. avus had a wide distribution, that covered part of Uruguay, Argentina (Buenos Aires province) and the southernmost Chile. Albeit some remains from late Holocene sites have been published, these remains lack of isotopic dates that could (allow?) constraint (to determine) the date of extinction of this fox. In this contribution we present several new records from the Pampean Region and Patagonia, and several taxon dates. The new records indicate that D. avus disappeared in the late Holocene at least ≈ 3000 years BP in the island of Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia) and ≈ 1600 BP in the continent. Since at this time humans were occupying most of the Pampas and Patagonia a revision of the causes behind the extinction of this fox is required.

  3. Influence of Tertiary paleoenvironmental changes on the diversification of South American mammals: a relaxed molecular clock study within xenarthrans

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    Vizcaíno Sergio F

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic data among organisms allow the reconstruction of their phylogenies and evolutionary time scales. Molecular timings have been recently used to suggest that environmental global change have shaped the evolutionary history of diverse terrestrial organisms. Living xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths constitute an ideal model for studying the influence of past environmental changes on species diversification. Indeed, extant xenarthran species are relicts from an evolutionary radiation enhanced by their isolation in South America during the Tertiary era, a period for which major climate variations and tectonic events are relatively well documented. Results We applied a Bayesian approach to three nuclear genes in order to relax the molecular clock assumption while accounting for differences in evolutionary dynamics among genes and incorporating paleontological uncertainties. We obtained a molecular time scale for the evolution of extant xenarthrans and other placental mammals. Divergence time estimates provide substantial evidence for contemporaneous diversification events among independent xenarthran lineages. This correlated pattern of diversification might possibly relate to major environmental changes that occurred in South America during the Cenozoic. Conclusions The observed synchronicity between planetary and biological events suggests that global change played a crucial role in shaping the evolutionary history of extant xenarthrans. Our findings open ways to test this hypothesis further in other South American mammalian endemics like hystricognath rodents, platyrrhine primates, and didelphid marsupials.

  4. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

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    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  5. Changes in American Adults' Sexual Behavior and Attitudes, 1972-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2015-11-01

    In the nationally representative General Social Survey, U.S. Adults (N = 33,380) in 2000-2012 (vs. the 1970s and 1980s) had more sexual partners, were more likely to have had sex with a casual date or pickup or an acquaintance, and were more accepting of most non-marital sex (premarital sex, teen sex, and same-sex sexual activity, but not extramarital sex). The percentage who believed premarital sex among adults was "not wrong at all" was 29 % in the early 1970s, 42 % in the 1980s and 1990s, 49 % in the 2000s, and 58 % between 2010 and 2012. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating time period, generation/birth cohort, and age showed that the trend toward greater sexual permissiveness was primarily due to generation. Acceptance of non-marital sex rose steadily between the G.I. generation (born 1901-1924) and Boomers (born 1946-1964), dipped slightly among early Generation X'ers (born 1965-1981), and then rose so that Millennials (also known as Gen Y or Generation Me, born 1982-1999) were the most accepting of non-marital sex. Number of sexual partners increased steadily between the G.I.s and 1960s-born GenX'ers and then dipped among Millennials to return to Boomer levels. The largest changes appeared among White men, with few changes among Black Americans. The results were discussed in the context of growing cultural individualism and rejection of traditional social rules in the U.S.

  6. Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

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    Goossens, Eva; Fernandes, Susan M; Landzberg, Michael J; Moons, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Although different guidelines on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) care advocate for lifetime cardiac follow-up, a critical appraisal of the guideline implementation is lacking. We investigated the implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 guidelines for ACHD follow-up by investigating the type of health care professional, care setting, and frequency of outpatient visits in young adults with CHD. Furthermore, correlates for care in line with the recommendations or untraceability were investigated. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 306 patients with CHD who had a documented outpatient visit at pediatric cardiology before age 18 years. In all, 210 patients (68.6%) were in cardiac follow-up; 20 (6.5%) withdrew from follow-up and 76 (24.9%) were untraceable. Overall, 198 patients were followed up in tertiary care, 1/4 (n = 52) of which were seen at a formalized ACHD care program and 3/4 (n = 146) remained at pediatric cardiology. Of those followed in formalized ACHD and pediatric cardiology care, the recommended frequency was implemented in 94.2% and 89%, respectively (p = 0.412). No predictors for the implementation of the guidelines were identified. Risk factors for becoming untraceable were none or lower number of heart surgeries, health insurance issues, and nonwhite ethnicity. In conclusion, a significant number of adults continue to be cared for by pediatric cardiologists, indicating that transfer to adult-oriented care was not standard practice. Frequency of follow-up for most patients was in line with the ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines. A considerable proportion of young adults were untraceable in the system, which makes them vulnerable for discontinuation of care.

  7. Whole-Exome Sequencing in a South American Cohort Links ALDH1A3, FOXN1 and Retinoic Acid Regulation Pathways to Autism Spectrum Disorders.

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    Moreno-Ramos, Oscar A; Olivares, Ana María; Haider, Neena B; de Autismo, Liga Colombiana; Lattig, María Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a range of complex neurodevelopmental conditions principally characterized by dysfunctions linked to mental development. Previous studies have shown that there are more than 1000 genes likely involved in ASD, expressed mainly in brain and highly interconnected among them. We applied whole exome sequencing in Colombian-South American trios. Two missense novel SNVs were found in the same child: ALDH1A3 (RefSeq NM_000693: c.1514T>C (p.I505T)) and FOXN1 (RefSeq NM_003593: c.146C>T (p.S49L)). Gene expression studies reveal that Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 are expressed in ~E13.5 mouse embryonic brain, as well as in adult piriform cortex (PC; ~P30). Conserved Retinoic Acid Response Elements (RAREs) upstream of human ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 and in mouse Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 genes were revealed using bioinformatic approximation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay using Retinoid Acid Receptor B (Rarb) as the immunoprecipitation target suggests RA regulation of Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 in mice. Our results frame a possible link of RA regulation in brain to ASD etiology, and a feasible non-additive effect of two apparently unrelated variants in ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 recognizing that every result given by next generation sequencing should be cautiously analyzed, as it might be an incidental finding.

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association, American Society for Nutrition, and Society for Nutrition Education: Food and nutrition programs for community-residing older adults.

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    Kamp, Barbara J; Wellman, Nancy S; Russell, Carlene

    2010-03-01

    Given the federal cost-containment policy to rebalance long-term care away from nursing homes to home- and community-based services, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education that all older adults should have access to food and nutrition programs that ensure the availability of safe, adequate food to promote optimal nutritional status. Appropriate food and nutrition programs include adequately funded food assistance and meal programs, nutrition education, screening, assessment, counseling, therapy, monitoring, evaluation, and outcomes documentation to ensure more healthful aging. The growing number of older adults, the health care focus on prevention, and the global economic situation accentuate the fundamental need for these programs. Yet far too often food and nutrition programs are disregarded or taken for granted. Growing older generally increases nutritional risk. Illnesses and chronic diseases; physical, cognitive, and social challenges; racial, ethnic, and linguistic differences; and low socioeconomic status can further complicate a situation. The beneficial effects of nutrition for health promotion, risk reduction, and disease management need emphasis. Although many older adults are enjoying longer and more healthful lives in their own homes, others, especially those with health disparities and poor nutritional status, would benefit from greater access to food and nutrition programs and services. Food and nutrition practitioners can play a major role in promoting universal access and integrating food and nutrition programs and nutrition services into home- and community-based services.

  9. Gaze patterns during identity and emotion judgments in hearing adults and deaf users of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Susan M; Mitchell, Teresa V

    2011-01-01

    Deaf individuals rely on facial expressions for emotional, social, and linguistic cues. In order to test the hypothesis that specialized experience with faces can alter typically observed gaze patterns, twelve hearing adults and twelve deaf, early-users of American Sign Language judged the emotion and identity of expressive faces (including whole faces, and isolated top and bottom halves), while accuracy and fixations were recorded. Both groups recognized individuals more accurately from top than bottom halves, and emotional expressions from bottom than top halves. Hearing adults directed the majority of fixations to the top halves of faces in both tasks, but fixated the bottom half slightly more often when judging emotion than identity. In contrast, deaf adults often split fixations evenly between the top and bottom halves regardless of task demands. These results suggest that deaf adults have habitual fixation patterns that may maximize their ability to gather information from expressive faces.

  10. Cigarettes, culture, and Korean American emerging adults: an exploratory qualitative study.

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    Huh, Jimi; Sami, Mojgan; Abramova, Zarina S; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2013-10-01

    Korean American emerging adults (KAEA) constitute an understudied, at-risk group for smoking and related health consequences. The cultural meanings of smoking and cessation among KAEA were explored. Sixty-seven KAEA participated in 10 focus groups. Themes from the sessions were identified and domain analysis was conducted. Regarding reasons for smoking, we identified (a) association between the culture of origin and gender identification, (b) access/availability of cigarettes in homes/community, and (c) competing social environments where KAEA adjust their health behaviors. Regarding contexts for cessation, we identified (a) a sense of invincibility/denial, (b) lack of role models or pressure to quit, and (c) lack of significant life events. Using cessation aids represented lacking personal discipline/willpower. The results show that smoking among KAEA is highly contextualized in the culture of origin, despite U.S. tobacco control policies. Implications for culturally sensitive prevention/cessation programs for KAEA include modifying culturally based norms and social spaces regarding cigarettes and cessation.

  11. Adherence with isoniazid for prevention of tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in South Africa

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    Muller F James

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Isoniazid (INH is recommended for treatment of latent TB infection, however non-adherence is common. The purpose of this study was to apply in-house prepared isoniazid (INH urine test strips in a clinical setting, and identify predictors of positive test results in an adherence questionnaire in HIV-infected adults taking INH for prevention of TB. Methods Cross-sectional study of adherence using a questionnaire and urine test strips for detection of INH metabolites at two hospitals in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Participants were aged at least 18 years, HIV positive, and receiving INH for prevention of tuberculosis disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses are used to identify factors relevant to adherence. Results 301 consecutive patients were recruited. 28% of participants had negative urine tests. 32 (37.2%, 95% CI25.4, 45.0 of the 86 patients who received INH from peripheral pharmacies said the pharmacy had run out of INH at some time, compared with central hospital pharmacies (p = 0.0001. In univariate analysis, a negative test was associated with self-reported missed INH doses (p = 0.043. Each 12-hour increment since last reported dose increased the likelihood of a negative test by 34% (p = 0.0007. Belief in INH safety was associated with a positive test (p = 0.021. In multivariate analysis, patients who believed INH is important for prevention of TB disease were more likely to be negative (p = 0.0086. Conclusion Adequate drug availability at peripheral pharmacies remains an important intervention for TB prevention. Key questions may identify potentially non-adherent patients. In-house prepared urine tests strips are an effective and cheap method of objectively assessing INH adherence, and could be used an important tool in TB control programs.

  12. Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among adults in WHO South-East Asia

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    D N Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokeless tobacco (SLT use is an understudied problem in South-East Asia. Information on SLT use among the adult population was collected from various available sources. SLT use prevalence varies among countries in the region. The prevalence of SLT use is known for all countries at national level in the region with the exception of Bhutan and DPR Korea. For Bhutan, data pertains to Thimphu only. There is no available data on SLT use for DPR Korea. Using all available data from Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, SLT use was found to be higher among males as compared to females; however, in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Thailand, SLT use was higher among females as compared to males. Among males, prevalence of SLT use varied from 51.4% in Myanmar to 1.1% in Thailand. Among females, the prevalence of SLT use varied from 27.9% in Bangladesh to 1.9% in Timor-Leste. The prevalence also varies in different parts of countries. For instance, the prevalence of current use of SLT in India ranges from 48.7% in Bihar to 4.5% in Himachal Pradesh. In Thailand, prevalence of current use of tobacco use varies from 0.8% in Bangkok to over 4% in the northern (4.1% and northeastern (4.7% region. Among all SLT products, betel quid was the most commonly used product in most countries including Bangladesh (24.3% and Thailand (1.8%. However, Khaini (11.6% chewing was practiced most commonly in India. Nearly 5% of the adult population used tobacco as dentifrice in Bangladesh and India. SLT is more commonly used in rural areas and among disadvantaged groups. Questions from standard "Tobacco Questions for Surveys (TQS" need to be integrated in routine health system surveys in respective countries to obtain standardized tobacco use data at regular intervals that will help in providing trends of SLT use in countries.

  13. Current meter and bathythermograph data from moored current meter and xbt casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic (OCS-South Atlantic) project from 1982-02-16 to 1985-07-01 (NCEI Accession 8600124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and bathythermograph (xbt) data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North American Coastline-South from...

  14. Health Care Provider Advice for African American Adults Not Meeting Health Behavior Recommendations

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    Elizabeth A. Fallon, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle contribute to excessive morbidity and mortality. Healthy People 2010 goals are for 85% of physicians to counsel their patients about physical activity and for 75% of physician office visits made by patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or dyslipidemia to include dietary counseling. The purpose of this study was to 1 determine the rate of participant-reported health care provider advice for healthy lifestyle changes among African Americans who do not meet recommendations for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and healthy weight; 2 examine correlates of provider advice; and 3 assess the association between provider advice and stage of readiness for change for each of these health behaviors. Methods Data for this study were collected as part of a statewide faith-based physical activity program for African Americans. A stratified random sample of 20 African Methodist Episcopal churches in South Carolina was selected to participate in a telephone survey of members aged 18 years and older. The telephone survey, conducted over a 5-month period, asked participants a series of questions about sociodemographics, health status, physical activity, and nutrition. Analyses for moderate to vigorous physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and weight loss were conducted separately. For each of these behaviors, logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the independent association of sex, age, body mass index, education, number of diagnosed diseases, perceived health, and stage of change with health care provider advice for health behaviors. Results A total of 572 church members (407 women, 165 men; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 18–102 years completed the survey. Overall, participant-reported provider advice for lifestyle changes was 47.0% for physical activity, 38.7% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 39.7% for weight. A greater number of diagnosed

  15. Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according the ENSO variability

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    G. A. M. Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The differences on the phase and wavelength of the quasi-stationary waves over the South America generated by El Niño (EN and La Niña (LN events seem to affect the daily evolution of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes (SALLJ. For the austral summer period of 1977–2004 the SALLJ episodes detected according to Bonner criterion 1 show normal to above-normal frequency in EN years, and in LN years the episodes show normal to below-normal frequency.

    During EN and LN years the SALLJ episodes were associated with positive rainfall anomalies over the La Plata Basin, but more intense during LN years. During EN years the increase in the SALLJ cases were associated to intensification of the Subtropical Jet (SJ around 30° S and positive Sea Level Pressure (SLP anomalies over the western equatorial Atlantic and tropical South America, particularly over central Brazil. This favored the intensification of the northeasterly trade winds over the northern continent and it channeled by the Andes mountain to the La Plata Basin region where negative SLP are found. The SALLJ cases identified during the LN events were weaker and less frequent when compared to those for EN years. In this case the SJ was weaker than in EN years and the negative SLP anomalies over the tropical continent contributed to the inversion of the northeasterly trade winds. Also a southerly flow anomaly was generated by the geostrophic balance due to the anomalous blocking over southeast Pacific and the intense cyclonic transient over the southern tip of South America. As result the warm tropical air brought by the SALLJ encounters the cold extratropical air from the southerly winds over the La Plata basin. This configuration can increase the conditional instability over the La Plata basin and may explain the more intense positive rainfall anomalies in SALLJ cases during LN years than in EN years.

  16. An Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic pole from Ponta Grossa dikes (Brazil): Implications for the South American Mesozoic apparent polar wander path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeu Raposo, Maria Irene; Ernesto, Marcia

    1995-10-01

    Paleomagnetic results from the Early Cretaceous Ponta Grossa dike swarm are reported. These dikes crosscut sediments and basement rocks associated with the Ponta Grossa Arch, a tectonic feature in the eastern border of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Paraná Basin. These dikes are vertical or subvertical and trend mainly NW and NE. Samples from 127 dikes were submitted to both alternating field and thermal demagnetizations; 121 of them yielded characteristic directions interpreted as original thermal remanent magnetizations. Both normal and reversed polarities as well as intermediate directions (6 dikes) are recorded. The paleomagnetic pole is located at 30.3°E, 82.4°S (N=115; α95=2.0° k=43.8). This pole along with the available paleomagnetic poles for the Paraná Basin volcanics (Serra Geral Formation), recalculated in this paper in the light of reported 40Ar/39Ar ages describe an apparent polar wander path segment corresponding to a clockwise rotation (~6.9°) of the South American plate. This movement is compatible with the initial phase of the South Atlantic opening with rifting progressing from south to north. However, the calculated plate velocity is higher than the predicted velocities reported so far based on oceanic floor magnetic anomalies. The new data reported in this paper allowed the calculation of a mean Early Cretaceous pole (60.3°E, 83.8°S N=7, α95=2.9°) which can be discriminated from the Middle-Late Jurassic (191.3°E, 86.2°S N=3, α95=7.8°) and Late Cretaceous (346.5°E, 84.1°S N=5, α95=4.9°) mean poles for South America, indicating a more complex movement of the continent than the simple east-west drift generally proposed.

  17. Exploring the relationship between child physical abuse and adult dating violence using a causal inference approach in an emerging adult population in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Park, MiRang; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela; Powers, Ráchael A

    2014-12-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most commonly examined risk factors for violence in dating relationships. Often referred to as the intergenerational transmission of violence or cycle of violence, a fair amount of research suggests that experiencing abuse during childhood significantly increases the likelihood of involvement in violent relationships later, but these conclusions are primarily based on correlational research designs. Furthermore, the majority of research linking childhood maltreatment and dating violence has focused on samples of young people from the United States. Considering these limitations, the current study uses a rigorous, propensity score matching approach to estimate the causal effect of experiencing child physical abuse on adult dating violence among a large sample of South Korean emerging adults. Results indicate that the link between child physical abuse and adult dating violence is spurious rather than causal. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  18. The First Years in an L2-Speaking Environment: A Comparison of Japanese Children and Adults Learning American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Katsura; Guion, Susan G.; Flege, James Emil; Yamada, Tsuneo; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2008-01-01

    This study examined Japanese speakers' learning of American English during their first years of immersion in the United States (U.S.). Native Japanese-speaking (NJ) children (n=16) and adults (n=16) were tested on two occasions, averaging 0.5 (T1) and 1.6 years (T2) after arrival in the U.S. Age-matched groups of native English-speaking children…

  19. Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence: Knowledge and Experiences among Adolescents and Young Adults in Soweto, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hornschuh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV management of adolescents and young adults (AYAs is particularly pertinent to sub-Saharan Africa, where the pediatric HIV burden is marked. Antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence is a major challenge for AYAs. This qualitative study explored knowledge and experiences of adherence amongst AYAs attending treatment at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit (PHRU, Soweto, South Africa. Four focus group discussions (FGDs and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs were conducted with HIV-infected 15–25-year-old ART recipients. Transcripts were coded thematically. Participants (n=26 were aged median 18.5 years, 59.1% female and 69.2% virally suppressed <400 cp/ml. Three main themes emerged during FGDs and IDIs: (i correct knowledge about how to be adherent, benefits, and nonadherence consequences, (ii social, personal, and medication-related barriers to adherence, and (iii reminder, concealment, and motivational strategies to optimize adherence. Interventions to improve AYA adherence could focus on practical strategies, including status disclosure and medication concealment.

  20. Failed Presidencies: Identifying and Explaining a South American Anomaly Presidencias fallidas: identificando y explicando una anomalía sudamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hochstetler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Are presidential democracies inherently unstable and prone to breakdown? Recent work on Latin America suggests that the region has seen the emergence of a new kind of instability, where individual presidents do not manage to stay in office to the end of their terms, but the regime itself continues. This article places the Latin American experiences in a global context, and finds that the Latin American literature helps to predict the fates of presidents in other regions. The first stage of a selection model shows that presidents who are personally corrupt and preside over economic decline in contexts where democracy is paired with lower levels of GDP/capita are more likely to face challenges to their remaining in office for their entire terms. For the challenged presidents in this set, the risk of early termination increases when they use lethal force against their challengers, but decreases if they are corrupt. These factors help account for the disproportionately large number of South American presidents who have actually been forced from office, the “South American anomaly” of the title. ¿Son las democracias presidenciales intrínsecamente inestables ypropensas a los quiebres? Los estudios recientes sobre América Latina sugierenque la región ha visto el surgimiento de un nuevo tipo de inestabilidad,donde presidentes no cumplen sus mandatos, pero el régimen mismocontinua. Este artículo coloca las experiencias latinoamericanas en un contextoglobal, y encuentra que la literatura latinoamericana ayuda a predecirlos destinos de los presidentes en otras regiones. La primera etapa de unmodelo de selección demuestra que es más probable que los presidentesquienes son personalmente corruptos y que presiden sobre un decliveeconómico en un contexto donde la democracia es acompañada de nivelesbajos de PIB per cápita sean enfrentados con esfuerzos de desbancarlos delcargo antes del fin del mandato. Para los presidentes desafiados en estegrupo

  1. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... American cactus moth has been discovered in other parts of Florida, as well as in Alabama, Georgia..., encouraging the growth of other plants in degraded areas. In addition, many species of birds, mammals... Service (APHIS) established regulations quarantining the States of Alabama, Florida, Georgia,...

  2. South Texas Mexican American Use of Traditional Folk and Mainstream Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Leslie N.

    2009-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted with a large sample of Mexican Americans from border (n = 1,001) and nonborder (n = 1,030) regions in Texas. Patterns of traditional folk and mainstream complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use were analyzed with two binary logistic regressions, using gender, self-rated health, confidence in medical…

  3. African-American Children and the Case for Community: Eleanora Tate's South Carolina Trilogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Carole Brown

    1998-01-01

    Three books by Eleanora Tate, "The Secret of Gumbo Grove" (1988), "Thank You, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.!" (1992), and "A Blessing in Disguise" (1995) are discussed with respect to their portrayal of African-American children and their responsibility to both themselves and their community. (MAK)

  4. Reconstructing the life of an unknown (ca. 500 years-old South American Inca) mummy--multidisciplinary study of a Peruvian Inca mummy suggests severe Chagas disease and ritual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E; Pusch, Carsten M; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451-1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more "terrestric" nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual that

  5. Reconstructing the life of an unknown (ca. 500 years-old South American Inca mummy--multidisciplinary study of a Peruvian Inca mummy suggests severe Chagas disease and ritual homicide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Panzer

    Full Text Available The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451-1642 AD provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease. The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more "terrestric" nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an

  6. Traditional healing, biomedicine and the treatment of HIV/AIDS: contrasting south african and native American experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Adrian

    2015-04-20

    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people's engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing "culturally appropriate" forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  7. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  8. Food Safety by Using Machine Learning for Automatic Classification of Seeds of the South-American Incanut Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanzyk, Thomas; Anding, Katharina; Linss, Gerhard; Rodriguez Hernández, Jorge; Theska, René

    2015-02-01

    The following paper deals with the classification of seeds and seed components of the South-American Incanut plant and the modification of a machine to handle this task. Initially the state of the art is being illustrated. The research was executed in Germany and with a relevant part in Peru and Ecuador. Theoretical considerations for the solution of an automatically analysis of the Incanut seeds were specified. The optimization of the analyzing software and the separation unit of the mechanical hardware are carried out with recognition results. In a final step the practical application of the analysis of the Incanut seeds is held on a trial basis and rated on the bases of statistic values.

  9. In vivo wound healing activity of Dragon's Blood (Croton spp.), a traditional South American drug, and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, L; De Bruyne, T; Van Poel, B; Vingerhoets, R; Totté, J; Vanden Berghe, D; Vlietinck, A

    1995-07-01

    The wound healing activity of dragon'sblood (Croton spp.), in Spanish 'sangre de drago‛ or 'sangre de grado‛, a traditional South American drug, and some of its constituents, including the alkaloid taspine (1), the dihydrobenzufuran lignan 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin (2) and proantho-cyanidins, was evaluated in vivo on rats, and compared with the wound healing actitivy of synthetic proanthocyanidins. The beneficial effect of dragon's blood on wound healing was confirmed. Dragon's blood stimulated contraction of the wound, formation of a crust, formation of new collagen, and regeneration of the epithelial layer. 3',4-O-Dimethylcedrusin also improved wound healing in vivo by stimulating the formation of fibroblasts and collagen, but crude dragon's blood was more effective. This was due to the proanthocyanidins, present in dragon's blood, which stimulate contraction of the wound and precipitate with proteins forming a dark crust covering the wound, but which delay wound repair by a decreased formation of new fibroblasts.

  10. A new species of Ascocotyle (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Montero, Francisco Esteban; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; García, Néstor Aníbal; Raga, Juan Antonio; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2012-08-01

    We describe a new heterophyid species, Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis n. sp., based on specimens collected from the intestines of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Patagonia (Argentina). Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is distinguished from the other species of the subgenus by the number of circumoral spines, which are arranged in 2 rows of 18 to 23. The new species also differs from the other species in having a gonotyl without papillae. The specimens exhibited the widest seminal receptacle described for a species of this subgenus. Species of the subgenus Ascocotyle usually infect fish-eating birds or mammals in freshwater or brackish habitats. Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is the first species of the subgenus described from a marine mammal. However, no metacercariae of Ascocotyle spp. were found in 542 marine teleosts from 20 species collected in the same locality. The life cycle of the marine species from the Ascocotyle -complex infecting pinnipeds remains elusive.

  11. Exploring Faculty Diversity in the South: A Case Study on Campus Climate and Leadership Commitment to the Recruitment and Retention of African American Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Angie Monique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore faculty diversity in the South by examining the campus climate and leadership commitment to the recruitment and retention of African American faculty. The Critical Race Theory (CRT) concept of storytelling captured the participants' personal experiences and perceptions. Three higher…

  12. Gomphrena claussenii, the first South-American metallophyte species with indicator-like Zn and Cd accumulation and extreme metal tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaz Villafort Carvalho, M.; Amaral, D.C.; Guilherme, L.R.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant species with the capacity to tolerate heavy metals are potentially useful for phytoremediation since they have adapted to survive and reproduce under toxic conditions and to accumulate high metal concentrations. Gomphrena claussenii Moq., a South-American species belonging to the Amaranthaceae

  13. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics.

  14. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  15. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

  16. Cytokine profiling of young overweight and obese female African American adults with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rudolf; Parikh, Samip J; Sridhar, Supriya; Guo, De-Huang; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Dong, Yutong; Caldwell, Ruth; Mellor, Andrew; Caldwell, William; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-10-01

    Approximately 5-10% of subjects with prediabetes become diabetic every year. Inflammation is involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to date, the relationship between inflammation and prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥5.7 and cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in overweight/obese subjects with prediabetes. A total of 21 otherwise healthy, overweight/obese, young adult African American females with prediabetes, together with 20 matched overweight/obese controls, were selected for this study. Plasma cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-7, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly higher in the prediabetic group, as compared to the control group (all pcytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-13, seemed to be elevated in the prediabetic group, but failed to reach statistical significances. Upon merging both groups, HbA1c was found to be positively correlated with IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF. This study demonstrates elevated levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese young subjects with prediabetes, which place them at higher risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular diseases. Our data also call for further investigations in animal models and population cohorts to establish the roles of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the early development of obesity-related T2D.

  17. Taxonomic revision of the South American catfish genus Ageneiosus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) with the description of four new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Frank R.V.; Rapp Py-Daniel, Lúcia H.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    The catfish genus Ageneiosus in the exclusively Neotropical family Auchenipteridae is revised. Species of Ageneiosus are widely distributed in all major South American continental drainages except the São Francisco River basin and small rivers along the Brazilian east coast. The taxonomic revision was based on examination of available type specimens, additional museum material and comparisons of original descriptions. A suite of morphometric, meristic and qualitative characters of internal and external anatomy were used to diagnose valid species and determine synonyms. Thirteen valid species are recognized in the genus Ageneiosus, some of which are widely distributed across South America. Ageneiosus pardalis is the only trans-Andean species in the genus. Ageneiosus polystictus and Ageneiosus uranophthalmus are more widely distributed than previously reported. Ageneiosus marmoratus is a junior synonym of Ageneiosus inermis. Ageneiosus dentatus is a valid species and its name is removed from the synonymy of Ageneiosus ucayalensis. Four new species are described: Ageneiosus akamai, Ageneiosus apiaka, Ageneiosus intrusus and Ageneiosus lineatus, all from the Amazon River basin. A dichotomous key for all 13 valid species of Ageneiosus species is provided.

  18. Bleaching of melanin in the epidermis of South American fur seal and its application on enzyme immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis is an amphibious marine mammal distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. The species is well adjusted to different habitats due to the morphology of its fin-like members and due to some adaptations in their integumentary system. Immunohistochemical studies are very important to evaluate the mechanisms of skin adaptation due the differential expression of the antigens present in the tissue depending of the region of the body surface. However, its strongly pigmented (melanin epidermis prevents the visualization of the immuno-histochemical chromogens markers. In this study a melanin bleaching method was developed aimed to allow the visualization of the chromogens without interfering in the antigen-antibody affinity for immunohistochemistry. The analysis of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen index in the epidermis of A. australis by immunohistochemistry with diaminobenzidine (DAB as chromogen was used to test the method. The bleaching of the melanin allowed to obtain the cell proliferation index in epidermis and to avoid false positive results without affecting the immunohistochemical results.

  19. Nuclear gene sequences confirm an ancient link between New Zealand's short-tailed bat and South American noctilionoid bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling, Emma C; Madsen, Ole; Murphy, William J; Springer, Mark S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2003-08-01

    Molecular and morphological hypotheses disagree on the phylogenetic position of New Zealand's short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata. Most morphological analyses place Mystacina in the superfamily Vespertilionoidea, whereas molecular studies unite Mystacina with the Neotropical noctilionoids and imply a shared Gondwanan history. To date, competing hypotheses for the placement of Mystacina have not been addressed with a large concatenation of nuclear protein sequences. We investigated this problem using 7.1kb of nuclear sequence data that included segments from five nuclear protein-coding genes for representatives of 14 bat families and six laurasiatherian outgroups. We employed the Thorne/Kishino method of molecular dating, allowing for simultaneous constraints from the fossil record and varying rates of molecular evolution on different branches on the phylogenetic tree, to estimate basal divergence times within key chiropteran clades. Maximum likelihood, minimum evolution, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian posterior probabilities all provide robust support for the association of Mystacina with the South American noctilionoids. The basal divergence within Chiroptera was estimated at 67mya and the mystacinid/noctilionoid split was calculated at 47mya. Although the mystacinid lineage is too young to have originated in New Zealand before it split from the other Gondwanan landmasses (80mya), the exact geographic origin of these lineages is still uncertain and will not be answered until more fossils are found. It is most probable that Mystacina dispersed from Australia to New Zealand while other noctilionoid bats either remained in or dispersed to South America.

  20. Embryonic and larval development of Jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy & Gaimard, 1824, Pisces, Teleostei, a South American Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Pereira

    Full Text Available The jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy & Gaimard is an endemic South American fish species. Because this species supports cold winters and grows faster during warm months, it has begun to be viewed as an ideal species for fish production in southern South America. In the present study, jundiá oocytes used were obtained by extrusion from females after hormone injection. Soon after hydration, the eggs were transferred to 50 L conic glass incubators, with constant and controlled water influx. Samples of fertilized eggs were transferred to Petri dishes and, examined under a stereoscopic microscope, were spherical, demersal, and non-adhesive with defined perivitelline space and resistant chorion. Cleavage stages occurred during the first 3.5 h. After hatching, larvae were transferred to 200 L glass fiber incubators. First signs of embryo movement were observed 21 h after fertilization; larval eclosion occurred 30.5 h after fertilization. Present findings may provide a basis for studies aimed at determining the complete ontogeny of jundiá and may be useful in eco-toxicological studies.

  1. The type locality of the South American Tern, Sterna hirundinacea (Aves: Charadriiformes: Sternidae, with designation of a lectotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio J. Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of the South American Tern, Sterna hirundinacea, has long been considered to be the state of Santa Catarina in South Brazil. This conclusion was probably based on two syntypes, from the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, France, one from Laguna and the other from an unspecified locality. The latter was probably shot on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. A recent molecular study has shown that Brazilian and Patagonian populations of S. hirundinacea are not completely panmictic, though genetic differentiation between them is low. No data from the Falkland Islands and Pacific coast populations have been available for comparison. If future analysis shows that Pacific and/or Falkland/Malvinas populations are genetically isolated from the Brazil-Patagonian ones, the name S. hirundinacea would apply only to birds from the latter populations. Given that the two syntypes were collected at two widely spaced localities, doubts exist as to the precise locality where one syntype was taken, and to clear up uncertainties, a lectotype of S. hirundinacea is herein designated.

  2. Trends in South American weapons purchases at the beginning of the new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with some frequency it is heard that Latin America, especially South America, is witnessing the rise of an arms race. Frequent reports in the press and strong statements made by politicians in the region have fueled this fear. At the same time, scholars have also reached to this conclusion, as pointed out by Malamud and Garcia: "The famous arms race in Latin America, led by Venezuela, is no longer just talk."

  3. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake":…

  4. Emissions from pre-Hispanic metallurgy in the South American atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, François; Vanneste, Heleen; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Piotrowska, Natalia; Torrejón, Fernando; Roland, Thomas; Stein, Ariel; Le Roux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA) for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives, as well as evidence for global trace metal transport. We show in a peat record from Tierra del Fuego that anthropogenic metals likely have been emitted into the atmosphere and transported from NSA to southern South America (SSA) over the last 4200 yrs. These findings are supported by modern time back-trajectories from NSA to SSA. We further show that apparent anthropogenic Cu and Sb emissions predate any archaeological evidence for metallurgical activities. Lead and Sn were also emitted into the atmosphere as by-products of Inca and Spanish metallurgy, whereas local coal-gold rushes and the industrial revolution contributed to local contamination. We suggest that the onset of pre-Hispanic metallurgical activities is earlier than previously reported from archaeological records and that atmospheric emissions of metals were transported from NSA to SSA.

  5. Emissions from pre-Hispanic metallurgy in the South American atmosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François De Vleeschouwer

    Full Text Available Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives, as well as evidence for global trace metal transport. We show in a peat record from Tierra del Fuego that anthropogenic metals likely have been emitted into the atmosphere and transported from NSA to southern South America (SSA over the last 4200 yrs. These findings are supported by modern time back-trajectories from NSA to SSA. We further show that apparent anthropogenic Cu and Sb emissions predate any archaeological evidence for metallurgical activities. Lead and Sn were also emitted into the atmosphere as by-products of Inca and Spanish metallurgy, whereas local coal-gold rushes and the industrial revolution contributed to local contamination. We suggest that the onset of pre-Hispanic metallurgical activities is earlier than previously reported from archaeological records and that atmospheric emissions of metals were transported from NSA to SSA.

  6. Young Darwin and the ecology and extinctionof pleistocene south american fossil mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Vizcaíno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringhis two years in South America Charles Darwin became fascinated not only withthe lush vegetation of Brazil, but also with the gigantic Pleistocene mammals that hefound in the drier areas of Uruguay, and in the pampas and Patagonian coast of Argentina. These findings includedvarious ground sloths and glyptodonts among xenarthrans, and hoofed herbivoreslike Toxodon and Macrauchenia, in addition to horses and smallrodents. He concluded that the general assumption that large animals requireluxuriant vegetation was false and that vitiated the reasoning of geologists onsome aspects of Earth's history. He also reflected on the evident changes thatoccurred in the continent, the extinct fauna of which suggested to him ananalogy to southern parts of Africa. He wondered about our ignorance of biological traits inextinct creatures and the reasons for their extinction. Thus, not only did Darwin inspire phylogeneticstudies on fossil mammal lineages, he also opened a gate to the research ontheir behaviour, physiology and extinction; i.e., their palaeobiology. Whereasthe first approach was largely developed in South America beginning about thesecond half of the 19th century due to the intellectual influence ofFlorentino Ameghino, palaeobiology became a much more recent line of work, inapparent relation to innovations in methodology and technology. Thiscontribution provides an overview of recent contributions on the palaeobiologyof Pleistocene fossil mammals of South America as attempts to provide answers for Darwin's questions.

  7. Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

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    Gross Karin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women.

  8. Late Quaternary environmental change in the interior South American tropics: new insight from leaf wax stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kyrstin L.; Whitney, Bronwen S.; Galy, Valier; Hughen, Konrad A.; Mayle, Francis E.

    2016-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis of leaf waxes in a sediment core from Laguna La Gaiba, a shallow lake located at the Bolivian margin of the Pantanal wetlands, provides new perspective on vegetation and climate change in the lowland interior tropics of South America over the past 40,000 years. The carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of long-chain n-alkanes reveal large shifts between C3- and C4-dominated vegetation communities since the last glacial period, consistent with landscape reconstructions generated with pollen data from the same sediment core. Leaf wax δ13C values during the last glacial period reflect an open landscape composed of C4 grasses and C3 herbs from 41-20 ka. A peak in C4 abundance during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21 ka) suggests drier or more seasonal conditions relative to the earlier glacial period, while the development of a C3-dominated forest community after 20 ka points to increased humidity during the last deglaciation. Within the Holocene, large changes in the abundance of C4 vegetation indicate a transition from drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene to wetter conditions in the late Holocene coincident with increasing austral summer insolation. Strong negative correlations between leaf wax δ13C and δD values over the entire record indicate that the majority of variability in leaf wax δD at this site can be explained by variability in the magnitude of biosynthetic fractionation by different vegetation types rather than changes in meteoric water δD signatures. However, positive δD deviations from the observed δ13C- δD trends are consistent with more enriched source water and drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene and LGM. Overall, our record adds to evidence of varying influence of glacial boundary conditions and orbital forcing on South American Summer Monsoon precipitation in different regions of the South American tropics. Moreover, the relationships between leaf wax stable

  9. An official American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians policy statement: the Choosing Wisely top five list in adult pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Ouellette, Daniel R; Diamond, Edward; Fan, Vincent S; Maurer, Janet R; Mularski, Richard A; Peters, Jay I; Halpern, Scott D

    2014-06-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation's Choosing Wisely campaign aims to curb health-care costs and improve patient care by soliciting lists from medical societies of the top five tests or treatments in their specialty that are used too frequently and inappropriately. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and American College of Chest Physicians created a joint task force, which produced a top five list for adult pulmonary medicine. Our top five recommendations, which were approved by the executive committees of the ATS and American College of Chest Physicians and published by Choosing Wisely in October 2013, are as follows: (1) Do not perform CT scan surveillance for evaluation of indeterminate pulmonary nodules at more frequent intervals or for a longer period of time than recommended by established guidelines; (2) do not routinely offer pharmacologic treatment with advanced vasoactive agents approved only for the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension to patients with pulmonary hypertension resulting from left heart disease or hypoxemic lung diseases (groups II or III pulmonary hypertension); (3) for patients recently discharged on supplemental home oxygen following hospitalization for an acute illness, do not renew the prescription without assessing the patient for ongoing hypoxemia; (4) do not perform chest CT angiography to evaluate for possible pulmonary embolism in patients with a low clinical probability and negative results of a highly sensitive D-dimer assay; (5) do not perform CT scan screening for lung cancer among patients at low risk for lung cancer. We hope pulmonologists will use these recommendations to stimulate frank discussions with patients about when these tests and treatments are indicated--and when they are not.

  10. Optimizing surveillance for South American origin influenza A viruses along the United States Gulf Coast through genomic characterization of isolates from blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul Karl; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Newsome, George M.; Spackman, Erica; Brown, J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Relative to research focused on intercontinental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes were detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g. the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence of interactions between Italian heterosexual and South American homosexual males as the main source of national HIV-1 subtype C epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alessia; Bozzi, Giorgio; Franzetti, Marco; Binda, Francesca; Simonetti, Francesco R; Micheli, Valeria; Meraviglia, Paola; Corsi, Paola; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; De Luca, Andrea; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Balotta, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The HIV-1 clade C is prevalent worldwide and spread from Africa to South East Asia and South America early in the course of the epidemic. As a consequence of migration waves about 13% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic is sustained by this clade. Two hundred fifty-four C pol sequences from the Italian ARCA database collected during 1997-2011 were analyzed. Epidemiological networks and geographical fluxes were identified through phylogeny using Bayesian approaches. Patients' country of origin was Italy, Africa, South America, and South East Asia for 44.9%, 23.6%, 4.7%, and 1.6%, respectively. Heterosexuals and men having sex with men accounted for 83.2% and 16.8%, respectively. Modality of infection was distributed differently: heterosexuals were largely prevalent among Italians (84.1%) and Africans (95.3%), while men having sex with men predominated among South Americans (66.7%). Eight significant clusters encompassing 111 patients (43.7%) were identified. Comparison between clustering and non-clustering patients indicated significant differences in country of origin, modality of infection and gender. Men having sex with men were associated to a higher probability to be included in networks (70% for men having sex with men vs. 30.3% for heterosexuals). Phylogeography highlighted two significant groups. One contained Indian strains and the second encompassed South Americans and almost all Italian strains. Phylogeography indicated that the spread of C subtype among Italians is related to South American variant. Although Italian patients mainly reported themselves as heterosexuals, homo-bisexual contacts were likely their source of infection. Phylogenetic monitoring is warranted to guide public health interventions aimed at controlling HIV infection.

  12. Asthma 1-2-3: a low literacy multimedia tool to educate African American adults about asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P < 0.001). Symptom pathophysiology concepts were the least understood. Individuals with low literacy had less total knowledge score gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials.

  13. Social consequence of disease in the American South, 1900-World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mike G; Humphreys, Margaret E

    2006-08-01

    The early 20th century Southerner lived in a disease environment created by a confluence of poverty, climate and the legacy of slavery. A deadly trio of pellagra, hookworm and malaria enervated the poor Southerner--man, woman and child--creating a dull, weakened people ill equipped to prosper in the modem world. The Northern perceptions of the South as a backward and sickly region were only compounded by the realization that her population was malnourished, infected by worms, and continually plagued by agues and fevers. As historian John Duffy concluded, "As a chronically debilitating disease, it [malaria] shared with the other two the responsibility for the term 'lazy Southerner".

  14. Solar Forcing of the Streamflow of a Continental Scale South American River

    CERN Document Server

    Mauas, P J D; Buccino, A P

    2008-01-01

    Solar forcing on climate has been reported in several studies although the evidence so far remains inconclusive. Here, we analyze the stream flow of one of the largest rivers in the world, the Parana in southeastern South America. For the last century, we find a strong correlation with the sunspot number, in multidecadal time scales, and with larger solar activity corresponding to larger stream flow. The correlation coefficient is r=0.78, significant to a 99% level. In shorter time scales we find a strong correlation with El Nino. These results are a step toward flood prediction, which might have great social and economic impacts.

  15. Solar forcing of the stream flow of a continental scale South American river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Pablo J D; Flamenco, Eduardo; Buccino, Andrea P

    2008-10-17

    Solar forcing on climate has been reported in several studies although the evidence so far remains inconclusive. Here, we analyze the stream flow of one of the largest rivers in the world, the Paraná in southeastern South America. For the last century, we find a strong correlation with the sunspot number, in multidecadal time scales, and with larger solar activity corresponding to larger stream flow. The correlation coefficient is r=0.78, significant to a 99% level. In shorter time scales we find a strong correlation with El Niño. These results are a step toward flood prediction, which might have great social and economic impacts.

  16. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) from Peruvian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Omar Gonzales-Viera

    2015-01-01

    Dos especies de ectoparásitos fueron colectados de un lobo marino sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) hallado varado en las playas de Chorrillos, en Lima, Perú. Los ectoparásitos fueron identificados como Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera) y Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari). Algunas características morfológicas son descritas en el presente reporte. El hallazgo de estos ectoparásitos constituyen los primeros registros en el Perú. Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South...

  17. Embracing Intercultural Diversification: Teaching Young Adult Literature with Native American Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kenan; Box, Andrea; Blasingame, James

    2013-01-01

    According to the most recent census, there are five million Native Americans in the United States. Of these, there are at least 500,000 Native Americans attending public schools. However, the educational system does not fully serve this population and in fact often ignores them. More importantly, each tribe and clan has its own distinct cultural…

  18. Silence Speaks Volumes: Parental Sexual Communication among Asian American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Although parents greatly influence children's early understandings of sexuality, little is known about how sexual communication transpires in Asian American families. Accordingly, the authors examined the amount and type of parental sexual communication recalled by 165 Asian American college students. Parents were perceived as providing very…

  19. Connecting Early American Values to the Current Practice of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetz, Kalpana Gupta; Frush, Kristi L.

    2007-01-01

    A historical account is presented of adult education practice by exploring the lives of a few prominent men and women from the 19 century often not associated with the formal adult education 19th movement. These include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Henry David Thoreau. This article seeks to provide a historical context for the adult education…

  20. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim-offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim-offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed.

  1. Zoogeography of South American Forest-Dwelling Bats: Disjunct Distributions or Sampling Deficiencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício Adriano da Rocha

    Full Text Available Many forest-dwelling bats are purported to be widespread in South America, although records are scant from the vast diagonal belt of dry ecosystems that straddles the continent, implying possible sampling deficiencies. Here, we investigate this possibility in the case of four species of bat (Centronycteris maximiliani, Lampronycteris brachyotis, Peropteryx kappleri and Trinycteris nicefori, evaluating whether their disjunct present-day distributions reflect their true zoogeographic characteristics or the subsampling of intermediate zones. We use environmental niche modelling (ENM in an ensemble approach, combining four different modeling techniques, and using niche descriptors based on climatic and remote sensing data, to estimate the potential distribution of the four species. The models indicate that all four species have disjunct distributions in the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. The one possible exception is P. kappleri, which the models indicated might potentially occur in humid forest enclaves in western Brazil and eastern Bolivia. The present-day distribution of the species may date back to the Plio-Pleistocene, when the forested biomes of South America were more extensive and connected. Further studies of different chiropteran lineages may provide additional insights into the historic processes of faunal interchange between the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes.

  2. The genetic legacy of polyploid Bolivian Daphnia: the tropical Andes as a source for the North and South American D. pulicaria complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergeay, Joachim; Aguilera, Ximena; Declerck, Steven; Petrusek, Adam; Huyse, Tine; De Meester, Luc

    2008-04-01

    We investigated genetic variation in asexual polyploid members of the water flea Daphnia pulex complex from a set of 12 Bolivian high-altitude lakes. We used nuclear microsatellite markers to study genetic relationships among all encountered multilocus genotypes, and combined this with a phylogenetic approach using DNA sequence data of three mitochondrial genes. Analyses of mitochondrial gene sequence divergence showed the presence of three very distinct clades that likely represent cryptic undescribed species. Our phylogenetic results suggest that the Daphnia pulicaria group, a complex of predominantly North American species that has diversified rapidly since the Pleistocene, has its origin in South America, as specific tests of topology indicated that all three South American lineages are ancestral to the North American members of this species group. A comparison between variation of nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed that closely related polyploid nuclear genotypes sometimes belonged to very divergent mitochondrial lineages, while distantly related nuclear genotypes often belonged to the same mitochondrial lineage. This discrepancy suggests that these South American water fleas originated through reciprocal hybridization between different endemic, sexually reproducing parental lineages. It is also likely that polyploidy of the investigated lineages resulted from this hybridization. Nevertheless, no putative diploid parental lineages were found in the studied region.

  3. Adult Teachers as Researchers: Ethnographic Approaches to Numeracy and Literacy as Social Practices in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Brian V.; Rogers, Alan; Baker, Dave

    2006-01-01

    It has long been orthodoxy among adult educators that those who teach adults need to take into account the existing knowledge, practices, perceptions and expectations of the learners. This is true at both central level where curricula and teaching-learning materials are developed and at local level where adult teacher/facilitator meets adult…

  4. The importance of material resources and qualified trainers in adult non-formal education and training centres in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-04-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills often remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. The paper assesses the extent to which material and human resources have affected skills acquisition and graduate employment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The results show that material and human resource challenges in most public and some private centres have led to gaps in skills training. Programmes focus too strongly on academic credits and certificates and not enough on employment as an end goal. The authors argue that the existence of suitable training materials and qualified trainers with practical experience and specific technical skills constitutes favourable conditions ("enabling environments") for graduate employment. Without improvement in material and human resources, adult trainees will continue to experience difficulties integrating into the labour market, and the cycle of poverty and social exclusion will remain unbroken.

  5. Rhoptry Proteins ROP5 and ROP18 Are Major Murine Virulence Factors in Genetically Divergent South American Strains of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Behnke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has evolved a number of strategies to evade immune responses in its many hosts. Previous genetic mapping of crosses between clonal type 1, 2, and 3 strains of T. gondii, which are prevalent in Europe and North America, identified two rhoptry proteins, ROP5 and ROP18, that function together to block innate immune mechanisms activated by interferon gamma (IFNg in murine hosts. However, the contribution of these and other virulence factors in more genetically divergent South American strains is unknown. Here we utilized a cross between the intermediately virulent North American type 2 ME49 strain and the highly virulent South American type 10 VAND strain to map the genetic basis for differences in virulence in the mouse. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of this new cross identified one peak that spanned the ROP5 locus on chromosome XII. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated deletion of all copies of ROP5 in the VAND strain rendered it avirulent and complementation confirmed that ROP5 is the major virulence factor accounting for differences between type 2 and type 10 strains. To extend these observations to other virulent South American strains representing distinct genetic populations, we knocked out ROP5 in type 8 TgCtBr5 and type 4 TgCtBr18 strains, resulting in complete loss of virulence in both backgrounds. Consistent with this, polymorphisms that show strong signatures of positive selection in ROP5 were shown to correspond to regions known to interface with host immunity factors. Because ROP5 and ROP18 function together to resist innate immune mechanisms, and a significant interaction between them was identified in a two-locus scan, we also assessed the role of ROP18 in the virulence of South American strains. Deletion of ROP18 in South American type 4, 8, and 10 strains resulted in complete attenuation in contrast to a partial loss of virulence seen for ROP18 knockouts in previously described type 1 parasites. These data show that ROP5

  6. Reconstruction of multiple tectonic events in continental margins by integrated tectonostratigraphic and geochronological analysis: the Mesozoic to Paleogene Caribbean-South American interaction in northeastern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Bayona, German; Valencia, Victor; Ramirez, Diego; Zapata, Sebastian; Lara, Mario; Lopez-Martinez, Margarita; Thomson, Stuart; Weber, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Although the older record and successive tectonic scenarios experienced by a continental margin is commonly fragmentary, integrated field, petrological and geochronological analysis can reconstruct the long term tectonic evolution of continental margins and characterized major controls on the orogenic style. We present new geochronological constraints from igneous and low to very low grade metasedimentary rocks from the Caribbean continental margin of northeastern Colombia (Guajira region) in order to reconstruct the different tectonic events recorded by the margin before, during and following the arc-continent collision with the front of the Caribbean plate. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology results from leucogranites associated with garnet amphibolites, tonalites and volcanic rocks that made the continental basement of northeastern Colombia reveals and Early to Middle Mesozoic tectonic activity with peaks at ca. 220-230 Ma and 170-180 Ma. This magmatic record is related to a collisional belt link to the final agglutination of Pangea and was followed by an overimposed far field back-arc setting associated to the subduction of the Pacific (Farrallon) plate under the Pangea supercontinent. Muscovite and biotite Ar-Ar geochronology from basement rocks and low grade Mesozoic metasediments also reveals the existence of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous thermal events link to the final opening of the proto-Caribbean ocean. The South American continental margin was subsequently affected by an arc-continent collisional event with the front of the Caribbean plate. This event is recorded by the growth of a Banda-type collisional melange that mixed South American continental margin sediments with mafic and ultramafic blocks of intra-oceanic arc origin, the formation of a coherent metasedimentary belt also made of South American margin sediments, and the mylonitization of the continental basement. Ar-Ar temporal constraints on the low grade metasedimentary rocks and

  7. Interplay between metabolic rate and diet quality in the South American fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sergio I; Jaksic, Fabian M; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    We studied the metabolic costs associated with the ingestion of peppertree fruits (Schinus molle) in the culpeo fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus, the second largest canid in South America. Throughout its range of distribution, this fox feeds on rodents and other small vertebrates, and also on peppertree fruits, which represent 98% of total fruits consumed in semiarid Chile. Peppertree contains a high diversity of phytochemicals. Foxes feeding on diets containing rats and peppertree fruits (mixed diets) exhibited a 98.9% increase in basal rate of metabolism when compared to rat-acclimated foxes. Thus, acute ingestion of chemically defended fruits has an energetic cost for the fox, reflected in higher values of basal metabolism. Increased metabolic rates may be associated with increased protein synthesis for detoxification and for tissue repair, including the production of biotransformation enzymes.

  8. Two new species of freshwater flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Continenticola) from South American caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Stella; Morais, Ana Laura; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Leal-Zanchet, Ana

    2016-03-14

    The diversity of freshwater triclads in the Neotropical region is considered to be low, but extensive areas of South America remain almost unexplored. Herein we describe two cave-dwelling, new species of Girardia, one from a transition zone of the Cerrado and Caatinga phytophysiognomies and the other from the Cerrado phytophysiognomy. The species from the Cerrado-Caatinga transition is a troglobite, eyeless and whitish; the species from the Cerrado area is possibly a troglophile, since it shows heavily pigmented body and eyes. Each species is easily recognized by a unique combination of features in its external morphology and copulatory apparatus. The two new species of Girardia show a restricted distribution, even the troglophile, and occur in caves without legal protection. Therefore, they must be considered as vulnerable organisms in a conservation context.

  9. THE RELATIONS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FLORA TO THAT OF SOUTH AMERICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, W L

    1900-11-09

    Reviewing the floral relations of North and South America as illustrated in the foregoing instances, we may say that the phenomena of distribution agree fairly with the record of physical conditions which have succeeded each other and those which still exist, and upon which we might almost a priori have predicted an analogous set of distribution phenomena. In this relationship we may distinguish three categories of distribution: (1) Those due to the conditions of human civilization, commerce, etc. This has resulted in placing the same species in similar regions of both continents, as, for example, Fagonia cretica in Lower California and Chile; Munroa squarrosa, western plains of North America, plains of Argentine and high plateaus of Chile and Bolivia; Frankenia grandiflora, Southern California and Arizona, coast lands of Chile; Oxytheca dendroidea, Lastarricea chilensis, and Chorizanthe comrnmissuralis, all in Southern California and Western Chile. (2) Those due to the operation of natural causes acting unde present conditions of climate, geology, etc. Under this head may be cited such species as sida leprosa, hastata, anomala, Cienfugosia sulphurea, Spergulariaplattensis and, in general, elements of Gulf zone distribution; also certain elements which still find a pathway along the continental axis, including some alpine and mountain xerophilous genera. (3) The third category of distribution would include those phenomena due to geological and climatic changes acting through long periods. Under this head are included the elements of greatest significance in the relationsip of the North and South America floras. The endemic boreal flora of the Andes, the equally endemic boreal flora of the Mexican Cordilleras, and genera with sharply distinct species or sub-genera in the arid extra-tropical regions of both continents, which may be called remnant elements.

  10. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Suk Park; Pengcheng Xun; Jing Li; Steve J. Morris; Jacobs, David R; Kiang Liu; Ka He

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were m...

  11. Predictors of change in fruit and vegetable consumption in a faith-based intervention with African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Margaret D; Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Carter, Chad

    2013-01-01

    A majority of African American adults do not eat the recommended daily amount of fruit and vegetables. This study examined baseline demographic, health-related, and psychosocial variables as predictors of change in fruit and vegetable consumption from baseline to postprogram in a sample of church members taking part in a 15-month intervention. Participants who had a greater waist circumference, greater baseline fruit and vegetable consumption, greater leisure time physical activity, higher levels of social support, greater attendance at worship service, were obese, and did not have diabetes at baseline showed higher posttest fruit and vegetable consumption.

  12. Management of cryptococcal meningitis in adults at Mthatha Hospital Complex, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunso Oladipupo Sogbanmu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cryptoccocal meningitis (CM remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals across South Africa (SA. Early diagnosis and management, aided by the existing Southern African HIV Clinicians Society (SAHIVSoc 2007 guidelines on management of CM, could reduce the mortality associated with this condition. Objective. To review the management of adult patients with CM and adherence to the SAHIVSoc 2007 guidelines in a district hospital.Methods. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted with CM from December 2011 to May 2012 was performed. The following key recommendations of the guidelines were evaluated: measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF opening pressure at the first lumbar puncture (LP, prescription of amphotericin B (AMB/fluconazole therapy, intravenous prehydration preceding administration of AMB, monitoring of renal function and performance of serial LPs to manage raised intracranial pressure (ICP.Results. A total of 57 patient charts were reviewed, of which 40 (70% were of females. The mean age (range of the cohort was 36 (21 - 60 years. Fifty-two (91% patients presented with headache. Confusion was recorded in 30 (53% and vomiting in 26 (46%. The major signs observed were fever (n=29 (51% and neck stiffness (n=34 (60%. Fifty-five (96% patients were HIV-infected at presentation, with a median (range CD4+ count of 77 (13 - 90 cells/µl. None of the patients had a CSF opening pressure measured at first LP. AMB was used as an induction agent in 51 (89% patients, of whom 47 (92% completed 2 weeks of AMB. Of these 51, only 20 (40% were prehydrated and 10 (18% had two repeat LPs performed 1 week apart. Renal function was monitored in only 27 (53% of the patients receiving AMB. This was done at baseline and twice weekly, and was consistent with the guidelines. No abnormality in renal function was recorded in these cases during the study. The mortality rate was 30% in the first 10 days of admission.Conclusion. This chart review

  13. HIV after 40 in rural South Africa: A life course approach to HIV vulnerability among middle aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A; Williams, Jill; Angotti, Nicole; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier

    2015-10-01

    South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world (over 6 million) as well as a rapidly aging population, with 15% of the population aged 50 and over. High HIV prevalence in rural former apartheid homeland areas suggests substantial aging with HIV and acquisition of HIV at older ages. We develop a life course approach to HIV vulnerability, highlighting the rise and fall of risk and protection as people age, as well as the role of contextual density in shaping HIV vulnerability. Using this approach, we draw on an innovative multi-method data set collected within the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa, combining survey data with 60 nested life history interviews and 9 community focus group interviews. We examine HIV risk and protective factors among adults aged 40-80, as well as how and why these factors vary among people at older ages.

  14. Development of natural gas in the South American region and internationalization of a market thereof; Nanbei chiiki ni okeru tennen gasu kaihatsu to shijo no kokusaika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, N. [Japan Petroleum Development Association, Tokyo (Japan); Terada, S. [Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Recently, natural gas development in the South American region is actively advanced. Especially, southern countries have formed the customs union 'Mercosur' (the South America south cooperation market), and an energy supply network such as the natural gas pipeline has been formed with the integration of the market. In this paper, a present state of development project, an installment balance situation, a production situation, a relation infrastructure and a trend of the market of natural gas in South America especially each country of the southern district are described. And, the introduction of foreign capital is also advancing with the restructuring related to the natural gas business in these countries. Therefore, those trends are also described. In the South American countries, Argentina has abundant natural gas reserves which is the next quantity to Venezuela, and has coped with the development of natural gas since early times. According to the prediction of future demand trend of natural gas, Argentina, Bolivia and Trinidad Tobago are mentioned as an exporter of natural gas, and Brazil and Chile are mentioned as an importer of natural gas. (NEDO)

  15. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  16. Dying in their prime: determinants and space-time risk of adult mortality in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Sartorius, Kurt; Tollman, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    A longitudinal dataset was used to investigate adult mortality in rural South Africa in order to determine location, trends, high impact determinants and policy implications. Adult (15-59 years) mortality data for the period 1993-2010 were extracted from the health and demographic surveillance system in the rural sub-district of Agincourt. A Bayesian geostatistical frailty survival model was used to quantify significant associations between adult mortality and various multilevel (individual, household and community) variables. It was found that adult mortality significantly increased over time with a reduction observed late in the study period. Non-communicable disease mortality appeared to increase and decrease in parallel with communicable mortality, whilst deaths due to external causes remained constant. Male gender, unemployment, circular (labour) migrant status, age and gender of household heads, partner and/or other household death, low education and low household socio-economic status were identified as significant and highly attributable determinants of adult mortality. Health facility remoteness was a risk for adult mortality and households falling outside a critical buffering zone were identified. Spatial foci of higher adult mortality risk were observed, indicating a strong non-random pattern. Communicable diseases differed from non-communicable diseases with respect to spatial distribution of mortality. Areas with significant excess mortality risk (hot spots) were found to be part of a complex interaction of highly attributable factors that continues to drive differential space-time risk patterns of communicable (HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) mortality in Agincourt. The impact of HIV mortality and its subsequent lowering due to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy was found to be clearly evident in this rural population.

  17. Dying in their prime: determinants and space-time risk of adult mortality in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A.; Sartorius, Kurt; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A longitudinal dataset was used to investigate adult mortality in rural South Africa in order to determine location, trends, high impact determinants and policy implications. Adult (15-59 years) mortality data for the period 1993-2010 were extracted from the health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in the rural sub-district of Agincourt. A Bayesian geostatistical frailty survival model was used to quantify significant associations between adult mortality and various multilevel (individual, household and community) variables. It was found that adult mortality significantly increased over time with a reduction observed late in the study period. Non-communicable disease mortality appeared to increase and decrease in parallel with communicable mortality, whilst deaths due to external causes remained constant. Male gender, unemployment, circular (labour) migrant status, age and gender of household heads, partner and/or other household death, low education and low household socioeconomic status (SES) were identified as significant and highly attributable determinants of adult mortality. Health facility remoteness was also a risk for adult mortality and households falling outside a critical buffering zone were identified. Spatial foci of higher adult mortality risk were observed indicating a strong non-random pattern. Communicable diseases differed from non-communicable diseases with respect to spatial distribution of mortality. Areas with significant excess mortality risk (hotspots) were found to be part of a complex interaction of highly attributable factors that continues to drive differential space-time risk patterns of communicable (HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis) mortality in Agincourt. The impact of HIV mortality and its subsequent lowering due to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was found to be clearly evident in this rural population. PMID:23733287

  18. Longitudinal Variation in GPS -TEC and Topside Electron Density Associated with the Wave Number Four Structures over South American Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, P. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Bailey, G. J.; Shume, E. B.; Denardini, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent observations of the low-latitude ionospheric electron density have revealed a longitudinal structure in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) intensity, which is characterized by a wave number-four pattern when plotted at a constant-local-time frame. It has been proposed that neutral wind driven dynamo electric fields from the E-region due to non migrating tidal modes are responsible for this pattern. In the present work we have used measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) to investigate the four peaks structure in the topside electron density of the low latitude ionosphere. We also compare the climatology of the Total Electron Content (TEC) as observed by GPS receivers in two equatorial stations over South America, São Luís (2.33 S, 315.8E, declination = -19 degree) in Brazil and Arequipa (16.5S, 288.5E, declination = 0.5 degree) in Peru. TEC variations for three solar activity levels (high, moderate and low) have been analyzed. TEC values over São Luís are found to be larger than that ones over Arequipa independent of the season, local time and solar cycle conditions. We estimated the vertical plasma drifts over these stations using magnetometer data during daytime and using ionosonde data for evening hours. We fed the Sheffield University Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model (SUPIM) with this drifts in an attempt to partially explain the differences in the TEC over these stations. The SUPIM was also used to evaluate the effect of thermospheric wind to cause the four peaks structure in the plasma density. Therefore, we analyze the equatorial ionospheric response to combined effects of thermospheric neutral winds and zonal electric field causing the longitudinal variation in TEC observed in the South American longitude sector.

  19. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rhodes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture and assist Vietnamese immigrants and refugees to acculturate, while maintaining their own cultural heritage, beliefs and religious traditions; ultimately building a viable and sustainable Buddhist community that contributes greatly to its new host community.

  20. Viability of Cabralea canjerana extracts to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-04-10

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus.

  1. Construct validity and factor structure of the pittsburgh sleep quality index and epworth sleepiness scale in a multi-national study of African, South East Asian and South American college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizu Gelaye

    Full Text Available The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS are questionnaires used to assess sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness in clinical and population-based studies. The present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among young adults in four countries (Chile, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,481 undergraduate students. Students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. In each country, the construct validity and factorial structures of PSQI and ESS questionnaires were tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA.The largest component-total correlation coefficient for sleep quality as assessed using PSQI was noted in Chile (r = 0.71 while the smallest component-total correlation coefficient was noted for sleep medication use in Peru (r = 0.28. The largest component-total correlation coefficient for excessive daytime sleepiness as assessed using ESS was found for item 1 (sitting/reading in Chile (r = 0.65 while the lowest item-total correlation was observed for item 6 (sitting and talking to someone in Thailand (r = 0.35. Using both EFA and CFA a two-factor model was found for PSQI questionnaire in Chile, Ethiopia and Thailand while a three-factor model was found for Peru. For the ESS questionnaire, we noted two factors for all four countries.Overall, we documented cross-cultural comparability of sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness measures using the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among Asian, South American and African young adults. Although both the PSQI and ESS were originally developed as single-factor questionnaires, the results of our EFA and CFA revealed the multi- dimensionality of the scales suggesting limited usefulness of the global PSQI and ESS

  2. American Adult Educators and Practice%美国成人教育家及其实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In American history about adult education ,there were a large number of famous scholars of adult education ,such as Frances Wright ,Elizabeth Cady Stanton ,Edward L .Thorndike ,Eduard Christian Lindeman , Malcolm Shepherd Knowles , Cyril Orvin Houle , who made pioneering contributions to the development of adult education for the United States on Feminism and women ’s ed-ucation ,racial equality ,ethnic integration and multicultural education ,adult learning ,the elderly and special education and other fields .These achievements were not only related to the United States time and the needs of the social development ,but also related to American society ,which provided good pro-fessional environment and perfect professional platform for these professionals .%  在美国成人教育发展史上,产生了诸如佛朗西斯・韦特、伊丽贝萨・凯蒂・斯通、林德曼、马尔科姆・诺尔斯、希里尔・侯尔等一大批闻名于世的成人教育学者。他们在女性主义与妇女教育、种族平等、民族融合与多元文化教育等广泛领域,为美国成人教育的发展做出了开拓性的贡献。这些成就的取得既与美国时代和社会发展的需要分不开,又与美国社会为这些专业工作者所提供的良好职业环境和专业平台密不可分。

  3. Large scale features associated with strong frontogenesis in equivalent potential temperature in the South American subtropics east of the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Arraut

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available South American subtropics east of the Andes exhibit a region of intense climatological frontogenesis in equivalent potential temperature (EPT in the December to March season, mostly produced by deformation of the wind field. The goal of this paper is to investigate the large scale features associated with intense and weak frontogenesis by deformation (FGD in EPT in the region where it attains its climatological maximum. This can be approximately delimited by 32–42° S and 66–69° W, which is small enough as to contain only one synoptic perturbation at a time. The spatial average of the positive values of frontogenesis at 850 hPa over the whole region (DFG+ is used to represent the strength of the perturbation. ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis data set is used to calculate DFG+ at six hour intervals for 21 seasons (1981–2002. Compositing analysis is carried out for strong (above the 0.75 quantile and weak (below the 0.25 quantile events. For strong events the geopotential field at 850 hPa exhibits the North Argentinean Low (NAL, a transient trough and the Low Pressure Tongue East of the Andes (LPT. Upon comparison with the composite field of FGD it can be observed that FGD exhibits a strong maximum over the Argentinean Col (AC which separates the NAL and the trough. These features are absent in the weak frontogenesis composite, which exhibits a stronger South Pacific Subtropical High close to the continent. At 250 hPa the strong FGD composite exhibits a trough over the Andes with a wind speed maximum to its east. Both of these features are associated with the deepening of the NAL in the literature. These are not present in the weak FGD composites. Strong events show an intense quasi meridional corridor of water vapor transport from the Amazon to the subtropics that encounters westerly flow in the neighborhood of the AC. This is absent in weak events. A preliminary analysis of precipitation is carried out using the GPCP daily data set. An intense

  4. HIV/AIDS related mortality among adult medical patients in a tertiary health institution in South-South, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyuse AN; Bassey IE; Udonwa NE; Okokon IB; Philip-Ephraim EE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients as a step to planning strategies to improve mortality from this condition.Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the mortality pattern of adult HIV/AIDS patients in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2007. The data were obtained from sexually transmitted infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STI/AIDS) clinic register, admissions and discharge/death registers as well as the patients' case records and the hospitals monthly mortality reviews. Information obtained included age, sex, diagnosis and cause(s) of death. The causes of death considered were the directcauses of death, since the originating antecedent cause of death is the same in all the patients, in this case, HIV/AIDS. Data was analysed using Epi Info 2002.Results: The total number of mortalities during the study period was 350,100 were HIV positive representing 28.6% of all deaths. While advanced HIV/AIDS disease was the leading cause of death in our study representing 27.0%, tuberculosis was the single leading cause of deaths in HIV/AIDS patients constituting about 24.0% of deaths. This was followed by sepsis and septicaemia (13.0%), meningitis and encephalitis, and anaemia accounting for 11.0%, while respiratory diseases constituted 5.0% of the mortality burden. The highest number of deaths occurred in those aged between 21-50 years (82.0%).Conclusions: The study has shown that HIV/AIDS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our hospital. The causes of death reflect the varied spectrum of infection and other forms of organ involvement that affect HIV/AIDS patients. The present dismal situation of adult patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Health literacy and breast cancer screening among Mexican American women in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, José A; Brown, Cynthia J; Asch, David A; Armstrong, Katrina; Bastida, Elena; Guerra, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer deaths for Hispanic women. This study analyzes the role of functional health literacy on mammography screening behavior and adherence of Hispanic women. Survey data from 722 Mexican American women age 40 and over residing in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in 2008 were used to estimate logistic regression models to assess the role of functional health literacy on mammography screening behavior and adherence. About 51% of survey respondents had a functional health literacy level deemed as inadequate or marginally functional. After adjusting for other factors, women with adequate health literacy levels were more likely to report to have ever had a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.62-5.28), to have had a mammogram within the last 2 years (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.14-2.53) or to have had one within the last year (OR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.54-3.43), compared to women with inadequate or marginally adequate functional health literacy levels. Inadequate/marginal functional health literacy is strongly associated with lower mammography screening. Large improvements in breast cancer control in this population may come from either basic advances in health literacy or by tailored approaches to help women with low literacy navigate local health care systems.

  6. Total mercury, organic mercury and selenium in liver and kidney of a South American coastal dolphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seixas, Tercia G. [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: tercia@rdc.puc-rio.br; Kehrig, Helena do A. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Monica [Departamento de Oceanografia, CTG-UFPE, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Fillmann, Gilberto [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Secchi, Eduardo R. [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Laboratorio de Tartarugas e Mamiferos Marinhos, Departamento de Oceanografia e Museu Oceanografico ' Prof. E.C. Rios' , FURG, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Souza, Cristina M.M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Selenium and total and organic mercury were determined in the liver and kidney of franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally caught in fishing nets along two Brazilian coastal areas (southeast and south). Regional differences in the concentrations of these contaminants were observed in P. blainvillei. Liver showed the highest organic and total mercury. In general, samples of individuals collected at the southern of Brazil had the highest concentrations of selenium and total and organic mercury. No significant gender differences were observed. Growth stage influenced the accumulation of these contaminants in both organs, and hepatic concentrations increased with the body length, according to the sampling area. Molar mercury and selenium concentrations in liver were significantly correlated, with a Se:Hg ratio close to 4. The among-site differences we found may be related to differences in preferred prey, bioavailability in the marine environment, environmental conditions, or these individuals may belong to distinct populations. - This study presents some useful data on the bioaccumulation of Hg, organic Hg and Se, and their inter-element relationships in a Brazilian small cetacean.

  7. Genetic selection of American sycamore for biomass production in the mid-south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, S. B., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    Biomass prediction equations were developed to examine genetic, site, and propagule effects on above stump biomass. Accuracy and precision of subsampling procedures which utilized green weight ratios were high for stem wood and bark, slightly less for limb components, and poorest for the leaf component. The best predictor variables for stem biomass equations were DBH2, (DBH), and (DBH)2, and DBH)2 times height. Crown width, crown surface area, and (DBH)2 times the crown length/tree height ratio were more appropriate predictors for limb of leaf biomass. Specific gravity and moisture content varied within the tree, among sites, and among families within seed sources, but not among sources. Survival, biomass per tree, and biomass per hectare were lowest for trees established from seedling top cuttings, higher for top pruned seedlings, and highest for whole seedlings. Site differences were very large for biomass production, with the best site having nearly as much stem plus limb dry weight per hectare at age five as three other sites combined. Geographic seed sources from south of each planting site produced more biomass per hectare than sources from north of the site. Family differences within sources were significant, as were site-by-family interactions.

  8. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mozer Sciani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa and Rhinella (South America. Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition.

  9. Acanthoparyphium sp. and other metazoan symbionts of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, from South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredensborg, B L; Ramirez, J J; Partida, L

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated oysters, Crassostrea virginica , from Laguna Madre in South Texas, where a 45-yr old study recorded metacercarial infections of the echinostomatid trematode, Acanthoparyphium spinulosum , an Asian relative of which, Acanthoparyphium tyosenense, has been associated with human infections via the ingestion of raw mollusks. In an effort to examine the base-line infection parameters of Acanthoparyphium sp. in oysters, we examined the effect of distance from the shoreline, which is the habitat of the first intermediate host snail, Cerithidea pliculosa, as well as temporal changes in oyster infection levels, by conducting quarterly collections of oysters during a year. We found that almost all oysters (prevalence = 97.8-100%) were infected regardless of distance to the shoreline and season. However, the abundance of metacercariae was significantly higher close to the shoreline, while no significant temporal changes could be detected. In addition to the echinostomatid, we found a high abundance of the metacestode Tylocephalum sp. and the presence of 4 other metazoan parasites. None of the infections seemed to incur significant tissue damage to the oysters. Our study shows that at least locally, recreational harvesters of oysters may be exposed to Acanthoparyphium sp. Future studies should examine oysters from snail host habitats in the Gulf of Mexico, and the potential zoonotic risk of Acanthoparyphium sp. should be evaluated using experimental infections of animal models.

  10. The first South American sandownid turtle from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Sandownids are a group of Early Cretaceous-Paleocene turtles that for several decades have been only known by cranial and very fragmentary postcranial elements. Here I report and describe the most complete sandownid turtle known so far, including articulated skull, lower jaw and postcranial elements, from the Early Cretaceous (upper Barremian-lower Aptian, >120 Ma), Paja Formation, Villa de Leyva town, Colombia. The new Colombian sandownid is defined here as Leyvachelys cipadi new genus, new species and because of its almost identical skull morphology with a previously reported turtle from the Glen Rose Formation, Texas, USA, both are grouped in a single and officially (ICNZ rules) defined taxon. Phylogenetic analysis including L. cipadi supports once again the monophyly of Sandownidae, as belonging to the large and recently redefined Pan-Chelonioidea clade. The morphology of L. cipadi indicates that sandownids were not open marine turtles, but instead littoral to shallow marine durophagous dwellers. Leyvachelys cipadi not only constitutes the first record of sandowinds in South America, but also the earliest global record for the group.

  11. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

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    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of the strictly Neotropical ophionine wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 are revised. New descriptions of all previously named species are provided, except Alophophion holosericeus (Taschenberg, 1875 for which the type series is lost and the name is herein considered a nomen dubium. The female of A. flavorufus (Brullé, 1846 is described for the first time. Four informal species groups are proposed based on the morphology of the mandibles, development of the malar space, and general proportions of the head (i.e., development of the face and gena. Whereas the genus previously included only seven named species, it is here expanded to include 49 species (not including the aforementioned nomen dubium, 43 of which are newly discovered and described and thereby increasing the diversity by over eight times. A key to the four species groups and their included taxa is provided. Alophophion is confined to cold and/or dry areas of subequatorial South America, with the exception of A. mancocapaci new species and A. pedroi new species which occur incloud forests around Cuzco, Peru. The genus is newly recorded from Bolivia and Ecuador, and more extensive and accurate distributions are summarized for A. chilensis, A. flavorufus, and A. politus. Alophophion flavorufus is newly recorded from Argentina.Traduce

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); O`Quinn, M. [South Carolina Governor`s School for Science and Mathematics, Hartsville, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  13. Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Hedin, Lars O.

    2002-01-01

    Conceptual and numerical models of nitrogen cycling in temperate forests assume that nitrogen is lost from these ecosystems predominantly by way of inorganic forms, such as nitrate and ammonium ions. Of these, nitrate is thought to be particularly mobile, being responsible for nitrogen loss to deep soil and stream waters. But human activities-such as fossil fuel combustion, fertilizer production and land-use change-have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle over large regions, making it difficult to separate natural aspects of nitrogen cycling from those induced by human perturbations. Here we report stream chemistry data from 100 unpolluted primary forests in temperate South America. Although the sites exhibit a broad range of environmental factors that influence ecosystem nutrient cycles (such as climate, parent material, time of ecosystem development, topography and biotic diversity), we observed a remarkably consistent pattern of nitrogen loss across all forests. In contrast to findings from forests in polluted regions, streamwater nitrate concentrations are exceedingly low, such that nitrate to ammonium ratios were less than unity, and dissolved organic nitrogen is responsible for the majority of nitrogen losses from these forests. We therefore suggest that organic nitrogen losses should be considered in models of forest nutrient cycling, which could help to explain observations of nutrient limitation in temperate forest ecosystems.

  14. Land-Use and Land Cover Dynamics in South American Temperate Grasslands

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    José M. Paruelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Río de la Plata grasslands (RPG biogeographical region of South America, agricultural activities have undergone important changes during the last 15–18 years because of technological improvements and new national and international market conditions. We characterized changes in the landscape structure between 1985–1989 and 2002–2004 for eight pilot areas distributed across the main regional environmental gradients. These areas incorporated approximately 35% of the 7.5 × 105 km² of the system. Our approach involved the generation of land-use and land cover maps, the analysis of landscape metrics, and the computation of annual transition probabilities between land cover types. All of the information was summarized in 3383 cells of 8 × 8 km. The area covered by grassland decreased from 67.4 to 61.4% between the study periods. This decrease was associated with an increase in the area of annual crops, mainly soybean, sunflower, wheat, and maize. In some subunits of the RPG, i.e., Flat Inland Pampa, the grassland-to-cropland transition probability was high (pG→C = 3.7 × 10−2, whereas in others, i.e., Flooding Pampa, this transition probability was low (pG→C = 6.7 × 10−3. Our description of the magnitude, direction, and spatial distribution of land-use and land cover changes provides a basis from which to develop spatially explicit scenarios of land cover change.

  15. How useful are skills acquired at adult non-formal education and training centres for finding employment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-10-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education with courses which foster access to opportunities for skills acquisition and employment and bring about social and economic inclusion. However, many adults who were facing long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. This paper reports on a study which investigated what constitutes favourable conditions ("internal enabling environments") for skills acquisition inside NFET centres leading to employment and how they can be improved to contribute to coordinated efforts of increasing NFET graduates' paid and/or self-employment capacities. The authors found that centres focusing on activities suitable for self-employment during training were more likely to create internal enabling environments for skills acquisition and income generation than centres offering courses designed for entering paid employment. The authors conclude that there appears to be a significant correlation between NFET centres' training programme objectives, financial resources, trainee selection criteria, the process of training needs assessment, and skills acquisition for successful employment outcomes of NFET graduates. Without these internal enabling factors, adult trainees are likely to continue finding it difficult to integrate into the labour market or participate in economic activities and hence break the cycle of poverty and social exclusion.

  16. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

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    Anaïs Chailleux

    Full Text Available The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.

  17. State of the Art in the Studies on Crotamine, a Cell Penetrating Peptide from South American Rattlesnake

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    Irina Kerkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms comprise a naturally selected cocktail of bioactive peptides/proteins and other molecules, each of which playing a defined role thanks to the highly specific interactions with diverse molecular targets found in the prey. Research focused on isolation, structural, and functional characterizations of novel natural biologics (bioactive peptides/proteins from natural sources has a long way to go through from the basic science to clinical applications. Herein, we overview the structural and functional characteristics of the myoneurotoxin crotamine, firstly isolated from the South American rattlesnake venom. Crotamine is the first venom peptide classified as a natural cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptide (CPP and AMP with a more pronounced antifungal activity. In contrast to other known natural CPPs and AMPs, crotamine demonstrates a wide spectrum of biological activities with potential biotechnological and therapeutic values. More recent studies have demonstrated the selective in vitro anticancer activity of crotamine. In vivo, using a murine melanoma model, it was shown that crotamine delays tumor implantation, inhibits tumor cells proliferation, and also increases the survival of mice engrafted with subcutaneous melanoma. The structural and functional properties and also the possible biotechnological applications of minimized molecules derived from crotamine are also discussed.

  18. Determination and in-depth chromatographic analyses of alkaloids in South American and greenhouse-cultivated coca leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J M; Casale, J F; Klein, R F; Cooper, D A; Lydon, J

    1994-01-21

    Methodology is described for the detection and/or determination of cocaine and minor alkaloids in South American coca as well as in greenhouse- and tropical-cultivated field coca of known taxonomy. Coca leaf from Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia were subjected to the determination of cocaine, cis- and trans-cinnamoylcocaine, tropacocaine, hygrine, cuscohygrine and the isomeric truxillines. The greenhouse samples were cocaine-bearing leaves of the genus Erythroxylum and included E. coca var. coca, E. novogranatense var. novogranatense and E. novogranatense var. truxillense, and the alkaloids determined were cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, cuscohygrine, tropacocaine and the cinnamoylcocaines. The tropical-cultivated coca were E. novogranatense var. novogranatense and E. coca var. coca. Cocaine and minor alkaloids were isolated from basified powdered leaf samples using a toluene extractant, followed by acid-Celite column chromatography. The isolated alkaloids were determined by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization or electron-capture detection. Methodology is also presented for the isolation and mass spectral analysis of numerous trace-level coca alkaloids of unknown structure.

  19. Two New Cynodonts (Therapsida) from the Middle-Early Late Triassic of Brazil and Comments on South American Probainognathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marina Bento; Schwanke, Cibele

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new cynodonts from the early Late Triassic of southern Brazil. One taxon, Bonacynodon schultzi gen. et sp. nov., comes from the lower Carnian Dinodontosaurus AZ, being correlated with the faunal association at the upper half of the lower member of the Chañares Formation (Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin, Argentina). Phylogenetically, Bonacynodon is a closer relative to Probainognathus jenseni than to any other probainognathian, bearing conspicuous canines with a denticulate distal margin. The other new taxon is Santacruzgnathus abdalai gen. et sp. nov. from the Carnian Santacruzodon AZ. Although based exclusively on a partial lower jaw, it represents a probainognathian close to Prozostrodon from the Hyperodapedon AZ and to Brasilodon, Brasilitherium and Botucaraitherium from the Riograndia AZ. The two new cynodonts and the phylogenetic hypothesis presented herein indicate the degree to which our knowledge on probainognathian cynodonts is incomplete and also the relevance of the South American fossil record for understanding their evolutionary significance. The taxonomic diversity and abundance of probainognathians from Brazil and Argentina will form the basis of deep and complex studies to address the evolutionary transformations of cynodonts leading to mammals. PMID:27706191

  20. Climate change and the distribution and conservation of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyckens, G. A. E.; Christie, D. A.; Domic, A. I.; Malizia, L. R.; Renison, D.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Consequently, methods for delineation, establishment and management of protected areas must consider the species' future distribution in response to future climate conditions. Biodiversity in high altitude semiarid regions may be particularly threatened by future climate change. In this study we assess the main environmental variables that best explain present day presence of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano, and model how climate change may affect the future distribution of this unique ecosystem under different climate change scenarios. These woodlands are dominated by Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), a species that forms unique biological communities with important conservation value. Our results indicate that five environmental variables are responsible for 91% and 90.3% of the present and future P. tarapacana distribution models respectively, and suggest that at the end of the 21st century, there will be a significant reduction (56%) in the potential habitat for this species due to more arid conditions. Since it is predicted that P. tarapacana's potential distribution will be severely reduced in the future, we propose a new network of national protected areas across this species distribution range in order to insure the future conservation of this unique ecosystem. Based on an extensive literature review we identify research topics and recommendations for on-ground conservation and management of P. tarapacana woodlands.

  1. A Spectrophotometric Study of Plumage Color in the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), the Most Abundant South American Columbiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Vieyra, Santiago Miguel

    2016-01-01

    For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species. In the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range (300–700 nm). The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis (hue, chroma and brightness) show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females. The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection (e.g. the crown). The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication. PMID:27213273

  2. A Spectrophotometric Study of Plumage Color in the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata, the Most Abundant South American Columbiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Javier Valdez

    Full Text Available For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species. In the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata, perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range (300-700 nm. The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis (hue, chroma and brightness show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females. The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection (e.g. the crown. The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication.

  3. Two New Cynodonts (Therapsida) from the Middle-Early Late Triassic of Brazil and Comments on South American Probainognathians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Agustín G; Soares, Marina Bento; Schwanke, Cibele

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new cynodonts from the early Late Triassic of southern Brazil. One taxon, Bonacynodon schultzi gen. et sp. nov., comes from the lower Carnian Dinodontosaurus AZ, being correlated with the faunal association at the upper half of the lower member of the Chañares Formation (Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin, Argentina). Phylogenetically, Bonacynodon is a closer relative to Probainognathus jenseni than to any other probainognathian, bearing conspicuous canines with a denticulate distal margin. The other new taxon is Santacruzgnathus abdalai gen. et sp. nov. from the Carnian Santacruzodon AZ. Although based exclusively on a partial lower jaw, it represents a probainognathian close to Prozostrodon from the Hyperodapedon AZ and to Brasilodon, Brasilitherium and Botucaraitherium from the Riograndia AZ. The two new cynodonts and the phylogenetic hypothesis presented herein indicate the degree to which our knowledge on probainognathian cynodonts is incomplete and also the relevance of the South American fossil record for understanding their evolutionary significance. The taxonomic diversity and abundance of probainognathians from Brazil and Argentina will form the basis of deep and complex studies to address the evolutionary transformations of cynodonts leading to mammals.

  4. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae

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    Ligia Tchaicka

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus.

  5. Anti-platelet effect of cumanastatin 1, a disintegrin isolated from venom of South American Crotalus rattlesnake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Manuel; Lucena, Sara; Aguilar, Irma; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Salazar, Ana M; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, Maria E; Carvajal, Zoila; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-03-01

    Disintegrins have been previously described in the venom of several snake families inhibiting signal transduction, cell-cell interactions, and cell-matrix interactions and may have therapeutic potential in heart attacks, thrombotic diseases, and cancers. This investigation describes the first disintegrin isolated from South American Crotalus venom (Venezuelan rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis), which inhibits platelet adhesion to matrix proteins. C. d. cumanensis crude venom was first separated on a Sephadex G-100 column into 4 fractions (SI to SIV). Crude venom and SIII fraction significantly diminished platelet adhesion to fibrinogen (Fg) and to fibronectin (Fn). Anti-adhesive SIII fraction was further separated by DEAE-Sephacel followed by C-18 reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The platelet anti-adhesive fraction obtained was designated as cumanastatin-1. This disintegrin has a mass of 7.442 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and pI of 8.5. Cumanastatin-1 also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 158 nM. However, it did not significantly inhibit collagen and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Cumanastatin-1 considerably inhibited anti-alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin binding to platelets in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not present any effect on the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin or on P-selectin.

  6. Publication Productivity of North American Institutions in Selected Adult Education Journals, 1983-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachal, John R.; Sargent, Steven F.

    1995-01-01

    Issues of five adult education journals for 1983-1992 were examined to determine authors' institutional affiliation and make productivity rankings. Top five most productive were Northern Illinois (NIU), University of British Columbia (UBC), University of Georgia, Penn State, and Rutgers. When "Adult Education Quarterly" was analyzed…

  7. Adults and the Changing Workplace. 1985 Yearbook of the American Vocational Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt, Ed.

    The 31 papers in this yearbook are organized in five sections: I. Changes in the Labor Force, which includes: "Labor Market Needs to the Year 2000" (Morgan V. Lewis) and "Occupational Adaptability and Transferable Skills: Preparing Today's Adults for Tomorrow's Careers" (Frank C. Pratzner and William L. Ashley); II. Educating Adult Students, which…

  8. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English…

  9. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-03-16

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults.

  10. Investigating the link between liking versus wanting self-esteem and depression in a nationally representative sample of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Moeller, Scott J; Konrath, Sara; Crocker, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    The self-esteem movement has been around since the 1970s, and may have influenced how much value people place on self-esteem. We predicted a negative relationship between age and the amount of value placed on self-esteem boosts. We also investigated the correlates of liking versus wanting self-esteem boosts (and other pleasant rewards) on depression. A nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 867) indicated how much they liked and wanted several pleasant rewards (i.e., sex, food, alcohol, money, friendship, self-esteem boost). They also completed a standardized measure of depressive symptoms. As expected, there was a negative relationship between age and valuing self-esteem boosts, sex, and alcohol. People with depressive symptoms wanted self-esteem boosts, even though they did not like them very much. Similar effects were obtained for depressive symptoms and alcohol and friendship. This is the first research to show that self-esteem boosts are more valued among a nationally representative sample of younger American adults. It also is the first research to explore the association between depression and the motivation to boost self-esteem. People with depressive symptoms want self-esteem, and may pursue it, but this pursuit may feel unrewarding because they do not derive pleasure from it.

  11. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  12. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North American Coastline-South from 1982-06-09 to 1985-09-06 (NCEI Accession 8600133)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North American Coastline - South from 09 June 1982 to 06 September...

  13. CRED Simrad em3002d multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 16 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters. The...

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Florida Atlantic Coastal Transport Study (FACTS) project 07 March 1984 - 01 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South from March 7, 1984 to September 1, 1985. Data were submitted...

  15. CRED Simrad em3002d multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters. The...

  16. CRED Simrad em3002d multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 16 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters. The...

  17. Transgene transmission in South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen) larvae by sperm-mediated gene transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiago Collares; Vinicius Farias Campos; Fabiana Kömmling Seixas; Paulo V Cavalcanti; Odir A Dellagostin; Heden Luiz M Moreira; João Carlos Deschamps

    2010-03-01

    The silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) is an endemic American fish species. The sperm of each species has its own peculiarities and biological characteristics, which influence the success of mass DNA transfer methods. Our objective in this study was to evaluate different sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) methods to obtain transgenic silver catfish. Different treatments for the incorporation of a foreign pEGFP plasmid group were used: (1) dehydrated/rehydrated (DR), (2) dehydrated/rehydrated/electroporated (DRE), (3) electroporated (E), (4) incubated with seminal plasma (INC); and (5) incubated in the absence of seminal plasma (INCSP). Sperm motility, time of activity duration (TAD), fertilization rate (FR), hatching rate (HR) and sperm morphology were also evaluated. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity rates for the presence of the transgene were: DRE 60%; DR 40%; E 25%; INC 5% and INCSP 25%. The rates of embryo EGFP expression were: DRE 63%; DR 44%; E 34%; INC 8% and INCSP 38%. The fertilization rate in the control and DRE treatments groups were higher than in the DR group, but the E, INC and INCSP treatment groups had the lowest rate. The hatching rates of the DRE, DR and control groups were higher than in the INCSP, INC and E treatment groups ( > 0.05). There were no differences among the DRE and DR, E and DR, E and INCSP groups in expression and PCR positivity rates of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in embryos. Scanning electron microscopy also did not show any change in sperm morphology among treatment groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on transgene transmission of exogenous DNA into silver catfish larvae through SMGT technology

  18. Predictors of Retention Among African American and Hispanic Older Adult Research Participants in the Well Elderly 2 Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Mike; Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Holguin, Jess; Lai, Mei-Ying; Marterella, Abbey; Vigen, Cheryl; Gleason, Sarah; Lam, Claudia; Azen, Stan; Clark, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document predictors of long-term retention among minority participants in the Well Elderly 2 Study, a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for community-dwelling older adults. The primary sample included 149 African American and 92 Hispanic men and women aged 60–95 years, recruited at senior activity centers and senior residences. Chi-square and logistic regression procedures were undertaken to examine study-based, psychosocial, and health-related predictors of retention at 18 months following study entry. For both African Americans and Hispanics, intervention adherence was the strongest predictor. Retention was also related to high active coping and average (vs. high or low) levels of activity participation among African Americans and high social network strength among Hispanics. The results suggest that improved knowledge of the predictors of retention among minority elders can spawn new retention strategies that can be applied at individual, subgroup, and sample-wide levels. PMID:24652865

  19. The Mexican American biculturalism scale: bicultural comfort, facility, and advantages for adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Camille D; Knight, George P; O'Donnell, Megan; Roosa, Mark W; Gonzales, Nancy A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Torres, Marisela

    2014-06-01

    Empirical research on biculturalism is limited, in part because of the lack of quality measures of biculturalism. The currently available measures have limitations due to scoring procedures and sampling of only a narrow range of behaviors and attitudes. We present a measure of biculturalism that captures a broader range of the bicultural experience and uses a scoring system that better represents the wide ranging levels of biculturalism that exist in the diverse population of Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers born in either Mexico or the United States. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale (27 items) includes 3 subscales: bicultural comfort (9 items), bicultural facility (9 items), and bicultural advantages (9 items). We report on the reliability and construct validity of test scores and present confirmatory factor analyses findings for a diverse sample of 316 Mexican American families from a large southwestern metropolitan city. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale is available in English and in Spanish. The use of the scale has implications for future research studying how biculturalism is related to psychological outcomes for Mexicans/Mexican Americans.

  20. Diversification and species boundaries of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda; Rhinebothriidea in South American freshwater stingrays (Batoidea; Potamotrygonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian B Reyda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Batoidea: Potamotrygonidae host a diverse parasite fauna, including cestodes. Both cestodes and their stingray hosts are marine-derived, but the taxonomy of this host/parasite system is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: Morphological and molecular (Cytochrome oxidase I data were used to investigate diversity in freshwater lineages of the cestode genus Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890. Results were based on a phylogenetic hypothesis for 74 COI sequences and morphological analysis of over 400 specimens. Cestodes studied were obtained from 888 individual potamotrygonids, representing 14 recognized and 18 potentially undescribed species from most river systems of South America. RESULTS: Morphological species boundaries were based mainly on microthrix characters observed with scanning electron microscopy, and were supported by COI data. Four species were recognized, including two redescribed (Rhinebothrium copianullum and R. paratrygoni, and two newly described (R. brooksi n. sp. and R. fulbrighti n. sp.. Rhinebothrium paranaensis Menoret & Ivanov, 2009 is considered a junior synonym of R. paratrygoni because the morphological features of the two species overlap substantially. The diagnosis of Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890 is emended to accommodate the presence of marginal longitudinal septa observed in R. copianullum and R. brooksi n. sp. Patterns of host specificity and distribution ranged from use of few host species in few river basins, to use of as many as eight host species in multiple river basins. SIGNIFICANCE: The level of intra-specific morphological variation observed in features such as total length and number of proglottids is unparalleled among other elasmobranch cestodes. This is attributed to the large representation of host and biogeographical samples. It is unclear whether the intra-specific morphological variation observed is unique to this freshwater system. Nonetheless, caution is urged when

  1. Exploring the bacterial microbiota associated with native South American species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, J D; Ortego, J

    2014-06-01

    Aphids harbor a variety of bacterial endosymbionts, including the obligate symbiont Buchnera aphidicola and diverse facultative symbionts. The former supplies its host with essential amino acids. The latter are not indispensable for insect survival, but often improve their host's fitness. To date, the study of such associations was restricted to aphids of Holarctic origin. The bacterial microbiota of seven Aphis species from Argentina was investigated. The presence of B. aphidicola was assessed by specific PCR. Additional symbionts were identified through PCR with eubacterial universal primers, cloning, and sequencing of nearly complete 16S rRNA gene, intergenic spacer region, and partial 23S rRNA gene and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Infection with B. aphidicola was confirmed in every species analyzed. The facultative symbiont Serratia symbiotica was detected in Aphis malalhuina Mier Durante, Nieto Nafría & Ortego, 2003, Aphis senecionicoides Blanchard, 1944, and Aphis schinifoliae Blanchard, 1939, while Hamiltonella defensa was identified in Aphis mendocina Mier Durante, Ortego & Nieto Nafría, 2006. Arsenophonus sp. was found infecting Aphis melosae Mier Durante & Ortego, 1999, and a new, undescribed Aphis sp. In Aphis danielae Remaudière, 1994, no facultative symbionts could be recorded. When analyzing the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene, the phylogenetic tree grouped the S. symbiotica, H. defensa, and Arsenophonus isolates into three well-defined clusters showing little variability among clones corresponding to the same aphid host species. This article reports for the first time the endosymbionts associated with aphids native to South America. Despite their geographic origin, the qualitative composition of their microbiota revealed no evident differences from that described for aphids in the Northern Hemisphere.

  2. Digging Deeper: A Case Study of Farmer Conceptualization of Ecosystem Services in the American South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Courtney E; Quinn, John E; Halfacre, Angela C

    2015-10-01

    The interest in improved environmental sustainability of agriculture via biodiversity provides an opportunity for placed-based research on the conceptualization and articulation of ecosystem services. Yet, few studies have explored how farmers conceptualize the relationship between their farm and nature and by extension ecosystem services. Examining how farmers in the Southern Piedmont of South Carolina discuss and explain the role of nature on their farm, we create a detail-rich picture of how they perceive ecosystem services and their contributions to the agroeconomy. Using 34 semi-structured interviews, we developed a detail-rich qualitative portrait of these farmers' conceptualizations of ecosystem services. Farmers' conceptualization of four ecosystem services: provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural are discussed, as well as articulation of disservices. Results of interviews show that most interviewees expressed a basic understanding of the relationship between nature and agriculture and many articulated benefits provided by nature to their farm. Farmers referred indirectly to most services, though they did not attribute services to biodiversity or ecological function. While farmers have a general understanding and appreciation of nature, they lack knowledge on specific ways biodiversity benefits their farm. This lack of knowledge may ultimately limit farmer decision-making and land management to utilize ecosystem services for environmental and economic benefits. These results suggest that additional communication with farmers about ecosystem services is needed as our understanding of these benefits increases. This change may require collaboration between conservation biology professionals and extension and agriculture professionals to extended successful biomass provisioning services to other ecosystem services.

  3. Expression and immunohistochemical detection of leptin-like peptide in the gastrointestinal tract of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Finizia; Gatta, Claudia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Cozzi, Bruno; Giurisato, Maristella; Lucini, Carla; Varricchio, Ettore

    2012-09-01

    This study provides an immunohistochemical approach to the expression of leptin in the gastrointestinal tract of the monogastric South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens), and the poligastric bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The specific organization of the gastrointestinal tract is examined in relation to the neuroendocrine regulation of the gut exerted by leptin. In the South American sea lion some leptin-like-immunoreactive (ir) cells, and endocrine type cells, were found in the pit of gastric mucosal folds and in the epithelium of duodenum as well as numerous neurons were detected in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses of the stomach. In the bottlenose dolphin, many leptin-like-ir cells, and exocrine type cells, were identified in the mucosal layer of the main stomach as well as several neurons and nervous fibers were detected in nervous plexuses of main stomach, pyloric stomach, proximal, and middle intestine. Our data suggest that the distribution of leptin-like peptides is similar in the two species, notwithstanding the different anatomical organization of the gastrointestinal apparatus of South American sea lion and bottlenose dolphin. These findings "suggest" the presence of a basal plan in the regulation of food intake, body weight, energy balance and of the gastrointestinal functions in general also in marine mammals with different and specific feeding habits.

  4. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P young adults.

  5. Social and clinically-relevant cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Americans adults: NHANES 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Sandra E; Mustafa, Mehnaz; Pentakota, Sir Ram; Kim, Soyeon; Hastings, Katherine; Amadi, Chioma; Palaniappan, Latha

    2017-02-17

    Little evidence exists examining cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans and how social determinants such as nativity status and education pattern risk in the United States (U.S.) context. We used the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which purposely oversampled Asian Americans from 2011 to 2014, and examined prevalence of Type II diabetes, smoking and obesity for Asian Americans (n=1363) and non-Latino Whites (n=4121). We classified Asian Americans as U.S. or foreign-born and by years in the U.S. Obesity status was based on standard body mass index (BMI) cut points of ≥30kg/m(2) and Asian-specific cut points (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) that may be more clinically relevant for this population. We fit separate logistic regression models for each outcome using complex survey design methods and tested for the joint effect of race, nativity and education on each outcome.Diabetes and obesity prevalence (applying Asian-specific BMI cut points) were higher among Asian Americans when compared to non-Latino Whites but smoking prevalence was lower. These patterns remained in fully adjusted models and showed small increases with longer duration in the U.S. Joint effects models showed higher odds of prevalent Type II diabetes and obesity (Asian-specific) for foreign-born Asians, regardless of years in the U.S. and education, when compared to non-Latino Whites with high education. Smoking models showed significant interaction effects between race and education for non-Latino Whites only. Our study supports the premise that social as well as clinical factors should be considered when developing health initiatives for Asian Americans.

  6. Assessing cognitive-linguistic abilities in South African adults living with HIV: the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupawose, Anniah; Broom, Yvonne

    2010-06-01

    HIV can cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the central nervous system. This results in cognitive deficits in the majority of patients. The assessment of these deficits and management of these patients poses challenges for healthcare workers in South Africa. This study investigates the effectiveness of the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT) in identifying the cognitive and linguistic abilities of adults with HIV or AIDS. Sixteen participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic in Johannesburg. The CLQT was utilised to assess the cognitive/linguistic abilities of the participants. The overall scores revealed that 87.5% of the participants presented with some form of cognitive deficit, 81% exhibited deficits in memory and executive functioning, 75% showed deficits in attention and visual perception, and 50% exhibited language deficits. Thus, this instrument may be usefully employed with patients who exhibit neurological disorders, including those caused by HIV infection. We conclude that the CLQT can be used as an alternative to more expensive, elaborate and time-consuming neuropsychometric evaluations to identify deficits in memory, attention and executive functions as experienced by adults with HIV or AIDS in South Africa.

  7. Main animal welfare problems in ruminant livestock during preslaughter operations: a South American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C B; Huertas, S M

    2016-02-01

    Animals destined for meat production are usually exposed to many stressful conditions during production and particularly during preslaughter operations. Handling animals on farm, loading into and unloading from vehicles, transportation, passing through livestock markets, fasting, lairage and stunning can all affect their welfare. How badly welfare can be affected will depend on both the intrinsic factors of the specific type of animal involved and the extrinsic factors of the environment where those animals live or are being handled, including the animal handlers. In South America (SA), it has been part of a strategy for improving animal welfare (AW) to address not only ethical aspects, but to emphasize the close relationship existing between handling ruminants preslaughter and the quantity and quality of the meat they produce. This has resulted not only in improvements in AW, but has also brought economic rewards to producers which in turn can lead to higher incomes for them and hence better human welfare. For producers with a high number of animals, considering AW during production and preslaughter operations can determine the possibility of exporting and/or getting better prices for their products. At smallfarmer level, particularly in some less developed countries, where human welfare is impaired, using this strategy together with education has also been relevant. It is important that education and training in AW are done not only considering global knowledge, but also including specific geographical and climatic characteristics of each country and the cultural, religious and socio-economical characteristics of its people; therefore, research within the context of each country or region becomes relevant. The aim of this review was to show the results of research dealing with AW of ruminant livestock in Chile and some other SA countries. Some of the main problems encountered are related to lack of proper infrastructure to handle animals; long distance transport

  8. Mantle transition zone thickness in the Central South-American Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunmiller, Jochen; van der Lee, Suzan; Doermann, Lindsey

    We used receiver functions to determine lateral variations in mantle transition zone thickness and sharpness of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities in the presence of subducting lithosphere. The mantle beneath the central Andes of South America provides an ideal study site owing to its long-lived subduction history and the availability of broadband seismic data from the dense BANJO/SEDA temporary networks and the permanent station LPAZ. For LPAZ, we analyzed 26 earthquakes between 1993-2003 and stacked the depth-migrated receiver functions. For temporary stations operating for only about one year (1994-1995), station stacks were not robust. We thus stacked receiver functions for close-by stations forming five groups that span the subduction zone from west to east, each containing 12 to 25 events. We found signal significant at the 2σ level for several station groups from P to S conversions that originate near 520- and 850-900 km depth, but most prominently from the 410- and 660-km discontinuities. For the latter, the P to S converted signal is clear in stacks for western groups and LPAZ, lack of coherent signal for two eastern groups is possibly due to incoherent stacking and does not necessitate the absence of converted energy. The thickness of the mantle transition zone increases progressively from a near-normal 255 km at the Pacific coast to about 295 km beneath station LPAZ in the Eastern Cordillera. Beneath LPAZ, the 410-km discontinuity appears elevated by nearly 40 km, thus thickening the transition zone. We compared signal amplitudes from receiver function stacks calculated at different low-pass frequencies to study frequency dependence and possibly associated discontinuity sharpness of the P to S converted signals. We found that both the 410- and 660-km discontinuities exhibit amplitude increase with decreasing frequency. Synthetic receiver function calculations for discontinuity topography mimicking observed topography show that the observed steep

  9. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results: The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  10. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for adults.

  11. U/Pb detrital zircon provenance from late cretaceous metamorphic units of the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia: Tectonic implications on the collision between the Caribbean arc and the South American margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M.; Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; García-Casco, A.; Tobón, M.; Zapata, S.

    2010-10-01

    Mesozoic metamorphic units exposed along the northern margin of the South American plate record the different stages of subduction evolution or arc-continent collision between the margins of the Caribbean plate and the South American continent. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology for provenance analysis was carried out on meta-sedimentary rocks of the Etpana formation and metamorphic boulders found within a nearby Tertiary conglomerate, including high-pressure rocks in the Colombian Caribbean. All samples have similar age populations, suggesting that they share a relatively common source and paleogeography. Prominent age peaks include Meso and Paleoproterozoic ages of ca. 1624 Ma and 1315 Ma, Cambrian to Neoproterozoic ages of ca. 630 Ma, 580 Ma and 547 Ma, and less abundant Jurassic and Permian ages of ca. 270 Ma and 160 Ma, which indicate that the South American margin is a major source for the sedimentary protoliths. There are also remnants of younger Cretaceous allocthonous Caribbean arc input at ca. 90-70 Ma. The deposition and metamorphism of these units records the ongoing Late Cretaceous continental subduction of the South American margin within the Caribbean intra-oceanic arc-subduction zone. This gave way to an arc-continent collision between the Caribbean and the South American plates, and sediments with continental signatures were incorporated into the subduction channel and the accretionary wedge. As convergence continued, sediments derived from a mix of South American and arc sources were deposited and included in the collisional wedge up until <71 Ma.

  12. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  13. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  14. Adolescent Precursors of Early Union Formation among Asian American and White Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a framework that emphasizes independent versus interdependent self-construals, this study investigates the relatively low rates of early marriage and cohabitation among Asian Americans compared with Whites. Data from Waves 1 and 3 of Add Health are used to test five hypotheses that focus on family value socialization and other precursors…

  15. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  16. An Analysis of Adult-Child Conversation Patterns in Diverse African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Timothy F. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines familial conversation patterns of African American families during evening meals, using a social interaction analysis. Found that family size had a pervasive impact on familial interaction, and that although mothers were the clear focus of mealtime interactions, the increased number of children necessitated that fathers take a more direct…

  17. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  18. Conflictual Independence, Adult Attachment Orientation, and Career Indecision among Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…

  19. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  20. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...