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Sample records for adult south american

  1. The Relationship between Diet Quality and Acculturation of Immigrated South Asian American Adults and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira A Khan

    Full Text Available Even though the total SA American population is increasing rapidly, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between diet quality, acculturation and health outcomes such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS in the low-income South Asian (SA sub-population. Our goal was to examine diet quality, degree of acculturation and their potential influence on MetS in a diverse sample of SA Americans. A convenience sample of 401 adult SA men and women were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Volunteers from two low-income community health clinics in Maryland were interviewed by questionnaires. MetS, defined by the consensus harmonized definition by the presence of ≥ 3 of the 5 abnormal indicators, was studied. An interviewer obtained an automated self-administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24 and an acculturation index (using a previously validated (SL-ASIA. SA had a composite HEI2010 score of 68 suggesting an overall need for diet improvements. Males had a higher diet quality (mean HEI2010 score than females. Males with MetS had lower diet quality (68 than males without MetS (73. The converse was true for females (68 vs. 65. Americanized (more acculturated subjects had a higher diet quality compared to less acculturated SA. Small differences were found in diet quality scores among SA adults from different countries. Less acculturated females, had a higher percentage of MetS and lower diet quality compared to males. These results suggest that interventions are needed in males and females who were less acculturated because they may have greater MetS and lower diet quality compared to more Americanized SA.

  2. South American perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, S.

    1999-03-01

    South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)

  3. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of "colonias" in…

  4. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "A refreshing and intriguing interdisciplinary examination of the ways in which the history and cultures of the American South have been largely shaped by forces beyond the geographical boundaries of the United States." --Allison Graham, author of Framing the South "This is an impressive collection...... decisively shaped the history and culture of the American South from colonial times to the modern era. The essays in this interdisciplinary volume examine a wide range of topics, including race, migration, religion, law, slavery, emancipation, literature, memoir, popular culture, and ethnography. At a time...

  5. The fry patterns in the South-American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The fry pattern of aquarium-bred species of the South-American catfish genus Corydoras, contribute to discriminate between species of the so-called ‘acutus’-group, showing a greyish adult colour pattern.

  6. More on South American geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    As an addendum to J. Urrutia Fucugauchi's (Eos, 63, June 8, 1982, p. 529) excellent analysis of why things go wrong in Latin American geophysics, I submit that funds in whatever form are not the only answer. In Mexico over the past decade there has been a reasonable availability of funds, yet no dramatic increase in the quality or quantity of geophysical research was detected. Graduate scholarships have even gone begging for applicants in the earth sciences!Leadership is the big problem. National plans and forecasts for science and technology continue to ignore this central fact. They want to generate hundreds, nay thousands, of middle-level scientists while providing no incentive for excellence. As others have found out long before us, this approach is doomed from the start.

  7. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26.

  8. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26. PMID:27030145

  9. Frederick Douglass: An American Adult Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jerry Paul

    2010-01-01

    Throughout his life, Frederick Douglass struggled to be something extraordinary. He rose from a life in slavery to become the most prominent African-American of his day and a leading figure in the abolitionist movement. Lost in the discussion of his life are the adult education roles that he played throughout his life and career. Beginning while…

  10. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik;

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....

  11. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural south

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African American youth in the south are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and ...

  12. Interannual variability of South American monsoon circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Gan, Manoel; Rafaele Araújo Lima, Jeane

    2016-04-01

    The South America Monsoon System (SAMS) is responsible for influencing the atmospheric circulation and precipitation over most of tropical South America (SA) during the summer season. Studies for aiming to understand the temporal variability of this system have great value to the scientific community, because the processes that control the monsoon climate are not totally clear. Thus, the main objective of this research is to investigate the possible large-scale climatic factors and the remote interaction mechanisms, which may be associated with summer season interannual variability focusing on identifying the main differences between dry and wet extremes rainy season in the South-eastern Amazon Basin (SAB), Central-West (WC) and Southeast (SE) of Brazil, which are areas influenced by the summer monsoon regime. For such analyzes, Pearson correlations, quantile method and composite analysis were used during the period from 1979 to 2014. The correlation between precipitation anomaly in SAB and the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and wind at 850hPa and 300hPa indicate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence. Precipitation anomalies in WC did not show significant correlation with SSTA. However, a pattern similar to ENSO Modoki type was observed in the composite analysis. At 850 hPa, the presence of an anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation was observed over the central region of SA during wet (dry) summers seasons. Over SE region of Brazil, a dipole SSTA pattern over the South Atlantic was identified, as well the presence of anomalous circulations with an equivalent barotropic structure over these SSTA areas. This pattern is more evident in case of dry summer on the SE. At 300 hPa, the wave train between 30°S-60°S was observed presenting a feature curvature from 120°W reaching SA, similar to the Pacific-South American pattern (PSA). Analysis of the summer interannual variability indicated the manifestation of wet summers more frequently than dry

  13. Gridded bathymetry of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was...

  14. Contemporary South Asian American women's fiction: the "difference"

    OpenAIRE

    Assella, Shashikala Muthumal

    2015-01-01

    This thesis critically explores the “difference” of contemporary South Asian American women’s fiction and their fictional narratives of women’s lives, away from the ethnic postcolonial depictions of diasporic women. The selected novels of Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Amulya Malladi, Bharti Kirchner, V.V. Ganeshananthan, Nayomi Munaweera, Nausheen Pasha-Zaidi and Shaila Abdullah studied here interrogate the depiction of South Asian women characters both within diasporic American locations and i...

  15. Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…

  16. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  17. A South Asian American diasporic aesthetic community?

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Dhiraj

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the late 1990s, a diverse group of British South Asian musicians began to gain notoriety in the UK for their distinctive blends of synthesized beats with what were considered South Asian elements (e.g. tabla, sitar and `Hindustani' samples). Following these successes, the British media industries engaged in discourses on whether these South Asian musicians should be labelled under pre-existing musical genres such as acid jazz and electronic music or under an ethnically ...

  18. IMPROVING MASS REARING TECHNOLOGY FOR SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on availability of suitable and economic diets for adults and larvae of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 were carried out at the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria with the aim to find the best diets to fit in a large scale mass rearing production. The best diet for adult was the combination of Hydrolysate Corn Protein + Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (3:1:3. This diet resulted in the highest numbers of egg/female/day, spermatozoid in the spermathecae, percentages of egg hatch, the lowest mortality rate of adults and the highest average mating duration compared with the standard adult diet based on Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (1:3. Among eleven larval diets tested, diets based on sugarcane and sugarbeet bagases plus 7% brewer yeast, 8% sugar, 0.2% sodium benzoate, 0.8% of hydrochloric acid and 60% water (adjusted, yielded the highest percentages of egg hatching, pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. There was no statistical difference with the standard larval diet based on wheat germ 3%, corncob 15%, corn flower 8%, brewer yeast 6%, sugar 8%, sodium benzoate 0.23%, hydrochloric acid 0.63%, nipagin 0.14% and water 59% (adjusted. The significant performance of these adult and larval diets open discussion for future researches on improvement of rearing techniques required for the establishment of sterile insect technique (SIT program focused on the South American fruit fly.

  19. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  20. Sources of anti-Americanism in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Young Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to identify the causes of increasing anti-Americanism in South Korea. To accomplish this, three areas will be researched. First, the transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic government in the 1990s has provided previously unheard of democratic freedom in South Korean society. Second, the perception of inequality in the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) and the civilian crimes committed by U.S. military personnel, since the Korean War have fuel...

  1. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  2. Studies on South American Gomphidae (Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J.

    1970-01-01

    The present paper deals with some gomphids from South America. Besides descriptions of a number of new species additional notes on several Selysian and other, little-known species, elucidated with illustrations of important details, are offered in order to obtain a better insight into the characteri

  3. Rupert B. Vance, Space and the American South. CSISS Classics

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Vance paid close attention to the geographic patterning of economic and demographic factors across places. He was especially interested in what set the American South apart from the rest of America. His research explored ecological and geographic factors in Southern exceptionalism; the spatial basis of Southern migration; and the importance of regionalism.

  4. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  5. Sorghum halepense (L.) Persoon (Poaceae), a new larval host for the South American corn rootworm Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabrotica speciosa is a South American corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) the adult of which is a pest on many crop and ornamental plants. The list of known larval hosts, however, is limited to maize, wheat, potatoes and peanuts. In March, 2005, larvae of D. speciosa were found ...

  6. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  7. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hubbe

    Full Text Available Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene.

  8. Phylogenetic reconstruction of South American felids defined by protein electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, J P; Johnson, W E; Goldman, D; O'Brien, S J

    1994-09-01

    Phylogenetic associations among six closely related South American felid species were defined by changes in protein-encoding gene loci. We analyzed proteins isolated from skin fibroblasts using two-dimensional electrophoresis and allozymes extracted from blood cells. Genotypes were determined for multiple individuals of ocelot, margay, tigrina, Geoffroy's cat, kodkod, and pampas cat at 548 loci resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and 44 allozyme loci. Phenograms were constructed using the methods of Fitch-Margoliash and neighbor-joining on a matrix of Nei's unbiased genetic distances for all pairs of species. Results of a relative-rate test indicate changes in two-dimensional electrophoresis data are constant among all South American felids with respect to a hyena outgroup. Allelic frequencies were transformed to discrete character states for maximum parsimony analysis. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates a major split occurred approximately 5-6 million years ago, leading to three groups within the ocelot lineage. The earliest divergence led to Leopardus tigrina, followed by a split between an ancestor of an unresolved trichotomy of three species (Oncifelis guigna, O. geoffroyi, and Lynchailuris colocolo) and a recent common ancestor of Leopardus pardalis and L. wiedii. The results suggest that modern South American felids are monophyletic and evolved rapidly after the formation of the Panama land bridge between North and South America. PMID:7932791

  9. Electricity consumption and economic growth in seven South American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth among seven South American countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela using widely accepted time-series techniques for the period 1975-2006. The results indicate that the causal nexus between electricity consumption and economic growth varies across countries. There is a unidirectional, short-run causality from electricity consumption to real GDP for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, and Ecuador. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth in those countries. In Venezuela, there is a bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This implies that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption in that country. However, no causal relationships exist in Peru. The documented evidence from seven South American countries can provide useful information for each government with regard to energy and growth policy.

  10. 2009 South American benchmarking study: natural gas transportation companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Nathalie [Gas TransBoliviano S.A. (Bolivia); Walter, Juliana S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the current business environment large corporations are constantly seeking to adapt their strategies. Benchmarking is an important tool for continuous improvement and decision-making. Benchmarking is a methodology that determines which aspects are the most important to be improved upon, and it proposes establishing a competitive parameter in an analysis of the best practices and processes, applying continuous improvement driven by the best organizations in their class. At the beginning of 2008, GTB (Gas TransBoliviano S.A.) contacted several South American gas transportation companies to carry out a regional benchmarking study in 2009. In this study, the key performance indicators of the South American companies, whose reality is similar, for example, in terms of prices, availability of labor, and community relations, will be compared. Within this context, a comparative study of the results, the comparative evaluation among natural gas transportation companies, is becoming an essential management instrument to help with decision-making. (author)

  11. South American mega cities: Knowledge gaps and collaboration opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization and population concentration are outstanding phenomena in South America. About 83% of the 530 million South Americans live already in large coastal or near coastal cities (> 750 k inhabitants), many of which are heavily polluted. Curbing measures have been implemented on a relatively fast pace taking advantage of lessons learned elsewhere. However, as environmental objectives become more ambitious, considering for instance chronic health effects, impacts on ecosystems and agriculture, addressing secondary particles and climatic impacts, the need for cost-effective measures requires of more reliable and locally representative data. Such data include: emission fluxes (both natural and anthropogenic) and emission scenarios; characterization of vertical mixing; speciation and distribution of pollutants and precursors. In this presentation, we review the current situation in terms of atmospheric modeling, emission modeling, measuring and observations in a number of South American cities. Also, we describe low-cost actions oriented towards improving our understanding of: 1) vertical mixing by means of a modeling inter comparison exercise using data already collected in Santiago de Chile; 2) aerosol composition and speciation of volatile organic compounds by means of a coordinated sampling of filters and canisters at various locations highlighting the diversity of our cities. These actions were collectively convened by ca. 50 leading scientists and local policy makers during an international symposium held in Santiago in January 2012 (http://ossaf.cmm.uchile.cl/). This activity marked the closure of a five year project sponsored by the Inter American Institute on Global Change Research that tackled South American Emissions Megacities and Climate (SAEMC, CRN 2017). It was also a regional activity promoted and sponsored by the international Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (iCACGP), and by the World Meteorological Organization, Global

  12. Urbanisation and coronary heart disease mortality among African Americans in the US South.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, E; Strogatz, D; Armstrong, D; Wing, S

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite significant declines since the late 1960s, coronary mortality remains the leading cause of death for African Americans. African Americans in the US South suffer higher rates of cardiovascular disease than African Americans in other regions; yet the mortality experiences of rural-dwelling African Americans, most of whom live in the South, have not been described in detail. This study examined urban-rural differentials in coronary mortality trends among African American...

  13. Mental illness and lost income among adult South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Crick; Myer, Landon; Dan J Stein; Williams, David R.; Flisher, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Little is known regarding the links between mental disorder and lost income in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental disorder and lost income in the first nationally representative psychiatric epidemiology survey in South Africa. Methods A probability sample of South African adults was administered the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview schedule to assess the presence of mental ...

  14. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10530083

  15. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-...

  16. Desi Women on the Forty Acres: Exploring Intergenerational Issues and Identity Development of South Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan

    2011-01-01

    South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…

  17. South American foF2 database using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gularte, Erika; Bilitza, Dieter; Carpintero, Daniel; Jaen, Juliana

    2016-07-01

    We present the first step towards a new database of the ionospheric parameter foF2 for the South American region. The foF2 parameter, being the maximum of the ionospheric electronic density profile and its main sculptor, is of great interest not only in atmospheric studies but also in the realm of radio propagation. Due to its importance, its large variability and the difficulty to model it in time and space, it was the subject of an intense study since decades ago. The current databases, used by the IRI (International Reference Ionosphere) model, and based on Fourier expansions, has been built in the 60s from the available ionosondes at that time; therefore, it is still short of South American data. The main goal of this work is to upgrade the database, incorporating the now available data compiled by the RAPEAS (Red Argentina para el Estudio de la Atmósfera Superior, Argentine Network for the Study of the Upper Atmosphere) network. Also, we developed an algorithm to study the foF2 variability, based on the modern technique of genetic algorithms, which has been successfully applied on other disciplines. One of the main advantages of this technique is its ability in working with many variables and with unfavorable samples. The results are compared with the IRI databases, and improvements to the latter are suggested. Finally, it is important to notice that the new database is designed so that new available data can be easily incorporated.

  18. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  19. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Herdy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR. In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Rehabilitation from the Department of Exercise, Ergometry, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology has created a committee of experts to review the Portuguese version of the guideline and adapt it to the national reality. The mission of this document is to help health professionals to adopt effective measures of CVDPR in the routine clinical practice. The publication of this document and its broad implementation will contribute to the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO, which is the reduction of worldwide cardiovascular mortality by 25% until 2025. The study group's priorities are the following: • Emphasize the important role of CVDPR as an instrument of secondary prevention with significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; • Join efforts for the knowledge on CVDPR, its dissemination, and adoption in most cardiovascular centers and institutes in South America, prioritizing the adoption of cardiovascular prevention methods that are comprehensive, practical, simple and which have a good cost/benefit ratio; • Improve the education of health professionals and patients with education programs on the importance of CVDPR services, which are directly targeted at the health system, clinical staff, patients, and community leaders, with the aim of decreasing the barriers to CVDPR implementation.

  20. Influence of subduction history on South American topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Nicolas; Gurnis, Michael; Müller, R. Dietmar; Bower, Dan J.; Husson, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    The Cenozoic evolution of South American topography is marked by episodes of large-scale uplift and subsidence not readily explained by lithospheric deformation. The drying up of the inland Pebas system, the drainage reversal of the Amazon river, the uplift of the Sierras Pampeanas and the uplift of Patagonia have all been linked to the evolution of mantle flow since the Miocene in separate studies. Here we investigate the evolution of long-wavelength South American topography as a function of subduction history in a time-dependent global geodynamic model. This model is shown to be consistent with these inferred changes, as well as with the migration of the Chaco foreland basin depocentre, that we partly attribute to the inboard migration of subduction resulting from Andean mountain building. We suggest that the history of subduction along South America has had an important influence on the evolution of the topography of the continent because time-dependent mantle flow models are consistent with the history of vertical motions as constrained by the geological record at four distant areas over a whole continent. Testing alternative subduction scenarios reveals flat slab segments are necessary to reconcile inferred Miocene shorelines with a simple model paleogeography. As recently suggested, we find that the flattening of a subduction zone results in dynamic uplift between the leading edge of the flat slab segment and the trench, and in a wave of dynamic subsidence associated with the inboard migration of the leading edge of flat subduction. For example, the flattening of the Peruvian subduction contributed to the demise of Pebas shallow-water sedimentation, while continental-scale tilting also contributed to the drainage reversal of the Amazon River. The best correlation to P-wave tomography models for the Peruvian flat slab segment is obtained for a case when the asthenosphere, here considered to be 150 km thick and 10 times less viscous than the upper mantle, is

  1. The American South: From Civil Rights Struggle to Civil Rights Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Dorit Wagner

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the American South has become the platform for an authenticity seeking tourism industry. Former sites of civil rights action have been revived and transformed into tourist attractions. The following paper introduces the notion of so-called civil rights tourism and presents a critical analysis of current sites of civil rights commemoration throughout the American South.

  2. Exploring Hybrid Identities: South Asian American Women Pursue a Career in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  5. Gutierrezia mendocina (Asteraceae, Astereae, a new South American species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratto, F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of the South American species of Gutierrezia has revealed a new species from Argentina, characterised by its stems with the base prostrate and rooting, turbinate heads and white ray florets. This species, found in the Department of Tunuyán of Mendoza Province (Argentina, is described and illustrated and a key to differentiate it from allied species is given.En el marco de la revisión taxonómica del género Gutierrezia para Sudamérica fue hallada una nueva especie de Argentina, caracterizada por sus tallos con la porción basal postrada, enraizante en los nudos, capítulos con involucro turbinado y flores liguladas blancas. Se describe e ilustra la especie encontrada en el Departamento de Tunuyán de la Provincia de Mendoza (Argentina, y se incluye una clave para diferenciarla de las especies afines.

  6. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAZAKI, Mutsumi; KOUTAKA, Mitsuru; UNE, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for epithelium markers. Ductal growth, keratinocytes or signet ring cells were absent. The tumor was classified as an undifferentiated carcinoma using the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guide to international classification of tumors in domestic animals. This is the first report of a primary gastric carcinoma in a pinniped. PMID:27052463

  7. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popula...

  8. Netizenship Politics: Youth, Anti-Americanism, and Rhetorical Agency in South Korea's 2002 Candlelight Vigils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a rhetorical analysis of the 2002 South Korean Candlelight Vigils ["ch'otpul siwi"] with a focus on the role of the Internet in public opinion building, the rise in anti-American sentiment in South Korea, and rhetorical agency residing in the collective. In 2002, two South Korean schoolgirls walking along a rural road near Seoul…

  9. ENSO impact on simulated South American hydro-climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stuck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the simulated hydro-climatology of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM is analysed. Main object of this study is the ENSO-driven variability of the water storage of South America. The horizontal model resolution amounts to 0.5 degree and it is forced with monthly climate variables for 1961-1995 of the Tyndall Centre Climate Research Unit dataset (CRU TS 2.0 as a representation of the observed climate state. Secondly, the model is also forced by the model output of a global circulation model, the ECHAM4-T42 GCM. This model itself is driven by observed monthly means of the global Sea Surface Temperatures (SST and the sea ice coverage for the period of 1903 to 1994 (GISST. Thus, the climate model and the hydrological model represent a realistic simulated realisation of the hydro-climatologic state of the last century. Since four simulations of the ECHAM4 model with the same forcing, but with different initial conditions are carried out, an analysis of variance (ANOVA gives an impression of the impact of the varying SST on the hydro-climatology, because the variance can be separated into a SST-explained and a model internal variability (noise. Also regional multivariate analyses, like Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA provide information of the complex time-space variability. In particular the Amazon region and the South of Brazil are significantly influenced by the ENSO-variability, but also the Pacific coastal areas of Ecuador and Peru are affected. Additionally, different ENSO-indices, based on SST anomalies (e.g. NINO3.4, NINO1+2, and its influence on the South American hydro-climatology are analysed. Especially, the Pacific coast regions of Ecuador, Peru and Chile show a very different behaviour dependant on those indices.

  10. How diverse is the diet of adult South Africans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn Nelia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the current study was to measure dietary diversity in South Africans aged 16 years and older from all population groups as a proxy of food security. Methods A cross-sectional study representative of adults from all specified ages, provinces, geographic localities, and socio-economic strata in South Africa was used (n = 3287. Trained interviewers visited participants at their homes during the survey. Dietary data was collected by means of a face validated 24 hour recall which was not quantified. A dietary diversity score (DDS was calculated by counting each of 9 food groups. A DDS Results The provinces with the highest prevalence of poor dietary diversity (DDS Conclusion Overall the majority of South Africans consumed a diet low in dietary variety. The tribal areas and informal urban areas were worst affected and eggs, legumes and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables, were the least consumed.

  11. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  12. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  13. Prospects for the development of the South American methanol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industry entered 1994 with positive market conditions and became increasingly robust as consumers mobilized for the anticipated needs of the second phase of the Clean Air Act. These conditions were reinforced by structural changes taking place in the industry the prime result being the emergence of a single marketer as the dominant force in world trade. In 1995 however, the drawdown of stockpiles of MTBE and methanol accumulated earlier, created conditions of excess as the industry continued to run at nearly full capacity and as opt outs from the reformulated gasoline program dampened the rate of MTBE consumption. The historical forces that attend market cycles on its way up by exerting stickiness upward also contrived to accelerate prices on their way down. Market pricing in the methanol industry, as in other commodities is set largely by the incremental molecules entering the market place. Accordingly, the terms and conditions of the transactions covering traded volumes represent a major influence on market pricing. The major portion of traded volumes are sourced from offshore locations where the domestic market is small in comparison to the production capacities. The South American region is one such strategic offshore location on which increasing emphasis must be placed, if any realistic prognosis of the future direction of the industry is to be made. It is in this context, that this paper attempts to review the underlying factors which led to the rapid growth of the major methanol producing countries in South America and to emphasize the potential for continued development of this region and its strategic importance to the global methanol industry both as a major source of production and as a significant force in the world methanol trade

  14. Intraspecific variability and systematics in South American Syrotrigoniinae (Trigoniida, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Javier; Damborenea, Susana E.; Manceñido, Miguel O.

    2015-04-01

    The systematics of the genus Syrotrigonia is revised in the light of the intraspecific variability of a large sample of Syrotrigonia sigeli from the Valanginian from Neuquén Basin, Argentina. The genus can be recognized by the presence of concentric or subconcentric costae surrounding the umbo, later on developing an inflection and finally resulting in a set of anterior horizontal to commarginal costae and another set of posterior sub-vertical costae. The anterior part of the area bears transverse, usually anteriorly concave, costae which direct towards the umbo on the escutcheon; initially they are continuous with those on the flank, but later on they usually alternate. General shell shape, the presence of an antecarinal sulcus, the junction pattern between both sets of costae and the number of horizontal costae relative to vertical costae are variable among species, while costae width or density and the development of horizontal vs. commarginal costae may vary highly within species. The presence of commarginal rugae developed on the whole surface of the shell is interpreted as a result of environmental perturbations. A brief biogeographical interpretation of the family Buchotrigoniidae is also outlined. Syrotrigonia probably originated in North America in the Tithonian, being widespread in the Pacific coast of South America by Early Cretaceous times; at least six (probably seven) South American species could be recognized. By Aptian times the taxon reached the Tethyan realm, its last record being Aptian or Albian in age. The frequent presence of different species in marginal marine deposits suggests a euryhaline lineage adapted to salinity variations, this may also be the cause of the frequent presence of commarginal rugae. Considering the high variability displayed in the analyzed material, large samples are needed to characterize new species within the group.

  15. Soil Quality Impacts of Current South American Agricultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Wingeyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yields, but the use of purchased inputs, monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., and marginal land cultivation have also increased. These changes have significantly altered the global food and feed supply role of these countries, but they have also resulted in various levels of soil degradation through wind and water erosion, soil compaction, soil organic matter (SOM depletion, and nutrient losses. Sustainability is dependent upon local interactions between soil, climate, landscape characteristics, and production systems. This review examines the region’s current soil and crop conditions and summarizes several research studies designed to reduce or prevent soil degradation. Although the region has both environmental and soil resources that can sustain current agricultural production levels, increasing population, greater urbanization, and more available income will continue to increase the pressure on South American croplands. A better understanding of regional soil differences and quantifying potential consequences of current production practices on various soil resources is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences.

  16. Deforestation changes land-atmosphere interactions across South American biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alvaro; Katzfey, Jack; Thatcher, Marcus; Syktus, Jozef; Wong, Kenneth; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-04-01

    South American biomes are increasingly affected by land use/land cover change. However, the climatic impacts of this phenomenon are still not well understood. In this paper, we model vegetation-climate interactions with a focus on four main biomes distributed in four key regions: The Atlantic Forest, the Cerrado, the Dry Chaco, and the Chilean Matorral ecosystems. We applied a three member ensemble climate model simulation for the period 1981-2010 (30 years) at 25 km resolution over the focus regions to quantify the changes in the regional climate resulting from historical deforestation. The results of computed modelling experiments show significant changes in surface fluxes, temperature and moisture in all regions. For instance, simulated temperature changes were stronger in the Cerrado and the Chilean Matorral with an increase of between 0.7 and 1.4 °C. Changes in the hydrological cycle revealed high regional variability. The results showed consistent significant decreases in relative humidity and soil moisture, and increases in potential evapotranspiration across biomes, yet without conclusive changes in precipitation. These impacts were more significant during the dry season, which resulted to be drier and warmer after deforestation.

  17. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  18. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. PMID:23153624

  19. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  20. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Schneider

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo, the kodkod (Leopardus guigna, and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi. To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species, achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  1. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  2. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound). ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  3. Excerpt from The Red Land to the South: American Indian Writers and Indigenous Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Cox

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from James H. Cox, The Red Land to the South: American Indian Writers and Indigenous Mexico (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from University of Minnesota Press.

  4. Musical Crossings: Identity Formations of Second-Generation South Asian American Hip Hop Artists

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nitasha Tamar

    2005-01-01

    This paper stems from a dissertation project on second-generation South Asian American hip hop artists based on twenty-two months of fieldwork conducted primarily in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. Through interviews, participant observation, and an analysis of their lyrics, this paper examines how South Asian American (desi) hip hop artists develop a racial consciousness and identities that both challenge narrow identity politics strictly drawn around ethnic lines and provide alternativ...

  5. Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Plasma of American Alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, Jacqueline T.; Bowden, John A.; Brunell, Arnold M.; Christie, Ian; Finnell, Brendan; Guillette, Matthew P.; Jones, Martin; Lowers, Russell H.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitate fourteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at twelve sites across the southeastern US. Of those fourteen PFAAs, nine were detected in 65% - 100% of the samples: PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTriA, PFTA, PFHxS, and PFOS. Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of four PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Kiawah Nature Conservancy both exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length (SVL) were observed in both sexes suggesting PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. This study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, reveals potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and provides and additional contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health.

  6. Secondary Education and Emancipation: Secondary Schools for Freed Slaves in the American South, 1862-1875

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Ronald E.; Rolleri, Amy F.

    2004-01-01

    Slavery in the United States denied education to the enslaved. Yet within fifteen years of the beginning of the American Civil War and the freeing of four million American slaves, the freed people and their supporters elaborated a full system of universal education in the South, including over 120 secondary and higher institutions. Historians have…

  7. English or Perish: How Contemporary South Korea Received, Accommodated, and Internalized English and American Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongHwa; Han, Min Wha; McKerrow, Raymie E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the positionality of English in South Korea as a form of symbolic capital that represents the discursive power of Americanism and East Asian Social Darwinism. By employing Bourdieu's and Foucault's theoretical orientations, this paper traces how South Korean linguistic policies to incorporate English loan words coincide with…

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American Doradoidea (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. O. Birindelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis based on 311 morphological characters is presented for most species of the Doradidae, all genera of the Auchenipteridae, and representatives of 16 other catfish families. The hypothesis that was derived from the six most parsimonious trees support the monophyly of the South American Doradoidea (Doradidae plus Auchenipteridae, as well as the monophyly of the clade Doradoidea plus the African Mochokidae. In addition, the clade with Sisoroidea plus Aspredinidae was considered sister to Doradoidea plus Mochokidae. Within the Auchenipteridae, the results support the monophyly of the Centromochlinae and Auchenipterinae. The latter is composed of Tocantinsia, and four monophyletic units, two small with Asterophysusand Liosomadoras, and Pseudotatiaand Pseudauchenipterus, respectively, and two large ones with the remaining genera. Within the Doradidae, parsimony analysis recovered Wertheimeriaas sister to Kalyptodoras, composing a clade sister to all remaining doradids, which include Franciscodorasand two monophyletic groups: Astrodoradinae (plus Acanthodorasand Agamyxis and Doradinae (new arrangement. Wertheimerinae, new subfamily, is described for Kalyptodoras and Wertheimeria. Doradinae is corroborated as monophyletic and composed of four groups, one including Centrochirand Platydoras, the other with the large-size species of doradids (except Oxydoras, another with Orinocodoras, Rhinodoras, and Rhynchodoras, and another with Oxydorasplus all the fimbriate-barbel doradids. Based on the results, the species of Opsodoras are included in Hemidoras; and Tenellus, new genus, is described to include Nemadoras trimaculatus, N. leporhinusand Nemadoras ternetzi. Due to conflicting hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Acanthodoras, Agamyxis, and Franciscodoras, these are considered as incertae sedisin Doradidae. All suprageneric taxa of the Doradoidea are diagnosed based on synapomorphic morphological characteristics.

  9. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  10. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. Results The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems) were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Conclusions Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems), can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults. PMID:23336621

  11. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1 in 2008. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. Results: The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Conclusions: Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems, can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults.

  12. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  13. Orphanhood and fertility in young adults: Evidence from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzoli, Carlos G

    2016-09-01

    I study the relation between orphanhood and fertility patterns in young adults using a longitudinal survey from the city of Cape Town, South Africa. The data set combines two survey waves with a year-by-year life history calendar that records key outcomes (e.g., schooling, work, fertility). It also provides information on so-called 'parental investments' (time and material support), family background, and literacy and numeracy test scores. I find that orphans exhibit significantly higher rates of teenage pregnancy. In particular, teenage motherhood is 19% points more likely among (female) orphans. These results suggest that orphanhood may leave a long-lasting 'imprint' in terms of premature fertility, especially in teenage females. PMID:27239730

  14. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popular culture. I situate sport as a key element of popular culture through which South Asian American communities work out, struggle through, and contest notions of self. Informed by an Anthropology of Sport, ethnography of South Asian American communities in Atlanta takes place alongside an examination of the North American Indo-Pak Basketball circuit. Accordingly, my findings indicate that such community formation has also taken shape at the intersections of institutions, gender, and sexuality whereby excluding queers, women, and other communities of color.

  15. Network companies: a new phenomenon in South American farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clasadonte, L.; Vries, de E.; Trienekens, J.H.; Arbeletche, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – South America is an important agricultural producer. Farming is characterized by the availability of vast areas of land, a reasonable climate and low cost. These conditions have led South America to be an important supplier of agricultural goods on the world market. Traditionally farmers o

  16. Cerebellar cortical degeneration in adult American Staffordshire Terriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olby, Natasha; Blot, Stephane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Phillips, Jeff; O'Brien, Dennis P; Burr, Jeanne; Berg, Jason; Brown, Talmage; Breen, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Adult-onset cerebellar cortical degeneration recently has been reported in American Staffordshire Terriers. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of this disease and examine its mode of inheritance in 63 affected dogs. The age at which neurologic deficits 1st were recognized varied from 18 months to 9 years, with the majority of dogs presented to veterinarians between 4 and 6 years of age. Time from onset of clinical signs to euthanasia varied from 6 months to 6.5 years, with the majority of affected dogs surviving from 2 to 4 years. Initial neurologic findings included stumbling, truncal sway, and ataxia exacerbated by lifting the head up and negotiating stairs. Signs progressed to obvious ataxia characterized by dysmetria, nystagmus, coarse intention tremor, variable loss of menace reaction, marked truncal sway, and falling with transient opisthotonus. With continued progression, dogs became unable to walk without falling repeatedly. Cerebellar atrophy was visible on magnetic resonance images and on gross pathology. Histopathologic findings included marked loss of Purkinje neurons with thinning of the molecular and granular layers and increased cellularity of the cerebellar nuclei. The closest common ancestor of the dogs was born in the 1950s and inheritance was most consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of transmission with a prevalence estimated at 1 in 400 dogs. This inherited disease is comparable to the group of diseases known as spinocerebellar ataxias in humans. Many spinocerebellar ataxias in humans are caused by nucleotide repeats, and this genetic aberration merits investigation as a potential cause of the disease in American Staffordshire Terriers. PMID:15058771

  17. The South American Monsoon Variability over the Last Millennium in CMIP5/PMIP3 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; Arias, P. A.; Flores-Aqueveque, V.; Seth, A.; Vuille, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we assess South American Monsoon System (SAMS) variability throughout the Last Millennium as depicted by the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project version 5/Paleo Modelling Intercomparison Project version 3 (CMIP5/PMIP3) simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly period and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small forcing during the past 1000 years, CMIP5/PMIP3 model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, as suggested by rainfall reconstructions in South America. However, with an ad-hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies were identified. The models feature a stronger Monsoon during the LIA associated with: (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer, (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-troposphere anticyclone, (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results to a certain extent in a poleward shift in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and (iv) a weaker upper-level sub tropical jet over South America, this providing important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  18. The South American monsoon variability over the last millennium in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maisa; Arias, Paola A.; Flores-Aqueveque, Valentina; Seth, Anji; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we assess South American monsoon system (SAMS) variability in the last millennium as depicted by global coupled climate model simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small external forcing during the past 1000 years, model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, in contrast with the rainfall reconstructions in South America. Therefore, we used an ad hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation in order to account for model-specific signals. Thereby, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies are identified. The models feature a stronger monsoon during the LIA associated with (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer; (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-tropospheric anticyclone; (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results in a poleward shift of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone; and (iv) a weaker upper-level subtropical jet over South America. The diagnosed changes provide important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  19. Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J.; Thomas, Jessica A.;

    2015-01-01

    No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as 'South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the 'strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much...... proteomic analysis to screen bone samples of the Late Quaternary South American native ungulate taxa Toxodon (Notoungulata) and Macrauchenia (Litopterna) for phylogenetically informative protein sequences. For each ungulate, we obtain approximately 90% direct sequence coverage of type I collagen α1- and α2......). These results are consistent with the origin of at least some South American native ungulates from 'condylarths', a paraphyletic assembly of archaic placentals. With ongoing improvements in instrumentation and analytical procedures, proteomics may produce a revolution in systematics such as that achieved...

  20. Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation: Comparing Perceptions and Knowledge of African American and White South Carolinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail. PMID:26042496

  1. Host-specificity of myxoma virus: Pathogenesis of South American and North American strains of myxoma virus in two North American lagomorph species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, L; Barnard, D; Knowlton, F; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Holland, M K; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2010-03-24

    The pathogenesis of South American and North American myxoma viruses was examined in two species of North American lagomorphs, Sylvilagus nuttallii (mountain cottontail) and Sylvilagus audubonii (desert cottontail) both of which have been shown to have the potential to transmit the South American type of myxoma virus. Following infection with the South American strain (Lausanne, Lu), S. nuttallii developed both a local lesion and secondary lesions on the skin. They did not develop the classical myxomatosis seen in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The infection at the inoculation site did not resolve during the 20-day time course of the trial and contained transmissible virus titres at all times. In contrast, S. audubonii infected with Lu had very few signs of disseminated infection and partially controlled virus replication at the inoculation site. The prototype Californian strain of myxoma virus (MSW) was able to replicate at the inoculation site of both species but did not induce clinical signs of a disseminated infection. In S. audubonii, there was a rapid response to MSW characterised by a massive T lymphocyte infiltration of the inoculation site by day 5. MSW did not reach transmissible titres at the inoculation site in either species. This might explain why the Californian myxoma virus has not expanded its host-range in North America. PMID:19836172

  2. Biological relationship between Central and South American Chibchan speaking populations: evidence from mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Phillip E; Briceño, I; Gómez, A; Devor, E J; Bernal, J E; Crawford, M H

    2007-05-01

    We examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup and haplotype diversity in 188 individuals from three Chibchan (Kogi, Arsario, and Ijka) populations and one Arawak (Wayuú) group from northeast Colombia to determine the biological relationship between lower Central American and northern South American Chibchan speakers. mtDNA haplogroups were obtained for all individuals and mtDNA HVS-I sequence data were obtained for 110 samples. Resulting sequence data were compared to 16 other Caribbean, South, and Central American populations using diversity measures, neutrality test statistics, sudden and spatial mismatch models, intermatch distributions, phylogenetic networks, and a multidimensional scaling plot. Our results demonstrate the existence of a shared maternal genetic structure between Central American Chibchan, Mayan populations and northern South American Chibchan-speakers. Additionally, these results suggest an expansion of Chibchan-speakers into South America associated with a shift in subsistence strategies because of changing ecological conditions that occurred in the region between 10,000-14,000 years before present. PMID:17340631

  3. Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults Lifestyle might account for the finding, expert says ... a culture of fast food, soda, stress and insomnia," said Dr. David Katz. Director of the Yale ...

  4. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation: American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.

  5. Trends and variability of the South American hydrological cycle for the last 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Heitor; Gonzalez Arango, Catalina; Nogueira, Juliana; Monteiro, Leonardo; von Gunten, Lucien; Khodri, Myriam; Neukom, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    The South American continent encloses two of the largest global river basins: The Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. Its hydrological cycle is highly dependent on the water vapour transport advected from tropical-equatorial Atlantic as well as the polar advections. The Pacific Ocean contribution in the continental water budget is largely restricted to the western Andes region. Nevertheless, moderate-to-intense ENSO periods strongly affect more than half of the South American hydrology, influencing the availability of water resources from mountainous regions that are vital to ecosystems and the human economy and wellbeing. Intense droughts and floods observed continentally during the modern epoch have pointed to the need of better understanding the regional climate related issue. Recent paleoclimate advances, especially the creation of high-standard regional proxy record databases, allow describing the South American climate from a new perspective. However, large areas of tropical South America are still underrepresented in those databases. Here we present an effort of the South American PAGES 2k paleo-community LOTRED-SA to fill this gap. The group aims at producing a South American hydro-climate reconstruction from 267 proxy records (mostly tree rings, ice cores, pollen, instrumental precipitation and river flow) and 14 high resolved speleothems data covering the common era. For this study we plan to reanalyse new and existing tree ring and pollen data with respect to instrumental climate data. The well calibrated tree-ring index will be compared to an independently developed hydro-climate reconstruction for the last 2K based on speleothem records (Khodri et al., in prep) using coherence and singular spectral analyses to depict the temporal evolution of the dominant cyclicities the time series. For the more recent period, we will also use long-term instrumental data of precipitation, river flow and air temperature.

  6. High-energy physics, the South American way

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The 6th CERN–Latin American School of High-Energy Physics (CLASHEP) was held in Brazil from 23 March to 5 April. With its record-breaking attendance and strong international spirit, CLASHEP is yet another sign of the continent's growing particle physics community.   Participants in the 6th CERN–Latin American School of High-Energy Physics outside the Hotel Porto do Mar, Natal (Brazil), where the School was held. CLASHEP was established in 2001 as a way of engaging young Latin American scientists in the field of particle physics - particularly in the experimental aspects of research. It has played an important role in encouraging Latin American institutes to collaborate with CERN and showing how non-Member-State physicists can work as equals with Member-State nationals. “CLASHEP reflects some of CERN’s guiding policies: enlarging its membership and involving new nations in its programmes,” says Nick Ellis, director of the CERN Schools of High-Ene...

  7. Advances in sarcocystiosis diagnosis in South American camelids in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sarcocystiosis in south-American camelids has a high prevalence, about 94% and affects alpacas and llamas by producing cysts either in skeletal muscle or heart muscle and is caused aucheniae and S. lamacanis. The approach of this investigation was to identify the species involves their pathogenicity, protein structure and the antibody kinetics of animals raised under field conditions, in isolation and under experimental infection and immunization by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Also a PCR assay was developed for diagnosis of the disease in live animals, because so far this parasitic disease is diagnosed at the post mortem examination in the slaughterhouse. PCR product was sequenced and registered in the GeneBank for S. lamacanis. To learn about antibody kinetics under field conditions a group of 30 alpacas and their offspring raised in the Andean region of Huancavelica was sampled. Blood samples were collected and assayed by ELISA for 6 months after lambing. Similarly, a group of alpaca crias kept in isolation in Lima was monitored for antibodies. A group of 20 pregnant alpacas raised in the Andean region of Puno was transferred to our station in Lima and raised in sarcocystis-free pens. These alpacas were monitored for antibody to sarcocystis by ELISA and blood parasitemia by PCR for 2 years. A group of alpaca crias was immunized using a bradyzoite protein suspension, and blood samples were collected for monitoring antibody by ELISA and western blot. In order to identify genes coding surface antigens, bradkyzoites of S. aucheniae were collected for total RNA and mRNA isolation. From this mRNA a cDNA library will be constructed, using ligation, transformation and sequencing. Alpacas from Huancavelica assayed by ELISA showed antibody (93.3%) up to 4 months after parturition, and then 100% of them were positive. This result indicates the high rate of the infection in field conditions. A 30% of their offspring showed antibody up to 2 months of age being

  8. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B.; Bess, Jukelia J.; Mills, Kevin R.; Jimmy T. Efird

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesit...

  9. Model Minority at Risk: Expressed Needs of Mental Health by Asian American Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E.; Robinson, E. Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery ...

  10. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted. PMID:27251639

  11. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted.

  12. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  13. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  14. Elder Mistreatment and Physical Health among Older Adults: The South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cisler, Josh M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Begle, Angela M.; Hernandez, Melba; Acierno, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including interpersonal violence, is associated with poorer physical health in young adults. This relation has not been well-investigated among older adults in specific populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to PTEs and elder mistreatment are associated with physical health status among older adults residing in South Carolina. 902 older adults aged 60 and above participated in a structured interview assessin...

  15. Teaching English Vocabulary to Elementary Mexican American Students in South Texas: Some Responsive Modern Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiaka Nzai, Valentin; Reyna, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Teaching reading and vocabulary to Mexican American children in the United States of America today requires an acknowledgment of historical social injustice that continues to affect many communities in South Texas. This article debriefs some vocabulary teaching strategies--such as mnemonics and game play under the learning centers…

  16. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  17. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound. ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  18. South American energy integration: new perspectives; Novas perspectivas para a integracao energetica sul-americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Malhaes da [Malhaes da Silva Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salomao, Luiz Alfredo [Universidade Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Politicas Publicas e Governo

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the South American energy integration, the advantages related to this process as well as the existing obstacles . What is the scope in terms of projects and initiatives, and the role of political and institutional barriers to be overcome. (author)

  19. The Mexican-Americans of the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotia, Elizabeth R.; Calvin, Richmond

    Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Mexican Americans in South Bend, Indiana, is intended to increase cultural awareness of minority groups. The document opens with historical background information beginning in 1877 during the presidency of Porfirio Diaz of Mexico. The narrative follows migration…

  20. 78 FR 50135 - CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... COMMISSION CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of CNC Development, Ltd... securities of Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  1. Insulating an Ideology: The Enclave Effect on South Florida's Cuban Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Chris; Grenier, Guillermo J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Cuban Americans embrace a distinctive anti-Castro ideology. Although this ideology supports the embargo against Cuba--purportedly to bring about the Castro regime's compliance or collapse--the real objectives may be more symbolic than practical. Ultimately, the institutional completeness provided by the enclave in South Florida insulates and…

  2. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  3. Coping with Discrimination: The Subjective Well-Being of South Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…

  4. Professor creates three American Mountain South-related diversity websites as resources for teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2009-01-01

    Wilma A. Dunaway, professor in the School of Public and International Affairs, has created three websites that provide a treasure trove of historic images, narratives, and information about economic history, slaves and 19th-century women in the American Mountain South.

  5. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Louisa A; Ramirez, Juan David; Llewellyn, Martin S; Guhl, Felipe; Miles, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control. PMID:27434772

  6. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  7. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  8. Inclusion of South American samples reveals new population structuring of the blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) in the western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, Davidson; Rodrigues-Filho, Luis F S; Souza, Rosália F C; Rêgo, Péricles S; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2012-12-01

    Carcharhinus limbatus has a cosmopolitan distribution and marked genetic structuring, mainly because of its philopatric behavior. However, analysis of this structuring has not previously included South American populations. In the present study, we analyzed a sample of adult individuals collected on the northern coast of Brazil and compared the sequences of the mitochondrial control region with those of populations already genotyped. Relatively high haplotype diversity (12 haplotypes, genetic diversity of 0.796) was observed, similar to that in other populations but with a much larger number of private alleles. In contrast to populations studied previously, which were represented by neonates, the pronounced allelic variability found in the South American individuals may have resulted from migrations from other populations in the region that have yet to be genotyped. This population was also genetically distinct from the other Atlantic populations (F(st) > 0.8), probably because of female philopatry, and apparently separated from the northwestern Atlantic group 1.39 million years ago. These findings indicate that the C. limbatus population from northern Brazil is genetically distinct from all other populations and should be considered as a different management unit for the protection of stocks. PMID:23271935

  9. Inclusion of South American samples reveals new population structuring of the blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus in the western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Sodré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcharhinus limbatus has a cosmopolitan distribution and marked genetic structuring, mainly because of its philopatric behavior. However, analysis of this structuring has not previously included South American populations. In the present study, we analyzed a sample of adult individuals collected on the northern coast of Brazil and compared the sequences of the mitochondrial control region with those of populations already genotyped. Relatively high haplotype diversity (12 haplotypes, genetic diversity of 0.796 was observed, similar to that in other populations but with a much larger number of private alleles. In contrast to populations studied previously, which were represented by neonates, the pronounced allelic variability found in the South American individuals may have resulted from migrations from other populations in the region that have yet to be genotyped. This population was also genetically distinct from the other Atlantic populations (Fst > 0.8, probably because of female philopatry, and apparently separated from the northwestern Atlantic group 1.39 million years ago. These findings indicate that the C. limbatus population from northern Brazil is genetically distinct from all other populations and should be considered as a different management unit for the protection of stocks.

  10. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  11. Employing Strategic Thinking in South American 4icrofinance Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONCARI, GUSTAVO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the use of strategic thinking in microfinance in South America. Microfinance is an important business in South America today, its importance lies in its ability to transform poor people and informal enterprises into citizens and formal companies making human beings grow as individuals at the same time. The sector is very strong in the region despite its youth and maybe it's time to use the ideas of business strategy developed for traditional businesses. The goal of this paper is then to use the ideas of business strategy in microfinance. A classic strategy scheme called the Ansoff matrix is used for this. It proposes two axes (product and market as possible ways for developing a business. The work includes the theoretical development of this scheme and evaluations from experts interviewed to give their opinion on it, evaluations that make the idea richer while pointing the possible weaknesses of the model

  12. Perspectives of the mercosur parliament performance according to south american political organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Franzoi Dri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The signature of the MERCOSUR Parliament Constitutive Protocol, in 2005, has opened new parliamentary perspectives to the integration process which takes place in the South Cone. The nomination “parliament”, the universal suffrage prevision and new legislative and control functions evidence possibilities for an outstanding actuation. But is it possible to consider that this new organ was created in the middle of political conditions favorable to an effective functionality? Looking for traces to an answer, the paper examines political and electoral characteristics common to the South American States. First, we study the daily relations between the Executive and Legislative Powers in South American presidential regimes. Then, we verify to what extent the proportional open-list electoral system, largely used in the election of the lower houses members in the continent, influences such relations. At the end, we discuss the new assembly perspectives of effectiveness based on the regional characteristics studied.

  13. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  14. Checklist of the Helminth Parasites of South American Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, CP; Gibson, DI

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2001-2015 Magnolia Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The attached file is the published version of the article. Although the Chiroptera represents a significant proportion (c.20%) of the mammalian fauna and South America has the highest diversity of bat species, only a...

  15. California Adults Who Met Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is from the 2013 California Dietary Practices Survey of Adults. Adults were asked a series of eight questions about their physical activity practices...

  16. Civic Engagement in Relation to Outcome Expectations among African American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…

  17. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  18. The Mexican American Cultural Values Scale for Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; German, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosav, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The article discusses the items derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans' (adolescents, mothers, and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups…

  19. A satellite magnetic model of northeastern South American aulacogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, M. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Von Frese, R. R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Magnetic modeling of the Amazon River and Takatu Aulacogens in northeastern South America illustrate the utility of satellite magnetic data in characterizing the properties and structure of the lithosphere. Specifically, reduction of preliminary Magsat scalar magnetic anomaly data to an equivalent condition of vertical polarization shows a general correlation between magnetic anomaly minima and the Amazon River and Takatu Aulacogens. Surface gravity data demonstrate a correlative positive anomaly. Spherical earth modeling of the magnetic data indicates a less magnetic crust associated with the aulacogens which is compatible with previous studies over the Mississippi River Aulacogen and Rio Grande Rift in North America.

  20. South American leafhoppers of the tribe Typhlocybini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Dietrich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of Typhlocybini (sensu stricto, excluding Empoascini endemic to South America is reviewed and comprises seven closely related genera, five described herein as new, and 55 species, 52 here described as new. The genera and species are described and keys and illustrations are provided to aid in their identification. Columbonirvana Linnavuori comprises 17 species, 16 new. Eualebra Baker comprises 19 species, 17 new. Euzyginella gen. nov., comprises four new species. Neozyginella gen. nov., comprises six new species. Pseudhadina gen. nov., comprises one new species. Pseudozyginella gen. nov., comprises three new species. Tahurella gen. nov., comprises five new species. One new synonym is recognized: Eualebra smithii Baker, 1899 equals Dikraneura (Hyloidea reticulata Osborn, 1928, syn. nov. One previously described species placed in Eualebra belongs in tribe Dikraneurini; thus, a new combination is proposed: Alconeura (Hyloidea rubra (Van Duzee, comb. nov. Most of the specimens available for this study were from Malaise trap and canopy fogging samples obtained at very few localities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, suggesting that further sampling in South America, particularly in the Amazonian rainforest and eastern foothills of the Andes Mountains, will reveal large numbers of additional species.

  1. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  2. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  3. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Huamaní

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7% and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country.

  4. How does Preceding Soil Moisture Influence the Onset of the South American Monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbery, E. H.; Collini, E. A.

    2006-05-01

    The South American Monsoon System achieves maximum precipitation over the southern Amazon basin and the Brazilian highlands during the austral summer. The precipitation pattern associated with the monsoon system extends southeastward to southeastern Brazil and into the Atlantic Ocean as a band of clouds and precipitation called the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Earlier studies have noted the important role of advective processes, and in particular the effect of the South American Low-level Jet east of the Andes Mountains, in the onset and maintenance of the monsoon precipitation. The local effects of the land surface onto the onset of the South American monsoon are less understood. This study discusses the sensitivity of the monsoon precipitation to changes in initial soil moisture conditions using ensembles of month long simulations with the regional mesoscale Eta model. The sensitivity experiments to soil moisture changes suggest that soil over the subtropical region seems to be close to saturation. Consequently, precipitation is not as sensitive to increases of soil moisture as it is to decreases. When the initial soil moisture is reduced, changes in precipitation respond to two basic mechanisms. On the one hand the reduction of soil moisture implies less availability of water for evaporation; on the other hand, changes in the Bowen ratio also imply a deeper (and drier) boundary layer which results in a more elevated Low-level Jet, with a consequent reduction of the moisture transports into the monsoon region. The two mechanisms act concurrently to reduce the core monsoon precipitation.

  5. Language Brokering, Acculturation, and Empowerment: Evidence from South Asian Canadian Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cila, Jorida; Lalonde, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the practice of language brokering (LB) among South Asian Canadian college-age adults and how such practice relates to acculturation to mainstream and heritage cultures, as well as personal empowerment. One hundred and twenty-four young adults reported on three different indices of LB (brokering frequency, diversity of…

  6. South American natural gas trade: the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state and future prospects for the natural gas sector in South America were examined, including the ability of the natural gas resource base to meet potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay). The physical, legal, fiscal, regulatory and political developments in the hydrocarbon-producing countries in the Southern Cone region were reviewed. For example, in Colombia, the domestic gas market potential and resource base argue in favor of a closed domestic gas sector development policy. In contrast, Venezuela, a country that already has a well developed domestic gas sector, is pursuing offshore market development through both petrochemical and liquefied natural gas initiatives. Following a comprehensive description of individual gas resources, markets and market potential, and legal, institutional and political environments, the study reports on a number of alternative scenarios concerning natural gas integration in the Southern Cone region, developed by using the South America Natural Gas (SANG) model. The following scenarios were reviewed: (1) closure and confinement, (2) integration and expansion, and (3) gains from technology. It was estimated that potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region is projected to grow from 900 billion cubic feet per year in 1994 to over 5.3 trillion cubic feet in 2021. The majority of growth is expected in Brazil. The overall conclusion of the study was that regardless of the scenario, Southern Core gas sector integration has strong economic and commercial merit, and that the natural gas resource base in the Southern Cone, as represented by the gas reserves database, is more than adequate to service potential demand. 100 refs., 50 tabs., 54 figs

  7. Generational differences in fast food intake among South-Asian Americans: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Monideepa B; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States. PMID:25474383

  8. Generational Differences in Fast Food Intake Among South-Asian Americans: Results From a Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Monideepa B.; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to imp...

  9. Rooting Memory, Rooting Place: Regionalism in the Twenty-First-Century American South

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Lewis Simpson first used the term ‘postsouthern’ to define the state of the American South in an era of postmodern capitalism. The recent swathe of transnational and transcultural theory has much bearing on this notion, as any questioning of the nation and its borders must have concomitant effects on those regions within it. The U.S. South is one such region that has long endured questioning of its contours, whether geographical, cultural, or ideological. Simpson’s ‘postsouth’ has gained much...

  10. Typification of names of South American taxa related to Woodsia montevidensis (Woodsiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Marcelo D.; Mynssen, Claudine M.; Zimmer, Brigitte; Ponce, M. Monica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the nomenclature of six South American taxa related to Woodsia is presented, as a part of a taxonomic revision of the genus in South America. Lectotypes are selected for Cheilanthes crenata, Woodsia crenata var. pallidipes, Woodsia incisa, Woodsia montevidensis var. fuscipes and the second step lectotypification for Dicksonia montevidensis and Woodsia peruviana, based on the analysis of their protologues and original herbarium material. All names are currently synonyms of Woodsia montevidensis. Physematium incisum (Gillies ex Hook. & Grev.) Kunze constitutes an illegitimate name and Physematium cumingianum is considered as nomen inquirendum. PMID:27489474

  11. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need.

  12. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need. PMID:25803784

  13. Long-term solar activity influences on South American rivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mauas, Pablo; Flamenco, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    River streamflows are excellent climatic indicators since they integrate precipitation over large areas. Here we follow up on our previous study of the influence of solar activity on the flow of the Parana River, in South America. We find that the unusual minimum of solar activity in recent years have a correlation on very low levels in the Parana's flow, and we report historical evidence of low water levels during the Little Ice Age. We also study data for the streamflow of three other rivers (Colorado, San Juan and Atuel), and snow levels in the Andes. We obtained that, after eliminating the secular trends and smoothing out the solar cycle, there is a strong positive correlation between the residuals of both the Sunspot Number and the streamflows, as we obtained for the Parana. Both results put together imply that higher solar activity corresponds to larger precipitation, both in summer and in wintertime, not only in the large basin of the Parana, but also in the Andean region north of the limit with Patago...

  14. An overview of musical instruments used in South American dance traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul A.

    2002-11-01

    Musical instruments used in South American dances combine elements from Amerindian, African, and European musical traditions. The Amerindian influence can be seen in Andean instruments, such as the end-blown flute, panpipe, and charango (modified from the European guitar). The berimau, a musical bow used in the Brazilian capoeira dance, is an example of African influence. The bandoneon is a square-ended German concertina most famous for its use in the tango from Argentina. This paper provides an overview of the musical instruments commonly used in South American dance traditions in relationship to their origins. The acoustics of some of these instruments, such as the guitar, has been studied in detail, whereas others, like the Brazilian cuica, provide opportunity for new studies.

  15. South American Heart Transplantation Registry of patients receiving everolimus in their immunosuppressive regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, G V; Ceruti, B; Ahualli, L; Colque, R; Amuchástegui, M; Sgrosso, J L; Muñoz, J; Vulcano, N; Burgos, C; Diez, F; Rodriguez, M C; Perrone, S V

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of heart transplant recipients receiving immunosuppression with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors prompted the implementation of a South American Transplant Physicians Group to register these patients in a database. Everolimus (EVL) is a signal proliferation inhibition that reduces graft vascular disease when used de novo. Recently, its administration has expanded to subjects with resistant rejection or with side effects due to other immunosuppressive drugs (calcineurin inhibitors and/or steroids), allowing for better regulation of the immunosuppressive regimen. Herein we have shown the data collected from patients receiving EVL in ten South American Heart Transplant Centers. We have concluded that the administration of EVL is a useful adjunctive therapy that allows the reduction or suspension of other immunosuppressive drugs that caused unwanted side effects, without a loss of immunosuppressive efficacy, with manageable side effects, and constituting a valuable therapeutic option. PMID:20172342

  16. ON MALE AND FEMALE SPEECH AND MORE: CATEGORICAL GENDER INDEXICALITY IN INDIGENOUS SOUTH AMERICAN LANGUAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    International audience Indexing the gender of the speaker or the addressee within any type of sentence is often considered as sociolinguistic variation rather than as a gender-exclusive rule. This paper presents a survey of categorical (rather than statistical) gender indexicality in grammar with the greatest number of languages to date. It also offers a data-informed typology of categorical gender indexicality based on 41 indigenous South American languages, aimed at encouraging and facil...

  17. Male Courtship Behavior of the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, from an Argentinean Laboratory Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Calcagno, G; Belluscio, L; Vilardi, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest of fruit species of warm regions of the Americas, including Argentina. Some authors claim that this taxon includes a group of cryptic species. In order to evaluate possible targets of sexual selection, it is necessary to analyze ethological aspects of male courtship and identify particular steps that strongly influence mating success. A mating test designed to evaluate behavioral differences betwe...

  18. Culicoides fauna and bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection in South American camelid herds in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a Culicoides-born infectious disease caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). From 2006 to 2010, BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) spread throughout Europe, causing severe disease in domestic and some wild ruminant species and in an alpaca. Compulsory vaccination of susceptible animals was the most effective strategy to control and eradicate the BTV-8 epizootic in Europe. However, South American camelids (SAC) were not included in the BTV-8 vaccination programmes in Europe. The presented...

  19. Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J.; Thomas, Jessica A.; Wadsley, Marc; Brace, Selina; Cappellini, Enrico; Turvey, Samuel T.; Reguero, Marcelo; Gelfo, Javier N.; Kramarz, Alejandro; Burger, Joachim; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashford, David A.; Ashton, Peter D.; Rowsell, Keri

    2015-01-01

    No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the eleph...

  20. Pentecostal improvement strategies : a comparative reading on african and south american pentecostalism

    OpenAIRE

    Köhrsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to explore the regional differences of religious life improvement strategies in African and South American Pentecostalism. Religious life improvement strategies can be defined as practices conducted within a religious environment that may (intentionally or not) contribute to the improvement of everyday life. Pentecostalism provides life improvement strategies to individuals seeking betterment by applying both secular and non-secular means that can help to advan...

  1. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  2. REVIEW: South & East Asian Adult Education: Chronologies in Commonwealth Countries

    OpenAIRE

    SHARMA, Reviewed By Dr. Ramesh C.

    2002-01-01

    The major aim of this international research project was to record and analyze the chronological development of adult education in the country members of the commonwealth. It traces the developments in the area of adult education since early 1900s to the very latest as for 1999. This project was supported by the Commonwealth of Learning; the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto; the Commonwealth Association for the Education and Training of Adults; and the United ...

  3. Residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eCorral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with any certainty in light of the considerable methodological problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided.

  4. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J; Mills, Kevin R; Efird, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the) studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with certainty in light of the considerable methodologic problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided. PMID:26191522

  5. Splendid oddness: revisiting the curious trophic relationships of South American Pleistocene mammals and their abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD A. FARIÑA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American Pleistocene mammal fauna includes great-sized animals that have intrigued scientists for over two centuries. Here we intend to update the knowledge on its palaeoecology and provide new evidence regarding two approaches: energetics and population density and relative abundance of fossils per taxa. To determine whether an imbalance exists, population density models were applied to several South American fossil faunas and the results compared to those that best describe the palaeoecology of African faunas. The results on the abundance study for Uruguay and the province of Buenos Aires during the Lujanian stage/age reveal that bulk-feeding ground sloths (Lestodon and Glossotherium were more represented in the first territory, while the more selective Scelidotherium and Megatherium were more abundant in the second. Although the obtained values were corrected to avoid size-related taphonomic biases, linear regressions of abundance vs. body mass plots did not fit the expected either for first or second consumers. South American Pleistocene faunas behave differently from what models suggest they should. Changes in sea level and available area could account for these differences; the possibility of a floodplain in the area then emerged could explain seasonal changes, which would modify the calculations of energetics and abundance.

  6. ARTERIAL ELASTICITY IN AMERICAN INDIAN AND CAUCASIAN CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during seven consecutive days. Amer...

  7. Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M; Alegria, Magarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. We report findings from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), a national household probability psychiatric survey of 4,488 Latino and Asian American adu...

  8. Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Alcohol Use among Asian American Adults: Findings from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling ...

  9. Upstream Ecological Risks for Overweight and Obesity Among African American Youth in a Rural Town in the Deep South, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alison J Scott; Wilson, Rebecca F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have focused on overweight and obesity among rural African American youth in the Deep South, despite disproportionately high rates in this group. In addition, few studies have been conducted to elucidate how these disparities are created and perpetuated within rural communities in this region. This descriptive study explores community-based risks for overweight and obesity among African American youth in a rural town in the Deep South. Methods We used ecological theor...

  10. Potential use of the sterile insect technique against the South American fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Latin American countries have a strong interest in increasing fruit production and quality to facilitate commercialization within and outside the region. Various fruit fly control programmes in South America and their objectives and benefits are described here. Specific priorities to improve fruit fly control and eradication technologies include strengthening of quarantine, development of pre- and post-phytosanitary measures, and harmonization of the most effective and advanced technical procedures/methodologies to control fruit flies. A subregional strategy to control fruit flies in South America would promote technical co-operation among the South American countries and strengthen the activities of less advanced fruit fly programmes. Effective use can be made of local/regional infrastructure, expertise, sterile fly production and human/technical resources. In Argentina, advanced technology related to the use of medfly genetic sexing strains for SIT programmes has been successfully introduced. Joint efforts between technicians and scientists would contribute to developing new technology to control important pests in South America. (author)

  11. Stigma of poverty. The discursive construction of ­"South" term in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÓMEZ QUINTERO, Juan David

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects a general knowledge and a macro-paradigmatic contribution of developmentalist discourses, in particular, its modernist and Eurocentric roots. In particular we analyze the artificiality of the discursive construction of certain categories that represent geopolitical stigma of poverty, such as ­Third World® or ­South® or ­underdeveloped® adopted in the field of international relations and the development cooperation. It notes that there are not metaphors opposite (North-South in its own right, the ­South® is not the opposite of the ­North®, but its negative extension, as evidenced by the imaginarium of most Latin American countries. The metaphors that stigmatize poverty are symbolic discourse used to define in a European way the identity of the winner (rich people.

  12. Satellite Elevation Magnetic and Gravity Models of Major South American Plate Tectonic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some MAGSAT scalar and vector magnetic anomaly data together with regional gravity anomaly data are being used to investigate the regional tectonic features of the South American Plate. An initial step in this analysis is three dimensional modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies of major structures such as the Andean subduction zone and the Amazon River Aulacogen at satellite elevations over an appropriate range of physical properties using Gaus-Legendre quadrature integration method. In addition, one degree average free-air gravity anomalies of South America and adjacent marine areas are projected to satellite elevations assuming a spherical Earth and available MAGSAT data are processed to obtain compatible data sets for correlation. Correlation of these data sets is enhanced by reduction of the MAGSAT data to radial polarization because of the profound effect of the variation of the magnetic inclination over South America.

  13. Hematology, Serum Chemistry, and Early Hematologic Changes in Free-Ranging South American Fur Seals ( Arctocephalus australis ) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Keenan, Alessandra; Perez-Venegas, Diego J; DeRango, Eugene; Paves, Hector; Gottdenker, Nicole; Müller, Ananda

    2016-07-01

    The establishment of clinical pathology baseline data is critical to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in marine mammal groups. Despite increased availability of studies on hematology and biochemistry of marine mammals, reference ranges are lacking for many populations, especially among fur seal species. During the austral summers of 2014 and 2015, we evaluated basic hematologic and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy, physically restrained South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) lactating females and 2-mo-old pups. We also assessed the temporal variation of hematology parameters on the pups during their first 2 mo of life. Reference ranges of lactating females were similar to those previously reported in other fur seal species. In the case of pups, reference ranges are similar to values previously reported in sea lion species. As expected, most biochemical and hematologic values differ significantly between adult females and pups. As in other otariids, South American fur seals pups are born with higher values of total red blood cells, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume, and lower numbers of total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. To the best of our knowledge, data on hematology reference values for South American fur seals has not been previously reported and is useful for continued health monitoring of this species, as well as for comparisons with other otariid groups. PMID:27243331

  14. Aerosol particle properties in a South American megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulke, Ana; Torres-Brizuela, Marcela; Raga, Graciela; Baumgardner, Darrel; Cancelada, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    The subtropical city of Buenos Aires is located on the western shore of Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of Argentina. It is the second largest metropolitan area in South America, with a population density of around 14 thousand people per km2. When all 24 counties of the Great Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area are included it is the third-largest conurbation in Latin America, with a population of around fifteen million inhabitants. The generalized worldwide trend to concentrate human activities in urban regions that continue to expand in area, threatens the local and regional environment. Air pollution in the Buenos Aires airshed is due to local sources (mainly the mobile sources, followed by the electric power plants and some industries) and to distant sources (like biomass burning, dust, marine aerosols and occasionally volcanic ash) whose products arrive in the city area due to the regional transport patterns. Previous research suggests that ambient aerosol particle concentrations should be considered an air quality problem. A field campaign was conducted in Buenos Aires in 2011 in order to characterize some aerosol particles properties measured for the first time in the city. Measurements began in mid- April and continued until December. The field observations were done in a collaborative effort between the Universities of Mexico (UNAM) and Buenos Aires (UBA). A suite of instruments was installed on the roof of an UBA laboratory and classroom buildings (34.54° S, 58.44° W) at an altitude of approximately 30 m above sea level. The measurements included the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN) larger than approximately 50 nm, the mass concentration of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), the scattering (Bscat) and absorption (Babs) coefficients at 550 nm and the vertical profiles of backscattered light from aerosols at a wavelength of 910 nm using a ceilometer. In addition, a weather station recorded the meteorological

  15. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Lott Collins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the professional realm. The vignettes include a scenario for a supervisor and a client.

  16. Redefining Religious Nones: Lessons from Chinese and Japanese American Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Jeung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.

  17. A whole language curriculum for nonreading, limited English proficient Native American adult factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, Mary Susan Tomat

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a whole language curriculum for limited English proficient, nonreading Native American adult factory workers. The curriculum was based upon a humanistic view of the adult literacy process. Cognitive and psycholinguistic theories of learning were used as the theoretical foundation for the curriculum. Schema theory was presented as part of a reader-centered, psycholinguistic processing model of English as a Second Language reading. The curricu...

  18. Social justice in climate services: Engaging African American farmers in the American South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts

  19. Dietary Fat Reduction Behaviors among African American, American Indian, and White Older Adults with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A; Snively, Beverly M; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Dietary self-management of diabetes is often difficult for older adults to practice, particularly in rural communities. We describe patterns and correlates of dietary fat reduction among older rural adults with diabetes of any type. In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic random sample of 701 adults ≥65 with diabetes from two North Carolina counties. The Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire was used to measure dietary behaviors. Separate multiple linear regressions assessed effec...

  20. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks. PMID:26056875

  1. Marked Ethnic, Nativity, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Disability and Health Insurance among US Children and Adults: The 2008–2010 American Community Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the 2008–2010 American Community Survey Micro-data Sample ( = 9,093,077 to estimate disability and health insurance rates for children and adults in detailed racial/ethnic, immigrant, and socioeconomic groups in the USA. Prevalence and adjusted odds derived from logistic regression were used to examine social inequalities. Disability rates varied from 1.4% for Japanese children to 6.8% for Puerto Rican children. Prevalence of disability in adults ranged from 5.6% for Asian Indians to 22.0% among American Indians/Alaska Natives. More than 17% of Korean, Mexican, and American Indian children lacked health insurance, compared with 4.1% of Japanese and 5.9% of white children. Among adults, Mexicans (43.6%, Central/South Americans (41.4%, American Indians/Alaska Natives (32.7%, and Pakistanis (29.3% had the highest health-uninsurance rates. Ethnic nativity disparities were considerable, with 58.3% of all Mexican immigrants and 34.0% of Mexican immigrants with disabilities being uninsured. Socioeconomic gradients were marked, with poor children and adults having 3–6 times higher odds of disability and uninsurance than their affluent counterparts. Socioeconomic differences accounted for 24.4% and 60.2% of racial/ethnic variations in child health insurance and disability and 75.1% and 89.7% of ethnic inequality in adult health insurance and disability, respectively. Health policy programs urgently need to tackle these profound social disparities in disability and healthcare access.

  2. Improving the Evidence Base for Treating Older Adults With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurria, Arti; Levit, Laura A; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Muss, Hyman B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Magnuson, Allison; Lichtman, Stuart M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Tew, William P; Postow, Michael A; Cohen, Harvey J

    2015-11-10

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a subcommittee to develop recommendations on improving the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer in response to a critical need identified by the Institute of Medicine. Older adults experience the majority of cancer diagnoses and deaths and make up the majority of cancer survivors. Older adults are also the fastest growing segment of the US population. However, the evidence base for treating this population is sparse, because older adults are underrepresented in clinical trials, and trials designed specifically for older adults are rare. The result is that clinicians have less evidence on how to treat older adults, who represent the majority of patients with cancer. Clinicians and patients are forced to extrapolate from trials conducted in younger, healthier populations when developing treatment plans. This has created a dearth of knowledge regarding the risk of toxicity in the average older patient and about key end points of importance to older adults. ASCO makes five recommendations to improve evidence generation in this population: (1) Use clinical trials to improve the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer, (2) leverage research designs and infrastructure for generating evidence on older adults with cancer, (3) increase US Food and Drug Administration authority to incentivize and require research involving older adults with cancer, (4) increase clinicians' recruitment of older adults with cancer to clinical trials, and (5) use journal policies to improve researchers' reporting on the age distribution and health risk profiles of research participants.

  3. Outcome of Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in South East of Iran (Zahedan)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Koushyar, Mohhamad Mahdi; Mohammadi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a lymphoid malignancy, resulting from autonomous proliferation of monoclonal abnormal stem cell. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response rate and prognostic factor of adult patients suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who were treated with chemotherapy in south east of Iran and demographic methods were used for this study. Methods This study was conducted in Ali Ebne Abitaleb Hospital in south east of Iran (Zahedan) from 2003-2010...

  4. War, religion, and white supremacy in comparative perspective: South Africa and the American South

    OpenAIRE

    R M�ller

    2004-01-01

    The southern states of the United States of America and South Africa share a number of analogous historical realities. One of these, which is the main subject of� this article,� is� the way in which the memory of a lost war had fused cultural mythology and religious symbolism to provide a foundation for the formation and maintenance of attitudes of white supremacy in both contexts.� This article seeks to achieve a historical� understanding of the complex interrelationship between the developm...

  5. Comparative analysis of post-breakup basin evolution along the South-American and South-African margins, southern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, F.; Back, S.; Kukla, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, considerable attempts have been made to compare the sedimentary basin evolution and the associated tectonic framework on both sides of the South-Atlantic. However, yet there are still unresolved questions concerning the tectono-sedimentary styles of margin basin evolution that markedly differ from north to south. Amongst the most striking observations is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic margin segment on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. Adding to the heterogeneity of the system, the northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is also characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin now comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt than the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. This project deals with a large-scale comparison of this very different post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development of the southern and northern South American and African continental margins that both record thick post-rift sedimentary successions. To gain detail of the basin margin evolution, we focus on a regional comparison between the post-breakup records archived in the large offshore southern Brazil basins (Pelotas, Santos, Campos) and the post-breakup continental margin successions of offshore Namibia (e.g. Orange Basin) and southern Angola (e.g. Kwanza Basin). A tectonic-stratigraphic comparison of representative geological transects provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key factors influencing margin development which include the subsidence development through time, the sediment (in-)flux and storage patterns and the respective type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems). Data from the salt-prone areas offshore South America and southern

  6. Attitudes on Aging Well Among Older African Americans and Whites in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Corwin, Sara J; Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B.; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive impairment in older adults is a major cause of functional disability. Interest in protecting brain health is likely to grow as the US population ages and more people have experiences with cognitive decline. Recent scientific evidence suggests that physical activity, heart-healthy diets, and social involvement may help to maintain brain health. We investigated attitudes about aging well among older African Americans and whites to inform the development of interventions t...

  7. Ongoing land use change exacerbates tropical South American drought by sea surface temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Lintner, B. R.; Boyce, C. K.; Lawrence, P.

    2011-12-01

    Observations of tropical South American precipitation over the last three decades indicate an increasing rainfall trend to the north and a decreasing trend to the south. Given that tropical South America has experienced significant land use change over the same period, it is of interest to assess the extent to which changing land use may have contributed to the precipitation trends. Simulations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (NCAR CAM) analyzed here suggest a non-negligible impact of land use on this precipitation behavior. While forcing the model by imposed historical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) alone produces a plausible north-south precipitation dipole over South America, NCAR CAM substantially underestimates the magnitude of the observed southern decrease in rainfall unless forcing associated with human-induced land use change is included. The impact of land use change on simulated precipitation occurs primarily during the local dry season and in regions of relatively low annual-mean rainfall, as the incidence of very low monthly-mean accumulations (biodiversity decline from habitat loss and fragmentation.

  8. Land use change exacerbates tropical South American drought by sea surface temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Lintner, Benjamin R.; Boyce, C. Kevin; Lawrence, Peter J.

    2011-10-01

    Observations of tropical South American precipitation over the last three decades indicate an increasing rainfall trend to the north and a decreasing trend to the south. Given that tropical South America has experienced significant land use change over the same period, it is of interest to assess the extent to which changing land use may have contributed to the precipitation trends. Simulations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (NCAR CAM3) analyzed here suggest a non-negligible impact of land use on this precipitation behavior. While forcing the model by imposed historical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) alone produces a plausible north-south precipitation dipole over South America, NCAR CAM substantially underestimates the magnitude of the observed southern decrease in rainfall unless forcing associated with human-induced land use change is included. The impact of land use change on simulated precipitation occurs primarily during the local dry season and in regions of relatively low annual-mean rainfall, as the incidence of very low monthly-mean accumulations (biodiversity decline from habitat loss and fragmentation.

  9. Online Education for Adult Learners in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Insung

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes three applications of online learning and technology in South Korea: development of single-mode virtual universities; online education in conventional universities; and Web-based corporate training. Concludes with principles of online learning derived from experiences in implementing such environments. (AEF)

  10. Meteorology of the Southern Global Plume: African and South American Fires Pollute the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Chatfield, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    An immense global plume of CO meanders widely around the world in the Southern Hemisphere. It arises over Southern America and Africa and flows eastward. The first emissions are in tropical Brazil, and the plume circulates around the world to South America again. The plume was largely unexpected until there were aircraft studies made in NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission - Tropics (Part A). This paper describes the meteorology of the Global Plume, as our simulation, with a synoptic model adapted to global transport, reveals it with a tracer-CO simulation. The observations and their simulation require a particular set of conditions of pollutant accumulation, cumulonimbus venting with required strengths at a narrow range of altitude. Additionally, a particular subtropical conduction region, over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and the westeRNmost South Pacific, relatively free of storms, appears to be a key part of the mechanism. These conclusions are the results of a synoptic reconstruction of the PEMT-A period, September- October, 1996.

  11. Adult Education Research: A Comparison of North American and British Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Finding that British researchers are believed to use qualitative methods while North Americans favor quantitative measurement in adult education enquiry, the author examines substantive research concerns and research publication in the United States, Britain, and Canada and concludes that there is some validity to the stereotype. (Availability:…

  12. "Smoking": Use of Cigarettes, Cigars and Blunts among Southeast Asian American Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…

  13. Engaging in Violence on American Television: A Comparison of Child, Teen, and Adult Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.; Colvin, Carolyn M.; Smith, Stacy L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perpetrators of violence on American television in terms of their chronological age. Compares the amount and nature of violence committed by child and teen characters to that committed by adult characters. Suggests that younger perpetrators are depicted in several ways that pose risks for the child viewer. (SG)

  14. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  15. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  16. Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…

  17. Concepts of Infidelity among African American Emerging Adults: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Flythe, Michelle; Hoffman, Valerie; Fraser, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used an exploratory methodology to determine what cultural models African American emerging adults use to understand infidelity/cheating. Cultural models are defined as "cognitive schema[s] that [are] intersubjectively shared by a social group" (D'Andrade, 1987, p. 112). We interviewed 144 participants ages 19-22 from three…

  18. Young Adult, Rural, African American Stimulant Users: Antecedents and Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Booth, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Early initiation of substance use appears to be an alarming trend among rural minorities. This study focuses on 18–21 year old African American stimulant users in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta. Most participants had no high school diploma and were unemployed; 74.5% had already been arrested. Substance use was initiated early, and nearly all of the men and three quarters of the women already met criteria for lifetime abuse or dependence. Only 18% reported they had ever received substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that substance use interventions in rural communities will require multi-faceted strategies addressing economic, educational and healthcare disparities. PMID:20098663

  19. Climate change and American Bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled the potential distribution of the bullfrog in its native range based on different climate models and green-house gases emission scenarios, and projected the results onto South America for the years of 2050 and 2080. We also overlaid projected models onto the South American network of protected areas. Our results indicate a slight decrease in potential suitable area for bullfrog invasion, although protected areas will become more climatically suitable. Therefore, invasion of these sites is forecasted. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence supporting the vulnerability of the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot to bullfrog invasion and call attention to optimal future climatic conditions of the Andean-Patagonian forest, eastern Paraguay, and northwestern Bolivia, where invasive populations have not been found yet. We recommend several management and policy strategies to control bullfrog invasion and argue that these would be possible if based on appropriate articulation among government agencies, NGOs, research institutions and civil society.

  20. Black Carbon Emissions and Impacts on the South American Glacial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Gallardo, L.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon is one of the key short-lived climate pollutants, which is a topic of growing interest for near-term mitigation of climate change and air quality improvement. In this presentation we will examine the emissions and impact of black carbon and co-pollutants on the South American glacial region and describe some recent measurements associated with the PISAC (Pollution and its Impacts on the South American Cryosphere) Initiative. The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world, extending about 7000 km along western South America through seven countries with complex topography and covering several climate zones, diversity of ecosystems and communities. Air pollution associated with biomass burning and urban emissions affects extensive areas in the region and is a serious public health concern. Scientific evidence indicates that the Andean cryosphere is changing rapidly as snow fields and glaciers generally recede, leading to changes in stream flow and water quality along the Andes. The challenge is to identify the principal causes of the observed changes so that action can be taken to mitigate this negative trend. Despite the paucity of systematic observations along the Andes, a few modeling and observational studies have indicated the presence of black carbon in the high Andes, with potentially significant impact on the Andean cryosphere.

  1. Seismic Study of the Southernmost Andes. The Contact Between Scotia and South American Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, A.; Cominguez, A. H.; Yagupsky, D.; Alvarado, P.; Lodolo, E.; Menichetti, M.

    2003-12-01

    The relationships between the sinistral Magallanes-Fagnano continental transform fault (MFS), a major segment of the boundary between Scotia-South American plates, and the northern flank of the western Scotia Sea, characterized mostly by compressional structures, have not been yet clearly identified. From data processing, depth seismic-migration modeling and interpretation of 800 km of seismic reflection profiles, this study presents one morpho-structural analysis of these two main tectonic elements. In the offshore part of the Malvinas fold-and-thrust belt, five main seismic units have been recognized. Steeply dipping (mainly to the south) reverse faults cut through the folds. Some of these faults represent old extensional faults of the Middle-Mesozoic Rocas Verdes marginal basin rifting, which have been subsequently inverted by compressional stress fields. A noticeable fault system is recognized in the seismic profile, which involves both the sedimentary cover and the acoustic basement. This fault is interpreted as the result of shear stresses produced along the transcurrent South American-Scotia plate boundary. In the SW border of Malvinas Basin, four major discontinuities were recognized. Each discontinuity represents important changes in the regional geodynamic evolution: Early-Late Jurassic rift; Thermal subsidence (Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous); Transitional stage, to Foreland basin (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) and Foreland (since Eocene).

  2. Arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during 7 consecutive days. American Indians had a higher percentage of body fat than Caucasians (p = 0.002), whereas daily ambulatory activity measures were similar (p > 0.05). American Indians had a 16% lower large artery elasticity index (p = 0.007) and a 19% lower small artery elasticity index (p cadence (p = 0.001), fat-free mass (p cadence for 30 continuous minutes (p = 0.009), race (p = 0.005), and average cadence (p = 0.049). Between 8 and 30 years of age, elasticity means for the large and small arteries is lower in American Indians than in Caucasians. A smaller difference was observed in children, with a trend to a much larger difference in young adults. Furthermore, greater fat-free mass and higher daily ambulatory cadence are associated with higher arterial elasticity in both American Indians and Caucasians. PMID:21828174

  3. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmody J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John Carmody1, Raghunath P Misra1,2, Marlyn P Langford1, William A Byrd1, Lauren Ditta1, Bryan Vekovius1, Donald E Texada11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a "starry sky" appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients.Keywords: B-cells, Burkitt lymphoma, cancer, diabetes, eye, Epstein–Barr virus, orbit, tumor

  4. Statistical arbitrage and FX exposure with South American ADRs listed on the NYSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadie Broumandi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An American Depositary Receipt (ADR represents ownership in the shares of a foreign company trading in US financial markets. We test a pair trading rule based on the mean reversion assumption for six South American stocks and their ADR counterparts on the NYSE. In our opinion, such a strategy should separate the spread risk from the currency risk. This paper aims to challenge the positive results found in similar settings. The main achievement is to show that isolating FX exposure turns such strategies that were presented as profitable to unprofitable and abnormal returns are just due to an appreciation in the home currencies versus the USD. Hence the results in some of literature should be revised.

  5. Cigarette Smoking Among Urban American Indian Adults - Hennepin and Ramsey Counties, Minnesota, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jean; Poupart, John; Rhodes, Kristine; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Lamont, Genelle; D'Silva, Joanne; Erickson, Darin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, it was estimated that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among American Indians was 36.5%, the highest of all racial/ethnic groups in the continental United States (1). Among American Indians, considerable cultural and geographic variation in cigarette smoking exists. Smoking prevalence among American Indians is lowest in the Southwest and highest in the Upper Midwest/Northern Plains (2). Little information is available about tobacco use among urban American Indians, who might not have ever lived on a reservation or be enrolled in or affiliated with a tribe. In Minnesota, a significant proportion of American Indians reside in urban areas. Among Minnesota's residents who identify as American Indian alone or in combination with another race, 30% live in Hennepin County and Ramsey County, which encompass Minneapolis and St. Paul, respectively (collectively known as the Twin Cities). The predominant tribes (Ojibwe [Chippewa] and Dakota/Lakota/Nakota [Sioux]) traditionally have used locally grown tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), red willow, and other plants for religious ceremonies, although nonceremonial tobacco is often substituted for traditional plants. To assess prevalence of cigarette smoking among this population, it is important to distinguish ceremonial tobacco use (smoked or used in other ways) from nonceremonial tobacco use. To obtain estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among American Indians in Hennepin and Ramsey counties, the American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey was administered to 964 American Indian residents in 2011, using respondent-driven sampling. Among all participants, 59% were current smokers, 19% were former smokers, and 22% had never smoked. Approximately 40% of employed participants reported that someone smoked in their workplace area during the preceding week. High prevalences of cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among urban American Indians in Minnesota underscores the need for a comprehensive and culturally

  6. Now and Then - Diasporic Identity Processes among South Asian Young Adults in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores some social-psychological aspects for South Asian Young Adults in Denmark such as identity processes through social relations across the geographical borders and psychological diaspora consciousness and is a follow up of the project conducted in the mid-nineties, in Denmark (N....... The young adults are perceived as active actors in relation to their life situation. The results show the young adults as well as parental generations´ reinterpretation of the self, other and home. They also depict that the young adults’ diasporic identities involve the countries of origin as well...

  7. Highly Structured Duets in the Song of the South American Hornero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Rodrigo; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2003-12-01

    The South American Hornero (Furnarius rufus) is a suboscine bird widely known for its mud-made, oven-looking nest. Beyond their architectural skills, the male and female Horneros sing in highly structured duets. The analysis of field recordings reported in this work reveals that as the male increases the note production rate the female responds by switching to different locking states: the ones predicted by the theory of nonlinear forced oscillators. This gives the duet a most appealing rhythm, and unveils the nonlinear nature of the underlying brain activity needed to generate the song.

  8. The Ultrastructure of Secretory Cells of the Islets of Langerhans in South American Catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Luchini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows that a detailed description of the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the South American catfish Rhamdia quelen pancreatic islets is presented. Evidence is offered to support the contention that the α-granules consist of a central and an outer portion of different electron densities and solubilities, that the δ-cells are most probably morphologically altered but viable α-cells, and that the β-granules possibly possess a repeating substructure and may therefore represent an intracellular crystalline storage form of insulin.

  9. THE REGIONAL EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY: THE CASE OF THE AMERICAN SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beckworth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies over the past decade find that US monetary policy generates asymmetric effects on regional economies. These studies further find that the variation in industry composition across US regions is a key reason for these regional effects of monetary policy. One implication from these findings is that should a US region undergo a major restructuring of its economy that region would likely find its response to monetary policy shocks to change as well. This possibility is explored in this article by examining the regional effect of monetary policy shocks during and after the dramatic economic transformations of the American South in the twentieth century.

  10. Adults Who Learn: Sharing Literacy Project Experience from South-Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Oluwatoyin Dare

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the outcome of a funded non-formal, functional adult literacy project embarked upon in the university-based "Isoya" rural development programme area in south-western Nigeria from 2005-2007. It specifically presents the approaches used in legitimising the literacy project amongst community people; and reports the positive impact…

  11. Adult Education & Training in South Africa. A Selected Chronology from 1910 to 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gush, Cathy; Walters, Shirley

    The history of adult education and training in South Africa is a story of the simultaneous and sometimes conflicting activities of three major actors: organizations of civil society, the state, and capital. Organizations of civil society have led many activities in response to social class, race, and gender inequalities. Strongly motivated within…

  12. Transformative Adult Learning in New Social Movement – a Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čubajevaitė Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New social movements in South Africa could play a prominent role in mobilizing the communities to reflect critically and address the repercussions of the neo-liberal agenda which manifests itself in perpetual exclusion of under-educated adults and provision of poor quality education.

  13. Journey to J'Burg: My Travels in South African Young Adult Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Discusses five South African writers for young adults and highlights representative works dealing with family relationships, AIDS, natural disaster, interracial relationships and marriage, racial prejudice, and incest. Although most of the books are not currently available in the United States, a bibliography and a list of addresses for the South…

  14. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

  15. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  16. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  17. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  18. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  19. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used.

  20. Cocaine use among American adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, P M; Johnston, L D; Bachman, J G

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter, we have tried to provide some objective information about the levels of and recent trends in cocaine use among America's adolescents and young adults, as well as some of their attitudes and beliefs about the drug and their reasons for using it. We have also examined cross-time patterns of use, certain predictors of use, and some of the conditions of the social and physical environments which are associated with use. Overall, we have found levels of use to be relatively stable for the past several years after a period of rapid increase between 1976 and 1979. We also found a strong age effect, with cocaine use increasing in the first few years after high school. The levels of use, though stable recently, are disturbingly high, particularly among young adults in their early to mid twenties. Self reported use has followed patterns that parallel exposure to use and use by friend, as would be expected, assuming valid measures. Perceived availability also has moved in tandem with these other measures. The great majority of today's seniors believe regular use to be dangerous, and 77% disapprove of even experimenting with cocaine. Use is found most frequently in the western and northeastern regions of the country, in more urban areas, among males, and among those who are not college-bound. Neither socioeconomic status nor personal income are very strongly associated with use; but a history of truancy, going out frequently in the evenings, and having relatively low religious involvement are. Cocaine users tend to use other illicit drugs (particularly marijuana) and to be cigarette smokers and heavy drinkers much more frequently than nonusers. Thus, there is little evidence that cocaine involves a separate drug-using syndrome. In fact, it is not uncommon for cocaine users to use marijuana or alcohol concurrently. When taking cocaine, high school students most often snort it, though some (24% of recent users) smoke it while only 4% of the users inject it. It

  1. Depression among Asian-American Adults in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jun Kim

    Full Text Available In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors.Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics.A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults. Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%-43.7% and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%-51.3%. Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003. Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%; however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino.There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care, including increased screening

  2. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging "Urban" South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging "urban" colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health.

  3. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids.

  4. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  5. Review of seismic gaps and gap model for the South American subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Frank; Dahm, Torsten; Hainzl, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The seismic gap hypothesis describes a long-period decrease of the probability of earthquake occurrence after major earthquakes, as a consequence of the induced stress shadow. The gap model assumes that the continuous build-up of tectonic strain and stress is released by characteristic major earthquakes. The size of the characteristic earthquakes is for instance controlled by structural heterogeneities or the geometry of the plate boundaries. The gap model is commonly accepted by geologists and a fundamental assumption of our approaches to estimate seismic hazard and time dependent earthquake probability. Interestingly, systematic and rigorous tests to verify the seismic gap model have often failed. In this study we analyze the historical record of major earthquakes at the South American plate boundary with a special look to seismic gaps. The aim of our study is to compare and proof different seismic gap models. We discuss whether the characteristic earthquakes assumption is justified for the South American plate boundary. Two different gap models are discussed: (a) a traditional quasi-periodic recurrence model involving time dependent conditional occurrence probabilities, and (b) a new model describing earthquake rates by rate and state seismicity models considering the estimated spatial pattern of stress drop during major earthquakes.

  6. Annual South American forest loss estimates based on passive microwave remote sensing (1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. E. van Marle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consistent forest loss estimates are important to understand the role of forest loss and deforestation in the global carbon cycle, for biodiversity studies, and to estimate the mitigation potential of reducing deforestation. To date, most studies have relied on optical satellite data and new efforts have greatly improved our quantitative knowledge on forest dynamics. However, most of these studies yield results for only a relatively short time period or are limited to certain countries. We have quantified large-scale forest losses over a 21 year period (1990–2010 in the tropical biomes of South America using remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD. This passive microwave satellite-based indicator of vegetation water content and vegetation density has a much coarser spatial resolution than optical but its temporal resolution is higher and VOD is not impacted by aerosols and cloud cover. We used the merged VOD product of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I observations, and developed a change detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Our results compared favorably to the newly developed Global Forest Change (GFC maps based on Landsat data and available for the 2001 onwards period (r2 = 0.90 when comparing annual country-level estimates, which allowed us to convert our results to forest loss area and compute these from 1990 onwards. We found that South American forest exhibited substantial interannual variability without a clear trend during the 1990s, but increased from 2000 until 2004. After 2004, forest loss decreased again, except for two smaller peaks in 2007 and 2010. For a large part, these trends were driven by changes in Brazil, which was responsible for 56 % of the total South American forest loss over our study period according to our results. One of the key findings of our study is that while forest losses decreased in Brazil

  7. Annual South American forest loss estimates based on passive microwave remote sensing (1990-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, M. J. E.; van der Werf, G. R.; de Jeu, R. A. M.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Consistent forest loss estimates are important to understand the role of forest loss and deforestation in the global carbon cycle, for biodiversity studies, and to estimate the mitigation potential of reducing deforestation. To date, most studies have relied on optical satellite data and new efforts have greatly improved our quantitative knowledge on forest dynamics. However, most of these studies yield results for only a relatively short time period or are limited to certain countries. We have quantified large-scale forest loss over a 21-year period (1990-2010) in the tropical biomes of South America using remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD). This passive microwave satellite-based indicator of vegetation water content and vegetation density has a much coarser spatial resolution than optical data but its temporal resolution is higher and VOD is not impacted by aerosols and cloud cover. We used the merged VOD product of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) observations, and developed a change detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Our results compared reasonably well with the newly developed Landsat-based Global Forest Change (GFC) maps, available for the 2001 onwards period (r2 = 0.90 when comparing annual country-level estimates). This allowed us to convert our identified changes in VOD to forest loss area and compute these from 1990 onwards. We also compared these calibrated results to PRODES (r2 = 0.60 when comparing annual state-level estimates). We found that South American forest exhibited substantial interannual variability without a clear trend during the 1990s, but increased from 2000 until 2004. After 2004, forest loss decreased again, except for two smaller peaks in 2007 and 2010. For a large part, these trends were driven by changes in Brazil, which was responsible for 56 % of the total South American forest loss area over our study

  8. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  9. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  10. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  11. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Makey, Colleen M.; McClean, Michael D.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M; Webster, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. Objectives: We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. Methods: From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at ...

  12. Problem drinking and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Phaswana-Mafuya, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alcohol abuse poses special risks for increased morbidity and mortality among older adults. Little attention has focused on assessing alcohol use and associated factors among older adults in transitional societies such as South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors in older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in 2008. Method We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 aged 50 years or older in South Africa in 2008. In this study we analysed data from all 2144 participants who were over 60 years old. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol intake as well as comorbidity. Risky drinking was defined in two ways: heavy drinkers (>7 drinks/week) and binge drinkers (>3 drinks/one occasion/week). Results Four percent of participants reported heavy drinking and 3.7% binge drinking. Male gender (Odds Ratio (OR) =3.79, Confidence Interval (CI) =1.38-10.37) and white population group (OR=3.01, CI=1.31-6.89) were associated with risky drinking in multivariate analysis; as well as tobacco use (OR=5.25, CI=2.20-12.52) and not being obese (OR=0.14, CI=0.05-0.35). Hypertension, diabetes and depression were not associated. Conclusion This study reveals moderate rates of risky drinking among older adults (60 years and more) in South Africa that puts them at risk of morbidity. Alcohol problems among older adults are commonly under-recognized, indicating a need for health care worker intervention. PMID:23595529

  13. Characterization of the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Aline Weber; Giongo, Adriana; Valdez, Fernanda P; Blaese de Amorin, Derek; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro A; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana P G

    2016-03-01

    The microbiota of wild marine mammals is poorly understood, perhaps due to the migratory habits of some species and the difficulty in obtaining samples. Using high-throughput sequencing, the present study examines the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Faecal samples from South American (n = 6) and Subantarctic fur seals (n = 4) found dead along the south coast of Brazil were collected. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project-Bayesian classifier. Diversity of the microbiota was assessed by categorization of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units. Results indicate that Firmicutes (88.556%-84.016%) was the predominant phylum in South American and Subantarctic fur seals. The distribution of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria varied according to the fur seal species. Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes represented less than 1% of the sequences. The most abundant order in both fur seals was Clostridiales (88.64% and 87.49%). Individual variable incidences were observed in the composition of family among the fur seals, though the families Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Coriobacteriaceae were more prevalent. This study provides insight into the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American and Subantarctic fur seals. PMID:26880785

  14. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

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    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  15. The South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from Brazil as another definitive host for Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, J.P.; Kerber, C. E.; Lindsay, D S; Kasai, N; Pena, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is a definitive host for at least 3 species of Sarcocystis: S. falcatula Stiles 1983, S. neurona Dubey, Davis, Speer, Bowman, de Lahunta, Granstrom, Topper, Hamir, Cummings, Suter 1991, and S. speeri Dubey and Lindsay 1999. In order to identify species of Sarcocystis in the South American opossum, D. marsupialis, Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of a naturally infected opossum (D. marsupialis) from Brazil were fed to 4 gamma-interfer...

  16. Accounting for Racial Differences in School Attendance in the American South, 1900: The Role of Separate-But-Equal

    OpenAIRE

    Margo, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Everyone knows that public school officials in the American South violated the Supreme Court's separate-but-equal decision. But did the violations matter? Yes, enforcement of separate-but-equal would have narrowed racial differences in school attendance in the early twentieth century South. But separate-but-equal was not enough. Black children still would have attended school less often than white children because black parents were poorer and less literate than white parents.

  17. Stressors, Coping Resources, and Depressive Symptoms among Rural American Indian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lawler, Michael J; Martin, James I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of physical health stressors and coping resources with depressive symptoms among American Indian older adults age 50 years or older. The study used a convenience sample of 227 rural American Indian older adults. A hierarchical multiple regression tested three sets of predictors on depressive symptoms: (a) sociodemographics, (b) physical health stressors (functional disability and chronic medical conditions), and (c) coping resources (social support and spirituality). Most participants reported little difficulty in performing daily activities (e.g., eating, dressing, traveling, and managing money), while presenting over two types of chronic medical conditions. Depressive symptoms were predicted by higher scores on perceived social support and lower scores on functional disability; women and those having no health insurance also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that social work practitioners should engage family and community support, advocate for access to adequate health care, and attend to women's unique circumstances and needs when working with American Indian older adults. PMID:25840024

  18. Elder mistreatment and physical health among older adults: the South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Amstadter, Ananda B; Begle, Angela M; Hernandez, Melba; Acierno, Ron

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including interpersonal violence, is associated with poorer physical health in young adults. This relation has not been well-investigated among older adults in specific populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to PTEs and elder mistreatment are associated with physical health status among older adults residing in South Carolina. Older adults aged 60 and above (N = 902) participated in a structured interview assessing elder mistreatment history, PTEs, demographics, and social dependency variables. Results demonstrated that PTEs were associated with poor self-rated health independently and when controlling for other significant predictors. A recent history of emotional mistreatment was associated with poor self-rated health independently, but not when controlling for other significant predictors. PMID:20690195

  19. LULAC v. Richards: The Class Action Lawsuit That Prompted the South Texas Border Initiative and Enhanced Access to Higher Education for Mexican Americans Living along the South Texas Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegon, Ricardo Ray

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined the trials and tribulations a predominantly Mexican-American community in South Texas went through to obtain higher education opportunities for its residents. This study focuses on the "LULAC v. Richards" lawsuit and the South Texas Border Initiative. In 1987, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational…

  20. Ancestral proportions and admixture dynamics in geographically defined African Americans living in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E J; Kittles, R A; Argyropoulos, G; Pfaff, C L; Hiester, K; Bonilla, C; Sylvester, N; Parrish-Gause, D; Garvey, W T; Jin, L; McKeigue, P M; Kamboh, M I; Ferrell, R E; Pollitzer, W S; Shriver, M D

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed admixture in samples of six different African-American populations from South Carolina: Gullah-speaking Sea Islanders in coastal South Carolina, residents of four counties in the "Low Country" (Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, and Dorchester), and persons living in the city of Columbia, located in central South Carolina. We used a battery of highly informative autosomal, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome markers. Two of the autosomal markers (FY and AT3) are linked and lie 22 cM apart on chromosome 1. The results of this study indicate, in accordance with previous historical, cultural, and anthropological evidence, a very low level of European admixture in the Gullah Sea Islanders (m = 3.5 +/- 0.9%). The proportion of European admixture is higher in the Low Country (m ranging between 9. 9 +/- 1.8% and 14.0 +/- 1.9%), and is highest in Columbia (m = 17.7 +/- 3.1%). A sex-biased European gene flow and a small Native American contribution to the African-American gene pool are also evident in these data. We studied the pattern of pairwise allelic associations between the FY locus and the nine other autosomal markers in our samples. In the combined sample from the Low Country (N = 548), a high level of linkage disequilibrium was observed between the linked markers, FY and AT3. Additionally, significant associations were also detected between FY and 4 of the 8 unlinked markers, suggesting the existence of significant genetic structure in this population. A continuous gene flow model of admixture could explain the observed pattern of genetic structure. A test conditioning on the overall admixture of each individual showed association of ancestry between the two linked markers (FY and AT3), but not between any of the unlinked markers, as theory predicts. Thus, even in the presence of genetic structure due to continuous gene flow or some other factor, it is possible to differentiate associations due to linkage from spurious associations due to genetic structure.

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis.

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis. PMID:27021143

  3. Empowering Adult Education in Namibia and South Africa during and after Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christiane

    1997-01-01

    After more than 40 years of education for Apartheid, the development of empowering adult education with the formerly disadvantaged population groups is one of the major challenges for the democratically elected governments in South Africa and Namibia. One of the strongest forces that sustained Apartheid in Namibia until 1990, and in South Africa until 1994, was an education system with different schools and resources for the different population groups. Despite the strict implementation of the Bantu Education System by the white government, some groups of people could still organise alternative education projects aiming at participants' gaining more control over their own lifes. Groups of women in the Western Cape initiated autonomous pre-school projects and took part in in-service training for pre-school teachers in the 1980s. A similar process took place with adult literacy learners in the National Literacy Programme in Namibia.

  4. U.S. Foreign Policy, The South American Integration, and the case of the military bases in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias-Cavicchioli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the nature of the conflict generated in South America by the adoption of the new military agreement between the U.S. and Colombia. The article will evaluate the political and the geostrategic implications of this agreement, especially its repercussions for the regional integration process of South America. It will also analyze the stances of the local actors in order to consider prospective scenarios, and will assess the U.S. approach to South American integration under the Obama administration.

  5. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions.

  6. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  7. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Wessels; Elmien Lesch

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurt...

  8. UTILIZATION OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES AMONG ADULTS ATTENDING A HEALTH FAIR IN SOUTH LOS ANGELES COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Macias, Eduardo P.; Morales, Leo S.

    2000-01-01

    A bilingual survey was developed to collect information regarding socio-demographics, access to medical and dental care, health insurance coverage, perceived health status, and use of folk medicine providers from 70 adults presenting to a health fair in South Los Angeles County. Ninety-seven percent of respondents were foreign-born. Seventy-nine percent reported having no health insurance during the year prior to survey. Of the uninsured, 61 percent lacked a doctor visit and 76 percent lacked...

  9. Dietary Adequacies among South African Adults in Rural KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Kolahdooz; Kerry Spearing; Sangita Sharma

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfacti...

  10. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  11. Model minority at risk: expressed needs of mental health by Asian American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Robinson, E Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery County, Maryland. We developed a moderator's guide with open-ended questions and used it to collect qualitative data. Using a software, we organized and identified emergent themes by major categories. Participants reported a several common sources of stress that affect the mental health of Asian American young adults including: pressure to meet parental expectations of high academic achievement and live up to the "model minority" stereotype; difficulty of balancing two different cultures and communicating with parents; family obligations based on the strong family values; and discrimination or isolation due to racial or cultural background. Young Asian Americans tend not to seek professional help for their mental health problems; instead they use personal support networks-close friends, significant others, and religious community. Participants suggested that Asian cultural norms that do not consider mental problems important, and associated stigma of seeking professional care might undermine their mental health help seeking behavior. Our findings support a need for delivering culturally appropriate programs to raise awareness of mental health and cultural training for health providers to deliver culturally appropriate care. PMID:18931893

  12. A taxonomic bibliography of the South American snakes of the Crotalus durissus complex (Serpentes, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANZOLINI PAULO E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made of the taxonomic literature on South American rattlesnakes (genus Crotalus, family Viperidae. Two main areas are emphasized: the attribution of the names proposed in the eighteenth century by Linnaeus and Laurenti, and the current scheme of division in subspecies. The attribution of names is examined based on the original descriptions and on relevant previous and contemporary literature. The presently adopted scheme, proposed by Klauber (1941, 1972 is found not entirely satisfactory, but reasonable enough - besides being hallowed by use. The scheme of geographical differentiation, intrinsically important and with broad practical implications (differentiation of the venom is found to be the culmination of a long series of deficient analyses, and in urgent need of proper investigation.

  13. Detection of macro-ecological patterns in South American hummingbirds is affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Graves, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    for scaling effects in species-richness gradients with spatially scaled data for 241 species of South American hummingbirds (Trochilidae). Analyses revealed that scale matters above and beyond the effect of quadrat area. Species richness was positively correlated with latitude and topographical relief at ten...... different spatial scales spanning two orders of magnitude (ca. 12,300 to ca. 1,225,000 km2). Surprisingly, when the influence of topography was removed, the conditional variation in species richness explained by latitude fell precipitously to insignificance at coarser spatial scales. The perception of macro......-ecological pattern thus depends directly upon the scale of analysis. Although our results suggest there is no single correct scale for macro-ecological analyses, the averaging effect of quadrat sampling at coarser geographical scales obscures the fine structure of species-richness gradients and localized richness...

  14. An Exploration of Human Nature and a Challenge Against Conventional Morality of American South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉平

    2005-01-01

    文章通过对马克·吐温名著主题的分析,深刻探讨了马克·吐温对人的本性的探索和对美国南方传统道德的挑战,并进而提出了与现今社会紧密联系的人文关怀问题.%By analyzing the theme of Mark Twain's work The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,we can learn that Mark Twain makes an exploration of human nature and a challenge against conventional morality in American South through the depiction of Huck's mental conflict, his final determination to help Jim acquire freedom as well as the friendship between Huck and Jim established during their escape journey down the Mississippi River.

  15. Global climate change attitudes and perceptions among south American zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Jerry F; Clayton, Susan; Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Grajal, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There is a substantial gap between the scientific evidence for anthropogenic climate change and the human response to this evidence. Perceptions of and responses to climate change can differ among regions of the world, as well as within countries. Therefore, information about the public's attitudes and perceptions related to climate change is essential to the development of relevant educational resources. In the present study, zoo visitors in four South American countries responded to a questionnaire regarding their attitudes and perceptions toward global climate change. Results indicated that most respondents are already highly concerned about global climate change and are interested in greater engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Visitors also perceive various obstacles to engagement in climate change mitigation behaviors. We discuss the results of our study in terms of addressing visitors' climate change attitudes and perceptions within the social and emotional context of zoo settings.

  16. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Fernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  17. IMPOSEX IN THE MARINE SNAIL XANTHOCHORUS BUXEA (BRODERIP, 1833 (MURICIDAE FROM THE SOUTH AMERICAN PACIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guabloche, Angélica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The imposex phenomenon is the emergence of male sexual characteristics on the reproductive system of female prosobranch gastropod snails. This alteration was historically associated with contamination with organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT. In this study we evaluated the incidence of imposex in the marine snail Xanthochorus buxea (Broderip, 1833 (Muricidae from Hermosa Beach, Ancon, Lima, Peru. Imposex percentage was 97.6%. The rate of the relative length of the penis (RPLI was equal to 94.3. Astatistically significant relationship was found between the shell length and length of the penis in males and females. This research is the first application of X. buxea as a bioindicator of organotin components in Peru from the South American Pacific coast.

  18. Clinical management of potential ibuprofen toxicosis in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Juliet N

    2006-09-01

    This article describes the clinical management of potential ibuprofen toxicosis in South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria). A 2.5-year-old, 0.78-kg Geochelone carbonaria tortoise was presented to the emergency clinic after ingesting solubilized ibuprofen (200 mg) in a gelatin capsule. Treatment on initial presentation consisted of esophagostomy tube placement for gastric lavage and activated charcoal administration, intravenous and intraosseous fluid therapy, and administration of gastrointestinal protectants (sucralfate and famotidine). The tortoise was discharged to the owners. Although follow-up diagnostic monitoring was minimal because of owner compliance, the patient was noted to be alive and in reasonable health 1 year after initial presentation. This is the first report on the management of potential nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug toxicosis in any chelonian species. PMID:16931380

  19. Toxicity of South American snake venoms measured by an in vitro cell culture assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C R; de Oca, H M; Duarte, M M; Diniz, C R; Fortes-Dias, C L

    2002-03-01

    Cytotoxicity of venoms from eight medically important South American Crotalidae snakes (Bothrops and Lachesis genera) was determined, based on a procedure originally described for the screening of cytotoxic agents in general. The assay, the conditions of which were adapted to snake venoms, determines the survival of viable cells in monolayer culture upon exposure to the toxic agent. Snake venom toxicity was expressed as the venom dose that killed 50% of the cells (CT(50)) under the assay conditions. Bothrops neuwieddi mattogrossensis (CT(50)=4.74+/-0.35 microg/ml) and Bothrops leucurus (CT(50)=4.95+/-0.51 microg/ml) were the most cytotoxic whereas Bothrops atrox (CT(50)=34.64+/-2.38 microg/ml) and Bothrops sp. (CT(50)=33.89+/-3.89 microg/ml) were the least cytotoxic venoms, respectively. The relationship between CT(50) and other biological activities of these snake venoms was evaluated. PMID:11711131

  20. Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

    2014-08-01

    Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation.

  1. Characterization of bovine MHC class II DRB3 diversity in South American Holstein cattle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S-N; Giovambattista, G; Okimoto, N; Matsumoto, Y; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Acosta, T J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-12-01

    Holstein cattle dominate the global milk production industry because of their outstanding milk production, however, this breed is susceptible to tropical endemic pathogens and suffers from heat stress and thus fewer Holstein populations are raised in tropical areas. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA)-DRB3 class II gene is used as a marker for disease and immunological traits, and its polymorphism has been studied extensively in Holstein cattle from temperate and cold regions. We studied the genetic diversity of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in South American Holstein populations to determine whether tropical populations have diverged from those bred in temperate and cold regions by selection and/or crossbreeding with local native breeds. We specifically studied Exon 2 of this gene from 855 South American Holstein individuals by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing method. We found a high degree of gene diversity at the allelic (Na > 20 and He > 0.87) and molecular (π > 0.080) levels, but a low degree of population structure (FST = 0.009215). A principal components analysis and tree showed that the Bolivian subtropical population had the largest genetic divergence compared with Holsteins bred in temperate or cold regions, and that this population was closely related to Bolivian Creole cattle. Our results suggest that Holstein genetic divergence can be explained by selection and/or gene introgression from local germplasms. This is the first examination of BoLA-DRB3 in Holsteins adapted to tropical environments, and contributes to an ongoing effort to catalog bovine MHC allele frequencies by breed and location.

  2. Return Migrations of African-Americans to the South: Reclaiming a Land of Promise, Going Home, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, William F.; Hunt, Larry L.; Hunt, Matthew O.

    2004-01-01

    Using samples of census data from the university of Minnesota Population Center's "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series" (IPUMS), we describe trends in African-American migration to the South across recent decades, and explore the applicability of the concept of "return migration" to various demographic patterns. Our findings suggest that the…

  3. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... conducted. On April 4, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010... document published in the Federal Register on May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26654-26655). We received 30 comments by... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal...

  4. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. This action will allow interested persons...

  5. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... fly and that any fruit fly finds are reported to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 301 and 319 RIN 0579-AD34 Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist...

  6. Prevalence and genetic diversity of haematozoa in South American waterfowl and evidence for intercontinental redistribution of parasites by migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M.; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the role of migratory birds in the movement and transmission of haematozoa within and between continental regions, we examined 804 blood samples collected from eleven endemic species of South American waterfowl in Peru and Argentina for infection by Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and/or Leucocytozono blood parasites. Infections were detected in 25 individuals of six species for an overall apparent prevalence rate of 3.1%. Analysis of haematozoa mitochondrial DNA revealed twelve distinct parasite haplotypes infecting South American waterfowl, four of which were identical to lineages previously observed infecting ducks and swans sampled in North America. Analysis of parasite mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed close phylogenetic relationships between lineages originating from waterfowl samples regardless of continental affiliation. In contrast, more distant phylogenetic relationships were observed between parasite lineages from waterfowl and passerines sampled in South America for Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon, suggesting some level of host specificity for parasites of these genera. The detection of identical parasite lineages in endemic, South American waterfowl and North American ducks and swans, paired with the close phylogenetic relationships of haematozoa infecting waterfowl on both continents, provides evidence for parasite redistribution between these regions by migratory birds.

  7. Evaluation of Riboflavin Intakes and Status of 20–64-Year-Old Adults in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Young Choi; Young-Nam Kim; Youn-OK Cho

    2014-01-01

    A recent Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey indicated inadequate riboflavin intake in Koreans, but there is limited research regarding riboflavin status in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine riboflavin intake and status of Korean adults. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 412 (145 men and 267 women) healthy adults, aged 20–64 years, living in South Korea and urine samples were collected from 149 subjects of all subjects. The dietary and total...

  8. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  9. The Decline of Social Education and the Rise of Instrumentalism in North American Adult Education (1947-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Andre P.

    2012-01-01

    In 1947 the Truman Commission on Higher Education accentuated the importance of adult education in its report entitled "Higher Education for American Democracy". In 1970 a new US "Handbook of Adult Education" signifying the move to a more professionalised field of study and practice was published. The intervening years encapsulate a time of…

  10. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  11. Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2008-04-01

    Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution.

  12. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  13. The diversification of eastern South American open vegetation biomes: Historical biogeography and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Fernanda P.

    2011-06-01

    The eastern-central South American open vegetation biomes occur across an extensive range of environmental conditions and are organized diagonally including three complexly interacting tropical/sub-tropical biomes. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs), Cerrado, and Chaco biomes are seasonally stressed by drought, characterized by significant plant and animal endemism, high levels of diversity, and highly endangered. However, these open biomes have been overlooked in biogeographic studies and conservation projects in South America, especially regarding fauna studies. Here I compile and evaluate the biogeographic hypotheses previously proposed for the diversification of these three major open biomes, specifically their distributions located eastern and southern of Andes. My goal is to generate predictions and provide a background for testable hypotheses. I begin by investigating both continental (inter-biome) and regional (within-biome) levels, and I then provide a biogeographical summary for these regions. I also suggest how novel molecular-based historical biogeographic/phylogeographic approaches could contribute to the resolution of long-standing questions, identify potential target fauna groups for development of these lines of study, and describe fertile future research agendas.

  14. Parental attendance and brood success in American Oystercatchers in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Janet M.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    Research on breeding American Oystercatchers has focused on identifying factors that affect reproductive success but little attention has been paid to parent behavior during chick-rearing. Parental attendance of American Oystercatchers was measured in Bulls Bay and along the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Waterway) within the Cape Romain Region, South Carolina, USA, during 2006. Parental attendance rates averaged 90.9% in Bulls Bay and 81.4% along the Waterway. Daily survival of chicks was higher in Bulls Bay (0.989 ± 0.007) compared to the Waterway (0.966 ± 0.012). The extent of shellfish reefs (i.e. foraging areas) adjacent to nest sites was greater in Bulls Bay (5,633 ± 658 m2) compared to the Waterway (3,273 ± 850 m2). Mean parental attendance in Bulls Bay was higher for successful broods (90.5%) compared to failed broods (79.8%). In contrast, mean parental attendance along the Waterway was higher for failed broods (93.4%) compared to successful broods (67.5%). Less extensive shellfish reefs adjacent to nest sites along the Waterway appeared to require parents to depart more frequently to forage and the resultant reduction in attendance may have negatively affected chick survival. Bulls Bay may provide higher quality nesting habitat compared to the Waterway with respect to proximity to food resources and parental attendance. Management and conservation efforts for American Oystercatchers should consider the relationship between foraging and nesting habitat and variability in behavioral attributes, such as parental attendance, in relationship to environmental conditions which ultimately affect reproductive success.

  15. The energy geopolitics interests: the Initiative for South American Regional Integration - ISARI; Os interesses da geopolitica energetica: a Iniciativa para Integracao Regional Sul Americana - IIRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronymo, Alexandre; Roig, Carla de Almeida; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: alexandre.jeronymo@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: carla.roig@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: sguerra@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This work adds itself to the debates on the project Integration of South America Regional Infrastructure - ISARI. Its focus is related with Energy Geopolitics and the South America integration under the world system of commodities production. The ISARI, as a project oriented to the viability of low value aggregated which should be transported from the south american continent for consumption at the world market.

  16. Genetic Differentiation within the Puccinia triticina Population in South America and Comparison with the North American Population Suggests Common Ancestry and Intercontinental Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the number of genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina that are currently present in South America, and to compare the South American ...

  17. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rubia Marília; Gräf, Tiago; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-01-01

    The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989–2013). Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48–3.30) to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups. PMID:27258369

  18. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rubia Marília; Gräf, Tiago; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-01-01

    The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989-2013). Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48-3.30) to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups. PMID:27258369

  19. Impact of land surface processes on the South American warm season climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H.-Y.; Mechoso, C.R.; Xiao, H.; Wu, C.-M. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Xue, Y. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California Los Angeles, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Li, J.-L. [California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Sales, F.De [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The present study demonstrates that (1) the simulation of the South American warm season (December-February) climate by an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is sensitive to the representation of land surface processes, (2) the sensitivity is not confined to the ''hot spot'' in Amazonia, and (3) upgrading the representation of those processes can produce a significant improvement in AGCM performance. The reasons for sensitivity and higher success are investigated based on comparisons between observational datasets and simulations by the AGCM coupled to either a simple land scheme that specifies soil moisture availability or to the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB) that allows for consideration of soil and vegetation biophysical process. The context for the study is the UCLA AGCM. The most notable simulation improvements are along the lee of the Andes in the lower troposphere, where poleward flow transports abundant moisture from the Amazon basin to high latitudes, and in the monsoon region where the intensity and pattern of precipitation and upper level ice water content are more realistic. It is argued that a better depiction of the Chaco Low, which is controlled by local effects of land surface processes, decisively contributes to the superior model performance with low-level flows in central South America. The better representation of the atmospheric column static stability and large-scale moisture convergence in tropical South America contribute to more realistic precipitation over the monsoon region. The overall simulation improvement is, therefore, due to a combination of different regional processes. This finding is supported by idealized AGCM experiments. (orig.)

  20. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rubia Marília; Gräf, Tiago; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-01-01

    The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989-2013). Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48-3.30) to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups.

  1. Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Germán.; Jaramillo, Liliana; Vallejo, Luisa F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the seasonal dynamics of the eastern Pacific (CHOCO) and Caribbean low-level jets (LLJ), and aerial rivers (AR) acting on tropical and subtropical South America. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2012), we show that the convergence of both LLJs over the eastern Pacific-western Colombia contributes to the explanation of the region's world-record rainfall. Diverse variables involved in the transport and storage of moisture permit the identification of an AR over northern South America involving a midtropospheric easterly jet that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across the Andes, with stronger activity in April to August. Other major seasonal AR pathways constitute part of a large gyre originating over the tropical North Atlantic, veering to the southeast over the eastern Andes and reaching regions of northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. We illustrate the distribution of average seasonal precipitation along the LLJs and AR pathways with data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (1998-2011), combined with considerations of CAPE, topography, and land cover. In addition, the theory of the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) is tested at seasonal time scales, and found to hold in 8 out of 12 ARs, and 22 out of 32 forest-covered tracks (64% in distance) along the ARs. Deviations from BiPAM's predictions of rainfall distribution are explained by the effects of topography, orography, and land cover types different from forests. Our results lend a strong observational support to the BiPAM theory at seasonal time scales over South American forested flat lands.

  2. ENSO impacts on the South American rainfall during 1980s: Hadley and Walker circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, E.B.; Ambrizzi, T. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Instituto Astronomico y Geofisico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-04-01

    The changes in the Hadley and Walter cells and their respective impacts on the South American rainfall during the ENSO episodes observed in the decade of 80, were investigated through cross-sections analyses of the atmospheric circulation in altitude, averaged in the zonal and meridional planes. Such large-scale cells almost inverted their climatological circulation pattern, during El Nino events (1982-83 and 1986-87). In these years, manifestation of the anomalous descending branch of the Hadley and Walker cells affects most of the north-northeast of South America, which inhibited the convective activity associated to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and caused drought conditions in the rainy seasons of the Guyana, Surinam, French Guyana, center-east of the Amazon and most of the Northeast Brazil. On the other hand, conditions of excess of precipitation observed in the south-southeast of South America, were favored by the anomalous ascending branch of the Hadley cell. During La Nina events (1984-85 and 1988-89), it was observed an intensification of the ascending and descending branches associated to the Walker and Hadley cells. The anomalous large-scale ascending movement associated to these cells, was extended to the Northeast of Brazil and equatorial South Atlantic, favoring ITCZ to become more active than the normal, which resulted in an above normal rainy season in these areas. An intense subsidence was noticed in the mid latitudes of South America, which inhibited the large-scale convection in the region, explaining the deficient rainy season observed in most of the south-southeast of South America. [Spanish] Los cambios en las celulas de Hadley y Walker y sus respectivos impactos en Suramerica, en las lluvias, durante los episodios en ENOS, observados en la decada de los 80, son investigados a traves de analisis de reacciones cruzadas de la circulacion atmosferica en altitudes promediadas en planos zonal y meridional. Tales celulas de gran escala

  3. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  4. Precipitation changes in the South American Altiplano since 1300 AD reconstructed by tree-rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the 20th century, the Central Andes has experienced significant climatic and environmental changes characterized by a persistent warming trend, an increase in elevation of the 0 °C isotherm, and a sustained shrinkage of glaciers. These changes have occurred in conjunction with a steady growing demand for water resources. Given the short span of instrumental hidroclimatic records in this region, longer records are needed to understand the nature of climate variability and improve the predictability of precipitation, a key factor modulating the socio-economic development in the South American Altiplano and the adjacent arid lowlands. In this study we present the first quasi-millennial, tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction for the South American Altiplano. This annual (November–October precipitation reconstruction is based on Polylepis tarapacana tree-ring series and represents the closest dendroclimatological record to the Equator in South America. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 707 yr and provides a unique record to characterize the occurrence of extreme events and consistent oscillations in precipitation, as well as to check the spatial and temporal stabilities of the teleconnections between rainfall in the Altiplano and hemispheric forcings such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Since the 1930s up to present a persistent negative trend in precipitation is recorded in the reconstruction, with the three driest years since 1300 AD occurring in the last 70 yr. The reconstruction contains a clear ENSO-like pattern at interannual to multicentennial time scales which determines inter-hemispheric linkages between our reconstruction and other precipitation-sensitive records modulated by ENSO in North America. Our reconstruction points out that century-scale dry periods are a recurrent feature in the Altiplano climate, and that the potential coupling of natural and anthropogenic

  5. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga (∼ 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga (∼16%), 2.7 - 2.6 (∼ 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining ∼ 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block, Contendas

  6. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  7. Perceptions of medical interactions between healthcare providers and American Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Sarkisian, Natalia; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra; Beals, Janette

    2008-08-01

    Cultural competence models assume that culture affects medical encounters, yet little research uses objective measures to examine how this may be true. Do providers and racial/ethnic minority patients interpret the same interactions similarly or differently? How might patterns of provider-patient concordance and discordance vary for patients with different cultural characteristics? We collected survey data from 115 medical visits with American Indian older adults at a clinic operated by the Cherokee Nation (in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA), asking providers and patients to evaluate nine affective and instrumental interactions. Examining data from the full sample, we found that provider and patient ratings were significantly discordant for all interactions (Wilcoxon signed-rank test pcultural subgroups of patients, comparing magnitude of provider-patient discordance on specific interactions for patients at different levels of American Indian and White American cultural identity. Patients who affiliated strongly with American Indian cultural identity more closely shared providers' reduced evaluation for several variables related to information exchange, as compared to patients who identified weakly. These results flag interactions that providers and their most culturally distinctive patients both experience as challenging. PMID:18524443

  8. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa. PMID:24015829

  9. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  10. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, 1) “metabolically healthy” obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and 2) “at risk” obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity det...

  11. "We Must Believe in Ourselves": Attitudes and Experiences of Adult Learners with Disabilities in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Peter; Modipa, Taadi Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Many adults with disabilities in South Africa never had a chance to attend school or dropped out at an early age because of poverty and discrimination. This article investigates the attitudes and experiences of adults with disabilities regarding education. It draws on an interactional model of disability and an embodied understanding of cognition…

  12. The Importance of Material Resources and Qualified Trainers in Adult Non-Formal Education and Training Centres in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term…

  13. Drainage Analysis of the South American Landscape and its Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Gareth G.

    2016-04-01

    last 25-30 Ma. Our results are consistent with a wide range of independent geological observations across South America (e.g. elevated marine deposits, thermochronology, paleoelevation estimates from paleobotany, standard/clumped isotopes analyses). Finally, an important test of our thesis concerns offshore sedimentary flux. For example, our calculated uplift history can be used to predict the history of sedimentary flux into the Foz do Amazonas basin. This prediction agrees with offshore studies of the Amazon delta which suggest a rapid increase in clastic deposition since middle Miocene times. In summary, we propose that South American drainage contains useful information about spatial and temporal patterns of regional uplift which can help our understanding of regional topographic growth and landscape evolution.

  14. Association between Perceived Built Environment and Prevalent Hypertension among South African Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasmore Malambo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association between perceived built environmental attributes and hypertension among adults has received little attention in an African context. We investigated the association between the perceived built environment and prevalent hypertension in adult South Africans. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2008-2009 Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology data among South African (n=671 adults aged ≥35 years. Perceived built environment was assessed using the neighborhood environment walkability scale questionnaire. Prevalent hypertension was defined as previously diagnosed by a physician, screen-detected hypertension as ≥140/90 mmHg, and a combination of both as any hypertension. Logistic regressions were applied for analyses. Results. In crude logistic regressions, self-reported hypertension was associated with land use mix-diversity, street connectivity, infrastructure for walking/cycling, aesthetics, traffic, and crime. In adjusted model, land use mix-diversity was significantly associated with self-reported hypertension. In similar multivariable models, the direction and magnitude of the effects were mostly similar to the outcomes of “screen-detected hypertension” which was further predicted by perceived lack of safety from traffic. Conclusion. Perceived built environment attributes were significantly associated with hypertension. This has relevance to population-based approaches to hypertension prevention and control.

  15. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  16. American Geriatrics Society 2015 Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria are presented. Like the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria, they include lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults. New to the criteria are lists of select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual's kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. The specific aim was to have a 13-member interdisciplinary panel of experts in geriatric care and pharmacotherapy update the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria using a modified Delphi method to systematically review and grade the evidence and reach a consensus on each existing and new criterion. The process followed an evidence-based approach using Institute of Medicine standards. The 2015 AGS Beers Criteria are applicable to all older adults with the exclusion of those in palliative and hospice care. Careful application of the criteria by health professionals, consumers, payors, and health systems should lead to closer monitoring of drug use in older adults.

  17. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wessels

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurturing while growing up. Although they indicated that they perceived fathers as somewhat less involved in young adulthood; they reported being satisfied with the level of father involvement. Daughters also reported high current paternal nurturance. The findings therefore indicate that a group of middle to upper middle-class South African daughters perceived their fathers as relatively involved in their lives and suggest that their fathers’ involvement extends beyond traditional father roles.

  18. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  19. Paleoproterozoic Paleomagnetic Data from South American and African Cratons: An Unorthodox Configuration of Atlantica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Badgen, E.; Vásquez, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Several South American and African cratonic blocks share similar geologic evolutions in mid- Paleoproterozoic times. The Rio de la Plata, Congo-Sao Francisco, Guyana (Proto-Amazonia) and West-Africa cratons, plus other minor blocks, display a very significant crustal forming phase from around 2.2 to 2.0 Ga. This includes juvenile basic to ultrabasic as well as bimodal metavolcanic rocks intercalated with metasediments, highly deformed and metamorphosed granitoids and gneisses and 2.1-1.9 Ga undeformed granitoids that indicate crustal stabilization. These similarities have been interpreted by several authors as evidence of continental assembly that led to formation of the Atlantica "supercontinent". According to this model, Atlantica was formed by the above mentioned cratons in the late Rhyacian and/or early Orosinian with each block occupying a position virtually identical to the one they presented within Gondwana in the Phanerozoic. Testing the existence and configuration of Atlantica is very important for any model of global paleogeographic evolution as well as for the geologic evolution of large areas of South America and Africa. In the last decade, paleomagnetic data from well dated rocks in the interval 2.1-1.95 Ga have become available from the Rio de la Plata, Sao Francisco, Guyana and West Africa cratons, allowing testing the Atlantica hypothesis. Coeval paleomagnetic poles from these blocks cannot be reconciled in the traditional Atlantica configuration suggesting that it is not a valid paleogeographic hypothesis. However, a radically different configuration permits a conciliation of the paleomagnetic data with a single land-mass encompassing the four blocks. According to the available data, the cratons underwent a rapid displacement from polar to mid-latitudes during and immediately after amalgamation between around 2.1 and 2.0 Ga. Data also suggest that West Africa might have been the last block to be accreted.

  20. Annual South American Forest Loss Estimates (1989-2011) Based on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, M.; van der Werf, G.; de Jeu, R.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation dynamics, such as forest loss, are an important factor in global climate, but long-term and consistent information on these dynamics on continental scales is lacking. We have quantified large-scale forest loss over the 90s and 00s in the tropical biomes of South America using a passive-microwave satellite-based vegetation product. Our forest loss estimates are based on remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD), which is an indicator of vegetation water content simultaneously retrieved with soil moisture. The advantage of low-frequency microwave remote sensing is that aerosols and clouds do not affect the observations. Furthermore, the longer wavelengths of passive microwaves penetrate deeper into vegetation than other products derived from optical and thermal sensors. This has the consequence that both woody parts of vegetation and leaves can be observed. The merged VOD product of AMSR-E and SSM/I observations, which covers over 23 years of daily observations, is used. We used this data stream and an outlier detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Qualitatively, our results compared favorably to the newly developed Global Forest Change (GFC) maps based on Landsat data (r2=0.96), and this allowed us to convert the VOD outlier count to forest loss. Our results are spatially explicit with a 0.25-degree resolution and annual time step and we will present our estimates on country level. The added benefit of our results compared to GFC is the longer time period. The results indicate a relatively steady increase in forest loss in Brazil from 1989 until 2003, followed by two high forest loss years and a declining trend afterwards. This contrasts with other South American countries such as Bolivia and Peru, where forest losses increased in almost the whole 00s in comparison with the 90s.

  1. Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups. PMID:23195518

  2. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  3. Knowledge About and Perceptions of Advance Care Planning and Communication of Chinese-American Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Cote, Sarah; Enguidanos, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Although advance care planning (ACP) is associated with better care at the end of life, better quality of death, and less psychological distress in survivors, ethnic disparities in ACP completion rates have been documented and may be attributable to lack of knowledge about ACP or differences in cultural values and preferences. Despite rapid increases in the size of the Asian-American population, little is known about ACP preferences of Chinese Americans. The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and preferences of older Chinese Americans toward ACP. Focus groups with Chinese older adults (n = 34) were conducted in Mandarin, Cantonese, and English, and transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Identified themes included knowledge and experience with ACP and end-of-life care options, health as a factor in timing of ACP and communication, and communication of end-of-life care preferences. Knowledge of and experience with ACP and end-of-life decision-making varied according to focus group, although few participants had an advance directive. Findings suggest that Chinese older adults prefer to use indirect communication strategies, such as commenting on the circumstances of others rather than directly stating their wishes, and informal contexts, such as during a family dinner rather than formal meeting, to convey their care preferences to loved ones and may employ similar tactics when communicating with clinicians. This is particularly important given the recent decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to provide reimbursement to physicians for engaging in advance care planning conversations. PMID:27584825

  4. Pro-drinking messages and message environments for young adults: the case of alcohol industry advertising in African American, Latino, and Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620

  5. The effects of possibly buoyant flat slab segments on Nazca and South American plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Shea, R.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    factor in matching plate velocities today is not the density structure of the slab but its geometry. A slab that dips at 30 degrees reproduces the Nazca plate motions almost exactly, with minor improvements when the real morphology is added. The lower mantle buoyancy remains important for the South American motions. Changes in plate or plate boundary rheology are not needed.

  6. Decompressive Hemicraniectomy in a South American Population--Morbidity and Outcomes Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bezerra Vital

    Full Text Available Malignant cerebral artery strokes have a poor prognosis, with nearly 80% of mortality in some series despite intensive care. After a large randomized trial, decompressive hemicraniectomy has been performed more often in stroke patients. Here, we describe patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in Brazil, emphasizing the impact of age on outcomes.A retrospective cohort of patients, with malignant strokes which received a decompressive hemicraniectomy, from paper and electronic medical records, from January 2010 to December 2013 was divided into two groups according to age.The final analysis included 60 patients. The overall mortality was higher among patients older than 60 yrs (67% vs. 41%; p = 0.039, whose group also had a worse outcome (76% with mRS 5 or 6 at 90 days (OR 3.91 CI95% 1.30-11.74, whereas only 24% had mRS of 0-4 (p = 0.015. All patients who presented with sepsis died (p = 0.003. The incidence of pulmonary infection was very high in the elderly group (76% with significant intergroup differences (p = 0.027, OR 8.32 CI95% 0.70-98.48.Older patients present more commonly with infections, more disabilities and a higher mortality, highlighting very poor results in elderly population. These results should be proved with a South American trial, and if confirmed, it can impact on future decisions regarding decompressive craniectomy for acute ischemic stroke in our region.

  7. Decompressive Hemicraniectomy in a South American Population – Morbidity and Outcomes Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Roberto Bezerra; Hamamoto Filho, Pedro Tadao; Luvizutto, Gustavo Jose; Ducati, Luis Gustavo; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; Nunes, Helio Rubens de Carvalho; Romero, Flavio Ramalho; Ganem, Eliana Marisa; Zanini, Marco Antonio; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant cerebral artery strokes have a poor prognosis, with nearly 80% of mortality in some series despite intensive care. After a large randomized trial, decompressive hemicraniectomy has been performed more often in stroke patients. Here, we describe patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in Brazil, emphasizing the impact of age on outcomes. Methods A retrospective cohort of patients, with malignant strokes which received a decompressive hemicraniectomy, from paper and electronic medical records, from January 2010 to December 2013 was divided into two groups according to age. Results The final analysis included 60 patients. The overall mortality was higher among patients older than 60 yrs (67% vs. 41%; p = 0.039), whose group also had a worse outcome (76% with mRS 5 or 6) at 90 days (OR 3.91 CI95% 1.30–11.74), whereas only 24% had mRS of 0–4 (p = 0.015). All patients who presented with sepsis died (p = 0.003). The incidence of pulmonary infection was very high in the elderly group (76%) with significant intergroup differences (p = 0.027, OR 8.32 CI95% 0.70–98.48). Conclusions Older patients present more commonly with infections, more disabilities and a higher mortality, highlighting very poor results in elderly population. These results should be proved with a South American trial, and if confirmed, it can impact on future decisions regarding decompressive craniectomy for acute ischemic stroke in our region. PMID:26764485

  8. Prediction of the burnout performance of some South American coals using a drop-tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richelieu Barranco; Michael Cloke; Edward Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Fuel Technology Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-10-01

    An experimental investigation into the combustion burnout behaviour of some South American coals was carried out in a drop-tube furnace. The samples, in two size fractions, were initially pyrolysed at a temperature of 1300{sup o}C, in a 1% of oxygen in nitrogen atmosphere for 200 ms. The re-firing of these pyrolysed chars was performed in the same apparatus, at the same temperature, during 400 ms, in an atmosphere containing 5% of oxygen in nitrogen. The coal samples used in this study were characterised by standard tests along with a specially developed image analysis technique (grey-scale histogram). Data of intrinsic reactivity, morphology, and burnout of the chars were correlated with maceral content of the feed coal by mean of linear regressions. In most cases, the results showed a poor correlation. Subsequently, when the rank of the coals was included in the regressions, the correlations remarkably improved in all cases. When further regressions of char properties with the grey-scale histogram of the coals were carried out, much better correlations were achieved. Therefore, the results indicate that the grey-scale histogram analysis provides a simple and objective technique to predict the combustion behaviour of these coals. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Centennial-scale solar forcing of the South American Monsoon System recorded in stalagmites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Valdir F; Vuille, Mathias; Cruz, Francisco W; Stríkis, Nicolás M; de Paula, Marcos Saito; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Karmann, Ivo; Jaqueto, Plínio F; Trindade, Ricardo I F; Hartmann, Gelvam A; Moquet, Jean S

    2016-04-21

    The South American Monsoon System (SAMS) is generally considered to be highly sensitive to Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature variations on multi-centennial timescales. The direct influence of solar forcing on moisture convergence in global monsoon systems on the other hand, while well explored in modeling studies, has hitherto not been documented in proxy data from the SAMS region. Hence little is known about the sensitivity of the SAMS to solar forcing over the past millennium and how it might compete or constructively interfere with NH temperature variations that occurred primarily in response to volcanic forcing. Here we present a new annually-resolved oxygen isotope record from a 1500-year long stalagmite recording past changes in precipitation in the hitherto unsampled core region of the SAMS. This record details how solar variability consistently modulated the strength of the SAMS on centennial time scales during the past 1500 years. Solar forcing, besides the previously recognized influence from NH temperature changes and associated Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifts, appears as a major driver affecting SAMS intensity at centennial time scales.

  10. Child health insurance coverage and household activity toward child development in four South American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship.

  11. The stationarity of consumption-income ratios: evidence from South American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Reis Gomes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the order of integration of the consumption-income ratio in 10 South American countries. To do this, the individual ADF test, its panel versions and theMinimumLMunit root test with structural break(s were employed. While the former tests found more favorable evidence of an integrated process, after controlling for structural breaks only Uruguay seems to be integrated. Thus, in general, the consumption-income ratio was diagnosed as a stationary process, as suggested by the relative income hypothesis, the habit persistence model, the permanent income hypothesis and the life cycle hypothesis.Este artigo analisa a ordem de integração da razão consumo-renda em 10 países da América do Sul. Para tanto, utilizamos o teste ADF e sua versão painel, além de um teste LM de raiz unitária com quebra estrutural(s. Enquanto os primeiros testes encontraram evidências mais favoráveis a processos integrados, após o controle de quebras estruturais apenas o processo do Uruguai parece ser integrado. Assim, em geral, a razão consumo-renda foi diagnosticada como um processo estacionário, como sugerido pelo modelo de hábito e pelas hipóteses de renda relativa, renda permanente e ciclo de vida.

  12. Moisture and heat budgets of the south American monsoon system: climatological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Kayano, Mary T.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    The climatology of the moisture and heat budget equation terms for subareas within the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) region is investigated for the 1958-2014 period considering the distinct phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These budget equations are applied to the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis project. Sources or sinks of moisture and heat are equation residues, referred to as residue and diabatic terms, respectively. Analyses are done for the Central Amazon Basin (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) for three distinct periods, 1958-1976, 1977-1995, and 1996-2014, that correspond to the cold, warm, and undefined PDO phases. The differences among the PDO phases for each term are discussed. The CAM region acts dominantly as a moisture sink and heat source in all months during the three phases. On the other hand, in the WCB region, the monsoon characteristics are better defined, with a moisture sink (source) and a heat source (sink) during the wet (dry) season. The main result of the present analysis is the persistence of SAMS intensification signs in both CAM and WCB areas up to the last analyzed period (1996-2014), which is consistent with intense flooding in the Amazon Basin in 2008/2009, 2012, and 2014.

  13. Anthelmintic effects of a cationic toxin from a South American rattlesnake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, C; Moreira, J T; Pinto, S; Monte, G G; Nering, M B; Oliveira, E B; Gazarini, M L; Mori, M A; Hayashi, M A F

    2016-06-15

    Despite the unquestionable importance of the highly cationic feature of several small polypeptides with high content of positively charged amino acids for their biological activities, positively charged peptides do not necessarily have the capacity to cross the cell membranes. Interestingly, we found that crotamine, a positively charged amphiphilic peptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, has a unique cell-penetrating property with affinity for acidic vesicles, besides a well-characterized antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. In spite of a remarkable in vitro antifungal activity of crotamine against Candida spp., no significant effect of this peptide could be observed in the course of Candida albicans and Candida krusei infection on Caenorhabditis elegans asssed in vivo. These experiments, in which the nematode C. elegans was used as a living host, suggested, however, the potential anthelmintic activity of crotamine because of its uptake by the worms and accumulation in their acidic compartments. As described in the present work, this lysosomotropic property is consistent with a previously proposed mechanism of toxicity of crotamine on mammalian tumoral cell lines. This study also allowed us to propose the cationic peptides with lysosomotropic property, as crotamine, as a potential new class of anthelmentics with ability to overcome the challenging problems of drug resistance. PMID:26713409

  14. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse.

  15. Comparison of precipitation datasets over the tropical South American and African Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Juarez, R. I.; Li, W.; Fu, R.; Fernandes, K.; Cardoso, A.

    2007-12-01

    Six rainfall datasets are compared over the Amazon basin, the Northeast Brazil and the Congo basin. These datasets include three gauge-only precipitation products from the Climatic Prediction Center (CPC), Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) and Brazilian Weather Forecast and Climate Studies Center (CLMNLS), and three combined gauge and satellite precipitation datasets from the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation, and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) product. The spatial pattern of the annual precipitation is consistently represented by these data, despite of the differences in methods and periods of averaging. Quantitatively, the differences in annual precipitation among these datasets are 3% over our Amazon domain (0-15S, 50-70W), 17% over the Northeast Brazil (5-10S, 35-45W) and 12% the Congo domain (5N-10S, 15-30E). However the seasonal differences were. Over the Amazon domain, the rainfall variations are well correlated between CPC, GPCC, TRMM, GPCP and GPCC (>0.9) except for the northwestern Amazon. Over the Congo basin, the correlation between these rainfall datasets is generally below 0.7. The Empirical Orthogonal Functions analysis suggests large discrepancies in interannual and decadal variations of rainfall among these datasets, especially for the Congo basin and for the South American region after 1998.

  16. Tubulinosema pampeana sp. n. (Microsporidia, Tubulinosematidae), a pathogen of the South American bumble bee Bombus atratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Sanscrainte, Neil D; Becnel, James J; Estep, Alden S; Lange, Carlos E

    2015-03-01

    An undescribed microsporidium was detected and isolated from the South American bumble bee Bombus atratus collected in the Pampas region of Argentina. Infection intensity in workers averaged 8.2 × 10(7)spores/bee. The main site of infection was adipose tissue where hypertrophy of adipocytes resulted in cyst-like body formation. Mature spores were ovoid and monomorphic. They measured 4.00 μm × 2.37 μm (fresh) or 3.98 μm × 1.88 μm (fixed). All stages were diplokariotic and developed in direct contact with host cytoplasm. Isofilar polar filament was arranged in 16 coils in one or, posteriorly, two layers. Coiling angle was variable, between perpendicular and almost parallel to major spore axis. Late meronts and sporogonial stages were surrounded by vesicles of approximately 60 nm in diameter. Based on both new and already designed primers, a 1827 bp (SSUrRNA, ITS, LSUrRNA) sequence was obtained. Data analyses suggest that this microsporidium is a new species of the genus Tubulinosema. The name Tubulinosema pampeana sp. n. is proposed. PMID:25637516

  17. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Magalhães Campião

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR. We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

  18. Estimated use of abacavir among adults and children enrolled in public sector antiretroviral therapy programmes in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Evans

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, abacavir (ABC is currently recommended as part of first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART for HIV-positive paediatric patients. Concerns about overprescribing of the drug, particularly to adults, led to an analysis of ABC use in public sector ART programmes. We investigated current prescription of the drug to adults and children accessing ART in 4 public sector programmes across Gauteng Province, South Africa. ABC was almost exclusively prescribed to children initiating ART and adults requiring regimen changes due to drug toxicities. Patterns of ABC use among HIV-positive paediatric patients followed national ART treatment guidelines on the application of the drug. Although ABC is commonly used in the private sector for adults, the current national ART treatment guidelines for adults and adolescents should include ABC as an alternative to standard first- or second-line ART.

  19. Continent-Wide Decoupling of Y-Chromosomal Genetic Variation from Language and Geography in Native South Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Leonor; Gomes, Veronica; González, Miguel; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea; Alechine, Evguenia; Palha, Teresinha; Santos, Ney; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Geppert, Maria; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Zweynert, Sarah; Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Builes, Juan José; Turbón, Daniel; Lopez Parra, Ana Maria; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Toscanini, Ulises; Borjas, Lisbeth; Barletta, Claudia; Ewart, Elizabeth; Santos, Sidney; Krawczak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR) markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3*) in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific

  20. Continent-wide decoupling of Y-chromosomal genetic variation from language and geography in native South Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Roewer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs, the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3* in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under

  1. Continent-wide decoupling of Y-chromosomal genetic variation from language and geography in native South Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz; Nothnagel, Michael; Gusmão, Leonor; Gomes, Veronica; González, Miguel; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea; Alechine, Evguenia; Palha, Teresinha; Santos, Ney; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea; Geppert, Maria; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Zweynert, Sarah; Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Builes, Juan José; Turbón, Daniel; Lopez Parra, Ana Maria; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Toscanini, Ulises; Borjas, Lisbeth; Barletta, Claudia; Ewart, Elizabeth; Santos, Sidney; Krawczak, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR) markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3*) in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific

  2. Demographic Correlates of Psychological Well-Being and Distress Among Older African Americans and Caribbean Black Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of psychological distress and psychological well-being among older African American and black Caribbean adults. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life revealed that psychological well-being and psychological distress are distinct concepts. Findings also identify distinct correlates of psychological well-being (e.g., happiness, life satisfaction, self-rated mental health) and psychological distress (e.g., depressive symptoms, serious psy...

  3. In the wake of invasion: tracing the historical biogeography of the South American cricetid radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael N Leite

    Full Text Available The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early episode of North American invasion. Here, we provide a temporal and spatial framework to address key aspects of the historical biogeography and diversification of this diverse mammal group by using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets coupled with methods of divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction and comparative phylogenetics. Relaxed-clock time estimates indicate that divergence of the Sigmodontinae began in the middle-late Miocene (ca. 12-9 Ma. Dispersal-vicariance analyses point to the arrival of a single lineage of northern invaders with a widespread ancestral distribution and imply that the initial differentiation between Central and South America gave rise to the most basal groups within the subfamily. These two major clades diversified in the late Miocene followed by the radiation of main tribes until the early Pliocene. Within the Oryzomyalia, tribes diverged initially in eastern South America whereas multiple dispersals into the Andes promoted further diversification of the majority of modern genera. A comparatively uniform background tempo of diversification explains the species richness of sigmodontines across most nodes, except for two akodontine genera with recent increases in diversification rates. The bridging of the Central American seaway and episodes of low sea levels likely facilitated the invasion of South America long before the onset of the post-Isthmian phase of the GABI.

  4. A taxonomic revision of the Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Cecilia Dominguez

    2007-01-01

    The Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy are revised. Twenty five valid species are recognized for the region in the present study: Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia anthracina (Walker), Fannia bigoti Stein, Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus), Fannia confusa Pont & Carvalho, Fannia coxata Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia flavicornis Stein, Fannia flavipalpis Stein, Fannia fusconotata (Rondani), Fannia heydenii (Wiedemann), Fannia hirtifemur (Stei...

  5. Behaviour of adult and juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima) moving toward a power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted over a 3-year period during the downstream migration of adult and juvenile American shad to assess their behavior while moving toward Hydro-Quebec's Riviere-des-Prairies hydroelectric power station. Much of the information was obtained using hydroacoustic and radio tracking techniques. In the forebay, adult distribution was related to flow. Their abundance increased as they approached the facility. Adult shad explored the facility for an average of 19 h, after which time they continued their downstream migration. Shutting down the power station and opening the spillway allowed the passage of 75% of these fish. Juveniles tended to form dense schools less than 5 m from turbine intakes. Their distribution in the water column was strongly influenced by daylight which in turn influenced their entrainment through the turbines. Attempts to repel the fish with a sonic deterrent gave unsatisfactory results under normal conditions at the site. The short range of the deterrent, and the fact that the fish become accustomed to it, does not make this a practical solution to entrainment. 22 refs., 15 figs

  6. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 16 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  7. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North American Coastline-South from 01 February 1979 to 10 October 1979 (NODC Accession 9200031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS from the North American Coastline-South from 01 February 1979 to 10 October 1979. Data were...

  8. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  9. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  10. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  11. Concordance of the Recently Published Body Adiposity Index With Measured Body Fat Percent in European-American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, William; Chumlea, William C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W

    2011-01-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI; hip circumference (cm)/height (m)1.5 − 18) has recently been shown to demonstrate a stronger correlation with percentage body fat (%fat) than that between the BMI and %fat in Mexican-American adults. Here, we compare the concordance between %fat from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BAI, and between %fat and BMI, in European-American adults (n = 623). Agreement between BAI, BMI, and %fat was assessed using Lin’s concordance coefficients (ρc), where val...

  12. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  13. High-resolution Holocene South American monsoon history recorded by a speleothem from Botuverá Cave, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J. P.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Stríkis, Nicolás M.; Wang, Xianfeng; Deininger, Michael; Catunda, Maria Carolina A.; Ortega-Obregón, C.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S.

    2016-09-01

    A Holocene stalagmite from Botuverá Cave, southeastern Brazil was analyzed by LA-ICPMS for Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca. The observed variability in the record was demonstrated to be modulated by prior calcite precipitation, and, thus, is interpreted to reflect monsoon intensity. We find that the calcite δ18O is strongly correlated with Sr/Ca, indicating that atmospheric circulation over South America and monsoon intensity have been tightly correlated throughout most of the Holocene, both directly responding to solar precession. Comparison with other contemporaneous high-resolution hydroclimate records reveals that SAMS has shown a degree of complexity during the Holocene not previously detected, with periods where the South American Convergence Zone (SACZ) expanded to cover most of the South American sub-continent, and coincident with periods of low-SST in the north Atlantic. We also detect periods where rainfall amount in northeastern and southeastern Brazil are markedly anti-phased, suggesting a north-south migration of SACZ, which it appears to be mediated by solar irradiance. The high-resolution nature of our record allow us to examine the effect that Holocene climate anomalies had upon SAMS dynamics and hydroclimate in southeastern Brazil, in particular the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. In addition to confirm the internal structure of the events, we also detect the possible consequences of the climatic anomalies upon ocean-atmosphere interactions through its effects upon SAMS.

  14. The skill of empirical and combined/calibrated coupled multi-model South American seasonal predictions during ENSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. S. Coelho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses seasonal predictability of South American rainfall during ENSO. The skill of empirical and coupled multi-model predictions is assessed and compared. The empirical model uses the previous season August-September-October Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures as predictors for December-January-February rainfall. Coupled multi-model 1-month lead December-January-February rainfall predictions were obtained from the Development of a European Multi-model Ensemble system for seasonal to inTERannual prediction (DEMETER project. Integrated (i.e. combined and calibrated forecasts that incorporate information provided by both the empirical and the coupled multi-model are produced using a Bayesian procedure. This procedure is referred to as forecast assimilation. The skill of the integrated forecasts is compared to the skill of empirical and coupled multi-model predictions. This comparison reveals that when seasonally forecasting December-January-February South American rainfall at 1-month lead-time the current generation of coupled models have a level of deterministic skill comparable to those obtained using simplified empirical approaches. However, Bayesian combined/calibrated forecasts provide better estimates of forecast uncertainty than the coupled multi-model. This indicates that forecast assimilation improves the quality of probabilistic predictions. The tropics and the area of South Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Northern Argentina are found to be the two most predictable regions of South America. ENSO years are more predictable than neutral years, the latter having nearly null skill.

  15. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  16. The Epidemic of Extreme Obesity Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults With Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Wilson, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN adults with diabetes and to examine the temporal trends for class I, II, and III obesity in this high-risk group during a 10-year period.MethodsWe used data on body mass index (BMI from the annual Diabetes Care and Outcomes Audit to estimate the prevalence of class I, II, and III obesity (class I = 30.0–34.9 kg/m2, class II = 35.0–39.9 kg/m2, and class III ≥40.0 kg/m2 in each year from 1995 through 2004. We also investigated trends in mean BMI during the 10-year period and the role of treatment in these trends using multivariable linear regression models.ResultsObesity was highly prevalent in this population in 2004 (class I, 28.9%; class II, 20.4%; class III, 20.3%. From 1995 through 2004, the percentage of obese adults increased from 16.7% to 20.4% in class II and 11.5% to 20.3% in class III (P <.001, and the mean BMI increased from 32.1 kg/m2 to 34.4 kg/m2. The increase in BMI was greater in the younger age groups. Adjusted mean BMI increased significantly over 10 years for each of three treatment categories.ConclusionExtreme degrees of obesity are a common and increasing problem among AI/AN adults with diabetes. We did not find an association between the type of diabetes treatment and the trend toward extreme degrees of obesity. The increase in extreme obesity could potentially affect the burden of morbidity and mortality among AI/AN adults with diabetes. Effective and culturally appropriate weight management interventions are needed.

  17. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  18. Lithospheric structure beneath the Caribbean- South American plate boundary from S receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2010-12-01

    We have analyzed teleseismic S-wave data recorded by the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela and the BOLIVAR broadband array (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) deployed from 2003 to 2005. A total of 28 events with Mw > 5.7 occurring at epicentral distances from 55° to 85° were used. We made Sp receiver functions to estimate the rapid variations of lithospheric structure in the southern Caribbean plate boundary region to try to better understand the complicated tectonic history of the region. Estimated Moho depth ranges from ~20 km beneath the Caribbean Large Igneous Provinces to ~50 km beneath the Mérida Andes in western Venezuela and the Sierra del Interior in northeastern Venezuela. These results are consistent with previous receiver functions studies (Niu et al., 2007) and active source profiles (Schmitz et al., 2001; Bezada et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Guedez, 2008; Magnani et al., 2009). Beneath the Maracaibo Block we observe a signal at a depth of 100 km dipping ~24° towards the continent, which we interpret as the top of the oceanic Caribbean slab that is subducting beneath South America from the west. The deeper part of the slab was previously imaged using P-wave tomography (Bezada et al, 2010), and the upper part inferred from intermediate depth seismicity (Malavé and Suarez, 1995). These studies indicate flat slab subduction beneath northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela with the slab dipping between 20° - 30° beneath Lake Maracaibo. Like others we attribute the flat slab subduction to the uplift of the Mérida Andes (for example Kellogg and Bonini, 1982). In eastern Venezuela beneath the Sierra del Interior we also observe a deep signal that we interpret as deep South American lithosphere that is detaching from the overriding plate as the Atlantic subducts and tears away from SA (Bezada et al., 2010; Clark et al, 2008). The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB

  19. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  20. Relationship between bicultural identity and psychological well-being among American and Japanese older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a large national sample of American and Japanese older adults, this study investigated how bicultural identity affects perception of health and well-being in 11 individual psychological variables (i.e. positive well-being: self-esteem, optimism, subjective well-being Japanese equivalent, gratitude, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–positive adjectives, and satisfaction with life; negative well-being: depression, pessimism, social anxiety, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–negative adjectives, and perceived stress. This sample consisted of 1248 Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey, 2004–2006, and 380 Japanese from the Midlife in Japan survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008–2010. Results showed that bicultural individuals (having both highly independent and interdependent self-construals in both countries tend to exhibit higher scores across most perceived health and well-being measures when compared to other groups (i.e. marginal, interdependent, and independent. Cultural-specific aspects of self-construal, health, and well-being are explained to support the findings. Discussion of these findings and their implications is also provided.

  1. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function.

  2. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  3. The Role of Spirituality in Learning Music: A Case of North American Adult Students of Japanese Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of spirituality in learning music for North American adult students is explored by examining the case of shakuhachi music. One distinctive character of engaging in music through the shakuhachi is that it facilitates the attainment of an "optimal relationship" between the practitioners" musical pursuit and self-cultivation…

  4. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgita Lekaviciute; Lubica Argalasova-Sobotova

    2013-01-01

    Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in a...

  5. Lysophosphatidylcholine acts in the constitutive immune defence against American foulbrood in adult honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Hernández-López, Javier; Rechberger, Gerald; Crailsheim, Karl; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) imagines are resistant to the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), whereas honeybee larvae show susceptibility against this pathogen only during the first 48 h of their life. It is known that midgut homogenate of adult honeybees as well as a homogenate of aged larvae exhibit strong anti-P. larvae activity. A bioactivity-guided LC-HRMS analysis of midgut homogenate resulted in the identification of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC) pointing to a yet unknown immune defence in adult honeybees against P. larvae. Antimicrobial activity of LPC was also demonstrated against Melissococcus plutonius, causative agent of European Foulbrood. To demonstrate an AFB-preventive effect of LPC in larvae, artificially reared larvae were supplemented with LPC to evaluate its toxicity and to assess whether, after infection with P. larvae spores, LPC supplementation prevents AFB infection. 10 μg LPC per larva applied for 3 d significantly lowered mortality due to AFB in comparison to controls. A potential delivery route of LPC to the larvae in a colony via nurse bees was assessed through a tracking experiment using fluorescent-labelled LPC. This yet undescribed and non-proteinous defense of honeybees against P. larvae may offer new perspectives for a treatment of AFB without the utilization of classic antibiotics. PMID:27480379

  6. Coalescent Simulation and Paleodistribution Modeling for Tabebuia rosealba Do Not Support South American Dry Forest Refugia Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Warita Alves; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.; Terribile, Levi Carina

    2016-01-01

    Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM). We specifically tested the dry forest refugia hypothesis; i.e., if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the LGM. We sampled 235 individuals across 18 populations in Central Brazil and analyzed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. We performed coalescence simulations of alternative hypotheses under demographic expectations from two a priori biogeographic hypotheses (1. the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis and, 2. a range shift to Amazon Basin) and other two demographic expectances predicted by ENMs (3. expansion throughout the Neotropical South America, including Amazon Basin, and 4. retraction during the LGM). Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed haplotype sharing among populations with evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed smaller effective population sizes for T. roseoalba during the LGM compared to the present-day. Simulations and ENM also showed that its current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range retraction during the LGM instead of the fragmentation from a once extensive and largely contiguous SDTF across South America, not supporting the South

  7. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims. PMID:27413658

  8. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and pDescriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants' weight/adiposity, contributed to the differences in

  9. PROPOXUR SELECTION OF THE ADULTS OF ANOPHELES STEPHENSI FROM MINAB, SOUTH OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Edalat

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in south of Iran. It has been known to be resistant to DDT, malathion and dieldrin. After appearance of resistance the area was treated with propoxur, at the rate of 2 g/m2 twice a year for 14 successive years. This species is still susceptible to propoxur. In order to forecast the possibility of development of propoxur resistance in An.stephensi, the females of this species were put under the pressure of propoxur for 14 generations in 1988. Fourteen generations of propoxur selection on the adult females of An.stephensi resulted in an increase in LT60 from 8.5 min to 24.30 minutes, i.e. 2.86 fold increase in tolerance.

  10. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  11. Gender Differences in Longitudinal Links between Neighborhood Fear, Parental Support, and Depression among African American Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition to adulthood is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among African Americans. In addition to stress related to emerging adulthood, neighborhood fear may contribute to depressive symptoms for African Americans. We examined gender differences in longitudinal associations between changes in perceived neighborhood fear, parental support, and depressive symptoms among African American youth who were in transition to adulthood. Five hundred and thirteen African American youths (235 males and 278 females were included in the study. An increase in perceived neighborhood fear was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms, and change in perceived maternal support was predictive of depressive symptoms among males, but not females. The findings suggest that policies and programs should help parents provide support to young adult children who live in violent neighborhoods as a strategy to prevent depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood.

  12. Influência do tamanho e umidade do grão na expansão da pipoca South American Mushroom Influence of size and moisture of grain on the popping expansion of the cultivar South American Mushroom popcorn

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Sawazaki; Jener Fernando Leite de Morais; Antonio Augusto do Lago

    1986-01-01

    Utilizando sementes do cultivar de milho-pipoca South American Mushroom, obtido em 1984/85 em Campinas, SP, procurou-se avaliar os efeitos do teor de umidade e tamanho de grão na expansão da pipoca. Foram empregados tamanhos de grãos compreendidos entre as peneiras 14 e 18 e teores de umidade entre 9,4 e 19,8%. Os resultados mostraram que a capacidade de expansão foi maior nos grãos menores e nos teores de umidade de 10,5 a 11,5%.The effect of grain size and moisture on the popping expansion ...

  13. Morphometry Of Jugular Foramen Of Dry Adult Human Skulls Of South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Krishnamurthy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Jugular foramen (JF lies between the occipital and the petrosal part of the temporal bone, and allows the passage of important nerves and vascular elements i.e. the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves and the internal jugular vein. It is a potential site for development of schwannomas, metastatic lesions, and infiltrative inflammatory processes from the surrounding structures such as middle ear. JF is difficult to approach surgically, but recent advanced techniques especially image intensifier to guide the suboccipital lateral approach have made the treatment possible despite the difficulties. Hence a detailed morphological and anatomical knowledge of this region is required. The morphologic dimensions, presence or absence of septation etc varies in various races and ethnic groups as reported in previous literature. But such detailed study has been lacking in south Indian population .Thus the present descriptive study was conducted in department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore on 50 dried adult human skulls i.e. 100 JF of Dravidian (south Indian origin. The maximum antero-posterior and transverse diameter and depth of the jugular fossa of both sides were measured and septation was 6% on the right side and 8% on the left side using vernier calipers. The presence of spicules / septation of the jugular foramen were also observed on both sides. The obtained results presented variations regarding some parameters when compared to previous studies, thus making it evident the significance of race in the morphometric measurements and characteristics of the JF.

  14. Factors influencing the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valodia, P; Seymour, M A; Miller, R; McFadyen, M L; Folb, P I

    1999-02-01

    The influence of various covariates (including weight, race, smoking, gender, age, mild-to-moderate alcohol intake, and body surface area) on the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa was investigated. The parameters were the maximum metabolic rate (Vm) and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) constant (Km) of phenytoin. The study population comprised 332 black and colored epileptic patients (note: "black" refers to indigenous people of South Africa, who speak one of the Bantu languages as their native language; "colored" refers to people considered to be of mixed race, classified as such by the apartheid former government of South Africa). The influence of covariates on Vm and Km estimates was determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). Parameter models describing the factors that could potentially influence Vm and Km were tested using the Michaelis-Menten parallel MM and first-order elimination models, to which 853 steady state dose-to-serum concentration pairs were fitted. The results indicated that body weight, smoking, race, and age (65 years or older), in descending order of importance, significantly influenced Vm (p influence of race in Km in the final regression model did not improve the fit of the model to the data, which indicated that the variability in Km was accounted for by Vm. The scaling factors for smoking, colored patients and age (65 years or older) in Vm were 1.16, 1.10, and 0.88, respectively. These factors should be taken into account when adjusting phenytoin dose. PMID:10051055

  15. Pain and anxiety experiences of South African adult burn injury patients during physiotherapy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Morris

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A dequate management of procedural pain during physiotherapy management plays an important role in building a trusting relationship betweenthe burn victim and the physiotherapist, and in ensuring desirable functional outcomes. However, the burn pain management regimens currently utilized inburn units, primarily consist of traditional pharmacologic analgesics which areassociated with numerous side-effects and alone are often reported as inadequateto alleviate procedural pain, warranting safer and effective adjunct therapies.Prior to the introduction and implementation of adjunct therapies into a developing world, it is imperative that the current situation in a burn unit, in terms of whether or not the pain management regimens in place are adequate, is first assessed, due to cost concerns. The following short report exemplifies the pain and anxiety experiences of a small number of burn injury patients during physiotherapy at the Tygerberg Hospital adult burn unit, South A frica.  It was hypothesized that the results of this study would underpin whether adult burn injury patients in a developing countryrequire adjunct therapies during physiotherapy management to supplement traditional pharmacologic analgesics inmanaging their procedural pain and subsequent anxiety.

  16. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol

  17. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  18. More cultivation with lower intensity in the South American Chaco: A double hydrological challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Gimenez, R.; Mercau, J. L.; Houspanossian, J.; Baldi, G.; Kuppel, S.

    2014-12-01

    As in other semi-arid plains of the world, long-scale deforestation to establish croplands in the South American Chaco may disrupt the regional water balance. As annual crops use less water than the native perennial system, water in excess usually translates into serious degradation processes such as run-off driven erosion, or the onset of groundwater recharge which can develop flooding and dryland salinization. Agriculturally, water excess could be reduced by using more intensive crop systems which consume water exhaustively. We used MODIS imagery (2000-present) from Bandera, Argentina (28.8S 62.2W), a major agricultural cluster in the region, to assess deforestation, to identify the main crop systems, and to analyze the impact of crop expansion and phenological shifts on the regional water balance. Three cover classes (Dry Forest DF, Agriculture AG, and Pastures PA) and five AG crop types were distinguished (winter W, spring Sp,summer S, and late-summer LS single crops, winter/summer DCWS and spring/summer DCSpS double crops). Each season, water use (annual evapotranspiration, ET) for each cover/crop type (10 pixels/class) was computed with a daily water balance based on meteorological data and 2 remote sensing-derived indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, to capture canopy conditions, and Dead Fuel Index to represent mulch cover conditions. Throughout 14 crop seasons AG expanded from 20 to 50% of the study area (1M ha) mostly replacing DF. Also, AG gradually evolved from a more intensive and diversified pattern dominated by DC (45-50%), S (28%) and Sp (16%) systems, to a more water-conservative system dominated by LS (60-80% in the last 3 seasons). Crop type differences in ET (DCWS≈DCSpS≈FG>S>Sp>LS≈W) were stronger in wet years (>1000mm) but nil in dry ones (crop types in the driest year to >250mm for the less intensive W and LS in wet years. Weighting each cover/crop class by their area, we found that the current expansion and reduced intensity

  19. STUDIES IN SOUTH AMERICAN AMARANTHACEAE V Estudios en Sudamérica Amaranthaceae V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Myndel Pedersen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The nomenclature, taxonomy, and synonymy of various South American Amaranthaceae are discussed. Two new genera are described, Hebanthodes Pedersen with only one new species
    from Peru, H. peruviana Pedersen, and Lecosia Pedersen with two new species from NE Brazil, L. formicarum Pedersen and L. oppositifolia Pedersen. Seven new species, Alternanthera
    piptantha Pedersen, Gomphrena Hatschbachiana Pedersen, G. riparia Pedersen, Guilleminea chacoensis Pedersen, G. fragilis Pedersen, G. hirsuta Pedersen and Pfaffia argyrea Pedersen, one new subspecies, Alternanthera Kurtzii subsp. sclerosperma Pedersen, and three varieties, Alternanthera hirtula var. hirsuta Pedersen, Alternanthera hirtula varo nitens Pedersen and Pfaffia fruticulosa varo diffusa Pedersen are described. Three new combinations, Hebanthe eriantha (Poir. Pedersen, Iresine diffusa forma Herbstii (Hook. Pedersen, and Pedersenia Hassleriana (Chodat Pedersen, are proposed. A key to the species of Guilleminea discussed in this paper and a key synthesizing the characters separating Hebanthodes from its immediate allies are provided.
    Se discute la nomenclatura, taxonomía y sinonimia de Amarantáceas Sudamericanas. Se describen dos nuevos géneros, Hebanthodes Pedersen, con una sola especie de Perú, H. peruviana Pedersen y Lecosia Pedersen, con dos especies del NE de Brasil, L. formicarum Pedersen y L. oppositifolia Pedersen. Además se describen siete especies nuevas, Alternanthera piptantha Pedersen, Gomphrena Hatschbachiana Pedersen, G. riparia Pedersen, Guilleminea chacoensis Pedersen, G. fragilis Pedersen, G. hirsuta Pedersen y Pfaffia argyrea Pedersen, una nueva subespecie, Alternanthera Kurtzii subsp. sclerosperma Pedersen y tres variedades, Alternanthera hirtula var. hirsuta Pedersen, A. hirtula var. nitens Pedersen y Pfaffia fruticulosa
    var. diffusa Pedersen. Se establecen tres nuevas combinaciones, Hebanthe eriantha (Poir

  20. Archeomagnetism of Jesuit Missions in South Brazil (1657-1706 AD) and assessment of the South American database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Wilbor; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Damiani, Nadir; Rech, Raquel M.

    2016-07-01

    South America contributes only a small fraction of the global archeomagnetic data. Recent work in the region has expanded significantly the previous database with new data being generated from Chile, Argentina, Northeast and Southeast Brazil. We report here new results from Jesuit Missions in South Brazil, at the triple border with Argentina and Paraguay. Our archeological collection comprises a total of 24 fragments of baked clay construction materials from three Jesuit Missions, São Luiz Gonzaga 1657-1687 AD (3 fragments), São João Batista 1667-1697 AD (4 fragments) and Santo Ângelo 1676-1706 AD (17 fragments). Archeointensity determinations were performed with the double-heating technique in its modified form, with pTRM checks and pTRM tail checks. Measurements were complemented by anisotropy and cooling-rate corrections. A total of 24 specimens (11 fragments) passed strict quality selection, corresponding to a success rate of 45%. We also performed an experimental test for the 6-specimen average anisotropy correction technique and we show that it does not correct for the effects of TRM anisotropy. Results were similar within error for the three missions: São Luiz Gonzaga (40.2 ± 2.4 μT), São João Batista (39.1 ± 1.6 μT) and Santo Ângelo (41.1 ± 2.0 μT). These data were then compared with the most reliable data from South America, after a critical assessment of the current database. According to our analysis, only 39 intensity data for the continent can be considered as high-quality, most within the last 700 years; only three data were retained for older periods (800-1100 AD). The filtered data match reasonably well the available models for the past five centuries. A combined curve for South and Southeast Brazil plus Argentina plot systematically below relocated data from NE Brazil and Chile. These differences are likely due to complexities in the geometry of the field in South America not appropriately accounted for by a simple axial dipole. Our

  1. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  2. First Chemical Analysis and Characterization of the Male Species-Specific Cephalic Labial-Gland Secretions of South American Bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasero, Nicolas; Martinet, Baptiste; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Torres, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Rasmont, Pierre; Lecocq, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of signals and reproductive traits involved in the pre-mating recognition has been in focus of abundant research in several model species, such as bumblebees (genus Bombus). However, the most-studied bumblebee reproductive trait, the male cephalic labial gland secretions (CLGS), remains unknown among bumblebee species from South America. In this study, the CLGS of five South American bumblebees of the subgenera Thoracobombus (Bombus excellens and B. atratus) and Cullumanobombus (B. rubicundus, B. hortulanus, and B. melaleucus) were investigated, by comparing the chemical compositions of their secretions to those of closely related European species. The results showed an obvious interspecific differentiation in both subgenera. The interspecific differentiation among the species of the Thoracobombus subgenus involved different compounds present at high contents (main compounds), while those of the Cullumanobombus subgenus shared the same main components. This suggests that among the species of the Cullumanobombus subgenus, the differentiation in minor components could lead to species discrimination. PMID:26460558

  3. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Weliton D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Bento, José Maurício S

    2016-01-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard), a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini. PMID:27512985

  4. Grazing Scar Characteristics Impact Degree of Fungal Facilitation in Spartina alterniflora Leaves in a South American Salt Marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Franco Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Grazing scars of burrowing crabs and Hemiptera insects were simulated on leaves of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Simulations of crab feeding generated two-fold higher fungal (ergosterol content in leaves in comparison to that generated by insect scar simulations (1.26 ±0.55 and 0.57 ±0.25 µg per cm², respectively. This study provided evidence that herbivory could facilitate microbial infection by fungi in dominant South American salt marsh plants and indicated that specific feeding mechanisms used by different herbivores might differentially impact the strength of this interaction.

  5. A 2,300-year-long annually resolved record of the South American summer monsoon from the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Broxton W.; Abbott, Mark B.; Vuille, Mathias; Donald T. Rodbell; Stansell, Nathan D.; Rosenmeier, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Decadal and centennial mean state changes in South American summer monsoon (SASM) precipitation during the last 2,300 years are detailed using an annually resolved authigenic calcite record of precipitation δ18O from a varved lake in the Central Peruvian Andes. This unique sediment record shows that δ18O peaked during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) from A.D. 900 to 1100, providing evidence that the SASM weakened considerably during this period. Minimum δ18O values occurred during the Litt...

  6. A culturally adapted depression intervention for African American adults experiencing depression: Oh Happy Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Earlise C; Brown, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe development of a culturally adapted depression intervention (Oh Happy Day Class, OHDC) designed for African American adults experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). This project included 2 pilot studies testing the feasibility and acceptability of the OHDC and examining short-term effects of the OHDC in reducing symptoms of MDD. The OHDC is a 2.5-hr weekly, culturally specific, cognitive behavioral, group counseling intervention for 12 weeks. Cultural adaptations of the OHDC are based on the ecological validity and culturally sensitive framework, along with an Afrocentric paradigm. Fifty African American participants with MDD were enrolled (15 in Pilot I and 35 in Pilot II). All participants in Pilots I and II received the 12-week intervention and completed assessments at baseline, mid-intervention, end-intervention, and 3 months postintervention. General linear mixed modeling for assessment of pre-post longitudinal data analysis was conducted. Results for Pilot I showed 73% of participants completed the full OHDC, a statistically significant decline in depression symptoms from pre- to postintervention, and a 0.38 effect size. Participants were very satisfied with the OHDC. In Pilot II, 66% of participants completed the full OHDC, and there was a significant pre-post intervention decrease in depression symptoms. For men, the OHDC showed a 1.01 effect size and for women, a 0.41 effect size. Both men and women were very satisfied with the OHDC based on the satisfaction measure. These promising findings are discussed with a focus on future plans for examining efficacy of the OHDC in a large-scale, randomized, control trial.

  7. "Wake Up! HIV is at Your Door": African American Faith Leaders in the Rural South and HIV Perceptions: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aholou, Tiffiany M; Cooks, Eric; Murray, Ashley; Sutton, Madeline Y; Gaul, Zaneta; Gaskins, Susan; Payne-Foster, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    In Alabama, 70 % of new HIV cases are among African Americans. Because the Black Church plays an important role for many African Americans in the south, we conducted qualitative interviews with 10 African American pastors recruited for an HIV intervention study in rural Alabama. Two main themes emerged: (1) HIV stigma is prevalent and (2) the role of the Black Church in addressing HIV in the African American community. Our data suggest that pastors in rural Alabama are willing to be engaged in HIV prevention solutions; more formalized training is needed to decrease stigma, strengthen HIV prevention and support persons living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26883229

  8. Influência do tamanho e umidade do grão na expansão da pipoca South American Mushroom Influence of size and moisture of grain on the popping expansion of the cultivar South American Mushroom popcorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sawazaki

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando sementes do cultivar de milho-pipoca South American Mushroom, obtido em 1984/85 em Campinas, SP, procurou-se avaliar os efeitos do teor de umidade e tamanho de grão na expansão da pipoca. Foram empregados tamanhos de grãos compreendidos entre as peneiras 14 e 18 e teores de umidade entre 9,4 e 19,8%. Os resultados mostraram que a capacidade de expansão foi maior nos grãos menores e nos teores de umidade de 10,5 a 11,5%.The effect of grain size and moisture on the popping expansion of popcorn was evaluated for the cultivar South American Mushroom, produced in 1984/85, in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Grain size classes ranging from 14/64 to 18/64 inch, and moisture contents from 9.4 to 19.8% were studied. The results indicated a higher expansion rate for the smaller grains and for moisture contents between 10.5 and 11.5%.

  9. Genetics, Gene Flow, and Glaciation: The Case of the South American Limpet Nacella mytilina

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Rosenfeld, Sebastián; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Hüne, Mathias; Gérard, Karin; Ojeda, Jaime; Mansilla, Andrés; Brickle, Paul; Díaz, Angie; Poulin, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Glacial episodes of the Quaternary, and particularly the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically altered the distribution of the Southern-Hemisphere biota, principally at higher latitudes. The irregular coastline of Patagonia expanding for more than 84.000 km constitutes a remarkable area to evaluate the effect of Quaternary landscape and seascape shifts over the demography of near-shore marine benthic organisms. Few studies describing the biogeographic responses of marine species to the LGM have been conducted in Patagonia, but existing data from coastal marine species have demonstrated marked genetic signatures of post-LGM recolonization and expansion. The kelp-dweller limpet Nacella mytilina is broadly distributed along the southern tip of South America and at the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Considering its distribution, abundance, and narrow bathymetry, N. mytilina represents an appropriate model to infer how historical and contemporary processes affected the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity and structure along the southern tip of South America. At the same time, it will be possible to determine how life history traits and the ecology of the species are responsible for the current pattern of gene flow and connectivity across the study area. We conducted phylogeographic and demographic inference analyses in N. mytilina from 12 localities along Pacific Patagonia (PP) and one population from the Falkland/Malvinas Islands (FI). Analyses of the mitochondrial gene COI in 300 individuals of N. mytilina revealed low levels of genetic polymorphism and the absence of genetic differentiation along PP. In contrast, FI showed a strong and significant differentiation from Pacific Patagonian populations. Higher levels of genetic diversity were also recorded in the FI population, together with a more expanded genealogy supporting the hypothesis of glacial persistence of the species in these islands. Haplotype genealogy, and mismatch analyses in the FI population

  10. Racial Stratification and Socioeconomic Change in the American North and South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dennis P.; Featherman, David L.

    1977-01-01

    Recent change in the life-cycle processes of educational, occupational, and earnings attainments is analyzed among black men native to the South, those native to the North, and black male migrants from the South to the North. It is concluded that changes in the last decade have supported the development of more distinct socioeconomic strata.…

  11. Racial Stratification and Socioeconomic Change in the American North and South. Discussion Paper #377-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dennis P.; Featherman, David L.

    Recent change in the life cycle processes of educational, occupational, and earnings attainments among blacks native to the South, native to the North, and among black migrants from the South to the North is analyzed. Native northerners begin from relatively superior social origins and are better able to capitalize on these processes in the…

  12. Changes in American Adults' Sexual Behavior and Attitudes, 1972-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2015-11-01

    In the nationally representative General Social Survey, U.S. Adults (N = 33,380) in 2000-2012 (vs. the 1970s and 1980s) had more sexual partners, were more likely to have had sex with a casual date or pickup or an acquaintance, and were more accepting of most non-marital sex (premarital sex, teen sex, and same-sex sexual activity, but not extramarital sex). The percentage who believed premarital sex among adults was "not wrong at all" was 29 % in the early 1970s, 42 % in the 1980s and 1990s, 49 % in the 2000s, and 58 % between 2010 and 2012. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating time period, generation/birth cohort, and age showed that the trend toward greater sexual permissiveness was primarily due to generation. Acceptance of non-marital sex rose steadily between the G.I. generation (born 1901-1924) and Boomers (born 1946-1964), dipped slightly among early Generation X'ers (born 1965-1981), and then rose so that Millennials (also known as Gen Y or Generation Me, born 1982-1999) were the most accepting of non-marital sex. Number of sexual partners increased steadily between the G.I.s and 1960s-born GenX'ers and then dipped among Millennials to return to Boomer levels. The largest changes appeared among White men, with few changes among Black Americans. The results were discussed in the context of growing cultural individualism and rejection of traditional social rules in the U.S. PMID:25940736

  13. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  14. Gaze patterns during identity and emotion judgments in hearing adults and deaf users of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Susan M; Mitchell, Teresa V

    2011-01-01

    Deaf individuals rely on facial expressions for emotional, social, and linguistic cues. In order to test the hypothesis that specialized experience with faces can alter typically observed gaze patterns, twelve hearing adults and twelve deaf, early-users of American Sign Language judged the emotion and identity of expressive faces (including whole faces, and isolated top and bottom halves), while accuracy and fixations were recorded. Both groups recognized individuals more accurately from top than bottom halves, and emotional expressions from bottom than top halves. Hearing adults directed the majority of fixations to the top halves of faces in both tasks, but fixated the bottom half slightly more often when judging emotion than identity. In contrast, deaf adults often split fixations evenly between the top and bottom halves regardless of task demands. These results suggest that deaf adults have habitual fixation patterns that may maximize their ability to gather information from expressive faces.

  15. Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Eva; Fernandes, Susan M; Landzberg, Michael J; Moons, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Although different guidelines on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) care advocate for lifetime cardiac follow-up, a critical appraisal of the guideline implementation is lacking. We investigated the implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 guidelines for ACHD follow-up by investigating the type of health care professional, care setting, and frequency of outpatient visits in young adults with CHD. Furthermore, correlates for care in line with the recommendations or untraceability were investigated. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 306 patients with CHD who had a documented outpatient visit at pediatric cardiology before age 18 years. In all, 210 patients (68.6%) were in cardiac follow-up; 20 (6.5%) withdrew from follow-up and 76 (24.9%) were untraceable. Overall, 198 patients were followed up in tertiary care, 1/4 (n = 52) of which were seen at a formalized ACHD care program and 3/4 (n = 146) remained at pediatric cardiology. Of those followed in formalized ACHD and pediatric cardiology care, the recommended frequency was implemented in 94.2% and 89%, respectively (p = 0.412). No predictors for the implementation of the guidelines were identified. Risk factors for becoming untraceable were none or lower number of heart surgeries, health insurance issues, and nonwhite ethnicity. In conclusion, a significant number of adults continue to be cared for by pediatric cardiologists, indicating that transfer to adult-oriented care was not standard practice. Frequency of follow-up for most patients was in line with the ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines. A considerable proportion of young adults were untraceable in the system, which makes them vulnerable for discontinuation of care.

  16. The tectonic setting of the Caribbean region and the K/T turnover of the South American land-mammal fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E.; Pascual, R.

    2011-07-01

    According to the fossil record, a biotic interchange of land vertebrates (e.g. booid snakes, dinosaurs and mammals) occurred between the Americas during the Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeocene. The arrival of North American immigrants (particularly marsupials and placental) during the latest Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene had a profound influence on the composition of the South American mammal communities. During the Late Cretaceous these communities were dominated by native groups of Pangeic lineages, which represented more than 95% of the known genera, but during the Early Palaeocene 70% of South American mammals were derived from North American immigrants that had arrived during the Late Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene, and by the Late Palaeocene all the South American mammals (with the possible exception of the xenarthrans) were descendants of these North American immigrants. In spite of the fact that no geological evidence is currently available to support the existence of a continuous land connection between the Americas during the Late Cretaceousearly Palaeocene, the fossil record is substantial enough to point to a temporary inter-American connection that permitted the beginning of a land-mammal exchange by the end of the Cretaceous. This interpretation is supported by recent geographic reconstructions of the Caribbean region. (Author)

  17. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Pereira Almerão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts.

  18. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cesar C., E-mail: ccmart@ufpr.b [Centro de Estudos do Mar da Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 50.002, 83255-000, Pontal do Sul, Pontal do Parana, PR (Brazil); Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C. [Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by {sup 137}Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area. - The contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area indicated by molecular indicator of sewage input.

  19. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. PMID:23307384

  20. Hematozoa of forest birds in American Samoa - Evidence for a diverse, indigenous parasite fauna from the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Utzurrum, R.C.; Seamon, J.O.; Savage, Amy F.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduced avian diseases pose a significant threat to forest birds on isolated island archipelagos, especially where most passerines are endemic and many groups of blood-sucking arthropods are either absent or only recently introduced. We conducted a blood parasite survey of forest birds from the main islands of American Samoa to obtain baseline information about the identity, distribution and prevalence of hematozoan parasites in this island group. We examined Giemsa-stained blood smears from 857 individual birds representing 20 species on Tutuila, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Four hematozoan parasites were identified - Plasmodium circumflexum (1%, 12/857), Trypanosoma avium (4%, 32/857), microfilaria (9%, 76/857), and an Atoxoplasma sp. (bird species from the archipelago. Overall prevalence of infection varied significantly among bird species, individual islands, and between Tutuila and the more isolated Manu'a group of islands. Infections with Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and filarial worms occurred throughout the archipelago, including islands without introduced birds. There was a statistically significant difference in the overall prevalence of infection before and after Hurricane Olaf in February 2005, suggesting that catastrophic hurricanes may influence the dynamics of parasite infections. Given the central location of American Samoa in the South Pacific, it is likely that avian malaria and other hematozoan parasites are indigenous and widespread at least as far as the central South Pacific. Their natural occurrence may provide some immunological protection to indigenous birds in the event that other closely related parasites are accidentally introduced to the region.

  1. Health Care Provider Advice for African American Adults Not Meeting Health Behavior Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Fallon, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle contribute to excessive morbidity and mortality. Healthy People 2010 goals are for 85% of physicians to counsel their patients about physical activity and for 75% of physician office visits made by patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or dyslipidemia to include dietary counseling. The purpose of this study was to 1 determine the rate of participant-reported health care provider advice for healthy lifestyle changes among African Americans who do not meet recommendations for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and healthy weight; 2 examine correlates of provider advice; and 3 assess the association between provider advice and stage of readiness for change for each of these health behaviors. Methods Data for this study were collected as part of a statewide faith-based physical activity program for African Americans. A stratified random sample of 20 African Methodist Episcopal churches in South Carolina was selected to participate in a telephone survey of members aged 18 years and older. The telephone survey, conducted over a 5-month period, asked participants a series of questions about sociodemographics, health status, physical activity, and nutrition. Analyses for moderate to vigorous physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and weight loss were conducted separately. For each of these behaviors, logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the independent association of sex, age, body mass index, education, number of diagnosed diseases, perceived health, and stage of change with health care provider advice for health behaviors. Results A total of 572 church members (407 women, 165 men; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 18–102 years completed the survey. Overall, participant-reported provider advice for lifestyle changes was 47.0% for physical activity, 38.7% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 39.7% for weight. A greater number of diagnosed

  2. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  3. Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples

    OpenAIRE

    el-Bassel, N; Wingood, G; Wyatt, GE; III, JJB; Pequegnat, W; Landis, JR; Bellamy, S.; Gilbert, L; Remien, RH; Witte, S; Wu, E; DiClemente, R; Myers, H.; Jemmott, LS; Metzger, D

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or s...

  4. Associations among Environmental Supports, Physical Activity, and Blood Pressure in African American Adults in the PATH Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K.; Egan, Brent M.

    2013-01-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkabi...

  5. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    OpenAIRE

    Sciolla, A.; Glover, DA; Loeb, TB; Zhang, M.; Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with h...

  6. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  7. Phylogenetic correlograms and the evolution of body size in South American owls (Strigiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, many models have been proposed to link microevolutionary processes to macroevolutionary patterns, defined by comparative data analysis. Among these, Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U processes have been used to model, respectively, genetic drift or directional selection and stabilizing selection. These models produce different curves of pairwise variance between species against time since divergence, in such a way that different profiles appear in phylogenetic correlograms. We analyzed variation in body length among 19 species of South American owls, by means of phylogenetic correlograms constructed using Moran's I coefficient in four distance classes. Phylogeny among species was based on DNA hybridization. The observed correlogram was then compared with 500 correlograms obtained by simulations of Brownian motion and O-U over the same phylogeny, using discriminant analysis. The observed correlogram indicates a phylogenetic gradient up to 45 mya, when coefficients tend to stabilize, and it is similar to the correlograms produced by the O-U process. This is expected when we consider that body size of organisms is correlated with many ecological and life-history traits and subjected to many constraints that can be modeled by the O-U process, which has been used to describe evolution under stabilizing selection.Nos últimos anos diversos modelos têm sido propostos a fim de realizar inferências sobre processos microevolutivos com base em padrões macroevolutivos obtidos a partir de dados comparativos. Dentre esses, o movimento Browniano e o processo Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U têm sido utilizados para modelar principalmente deriva genética e seleção estabilizadora, respectivamente. Esses modelos produzem curvas diferentes de relação entre variância interespecífica e distância no tempo, de modo que eles podem ser distingüidos com base em correlogramas filogenéticos. Neste trabalho, nós analisamos a varia

  8. Patient experiences and health system responsiveness among older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background As populations age, health systems must adapt and develop approaches that meet the needs of older patients with increasing multiple chronic conditions. Understanding older populations’ perceptions of quality of care is critical to developing measures to increase the utilization of primary healthcare services. Using the data from the Global Study on Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey, the current study aims to evaluate the degree of perceived responsiveness with outpatient and inpatient healthcare in South Africa. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or older in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare utilization and responsiveness, and other health variables. Results Healthcare utilization was 9% inpatient care in the past 3 years and 50% outpatient care in the past 12 months. The overall mean perceived responsiveness score for inpatient care was 71 and for outpatient care 69. According to the evaluation of inpatient care, autonomy and prompt attention showed the lowest while quality, confidentiality, and dignity showed the highest degree of perceived responsiveness among all the areas analyzed. Regarding outpatient care, prompt attention showed the lowest while quality, confidentiality, and dignity the highest degree of perceived responsiveness scores. Overall, perceived healthcare responsiveness was higher in private than in public inpatient and outpatient healthcare facilities. Multivariate analysis found that being from the White population group (OR=3.96, CI=1.54–19.19), not a public health facility (OR=0.34, CI=0.17–0.69), poor subjective health status (OR=0.53, CI=0.38–0.75) and having health insurance paying for the outpatient care visit (OR=3.39, CI=1.24–9.27) were associated with outpatient perceived healthcare responsiveness, whereas male gender (OR=0.36, CI=0.14–0.89), 80 years or older (OR=5

  9. From slave to litigant: African Americans in court in the postwar south, 1865–1920

    OpenAIRE

    Milewski, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on more than 600 higher court cases in eight southern states to show that African Americans succeeded in litigating certain kinds of civil cases against white southerners in southern appellate courts between 1865 and 1920. While historians have often concentrated on cases involving issues of race, the much more common, seemingly prosaic civil suits African Americans litigated against whites over transactions, wills, and property also had important implications for race rel...

  10. Pupil Rights in the "New" South Africa: Comparisons and Contrasts with American Constitutional Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delon, Floyd G.

    1996-01-01

    Examines provisions of the South African Constitution pertaining to pupil rights in conjunction with the construction the United States Supreme Court has placed on corresponding provisions of the U.S. Constitution. (46 footnotes) (MLF)

  11. Adherence with isoniazid for prevention of tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller F James

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Isoniazid (INH is recommended for treatment of latent TB infection, however non-adherence is common. The purpose of this study was to apply in-house prepared isoniazid (INH urine test strips in a clinical setting, and identify predictors of positive test results in an adherence questionnaire in HIV-infected adults taking INH for prevention of TB. Methods Cross-sectional study of adherence using a questionnaire and urine test strips for detection of INH metabolites at two hospitals in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Participants were aged at least 18 years, HIV positive, and receiving INH for prevention of tuberculosis disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses are used to identify factors relevant to adherence. Results 301 consecutive patients were recruited. 28% of participants had negative urine tests. 32 (37.2%, 95% CI25.4, 45.0 of the 86 patients who received INH from peripheral pharmacies said the pharmacy had run out of INH at some time, compared with central hospital pharmacies (p = 0.0001. In univariate analysis, a negative test was associated with self-reported missed INH doses (p = 0.043. Each 12-hour increment since last reported dose increased the likelihood of a negative test by 34% (p = 0.0007. Belief in INH safety was associated with a positive test (p = 0.021. In multivariate analysis, patients who believed INH is important for prevention of TB disease were more likely to be negative (p = 0.0086. Conclusion Adequate drug availability at peripheral pharmacies remains an important intervention for TB prevention. Key questions may identify potentially non-adherent patients. In-house prepared urine tests strips are an effective and cheap method of objectively assessing INH adherence, and could be used an important tool in TB control programs.

  12. Challenges and characteristics of the South American grain and oilseed postharvest system

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concerning grain production, South America is divided in two main regions: 1) the Mercosur region (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay) which produces more than 250 million tonnes of grains and oilseeds, and 2) the Andes Mountain region countries, which are net importers of these products. The main challenges related to grain postharvest that South America is facing are to minimize the quality and quantity losses; improve the food safety; enhance the capability for segregation and traceab...

  13. Ancient DNA from the extinct South American giant glyptodont Doedicurus sp. (Xenarthra: Glyptodontidae) reveals that glyptodonts evolved from Eocene armadillos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Scanferla, Agustin; Soibelzon, Esteban; Bonini, Ricardo; Ochoa, Javier; Cooper, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Glyptodonts were giant (some of them up to ~2400 kg), heavily armoured relatives of living armadillos, which became extinct during the Late Pleistocene/early Holocene alongside much of the South American megafauna. Although glyptodonts were an important component of Cenozoic South American faunas, their early evolution and phylogenetic affinities within the order Cingulata (armoured New World placental mammals) remain controversial. In this study, we used hybridization enrichment and high-throughput sequencing to obtain a partial mitochondrial genome from Doedicurus sp., the largest (1.5 m tall, and 4 m long) and one of the last surviving glyptodonts. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that glyptodonts fall within the diversity of living armadillos. Reanalysis of morphological data using a molecular 'backbone constraint' revealed several morphological characters that supported a close relationship between glyptodonts and the tiny extant fairy armadillos (Chlamyphorinae). This is surprising as these taxa are among the most derived cingulates: glyptodonts were generally large-bodied and heavily armoured, while the fairy armadillos are tiny (~9-17 cm) and adapted for burrowing. Calibration of our phylogeny with the first appearance of glyptodonts in the Eocene resulted in a more precise timeline for xenarthran evolution. The osteological novelties of glyptodonts and their specialization for grazing appear to have evolved rapidly during the Late Eocene to Early Miocene, coincident with global temperature decreases and a shift from wet closed forest towards drier open woodland and grassland across much of South America. This environmental change may have driven the evolution of glyptodonts, culminating in the bizarre giant forms of the Pleistocene. PMID:27158910

  14. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  15. Whole-Exome Sequencing in a South American Cohort Links ALDH1A3, FOXN1 and Retinoic Acid Regulation Pathways to Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramos, Oscar A; Olivares, Ana María; Haider, Neena B; de Autismo, Liga Colombiana; Lattig, María Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a range of complex neurodevelopmental conditions principally characterized by dysfunctions linked to mental development. Previous studies have shown that there are more than 1000 genes likely involved in ASD, expressed mainly in brain and highly interconnected among them. We applied whole exome sequencing in Colombian-South American trios. Two missense novel SNVs were found in the same child: ALDH1A3 (RefSeq NM_000693: c.1514T>C (p.I505T)) and FOXN1 (RefSeq NM_003593: c.146C>T (p.S49L)). Gene expression studies reveal that Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 are expressed in ~E13.5 mouse embryonic brain, as well as in adult piriform cortex (PC; ~P30). Conserved Retinoic Acid Response Elements (RAREs) upstream of human ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 and in mouse Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 genes were revealed using bioinformatic approximation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay using Retinoid Acid Receptor B (Rarb) as the immunoprecipitation target suggests RA regulation of Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 in mice. Our results frame a possible link of RA regulation in brain to ASD etiology, and a feasible non-additive effect of two apparently unrelated variants in ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 recognizing that every result given by next generation sequencing should be cautiously analyzed, as it might be an incidental finding. PMID:26352270

  16. Whole-Exome Sequencing in a South American Cohort Links ALDH1A3, FOXN1 and Retinoic Acid Regulation Pathways to Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramos, Oscar A; Olivares, Ana María; Haider, Neena B; de Autismo, Liga Colombiana; Lattig, María Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a range of complex neurodevelopmental conditions principally characterized by dysfunctions linked to mental development. Previous studies have shown that there are more than 1000 genes likely involved in ASD, expressed mainly in brain and highly interconnected among them. We applied whole exome sequencing in Colombian-South American trios. Two missense novel SNVs were found in the same child: ALDH1A3 (RefSeq NM_000693: c.1514T>C (p.I505T)) and FOXN1 (RefSeq NM_003593: c.146C>T (p.S49L)). Gene expression studies reveal that Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 are expressed in ~E13.5 mouse embryonic brain, as well as in adult piriform cortex (PC; ~P30). Conserved Retinoic Acid Response Elements (RAREs) upstream of human ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 and in mouse Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 genes were revealed using bioinformatic approximation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay using Retinoid Acid Receptor B (Rarb) as the immunoprecipitation target suggests RA regulation of Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 in mice. Our results frame a possible link of RA regulation in brain to ASD etiology, and a feasible non-additive effect of two apparently unrelated variants in ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 recognizing that every result given by next generation sequencing should be cautiously analyzed, as it might be an incidental finding.

  17. Influence of Tertiary paleoenvironmental changes on the diversification of South American mammals: a relaxed molecular clock study within xenarthrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcaíno Sergio F

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic data among organisms allow the reconstruction of their phylogenies and evolutionary time scales. Molecular timings have been recently used to suggest that environmental global change have shaped the evolutionary history of diverse terrestrial organisms. Living xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths constitute an ideal model for studying the influence of past environmental changes on species diversification. Indeed, extant xenarthran species are relicts from an evolutionary radiation enhanced by their isolation in South America during the Tertiary era, a period for which major climate variations and tectonic events are relatively well documented. Results We applied a Bayesian approach to three nuclear genes in order to relax the molecular clock assumption while accounting for differences in evolutionary dynamics among genes and incorporating paleontological uncertainties. We obtained a molecular time scale for the evolution of extant xenarthrans and other placental mammals. Divergence time estimates provide substantial evidence for contemporaneous diversification events among independent xenarthran lineages. This correlated pattern of diversification might possibly relate to major environmental changes that occurred in South America during the Cenozoic. Conclusions The observed synchronicity between planetary and biological events suggests that global change played a crucial role in shaping the evolutionary history of extant xenarthrans. Our findings open ways to test this hypothesis further in other South American mammalian endemics like hystricognath rodents, platyrrhine primates, and didelphid marsupials.

  18. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  19. Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2013 US American Community Survey, this report considers the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of same-sex couples (married and unmarried), especially those raising children, in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Comparisons are made with their different-sex counterparts. In Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota, as of 2013, there are an estimated 19652 same-sex couples. An estimated 12% of these cou...

  20. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  1. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  2. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

  3. Current meter and bathythermograph data from moored current meter and xbt casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic (OCS-South Atlantic) project from 1982-02-16 to 1985-07-01 (NCEI Accession 8600124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and bathythermograph (xbt) data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North American Coastline-South from...

  4. The gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors of young adults in Soweto, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Meagley, Kathryn; Schriver, Brittany; Rebecca S. Geary; Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Stein, Aryeh D.; Dunkle, Kristin L.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young people constitute a major proportion of the general population and are influenced by a variety of factors, especially in regards to seeking help. An understanding of help-seeking behaviors among young people is important for designing and implementing effective targeted health services.Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 23 young adults aged 21–22 years in Soweto, South Africa, to explore the gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors.Results:...

  5. The gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors of young adults in Soweto, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Meagley; Brittany Schriver; Rebecca S. Geary; Rebecca Fielding-Miller; Aryeh D. Stein; Kristin L Dunkle; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young people constitute a major proportion of the general population and are influenced by a variety of factors, especially in regards to seeking help. An understanding of help-seeking behaviors among young people is important for designing and implementing effective targeted health services. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 23 young adults aged 21–22 years in Soweto, South Africa, to explore the gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors. Result...

  6. Elder mistreatment and emotional symptoms among older adults in a largely rural population: The South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Begle, Angela M.; Strachan, Martha; Cisler, Joshua M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Hernandez, Melba; Acierno, Ron

    2010-01-01

    While two recent major studies provide some insight into the prevalence and correlates of elder mistreatment, the relationship between elder mistreatment and mental health remains unclear. This study begins to address this issue by examining the relationship between elder mistreatment (i.e., a recent history of emotional and physical abuse) and negative emotional symptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression) among 902 older adults aged 60 and above residing in South Carolina. Results demonstrate th...

  7. Self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation for adult hearing aid users in a developing South African context

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Pienaar; Natalie Stearn; De Wet Swanepoel

    2010-01-01

    Hearing impairment has far reaching consequences for affected individuals, in terms of quality of life indicators. In a developing South African context the hearing impaired population is faced with limited aural rehabilitation services. This study evaluated self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation in a group of adults in the public healthcare sector with a standardized outcomes measurement tool (IOI-HA). Sixty-one respondents participated (44% males; 56% females), with a mean age of 69...

  8. A Mid-South Perspective: African American Faith-based Organizations, HIV, and Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otey, Tamara D; Miller, Wendy Renee

    2016-01-01

    Shelby County, Tennessee has the fastest growing rate of HIV infection in the state, and the majority of new infections are in African Americans. In 2011, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report stated that Memphis (the largest city in Shelby County) ranked seventh highest in new HIV infections. Little research has addressed HIV-related themes in African American culture that could hinder HIV prevention measures. Our qualitative study engaged African American, faith-based leaders in areas with high rates of HIV in meaningful conversations regarding their attitudes toward HIV and those who are infected. Although faith-based leaders felt they had a role in HIV prevention, only 4% in our study had participated in HIV prevention activities, but they were open to HIV prevention programs. We found that faith-based leaders had limited knowledge of health disparities and ongoing stigma concerning HIV, which served as a major barrier to HIV prevention. PMID:27209431

  9. Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according the ENSO variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. M. Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The differences on the phase and wavelength of the quasi-stationary waves over the South America generated by El Niño (EN and La Niña (LN events seem to affect the daily evolution of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes (SALLJ. For the austral summer period of 1977–2004 the SALLJ episodes detected according to Bonner criterion 1 show normal to above-normal frequency in EN years, and in LN years the episodes show normal to below-normal frequency.

    During EN and LN years the SALLJ episodes were associated with positive rainfall anomalies over the La Plata Basin, but more intense during LN years. During EN years the increase in the SALLJ cases were associated to intensification of the Subtropical Jet (SJ around 30° S and positive Sea Level Pressure (SLP anomalies over the western equatorial Atlantic and tropical South America, particularly over central Brazil. This favored the intensification of the northeasterly trade winds over the northern continent and it channeled by the Andes mountain to the La Plata Basin region where negative SLP are found. The SALLJ cases identified during the LN events were weaker and less frequent when compared to those for EN years. In this case the SJ was weaker than in EN years and the negative SLP anomalies over the tropical continent contributed to the inversion of the northeasterly trade winds. Also a southerly flow anomaly was generated by the geostrophic balance due to the anomalous blocking over southeast Pacific and the intense cyclonic transient over the southern tip of South America. As result the warm tropical air brought by the SALLJ encounters the cold extratropical air from the southerly winds over the La Plata basin. This configuration can increase the conditional instability over the La Plata basin and may explain the more intense positive rainfall anomalies in SALLJ cases during LN years than in EN years.

  10. Failed Presidencies: Identifying and Explaining a South American Anomaly Presidencias fallidas: identificando y explicando una anomalía sudamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hochstetler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Are presidential democracies inherently unstable and prone to breakdown? Recent work on Latin America suggests that the region has seen the emergence of a new kind of instability, where individual presidents do not manage to stay in office to the end of their terms, but the regime itself continues. This article places the Latin American experiences in a global context, and finds that the Latin American literature helps to predict the fates of presidents in other regions. The first stage of a selection model shows that presidents who are personally corrupt and preside over economic decline in contexts where democracy is paired with lower levels of GDP/capita are more likely to face challenges to their remaining in office for their entire terms. For the challenged presidents in this set, the risk of early termination increases when they use lethal force against their challengers, but decreases if they are corrupt. These factors help account for the disproportionately large number of South American presidents who have actually been forced from office, the “South American anomaly” of the title. ¿Son las democracias presidenciales intrínsecamente inestables ypropensas a los quiebres? Los estudios recientes sobre América Latina sugierenque la región ha visto el surgimiento de un nuevo tipo de inestabilidad,donde presidentes no cumplen sus mandatos, pero el régimen mismocontinua. Este artículo coloca las experiencias latinoamericanas en un contextoglobal, y encuentra que la literatura latinoamericana ayuda a predecirlos destinos de los presidentes en otras regiones. La primera etapa de unmodelo de selección demuestra que es más probable que los presidentesquienes son personalmente corruptos y que presiden sobre un decliveeconómico en un contexto donde la democracia es acompañada de nivelesbajos de PIB per cápita sean enfrentados con esfuerzos de desbancarlos delcargo antes del fin del mandato. Para los presidentes desafiados en estegrupo

  11. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  12. African-American Children and the Case for Community: Eleanora Tate's South Carolina Trilogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Carole Brown

    1998-01-01

    Three books by Eleanora Tate, "The Secret of Gumbo Grove" (1988), "Thank You, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.!" (1992), and "A Blessing in Disguise" (1995) are discussed with respect to their portrayal of African-American children and their responsibility to both themselves and their community. (MAK)

  13. Early Life Predictors of Adult Depression in a Community Cohort of Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Kerry M.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Banda, Deliya R.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Depression among African Americans residing in urban communities is a complex, major public health problem; however, few studies identify early life risk factors for depression among urban African American men and women. To better inform prevention programming, this study uses data from the Woodlawn Study, a well-defined community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 years, to determine depression prevalence through midlife and identify childhood and adolescent risk fac...

  14. The Concrete Jungle: City Stress and Substance Abuse among Young Adult African American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C.; Braxton, Nikia D.; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, Afr...

  15. Community-based Music Education: Influences of Industrial Bands in the American South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, Hoyt F.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a case study focusing on the mill-supported Lindale Band in Lindale, Georgia in order to examine the influences of industry on instrumental music education in the U.S. South. Investigates the history of U.S. industrial bands and the philosophical parallels between industry and progressive education. (CMK)

  16. Zoogeographic and Taxonomic status of the South American snake Tachymenis surinamensis (Colubridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myers, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    Introduction Tachymenis is a characteristic genus of colubrid snakes inhabiting extreme western South America, from coastal Peru and Chile east to Bolivia (Walker, 1945; Peters & Orejas-Miranda, 1970). An extralimital species in Brazil, Tachymenis brasiliensis Gomes, was referred to its own genus (G

  17. Reconstructing the life of an unknown (ca. 500 years-old South American Inca mummy--multidisciplinary study of a Peruvian Inca mummy suggests severe Chagas disease and ritual homicide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Panzer

    Full Text Available The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451-1642 AD provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease. The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more "terrestric" nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an

  18. In vivo wound healing activity of Dragon's Blood (Croton spp.), a traditional South American drug, and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, L; De Bruyne, T; Van Poel, B; Vingerhoets, R; Totté, J; Vanden Berghe, D; Vlietinck, A

    1995-07-01

    The wound healing activity of dragon'sblood (Croton spp.), in Spanish 'sangre de drago‛ or 'sangre de grado‛, a traditional South American drug, and some of its constituents, including the alkaloid taspine (1), the dihydrobenzufuran lignan 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin (2) and proantho-cyanidins, was evaluated in vivo on rats, and compared with the wound healing actitivy of synthetic proanthocyanidins. The beneficial effect of dragon's blood on wound healing was confirmed. Dragon's blood stimulated contraction of the wound, formation of a crust, formation of new collagen, and regeneration of the epithelial layer. 3',4-O-Dimethylcedrusin also improved wound healing in vivo by stimulating the formation of fibroblasts and collagen, but crude dragon's blood was more effective. This was due to the proanthocyanidins, present in dragon's blood, which stimulate contraction of the wound and precipitate with proteins forming a dark crust covering the wound, but which delay wound repair by a decreased formation of new fibroblasts.

  19. Traditional healing, biomedicine and the treatment of HIV/AIDS: contrasting south african and native American experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Adrian

    2015-04-20

    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people's engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing "culturally appropriate" forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  20. Food Safety by Using Machine Learning for Automatic Classification of Seeds of the South-American Incanut Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following paper deals with the classification of seeds and seed components of the South-American Incanut plant and the modification of a machine to handle this task. Initially the state of the art is being illustrated. The research was executed in Germany and with a relevant part in Peru and Ecuador. Theoretical considerations for the solution of an automatically analysis of the Incanut seeds were specified. The optimization of the analyzing software and the separation unit of the mechanical hardware are carried out with recognition results. In a final step the practical application of the analysis of the Incanut seeds is held on a trial basis and rated on the bases of statistic values

  1. South American pemphigus foliaceus: study of an epidemic in El Bagre and Nechi, Colombia 1982 to 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, M A; Prada, S; Jaramillo, D; Leon, W

    1988-06-01

    Between 1982 and 1986 we have had the chance to study 21 patients with pemphigus foliaceus of the 'fogo selvagem' type. The patients came from El Bagre and Nechi, rural areas of Colombia with some gold mining. This is the first outbreak of South American pemphigus foliaceus reported in Colombia. The majority of the patients were mestizo men, who worked as farmers or miners or both, with an average age of 44. Five patients were relatives. Eleven patients (52%) had mild disease, three (14%) moderate disease and seven (33%) severe disease. During hospitalization, three patients died due to complications or as a result of immunosuppressive treatment. Of the remaining 18 patients, 10 were in remission with treatment, one was in remission without treatment, while no information was available on the remaining seven. PMID:3401411

  2. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.;

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  3. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Flint

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable. It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  4. Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Increase Condom Use and Reduce HIV Risk Among Urban African American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Trotter, Jennie; Zellner, Tiffany; Lenoir, Shelia; Evans, Donoria; Rollins, Latrice; Miller, Assia

    2016-09-01

    African Americans comprise nearly half of people in the United States living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but compose one tenth of the population. Infection rate among young African American adults is 11 times that of Whites. The Color It Real Program was a seven-session, weekly administered, age-specific, and culturally tailored intervention designed to provide HIV education and address behavioral motivations (risk awareness, decisional balance exercises, partner negotiation, and attitudes) associated with HIV risk among African Americans ages 18 to 24 years in Atlanta, Georgia. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 88) and control (n = 52) groups completing a 45-item survey. When controlling for gender and education, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the intervention group had significant increases in HIV transmission knowledge (F = 4.84, p = .0305), condom use, and intentions to use condoms (F = 4.38, p = .0385). Risky sexual behavior means did not significantly differ between groups (F = 1.44, p = .2331). Results indicate the value of culturally tailored educational strategies toward improved HIV knowledge and adoption of risk reduction strategies. Future studies investigating the differential impact of programs by gender and sexual orientation are also critical. Continued innovation and tailoring of risk reduction strategies for minority young adults will contribute to reducing HIV incidence and prevalence over the life course. PMID:27216874

  5. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics. PMID:25100358

  6. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics.

  7. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: Transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Hotzel, H.; Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Seidler, T.; Ellenberger, C.; Hetzel, U.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and molecula

  8. Gomphrena claussenii, the first South-American metallophyte species with indicator-like Zn and Cd accumulation and extreme metal tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaz Villafort Carvalho, M.; Amaral, D.C.; Guilherme, L.R.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant species with the capacity to tolerate heavy metals are potentially useful for phytoremediation since they have adapted to survive and reproduce under toxic conditions and to accumulate high metal concentrations. Gomphrena claussenii Moq., a South-American species belonging to the Amaranthaceae

  9. Exploring Faculty Diversity in the South: A Case Study on Campus Climate and Leadership Commitment to the Recruitment and Retention of African American Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Angie Monique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore faculty diversity in the South by examining the campus climate and leadership commitment to the recruitment and retention of African American faculty. The Critical Race Theory (CRT) concept of storytelling captured the participants' personal experiences and perceptions. Three higher…

  10. Aerobic exercise attenuates blood pressure reactivity to cold pressor test in normotensive, young adult African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, V; Mills, R M; Caprarola, M; Vaccaro, P; Adams, R G; Blakely, R; Roltsch, M; Hatfield, B; Davis, G C; Franks, B D; Fairfax, J; Banks, M

    1999-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress has been observed in the African-American population, and such a pressor response is believed to play a role in hypertension. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to exert an anti-hypertensive effect, and this may alter the blood pressure hyperreactivity observed in African Americans. To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise attenuates pressor reactivity in African Americans, we studied eight healthy aerobically-trained normotensive African-American females and five similar sedentary females. The stress stimuli consisted of the cold pressor test with the foot immersed in ice water for two minutes. The aerobic exercise training protocol consisted of six weeks of jogging at 60-70% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), three days/week for 35 min/exercise session. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were measured. Manifestation of a training effect was illustrated by a 24.1 +/- 0.2% increase in VO2peak (26.9 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) min(-1) vs 35.4 +/- 1.6 mL x kg(-1) min(-1)) (Pstress did not change in the untrained group. Measures of heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were unaltered during conditions of the cold pressor test. We conclude that aerobic exercise attenuates the blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress in young, adult normotensive African-American females. A lifestyle change such as exercising may play a role in reducing the risk of hypertension in African-American women. PMID:10355479

  11. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  12. Embracing Intercultural Diversification: Teaching Young Adult Literature with Native American Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kenan; Box, Andrea; Blasingame, James

    2013-01-01

    According to the most recent census, there are five million Native Americans in the United States. Of these, there are at least 500,000 Native Americans attending public schools. However, the educational system does not fully serve this population and in fact often ignores them. More importantly, each tribe and clan has its own distinct cultural…

  13. Bleaching of melanin in the epidermis of South American fur seal and its application on enzyme immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis is an amphibious marine mammal distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. The species is well adjusted to different habitats due to the morphology of its fin-like members and due to some adaptations in their integumentary system. Immunohistochemical studies are very important to evaluate the mechanisms of skin adaptation due the differential expression of the antigens present in the tissue depending of the region of the body surface. However, its strongly pigmented (melanin epidermis prevents the visualization of the immuno-histochemical chromogens markers. In this study a melanin bleaching method was developed aimed to allow the visualization of the chromogens without interfering in the antigen-antibody affinity for immunohistochemistry. The analysis of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen index in the epidermis of A. australis by immunohistochemistry with diaminobenzidine (DAB as chromogen was used to test the method. The bleaching of the melanin allowed to obtain the cell proliferation index in epidermis and to avoid false positive results without affecting the immunohistochemical results.

  14. A Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF, coordinates and velocities for South American stations: contributions to Central Andes geodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mackern

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite positioning systems allow the fixing of the location of a point on the Earth's surface with very good precision and accuracy. To do this, however, it is necessary to determine the point coordinates taking account the reference system and the movements that affect them because of tectonic plate movements. These reference systems are materialized by a significant number of continuous measurement stations in South America. In SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas, there are four Analysis Centers that process the data collected from satellites of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, with the primary purpose to maintain the international terrestrial reference frame through calculation of the coordinates and velocities of the continuous GNSS stations of the SIRGAS-CON Network.

    In this work, we demonstrate the quality of the solutions from CIMA, one of the SIRGAS official processing centers operating in Mendoza, Argentina, in comparison with other South American processing centers. The importance of precise calculations of coordinates and velocities in a global frame is also shown. Finally, we give estimations of velocities from stations located within deformation zones in the Central Andes.

  15. Evaluation of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention Program to Decrease Blood Pressure in Low-Income African-American Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Palta, Priya; Page, G.; Piferi, R. L.; Gill, J. M.; Hayat, M. J.; Connolly, A. B.; Szanton, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension affects a large proportion of urban African-American older adults. While there have been great strides in drug development, many older adults do not have access to such medicines or do not take them. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been shown to decrease blood pressure in some populations. This has not been tested in low-income, urban African-American older adults. Therefore, the primary purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a ...

  16. Trends in South American weapons purchases at the beginning of the new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with some frequency it is heard that Latin America, especially South America, is witnessing the rise of an arms race. Frequent reports in the press and strong statements made by politicians in the region have fueled this fear. At the same time, scholars have also reached to this conclusion, as pointed out by Malamud and Garcia: "The famous arms race in Latin America, led by Venezuela, is no longer just talk."

  17. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Mozer Sciani; Cláudia Blanes Angeli; Antoniazzi, Marta M.; Carlos Jared; Daniel Carvalho Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids) used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa) and Rhinella (South America). Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although R...

  18. Emissions from pre-Hispanic metallurgy in the South American atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, François; Vanneste, Heleen; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Piotrowska, Natalia; Torrejón, Fernando; Roland, Thomas; Stein, Ariel; Le Roux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA) for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives, as well as evidence for global trace metal transport. We show in a peat record from Tierra del Fuego that anthropogenic metals likely have been emitted into the atmosphere and transported from NSA to southern South America (SSA) over the last 4200 yrs. These findings are supported by modern time back-trajectories from NSA to SSA. We further show that apparent anthropogenic Cu and Sb emissions predate any archaeological evidence for metallurgical activities. Lead and Sn were also emitted into the atmosphere as by-products of Inca and Spanish metallurgy, whereas local coal-gold rushes and the industrial revolution contributed to local contamination. We suggest that the onset of pre-Hispanic metallurgical activities is earlier than previously reported from archaeological records and that atmospheric emissions of metals were transported from NSA to SSA.

  19. Emissions from pre-Hispanic metallurgy in the South American atmosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François De Vleeschouwer

    Full Text Available Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives, as well as evidence for global trace metal transport. We show in a peat record from Tierra del Fuego that anthropogenic metals likely have been emitted into the atmosphere and transported from NSA to southern South America (SSA over the last 4200 yrs. These findings are supported by modern time back-trajectories from NSA to SSA. We further show that apparent anthropogenic Cu and Sb emissions predate any archaeological evidence for metallurgical activities. Lead and Sn were also emitted into the atmosphere as by-products of Inca and Spanish metallurgy, whereas local coal-gold rushes and the industrial revolution contributed to local contamination. We suggest that the onset of pre-Hispanic metallurgical activities is earlier than previously reported from archaeological records and that atmospheric emissions of metals were transported from NSA to SSA.

  20. Young Darwin and the ecology and extinctionof pleistocene south american fossil mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Vizcaíno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringhis two years in South America Charles Darwin became fascinated not only withthe lush vegetation of Brazil, but also with the gigantic Pleistocene mammals that hefound in the drier areas of Uruguay, and in the pampas and Patagonian coast of Argentina. These findings includedvarious ground sloths and glyptodonts among xenarthrans, and hoofed herbivoreslike Toxodon and Macrauchenia, in addition to horses and smallrodents. He concluded that the general assumption that large animals requireluxuriant vegetation was false and that vitiated the reasoning of geologists onsome aspects of Earth's history. He also reflected on the evident changes thatoccurred in the continent, the extinct fauna of which suggested to him ananalogy to southern parts of Africa. He wondered about our ignorance of biological traits inextinct creatures and the reasons for their extinction. Thus, not only did Darwin inspire phylogeneticstudies on fossil mammal lineages, he also opened a gate to the research ontheir behaviour, physiology and extinction; i.e., their palaeobiology. Whereasthe first approach was largely developed in South America beginning about thesecond half of the 19th century due to the intellectual influence ofFlorentino Ameghino, palaeobiology became a much more recent line of work, inapparent relation to innovations in methodology and technology. Thiscontribution provides an overview of recent contributions on the palaeobiologyof Pleistocene fossil mammals of South America as attempts to provide answers for Darwin's questions.

  1. Late Quaternary environmental change in the interior South American tropics: new insight from leaf wax stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kyrstin L.; Whitney, Bronwen S.; Galy, Valier; Hughen, Konrad A.; Mayle, Francis E.

    2016-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis of leaf waxes in a sediment core from Laguna La Gaiba, a shallow lake located at the Bolivian margin of the Pantanal wetlands, provides new perspective on vegetation and climate change in the lowland interior tropics of South America over the past 40,000 years. The carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of long-chain n-alkanes reveal large shifts between C3- and C4-dominated vegetation communities since the last glacial period, consistent with landscape reconstructions generated with pollen data from the same sediment core. Leaf wax δ13C values during the last glacial period reflect an open landscape composed of C4 grasses and C3 herbs from 41-20 ka. A peak in C4 abundance during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21 ka) suggests drier or more seasonal conditions relative to the earlier glacial period, while the development of a C3-dominated forest community after 20 ka points to increased humidity during the last deglaciation. Within the Holocene, large changes in the abundance of C4 vegetation indicate a transition from drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene to wetter conditions in the late Holocene coincident with increasing austral summer insolation. Strong negative correlations between leaf wax δ13C and δD values over the entire record indicate that the majority of variability in leaf wax δD at this site can be explained by variability in the magnitude of biosynthetic fractionation by different vegetation types rather than changes in meteoric water δD signatures. However, positive δD deviations from the observed δ13C- δD trends are consistent with more enriched source water and drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene and LGM. Overall, our record adds to evidence of varying influence of glacial boundary conditions and orbital forcing on South American Summer Monsoon precipitation in different regions of the South American tropics. Moreover, the relationships between leaf wax stable

  2. Influenza-Related Mortality Among Adults Aged 25–54 Years With AIDS in South Africa and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Cheryl; Simonsen, Lone; Sample, Jeannette; Kang, Jong-Won; Miller, Mark; Madhi, Shabir A; Campsmith, Michael; Viboud, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of highly active therapy antiretroviral (HAART), adults with AIDS experience substantially elevated influenza-associated mortality in South Africa and the United States. This elevated mortality risk declined with widespread HAART introduction in the United States but did not disappear entirely. These data support increased access to HAART and influenza vaccination for human immunodeficiency virus–infected adults globally.

  3. Optimizing surveillance for South American origin influenza A viruses along the United States Gulf Coast through genomic characterization of isolates from blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul Karl; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Newsome, George M.; Spackman, Erica; Brown, J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Relative to research focused on intercontinental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes were detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g. the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast.

  4. Predictors of change in fruit and vegetable consumption in a faith-based intervention with African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Margaret D; Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Carter, Chad

    2013-01-01

    A majority of African American adults do not eat the recommended daily amount of fruit and vegetables. This study examined baseline demographic, health-related, and psychosocial variables as predictors of change in fruit and vegetable consumption from baseline to postprogram in a sample of church members taking part in a 15-month intervention. Participants who had a greater waist circumference, greater baseline fruit and vegetable consumption, greater leisure time physical activity, higher levels of social support, greater attendance at worship service, were obese, and did not have diabetes at baseline showed higher posttest fruit and vegetable consumption.

  5. Adult Teachers as Researchers: Ethnographic Approaches to Numeracy and Literacy as Social Practices in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Brian V.; Rogers, Alan; Baker, Dave

    2006-01-01

    It has long been orthodoxy among adult educators that those who teach adults need to take into account the existing knowledge, practices, perceptions and expectations of the learners. This is true at both central level where curricula and teaching-learning materials are developed and at local level where adult teacher/facilitator meets adult…

  6. Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence of interactions between Italian heterosexual and South American homosexual males as the main source of national HIV-1 subtype C epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alessia; Bozzi, Giorgio; Franzetti, Marco; Binda, Francesca; Simonetti, Francesco R; Micheli, Valeria; Meraviglia, Paola; Corsi, Paola; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; De Luca, Andrea; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Balotta, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The HIV-1 clade C is prevalent worldwide and spread from Africa to South East Asia and South America early in the course of the epidemic. As a consequence of migration waves about 13% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic is sustained by this clade. Two hundred fifty-four C pol sequences from the Italian ARCA database collected during 1997-2011 were analyzed. Epidemiological networks and geographical fluxes were identified through phylogeny using Bayesian approaches. Patients' country of origin was Italy, Africa, South America, and South East Asia for 44.9%, 23.6%, 4.7%, and 1.6%, respectively. Heterosexuals and men having sex with men accounted for 83.2% and 16.8%, respectively. Modality of infection was distributed differently: heterosexuals were largely prevalent among Italians (84.1%) and Africans (95.3%), while men having sex with men predominated among South Americans (66.7%). Eight significant clusters encompassing 111 patients (43.7%) were identified. Comparison between clustering and non-clustering patients indicated significant differences in country of origin, modality of infection and gender. Men having sex with men were associated to a higher probability to be included in networks (70% for men having sex with men vs. 30.3% for heterosexuals). Phylogeography highlighted two significant groups. One contained Indian strains and the second encompassed South Americans and almost all Italian strains. Phylogeography indicated that the spread of C subtype among Italians is related to South American variant. Although Italian patients mainly reported themselves as heterosexuals, homo-bisexual contacts were likely their source of infection. Phylogenetic monitoring is warranted to guide public health interventions aimed at controlling HIV infection.

  7. Social Factors in Childhood and Adulthood Associated with Adult Obesity in African American and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Milda R.; Kalycia Trishana Watson; Hyo Jung Tak

    2012-01-01

    Background. Few studies have examined how individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood influence the likelihood of adult obesity. We used a longitudinal cohort to examine these associations. Methods. Our cohort consisted of children born in Baltimore, MD, USA with followup as adults from ages 27 to 33. We used logistic regression to examine the multivariate association between individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood and adult obesity, (body mass index ...

  8. The importance of material resources and qualified trainers in adult non-formal education and training centres in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-04-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills often remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. The paper assesses the extent to which material and human resources have affected skills acquisition and graduate employment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The results show that material and human resource challenges in most public and some private centres have led to gaps in skills training. Programmes focus too strongly on academic credits and certificates and not enough on employment as an end goal. The authors argue that the existence of suitable training materials and qualified trainers with practical experience and specific technical skills constitutes favourable conditions ("enabling environments") for graduate employment. Without improvement in material and human resources, adult trainees will continue to experience difficulties integrating into the labour market, and the cycle of poverty and social exclusion will remain unbroken.

  9. Solar forcing of the stream flow of a continental scale South American river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Pablo J D; Flamenco, Eduardo; Buccino, Andrea P

    2008-10-17

    Solar forcing on climate has been reported in several studies although the evidence so far remains inconclusive. Here, we analyze the stream flow of one of the largest rivers in the world, the Paraná in southeastern South America. For the last century, we find a strong correlation with the sunspot number, in multidecadal time scales, and with larger solar activity corresponding to larger stream flow. The correlation coefficient is r=0.78, significant to a 99% level. In shorter time scales we find a strong correlation with El Niño. These results are a step toward flood prediction, which might have great social and economic impacts. PMID:18999720

  10. Solar Forcing of the Streamflow of a Continental Scale South American River

    CERN Document Server

    Mauas, P J D; Buccino, A P

    2008-01-01

    Solar forcing on climate has been reported in several studies although the evidence so far remains inconclusive. Here, we analyze the stream flow of one of the largest rivers in the world, the Parana in southeastern South America. For the last century, we find a strong correlation with the sunspot number, in multidecadal time scales, and with larger solar activity corresponding to larger stream flow. The correlation coefficient is r=0.78, significant to a 99% level. In shorter time scales we find a strong correlation with El Nino. These results are a step toward flood prediction, which might have great social and economic impacts.

  11. Zoogeography of South American Forest-Dwelling Bats: Disjunct Distributions or Sampling Deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Patrício Adriano; Ferrari, Stephen Francis; Feijó, Anderson; Gouveia, Sidney Feitosa

    2015-01-01

    Many forest-dwelling bats are purported to be widespread in South America, although records are scant from the vast diagonal belt of dry ecosystems that straddles the continent, implying possible sampling deficiencies. Here, we investigate this possibility in the case of four species of bat (Centronycteris maximiliani, Lampronycteris brachyotis, Peropteryx kappleri and Trinycteris nicefori), evaluating whether their disjunct present-day distributions reflect their true zoogeographic characteristics or the subsampling of intermediate zones. We use environmental niche modelling (ENM) in an ensemble approach, combining four different modeling techniques, and using niche descriptors based on climatic and remote sensing data, to estimate the potential distribution of the four species. The models indicate that all four species have disjunct distributions in the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. The one possible exception is P. kappleri, which the models indicated might potentially occur in humid forest enclaves in western Brazil and eastern Bolivia. The present-day distribution of the species may date back to the Plio-Pleistocene, when the forested biomes of South America were more extensive and connected. Further studies of different chiropteran lineages may provide additional insights into the historic processes of faunal interchange between the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. PMID:26186587

  12. Zoogeography of South American Forest-Dwelling Bats: Disjunct Distributions or Sampling Deficiencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício Adriano da Rocha

    Full Text Available Many forest-dwelling bats are purported to be widespread in South America, although records are scant from the vast diagonal belt of dry ecosystems that straddles the continent, implying possible sampling deficiencies. Here, we investigate this possibility in the case of four species of bat (Centronycteris maximiliani, Lampronycteris brachyotis, Peropteryx kappleri and Trinycteris nicefori, evaluating whether their disjunct present-day distributions reflect their true zoogeographic characteristics or the subsampling of intermediate zones. We use environmental niche modelling (ENM in an ensemble approach, combining four different modeling techniques, and using niche descriptors based on climatic and remote sensing data, to estimate the potential distribution of the four species. The models indicate that all four species have disjunct distributions in the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. The one possible exception is P. kappleri, which the models indicated might potentially occur in humid forest enclaves in western Brazil and eastern Bolivia. The present-day distribution of the species may date back to the Plio-Pleistocene, when the forested biomes of South America were more extensive and connected. Further studies of different chiropteran lineages may provide additional insights into the historic processes of faunal interchange between the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes.

  13. Dying in their prime: determinants and space-time risk of adult mortality in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A.; Sartorius, Kurt; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A longitudinal dataset was used to investigate adult mortality in rural South Africa in order to determine location, trends, high impact determinants and policy implications. Adult (15-59 years) mortality data for the period 1993-2010 were extracted from the health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in the rural sub-district of Agincourt. A Bayesian geostatistical frailty survival model was used to quantify significant associations between adult mortality and various multilevel (individual, household and community) variables. It was found that adult mortality significantly increased over time with a reduction observed late in the study period. Non-communicable disease mortality appeared to increase and decrease in parallel with communicable mortality, whilst deaths due to external causes remained constant. Male gender, unemployment, circular (labour) migrant status, age and gender of household heads, partner and/or other household death, low education and low household socioeconomic status (SES) were identified as significant and highly attributable determinants of adult mortality. Health facility remoteness was also a risk for adult mortality and households falling outside a critical buffering zone were identified. Spatial foci of higher adult mortality risk were observed indicating a strong non-random pattern. Communicable diseases differed from non-communicable diseases with respect to spatial distribution of mortality. Areas with significant excess mortality risk (hotspots) were found to be part of a complex interaction of highly attributable factors that continues to drive differential space-time risk patterns of communicable (HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis) mortality in Agincourt. The impact of HIV mortality and its subsequent lowering due to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was found to be clearly evident in this rural population. PMID:23733287

  14. HIV after 40 in rural South Africa: A life course approach to HIV vulnerability among middle aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A; Williams, Jill; Angotti, Nicole; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier

    2015-10-01

    South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world (over 6 million) as well as a rapidly aging population, with 15% of the population aged 50 and over. High HIV prevalence in rural former apartheid homeland areas suggests substantial aging with HIV and acquisition of HIV at older ages. We develop a life course approach to HIV vulnerability, highlighting the rise and fall of risk and protection as people age, as well as the role of contextual density in shaping HIV vulnerability. Using this approach, we draw on an innovative multi-method data set collected within the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa, combining survey data with 60 nested life history interviews and 9 community focus group interviews. We examine HIV risk and protective factors among adults aged 40-80, as well as how and why these factors vary among people at older ages.

  15. The genetic legacy of polyploid Bolivian Daphnia: the tropical Andes as a source for the North and South American D. pulicaria complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergeay, Joachim; Aguilera, Ximena; Declerck, Steven; Petrusek, Adam; Huyse, Tine; De Meester, Luc

    2008-04-01

    We investigated genetic variation in asexual polyploid members of the water flea Daphnia pulex complex from a set of 12 Bolivian high-altitude lakes. We used nuclear microsatellite markers to study genetic relationships among all encountered multilocus genotypes, and combined this with a phylogenetic approach using DNA sequence data of three mitochondrial genes. Analyses of mitochondrial gene sequence divergence showed the presence of three very distinct clades that likely represent cryptic undescribed species. Our phylogenetic results suggest that the Daphnia pulicaria group, a complex of predominantly North American species that has diversified rapidly since the Pleistocene, has its origin in South America, as specific tests of topology indicated that all three South American lineages are ancestral to the North American members of this species group. A comparison between variation of nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed that closely related polyploid nuclear genotypes sometimes belonged to very divergent mitochondrial lineages, while distantly related nuclear genotypes often belonged to the same mitochondrial lineage. This discrepancy suggests that these South American water fleas originated through reciprocal hybridization between different endemic, sexually reproducing parental lineages. It is also likely that polyploidy of the investigated lineages resulted from this hybridization. Nevertheless, no putative diploid parental lineages were found in the studied region.

  16. "An Elusive Bird": Perceptions of Music Learning among Canadian and American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Nathan B.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering the perceptions that non-professional adult musicians hold regarding their participation in community ensembles may help improve instruction as well as the ability to more fully understand the implications of lifelong music making. Andragogy, or the teaching and learning strategies associated with adult learning, provided the impetus…

  17. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  18. Environmental noise and cardiovascular disease in adults: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    OpenAIRE

    L′ubica Argalášová-Sobotová; Jurgita Lekaviciute; Sonja Jeram; L′udmila Ševcíková; Jana Jurkovicová

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of noise on health have been intensely explored in the past 50 years. However, the scope of research conducted in the Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and Newly Independent States is not well-known. The aim of this review was to present studies on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults published since 1965 and to point out the most important issues that need to be addressed in the future. More than 100 papers on noise and health and about 20 ...

  19. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  20. Two new species of freshwater flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Continenticola) from South American caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Stella; Morais, Ana Laura; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Leal-Zanchet, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of freshwater triclads in the Neotropical region is considered to be low, but extensive areas of South America remain almost unexplored. Herein we describe two cave-dwelling, new species of Girardia, one from a transition zone of the Cerrado and Caatinga phytophysiognomies and the other from the Cerrado phytophysiognomy. The species from the Cerrado-Caatinga transition is a troglobite, eyeless and whitish; the species from the Cerrado area is possibly a troglophile, since it shows heavily pigmented body and eyes. Each species is easily recognized by a unique combination of features in its external morphology and copulatory apparatus. The two new species of Girardia show a restricted distribution, even the troglophile, and occur in caves without legal protection. Therefore, they must be considered as vulnerable organisms in a conservation context. PMID:27394369

  1. Reconstruction of multiple tectonic events in continental margins by integrated tectonostratigraphic and geochronological analysis: the Mesozoic to Paleogene Caribbean-South American interaction in northeastern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Bayona, German; Valencia, Victor; Ramirez, Diego; Zapata, Sebastian; Lara, Mario; Lopez-Martinez, Margarita; Thomson, Stuart; Weber, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Although the older record and successive tectonic scenarios experienced by a continental margin is commonly fragmentary, integrated field, petrological and geochronological analysis can reconstruct the long term tectonic evolution of continental margins and characterized major controls on the orogenic style. We present new geochronological constraints from igneous and low to very low grade metasedimentary rocks from the Caribbean continental margin of northeastern Colombia (Guajira region) in order to reconstruct the different tectonic events recorded by the margin before, during and following the arc-continent collision with the front of the Caribbean plate. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology results from leucogranites associated with garnet amphibolites, tonalites and volcanic rocks that made the continental basement of northeastern Colombia reveals and Early to Middle Mesozoic tectonic activity with peaks at ca. 220-230 Ma and 170-180 Ma. This magmatic record is related to a collisional belt link to the final agglutination of Pangea and was followed by an overimposed far field back-arc setting associated to the subduction of the Pacific (Farrallon) plate under the Pangea supercontinent. Muscovite and biotite Ar-Ar geochronology from basement rocks and low grade Mesozoic metasediments also reveals the existence of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous thermal events link to the final opening of the proto-Caribbean ocean. The South American continental margin was subsequently affected by an arc-continent collisional event with the front of the Caribbean plate. This event is recorded by the growth of a Banda-type collisional melange that mixed South American continental margin sediments with mafic and ultramafic blocks of intra-oceanic arc origin, the formation of a coherent metasedimentary belt also made of South American margin sediments, and the mylonitization of the continental basement. Ar-Ar temporal constraints on the low grade metasedimentary rocks and

  2. Rhoptry Proteins ROP5 and ROP18 Are Major Murine Virulence Factors in Genetically Divergent South American Strains of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Behnke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has evolved a number of strategies to evade immune responses in its many hosts. Previous genetic mapping of crosses between clonal type 1, 2, and 3 strains of T. gondii, which are prevalent in Europe and North America, identified two rhoptry proteins, ROP5 and ROP18, that function together to block innate immune mechanisms activated by interferon gamma (IFNg in murine hosts. However, the contribution of these and other virulence factors in more genetically divergent South American strains is unknown. Here we utilized a cross between the intermediately virulent North American type 2 ME49 strain and the highly virulent South American type 10 VAND strain to map the genetic basis for differences in virulence in the mouse. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of this new cross identified one peak that spanned the ROP5 locus on chromosome XII. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated deletion of all copies of ROP5 in the VAND strain rendered it avirulent and complementation confirmed that ROP5 is the major virulence factor accounting for differences between type 2 and type 10 strains. To extend these observations to other virulent South American strains representing distinct genetic populations, we knocked out ROP5 in type 8 TgCtBr5 and type 4 TgCtBr18 strains, resulting in complete loss of virulence in both backgrounds. Consistent with this, polymorphisms that show strong signatures of positive selection in ROP5 were shown to correspond to regions known to interface with host immunity factors. Because ROP5 and ROP18 function together to resist innate immune mechanisms, and a significant interaction between them was identified in a two-locus scan, we also assessed the role of ROP18 in the virulence of South American strains. Deletion of ROP18 in South American type 4, 8, and 10 strains resulted in complete attenuation in contrast to a partial loss of virulence seen for ROP18 knockouts in previously described type 1 parasites. These data show that ROP5

  3. Inter ENSO variability and its influence over the South American monsoon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. M. Drumond

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have discussed the interannual variability of a meridional seesaw of dry and wet conditions over South America (SA associated to the modulation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ. However, they did not explore if the variability inter ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation can be related to the phase changes of this dipole. To answer this question, an observational work was carried out to explore the atmospheric and Sea Surface Temperature (SST conditions related to the same ENSO signal and to opposite dipole phases. Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF analysis was applied over normalized Chen precipitation seasonal anomalies in order to find the dipole mode in the Austral Summer (December to February. The fourth rotated mode, explaining 6.6% of the total variance, consists of positive loading over the SACZ region and negative loading over northern Argentina. Extreme events were selected and enhanced activity of SACZ during the Summer season (SACZ+ was identified in nine years: five during La Niña events (LN and two in El Niño episodes (EN. On the other hand, inhibited manifestations of this system (SACZ- were identified in seven years: four in EN and two during LN. Power spectrum analysis indicated that the interannual variability of the precipitation dipole seems to be related to the low frequency and to the quasi-biennial part of ENSO variability. The ENSO events with the same signal can present opposite phases for the dipole. The results suggest that the displacement of the convection over Indonesia and western Pacific can play an important role to modulate the seesaw pattern.

  4. HIV/AIDS related mortality among adult medical patients in a tertiary health institution in South-South, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyuse AN; Bassey IE; Udonwa NE; Okokon IB; Philip-Ephraim EE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients as a step to planning strategies to improve mortality from this condition.Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the mortality pattern of adult HIV/AIDS patients in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2007. The data were obtained from sexually transmitted infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STI/AIDS) clinic register, admissions and discharge/death registers as well as the patients' case records and the hospitals monthly mortality reviews. Information obtained included age, sex, diagnosis and cause(s) of death. The causes of death considered were the directcauses of death, since the originating antecedent cause of death is the same in all the patients, in this case, HIV/AIDS. Data was analysed using Epi Info 2002.Results: The total number of mortalities during the study period was 350,100 were HIV positive representing 28.6% of all deaths. While advanced HIV/AIDS disease was the leading cause of death in our study representing 27.0%, tuberculosis was the single leading cause of deaths in HIV/AIDS patients constituting about 24.0% of deaths. This was followed by sepsis and septicaemia (13.0%), meningitis and encephalitis, and anaemia accounting for 11.0%, while respiratory diseases constituted 5.0% of the mortality burden. The highest number of deaths occurred in those aged between 21-50 years (82.0%).Conclusions: The study has shown that HIV/AIDS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our hospital. The causes of death reflect the varied spectrum of infection and other forms of organ involvement that affect HIV/AIDS patients. The present dismal situation of adult patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. The South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from Brazil as another definitive host for Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Kerber, C E; Lindsay, D S; Kasai, N; Pena, H F

    2000-12-01

    The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is a definitive host for at least 3 species of Sarcocvstis: S. falcatula Stiles 1983, S. neurona Dubey, Davis, Speer, Bowman, de Lahunta, Granstrom, Topper, Hamir, Cummings, Suter 1991, and S. speeri Dubey and Lindsay 1999. In order to identify species of Sarcocystis in the South American opossum, D. inarsupialis, Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of a naturally infected opossum (D. marsupialis) from Brazil were fed to 4 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice, a nude mouse, and 2 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). All 4 KO mice became ill and 1 died 42 days post-feeding (p.f.) of sporocysts, 1 was killed 44 days p.f. because of neurological signs, and 2 were killed 52 and 53 days p.f. because of abnormal gaits. Numerous sarcocysts were seen in the skeletal muscles of all 4 KO mice and they were structurally identical to S. speeri seen in KO mice fed sporocysts from D. virginiana from the United States and D. albiventris from Argentina. The nude mouse was killed 41 days p.f. because it appeared weak; schizonts were seen in sections of its liver and sarcocysts were seen in sections of skeletal muscles. Sarcocystis speeri was cultured in bovine turbinate cells inoculated with liver homogenate from this mouse. Sarcocystis neurona was not demonstrable in tissues of mice. The two budgerigars remained asymptomatic and S. falcatula was not found in their tissues when they were killed 29 days p.i. This is the first report of S. speeri from D. marsupialis. PMID:11155929

  6. How useful are skills acquired at adult non-formal education and training centres for finding employment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-10-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education with courses which foster access to opportunities for skills acquisition and employment and bring about social and economic inclusion. However, many adults who were facing long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. This paper reports on a study which investigated what constitutes favourable conditions ("internal enabling environments") for skills acquisition inside NFET centres leading to employment and how they can be improved to contribute to coordinated efforts of increasing NFET graduates' paid and/or self-employment capacities. The authors found that centres focusing on activities suitable for self-employment during training were more likely to create internal enabling environments for skills acquisition and income generation than centres offering courses designed for entering paid employment. The authors conclude that there appears to be a significant correlation between NFET centres' training programme objectives, financial resources, trainee selection criteria, the process of training needs assessment, and skills acquisition for successful employment outcomes of NFET graduates. Without these internal enabling factors, adult trainees are likely to continue finding it difficult to integrate into the labour market or participate in economic activities and hence break the cycle of poverty and social exclusion.

  7. Development of natural gas in the South American region and internationalization of a market thereof; Nanbei chiiki ni okeru tennen gasu kaihatsu to shijo no kokusaika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, N. [Japan Petroleum Development Association, Tokyo (Japan); Terada, S. [Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Recently, natural gas development in the South American region is actively advanced. Especially, southern countries have formed the customs union 'Mercosur' (the South America south cooperation market), and an energy supply network such as the natural gas pipeline has been formed with the integration of the market. In this paper, a present state of development project, an installment balance situation, a production situation, a relation infrastructure and a trend of the market of natural gas in South America especially each country of the southern district are described. And, the introduction of foreign capital is also advancing with the restructuring related to the natural gas business in these countries. Therefore, those trends are also described. In the South American countries, Argentina has abundant natural gas reserves which is the next quantity to Venezuela, and has coped with the development of natural gas since early times. According to the prediction of future demand trend of natural gas, Argentina, Bolivia and Trinidad Tobago are mentioned as an exporter of natural gas, and Brazil and Chile are mentioned as an importer of natural gas. (NEDO)

  8. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rhodes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture and assist Vietnamese immigrants and refugees to acculturate, while maintaining their own cultural heritage, beliefs and religious traditions; ultimately building a viable and sustainable Buddhist community that contributes greatly to its new host community.

  9. Social and health determinants of gender differences in disability amongst older adults in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya; Karl Peltze; Shandir Ramlagan; Witness Chirinda; Zamakayise Kose

    2013-01-01

    There has been an unprecedented increase in population ageing resulting in the increase in prevalence of various health conditions, including disability and associated risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability amongst older South Africans. Little is known about disability amongst older South Africans because most previous health research has focused on younger individuals and infectious diseases. We conducted a national pop...

  10. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P young adults.

  11. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  12. Low Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Saturated Fat, Fiber, and Sodium Found Among American Indians and Other U.S. Adults with Diabetes*

    OpenAIRE

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Zephier, Ellie; O’Leary, Veronica; Howard, Barbara V.; Resnick, Helaine E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate how well American Indians with diabetes met dietary recommendations and to compare adherence to dietary recommendations with those of U.S. adults with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary intake in both studies was assessed using a 24-h recall questionnaire. Dietary intakes were evaluated against American Diabetes Association (ADA) dietary recommendations. The analysis sample consisted of 1,008 partici...

  13. Real time earthquake information and tsunami estimation system for Indonesia, Philippines and Central-South American regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Senda, J.; Fukuyama, E.; Kumagai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia as well as Central-South American regions are within the most active seismic regions in the world. To contribute to the understanding of source process of earthquakes the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention NIED maintains the international seismic Network (ISN) since 2007. Continuous seismic waveforms from 294 broadband seismic stations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Central-South America regions are received in real time at NIED, and used for automatic location of seismic events. Using these data we perform automatic and manual estimation of moment tensor of seismic events (Mw>4.5) by using the SWIFT program developed at NIED. We simulate the propagation of local tsunamis in these regions using a tsunami simulation code and visualization system developed at NIED, combined with CMT parameters estimated by SWIFT. The goals of the system are to provide a rapid and reliable earthquake and tsunami information in particular for large seismic, and produce an appropriate database of earthquake source parameters and tsunami simulations for research. The system uses the hypocenter location and magnitude of earthquakes automatically determined at NIED by the SeisComP3 system (GFZ) from the continuous seismic waveforms in the region, to perform the automated calculation of moment tensors by SWIFT, and then carry out the automatic simulation and visualization of tsunami. The system generates maps of maximum tsunami heights within the target regions and along the coasts and display them with the fault model parameters used for tsunami simulations. Tsunami calculations are performed for all events with available automatic SWIFT/CMT solutions. Tsunami calculations are re-computed using SWIFT manual solutions for events with Mw>5.5 and centroid depths shallower than 100 km. Revised maximum tsunami heights as well as animation of tsunami propagation are also calculated and displayed for the two double couple solutions by SWIFT

  14. Health literacy and breast cancer screening among Mexican American women in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, José A; Brown, Cynthia J; Asch, David A; Armstrong, Katrina; Bastida, Elena; Guerra, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer deaths for Hispanic women. This study analyzes the role of functional health literacy on mammography screening behavior and adherence of Hispanic women. Survey data from 722 Mexican American women age 40 and over residing in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in 2008 were used to estimate logistic regression models to assess the role of functional health literacy on mammography screening behavior and adherence. About 51% of survey respondents had a functional health literacy level deemed as inadequate or marginally functional. After adjusting for other factors, women with adequate health literacy levels were more likely to report to have ever had a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.62-5.28), to have had a mammogram within the last 2 years (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.14-2.53) or to have had one within the last year (OR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.54-3.43), compared to women with inadequate or marginally adequate functional health literacy levels. Inadequate/marginal functional health literacy is strongly associated with lower mammography screening. Large improvements in breast cancer control in this population may come from either basic advances in health literacy or by tailored approaches to help women with low literacy navigate local health care systems.

  15. Genetic selection of American sycamore for biomass production in the mid-south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, S. B., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    Biomass prediction equations were developed to examine genetic, site, and propagule effects on above stump biomass. Accuracy and precision of subsampling procedures which utilized green weight ratios were high for stem wood and bark, slightly less for limb components, and poorest for the leaf component. The best predictor variables for stem biomass equations were DBH2, (DBH), and (DBH)2, and DBH)2 times height. Crown width, crown surface area, and (DBH)2 times the crown length/tree height ratio were more appropriate predictors for limb of leaf biomass. Specific gravity and moisture content varied within the tree, among sites, and among families within seed sources, but not among sources. Survival, biomass per tree, and biomass per hectare were lowest for trees established from seedling top cuttings, higher for top pruned seedlings, and highest for whole seedlings. Site differences were very large for biomass production, with the best site having nearly as much stem plus limb dry weight per hectare at age five as three other sites combined. Geographic seed sources from south of each planting site produced more biomass per hectare than sources from north of the site. Family differences within sources were significant, as were site-by-family interactions.

  16. Genetic, geographic, and linguistic variation among South American Indians: possible sex influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nelson J R; Bonatto, S L; Callegari-Jacques, S M; Salzano, F M

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between genetic variability, geographical distance, and linguistic affiliation in South Amerinds, and to elucidate whether the migration rate is the same for both sexes, spatial autocorrelation, Mantel's test, and F(ST) analyses were performed in four sets of populations and alleles (group 1: 48 populations, 12 alleles; group 2: 16 (all belonging to the Tupi linguistic group) and 12; group 3: 21 and 17; and group 4: 28 and 4 haplotypes). Groups 1-3 included blood group and protein (i.e., serum protein, red cell enzymes, and immunoglobulin systems), while group 4 was concerned with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) only. The latter set was also subjected to a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) evaluation. The frequencies of statistically significant correlograms were lower than those obtained in other populations when the blood groups and protein systems were considered, but 3 of the 4 mtDNA haplogroups gave suggestions of population structure. The variability in this organelle is also significantly correlated with language when geography is held constant. Migration per generation is generally low, but higher estimates were obtained for females. The AMOVA results suggest that populations whose members speak the same language are genetically homogeneous and may be viewed as the ultimate evolutionary unit at this level of analysis. PMID:11748563

  17. Redescription of Spirura guianensis (Nematoda: Spiruridae) from a rare South American Gracile Opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E J Lopes; Maldonado, A; Anjos, D H da Silva; de Souza, W; Miranda, K

    2015-10-01

    Spirura genus Blanchard, 1849 comprise of nematode parasites that infect primate and marsupial species. Although several taxonomical studies have shown that the infection by this species occurs primarily in the esophagus of primates, evidence for the occurrence of these parasites in other hosts (marsupials, rodents and bats) has become the subject of investigation by several groups. In this work, we describe the presence of Spirura guianensis Ortlepp, 1924 in the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) found in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil. Structural characteristics of this nematode were identified using light microscopy (bright field and fluorescence stereomicroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Details of the surface topography such as cephalic projections, ventral boss, details of the caudal papillae and cuticular ornamentations were shown, providing taxonomic characteristics that may help in the establishment of diagnostic protocols. In addition, the presence of this species in a new host and new geographical area of Brazil provide grounds for a revision on the distribution of S. guianensis in South America. PMID:26187357

  18. Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Hedin, Lars O.

    2002-01-01

    Conceptual and numerical models of nitrogen cycling in temperate forests assume that nitrogen is lost from these ecosystems predominantly by way of inorganic forms, such as nitrate and ammonium ions. Of these, nitrate is thought to be particularly mobile, being responsible for nitrogen loss to deep soil and stream waters. But human activities-such as fossil fuel combustion, fertilizer production and land-use change-have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle over large regions, making it difficult to separate natural aspects of nitrogen cycling from those induced by human perturbations. Here we report stream chemistry data from 100 unpolluted primary forests in temperate South America. Although the sites exhibit a broad range of environmental factors that influence ecosystem nutrient cycles (such as climate, parent material, time of ecosystem development, topography and biotic diversity), we observed a remarkably consistent pattern of nitrogen loss across all forests. In contrast to findings from forests in polluted regions, streamwater nitrate concentrations are exceedingly low, such that nitrate to ammonium ratios were less than unity, and dissolved organic nitrogen is responsible for the majority of nitrogen losses from these forests. We therefore suggest that organic nitrogen losses should be considered in models of forest nutrient cycling, which could help to explain observations of nutrient limitation in temperate forest ecosystems.

  19. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mozer Sciani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa and Rhinella (South America. Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); O`Quinn, M. [South Carolina Governor`s School for Science and Mathematics, Hartsville, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  1. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of the strictly Neotropical ophionine wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 are revised. New descriptions of all previously named species are provided, except Alophophion holosericeus (Taschenberg, 1875 for which the type series is lost and the name is herein considered a nomen dubium. The female of A. flavorufus (Brullé, 1846 is described for the first time. Four informal species groups are proposed based on the morphology of the mandibles, development of the malar space, and general proportions of the head (i.e., development of the face and gena. Whereas the genus previously included only seven named species, it is here expanded to include 49 species (not including the aforementioned nomen dubium, 43 of which are newly discovered and described and thereby increasing the diversity by over eight times. A key to the four species groups and their included taxa is provided. Alophophion is confined to cold and/or dry areas of subequatorial South America, with the exception of A. mancocapaci new species and A. pedroi new species which occur incloud forests around Cuzco, Peru. The genus is newly recorded from Bolivia and Ecuador, and more extensive and accurate distributions are summarized for A. chilensis, A. flavorufus, and A. politus. Alophophion flavorufus is newly recorded from Argentina.Traduce

  2. Total mercury, organic mercury and selenium in liver and kidney of a South American coastal dolphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seixas, Tercia G. [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: tercia@rdc.puc-rio.br; Kehrig, Helena do A. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Monica [Departamento de Oceanografia, CTG-UFPE, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Fillmann, Gilberto [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Secchi, Eduardo R. [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Laboratorio de Tartarugas e Mamiferos Marinhos, Departamento de Oceanografia e Museu Oceanografico ' Prof. E.C. Rios' , FURG, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Souza, Cristina M.M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Selenium and total and organic mercury were determined in the liver and kidney of franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally caught in fishing nets along two Brazilian coastal areas (southeast and south). Regional differences in the concentrations of these contaminants were observed in P. blainvillei. Liver showed the highest organic and total mercury. In general, samples of individuals collected at the southern of Brazil had the highest concentrations of selenium and total and organic mercury. No significant gender differences were observed. Growth stage influenced the accumulation of these contaminants in both organs, and hepatic concentrations increased with the body length, according to the sampling area. Molar mercury and selenium concentrations in liver were significantly correlated, with a Se:Hg ratio close to 4. The among-site differences we found may be related to differences in preferred prey, bioavailability in the marine environment, environmental conditions, or these individuals may belong to distinct populations. - This study presents some useful data on the bioaccumulation of Hg, organic Hg and Se, and their inter-element relationships in a Brazilian small cetacean.

  3. Neuromuscular action of venom from the South American colubrid snake Philodryas patagoniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro da Costa, Roberta S; Prudêncio, Luiz; Ferrari, Erika Fonseca; Souza, Gustavo H M F; de Mello, Sueli Moreira; Prianti Júnior, Antonio Carlos Guimarães; Ribeiro, Wellington; Zamunér, Stella Regina; Hyslop, Stephen; Cogo, José Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Snakes of the opisthoglyphous genus Philodryas are widespread in South America and cause most bites by colubrids in this region. In this study, we examined the neurotoxic and myotoxic effects of venom from Philodryas patagoniensis in biventer cervicis and phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations and we compared the biochemical activities of venoms from P. patagoniensis and Philodryas olfersii. Philodryas patagoniensis venom (40 microg/mL) had no effect on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations but caused time-dependent neuromuscular blockade of chick biventer cervicis preparations. This blockade was not reversed by washing. The highest concentration of venom tested (40 microg/mL) significantly reduced (pPhilodryas venoms had low esterase and phospholipase A(2) but high proteolytic activities compared to the pitviper Bothrops jararaca. SDS-PAGE showed that the Philodryas venoms had similar electrophoretic profiles, with most proteins having a molecular mass of 25-80 kDa. Both of the Philodryas venoms cross-reacted with bothropic antivenom in ELISA, indicating the presence of proteins immunologically related to Bothrops venoms. RP-HPLC of P. patagoniensis venom yielded four major peaks, each of which contained several proteins, as shown by SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that P. patagoniensis venom has neurotoxic and myotoxic components that may contribute to the effects of envenoming by this species. PMID:18455482

  4. Land-Use and Land Cover Dynamics in South American Temperate Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Paruelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Río de la Plata grasslands (RPG biogeographical region of South America, agricultural activities have undergone important changes during the last 15–18 years because of technological improvements and new national and international market conditions. We characterized changes in the landscape structure between 1985–1989 and 2002–2004 for eight pilot areas distributed across the main regional environmental gradients. These areas incorporated approximately 35% of the 7.5 × 105 km² of the system. Our approach involved the generation of land-use and land cover maps, the analysis of landscape metrics, and the computation of annual transition probabilities between land cover types. All of the information was summarized in 3383 cells of 8 × 8 km. The area covered by grassland decreased from 67.4 to 61.4% between the study periods. This decrease was associated with an increase in the area of annual crops, mainly soybean, sunflower, wheat, and maize. In some subunits of the RPG, i.e., Flat Inland Pampa, the grassland-to-cropland transition probability was high (pG→C = 3.7 × 10−2, whereas in others, i.e., Flooding Pampa, this transition probability was low (pG→C = 6.7 × 10−3. Our description of the magnitude, direction, and spatial distribution of land-use and land cover changes provides a basis from which to develop spatially explicit scenarios of land cover change.

  5. Total mercury, organic mercury and selenium in liver and kidney of a South American coastal dolphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium and total and organic mercury were determined in the liver and kidney of franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally caught in fishing nets along two Brazilian coastal areas (southeast and south). Regional differences in the concentrations of these contaminants were observed in P. blainvillei. Liver showed the highest organic and total mercury. In general, samples of individuals collected at the southern of Brazil had the highest concentrations of selenium and total and organic mercury. No significant gender differences were observed. Growth stage influenced the accumulation of these contaminants in both organs, and hepatic concentrations increased with the body length, according to the sampling area. Molar mercury and selenium concentrations in liver were significantly correlated, with a Se:Hg ratio close to 4. The among-site differences we found may be related to differences in preferred prey, bioavailability in the marine environment, environmental conditions, or these individuals may belong to distinct populations. - This study presents some useful data on the bioaccumulation of Hg, organic Hg and Se, and their inter-element relationships in a Brazilian small cetacean

  6. Adolescent Precursors of Early Union Formation among Asian American and White Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a framework that emphasizes independent versus interdependent self-construals, this study investigates the relatively low rates of early marriage and cohabitation among Asian Americans compared with Whites. Data from Waves 1 and 3 of Add Health are used to test five hypotheses that focus on family value socialization and other precursors…

  7. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  8. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  9. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  10. Conflictual Independence, Adult Attachment Orientation, and Career Indecision among Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…

  11. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  12. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  13. D2 Region of the 28S RNA Gene: A Too-Conserved Fragment for Inferences on Phylogeny of South American Triatomines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ana Letícia; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Banho, Cecília Artico; de Oliveira, Jader; da Rosa, João Aristeu; Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília

    2016-09-01

    The brasiliensis complex is composed of five triatomine species, and different approaches suggest that Triatoma lenti and Triatoma petrochiae may be the new members. Therefore, this study sought to analyze the phylogenetic relationships within this complex by means of the D2 region of the 28S RNA gene, and to analyze the degree of polymorphism and phylogenetic significance of this gene for South American triatomines. Phylogenetic analysis by using sequence fragments of the D2 domain did not allow to perform phylogenetic inferences on species within the brasiliensis complex, because the gene alignment composed of a matrix with 37 specimens exhibited only two variable sites along the 567 base pairs used. Furthermore, if all South American species are included, only four variable sites were detected, reflecting the high degree of gene conservation. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of this gene for phylogenetic reconstruction for this group of Chagas disease vectors. PMID:27382073

  14. A Spectrophotometric Study of Plumage Color in the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata, the Most Abundant South American Columbiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Javier Valdez

    Full Text Available For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species. In the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata, perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range (300-700 nm. The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis (hue, chroma and brightness show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females. The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection (e.g. the crown. The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication.

  15. A Spectrophotometric Study of Plumage Color in the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), the Most Abundant South American Columbiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Diego Javier; Benitez-Vieyra, Santiago Miguel

    2016-01-01

    For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species. In the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range (300-700 nm). The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis (hue, chroma and brightness) show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females. The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection (e.g. the crown). The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication. PMID:27213273

  16. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaicka, Ligia; Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena de; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E; Wayne, Robert K; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  17. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Chailleux

    Full Text Available The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.

  18. Acupuncture for locomotor disabilities in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamillo-Szabó, Márcia Valéria Rizzo; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Andrade, Mariana Batista

    2008-12-01

    The literature contains numerous reports of the effect of acupuncture on domestic or experimental animals, but only a few involving wild animals. This paper reports on acupuncture treatment for locomotor disabilities in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria, SPIX, 1824), an endangered land tortoise found in Brazils Cerrado region. The animal was captured and kept in an aquatic pen, subsequently developing respiratory symptoms and locomotor disabilities. The respiratory symptoms resolved in response to antibiotic treatment. However, despite the use of nutritional supplements, the motor symptoms remained unchanged. After 16 months, the tortoise was given six acupuncture sessions. No other changes were made to its environment or management. The location of the acupuncture points was transposed from canine charts. After acupuncture, the animals motor functions, which had remained unchanged during the preceding 16 months, were restored, enabling it to eat and walk unaided. The improvement persisted during 18 months follow up. The transposition of acupuncture points from canine charts is a viable alternative for chelonians. PMID:19098697

  19. Munroa argentina, a Grass of the South American Transition Zone, Survived the Andean Uplift, Aridification and Glaciations of the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilla, Leonardo D.; Anton, Ana M.; Chiapella, Jorge O.; Manifesto, María M.; Angulo, Diego F.; Sosa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The South American Transition Zone (SATZ) is a biogeographic area in which not only orogeny (Andes uplift) and climate events (aridification) since the mid-Miocene, but also Quaternary glaciation cycles had an important impact on the evolutionary history of the local flora. To study this effect, we selected Munroa argentina, an annual grass distributed in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Prepuna and Monte. We collected 152 individuals from 20 localities throughout the species’ range, ran genetic and demographic analyses, and applied ecological niche modeling. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on cpDNA and AFLP data identified three phylogroups that correspond to the previously identified subregions within the SATZ. Molecular dating suggests that M. argentina has inhabited the SATZ since approximately 3.4 (4.2–1.2) Ma and paleomodels predict suitable climate in these areas during the Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. We conclude that the current distribution of M. argentina resulted from the fragmentation of its once continuous range and that climate oscillations promoted ecological differences that favored isolation by creating habitat discontinuity. PMID:26110533

  20. Climate change and the distribution and conservation of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyckens, G. A. E.; Christie, D. A.; Domic, A. I.; Malizia, L. R.; Renison, D.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Consequently, methods for delineation, establishment and management of protected areas must consider the species' future distribution in response to future climate conditions. Biodiversity in high altitude semiarid regions may be particularly threatened by future climate change. In this study we assess the main environmental variables that best explain present day presence of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano, and model how climate change may affect the future distribution of this unique ecosystem under different climate change scenarios. These woodlands are dominated by Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), a species that forms unique biological communities with important conservation value. Our results indicate that five environmental variables are responsible for 91% and 90.3% of the present and future P. tarapacana distribution models respectively, and suggest that at the end of the 21st century, there will be a significant reduction (56%) in the potential habitat for this species due to more arid conditions. Since it is predicted that P. tarapacana's potential distribution will be severely reduced in the future, we propose a new network of national protected areas across this species distribution range in order to insure the future conservation of this unique ecosystem. Based on an extensive literature review we identify research topics and recommendations for on-ground conservation and management of P. tarapacana woodlands.

  1. State of the Art in the Studies on Crotamine, a Cell Penetrating Peptide from South American Rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kerkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms comprise a naturally selected cocktail of bioactive peptides/proteins and other molecules, each of which playing a defined role thanks to the highly specific interactions with diverse molecular targets found in the prey. Research focused on isolation, structural, and functional characterizations of novel natural biologics (bioactive peptides/proteins from natural sources has a long way to go through from the basic science to clinical applications. Herein, we overview the structural and functional characteristics of the myoneurotoxin crotamine, firstly isolated from the South American rattlesnake venom. Crotamine is the first venom peptide classified as a natural cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptide (CPP and AMP with a more pronounced antifungal activity. In contrast to other known natural CPPs and AMPs, crotamine demonstrates a wide spectrum of biological activities with potential biotechnological and therapeutic values. More recent studies have demonstrated the selective in vitro anticancer activity of crotamine. In vivo, using a murine melanoma model, it was shown that crotamine delays tumor implantation, inhibits tumor cells proliferation, and also increases the survival of mice engrafted with subcutaneous melanoma. The structural and functional properties and also the possible biotechnological applications of minimized molecules derived from crotamine are also discussed.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American ground beetle subgenus Chilioperyphus Jeannel (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini: Bembidion Latreille).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, David R; Toledano, Luca; Sallenave, Soledad; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries and relationships of the ground beetle group Chilioperyphus Jeannel (a subgenus of the cosmopolitan genus Bembidion Latreille) are examined using DNA and morphological data. DNA sequence data from seven genes (six nuclear and one mitochondrial) indicates that Chiliopeiyphus (as newly defined) is monophyletic, and is related to the subgenera Antipetyphanes Jeannel and Plocanoperyphus Jeannel, within the South American Antiperyphanes Complex. Chilioperyphus includes two described species, B. iendocinum Jensen-Haarup and B. orregoi Germain. Beinbidion cassinense Roig-Juñent and Gianuca as well as Bembidion cuyanum Roig-Juñent and Scheibler, formerly placed in subgenus Chilioperyphus, are transferred to subgenus Antipetyphanes. Bembidion cuyanum is considered a junior synonym of B. hirtipes Jeannel. The male genitalia of Chilioperyphus is unique in having a very long flagellum that is folded twice, allowing it to fit much of its length within the walls of the median lobe. However, the brush sclerite and basal part of the flagellum are not contained within the median lobe, as they extend anterior to its base. PMID:26042310

  3. Can red flowers be conspicuous to bees? Bombus dahlbomii and South American temperate forest flowers as a case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Harms, J; Palacios, A G; Márquez, N; Estay, P; Arroyo, M T K; Mpodozis, J

    2010-02-15

    It has been argued that trichromatic bees with photoreceptor spectral sensitivity peaks in the ultraviolet (UV), blue and green areas of the spectrum are blind to long wavelengths (red to humans). South American temperate forests (SATF) contain a large number of human red-looking flowers that are reported to be visited by the bumblebee Bombus dahlbomii. In the present study, B. dahlbomii's spectral sensitivity was measured through electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. No extended sensitivity to long wavelengths was found in B. dahlbomii. The spectral reflectance curves from eight plant species with red flowers were measured. The color loci occupied by these flowers in the bee color space was evaluated using the receptor noise-limited model. Four of the plant species have pure red flowers with low levels of chromatic contrast but high levels of negative L-receptor contrast. Finally, training experiments were performed in order to assess the role of achromatic cues in the detection and discrimination of red targets by B. dahlbomii. The results of the training experiments suggest that the bumblebee relies on achromatic contrast provided by the L-receptor to detect and discriminate red targets. These findings are discussed in the context of the evolutionary background under which the relationship between SATF species and their flower visitors may have evolved. PMID:20118307

  4. Anti-platelet effect of cumanastatin 1, a disintegrin isolated from venom of South American Crotalus rattlesnake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Manuel; Lucena, Sara; Aguilar, Irma; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Salazar, Ana M; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, Maria E; Carvajal, Zoila; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-03-01

    Disintegrins have been previously described in the venom of several snake families inhibiting signal transduction, cell-cell interactions, and cell-matrix interactions and may have therapeutic potential in heart attacks, thrombotic diseases, and cancers. This investigation describes the first disintegrin isolated from South American Crotalus venom (Venezuelan rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis), which inhibits platelet adhesion to matrix proteins. C. d. cumanensis crude venom was first separated on a Sephadex G-100 column into 4 fractions (SI to SIV). Crude venom and SIII fraction significantly diminished platelet adhesion to fibrinogen (Fg) and to fibronectin (Fn). Anti-adhesive SIII fraction was further separated by DEAE-Sephacel followed by C-18 reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The platelet anti-adhesive fraction obtained was designated as cumanastatin-1. This disintegrin has a mass of 7.442 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and pI of 8.5. Cumanastatin-1 also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 158 nM. However, it did not significantly inhibit collagen and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Cumanastatin-1 considerably inhibited anti-alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin binding to platelets in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not present any effect on the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin or on P-selectin.

  5. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaicka, Ligia; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E.; Wayne, Robert K.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  6. Two New Cynodonts (Therapsida) from the Middle-Early Late Triassic of Brazil and Comments on South American Probainognathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marina Bento; Schwanke, Cibele

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new cynodonts from the early Late Triassic of southern Brazil. One taxon, Bonacynodon schultzi gen. et sp. nov., comes from the lower Carnian Dinodontosaurus AZ, being correlated with the faunal association at the upper half of the lower member of the Chañares Formation (Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin, Argentina). Phylogenetically, Bonacynodon is a closer relative to Probainognathus jenseni than to any other probainognathian, bearing conspicuous canines with a denticulate distal margin. The other new taxon is Santacruzgnathus abdalai gen. et sp. nov. from the Carnian Santacruzodon AZ. Although based exclusively on a partial lower jaw, it represents a probainognathian close to Prozostrodon from the Hyperodapedon AZ and to Brasilodon, Brasilitherium and Botucaraitherium from the Riograndia AZ. The two new cynodonts and the phylogenetic hypothesis presented herein indicate the degree to which our knowledge on probainognathian cynodonts is incomplete and also the relevance of the South American fossil record for understanding their evolutionary significance. The taxonomic diversity and abundance of probainognathians from Brazil and Argentina will form the basis of deep and complex studies to address the evolutionary transformations of cynodonts leading to mammals. PMID:27706191

  7. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Davids, Adlai; Ramlagan, Shandir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most. PMID:24054088

  8. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results: The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  9. Transgene transmission in South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen) larvae by sperm-mediated gene transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiago Collares; Vinicius Farias Campos; Fabiana Kömmling Seixas; Paulo V Cavalcanti; Odir A Dellagostin; Heden Luiz M Moreira; João Carlos Deschamps

    2010-03-01

    The silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) is an endemic American fish species. The sperm of each species has its own peculiarities and biological characteristics, which influence the success of mass DNA transfer methods. Our objective in this study was to evaluate different sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) methods to obtain transgenic silver catfish. Different treatments for the incorporation of a foreign pEGFP plasmid group were used: (1) dehydrated/rehydrated (DR), (2) dehydrated/rehydrated/electroporated (DRE), (3) electroporated (E), (4) incubated with seminal plasma (INC); and (5) incubated in the absence of seminal plasma (INCSP). Sperm motility, time of activity duration (TAD), fertilization rate (FR), hatching rate (HR) and sperm morphology were also evaluated. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity rates for the presence of the transgene were: DRE 60%; DR 40%; E 25%; INC 5% and INCSP 25%. The rates of embryo EGFP expression were: DRE 63%; DR 44%; E 34%; INC 8% and INCSP 38%. The fertilization rate in the control and DRE treatments groups were higher than in the DR group, but the E, INC and INCSP treatment groups had the lowest rate. The hatching rates of the DRE, DR and control groups were higher than in the INCSP, INC and E treatment groups ( > 0.05). There were no differences among the DRE and DR, E and DR, E and INCSP groups in expression and PCR positivity rates of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in embryos. Scanning electron microscopy also did not show any change in sperm morphology among treatment groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on transgene transmission of exogenous DNA into silver catfish larvae through SMGT technology

  10. Linking nursery nutritional status and water availability post-planting under intense summer drought: the case of a South American Mediterranean tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Ovalle JF; Arellano EC; Oliet JA; Becerra P; Ginocchio R

    2016-01-01

    Drought-avoidance traits of South American Mediterranean tree species are crucial attributes to be considered in nursery practices aimed at improving the performance of seedlings exposed to intense summer drought in dryland reforestation projects. In this study, we determined the relation between nursery fertilization doses and the development of drought-avoidance traits of the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria (Mol.) under contrasting watering regimes following post-planting. Seedlings were g...

  11. Ecological Diversity in South American Mammals: Their Geographical Distribution Shows Variable Associations with Phylogenetic Diversity and Does Not Follow the Latitudinal Richness Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Nilda Fergnani; Adriana Ruggiero

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the latitudinal gradient in species richness may be paralleled by a similar gradient of increasing functional or phylogenetic diversity is a matter of controversy. We evaluated whether taxonomic richness (TR) is informative in terms of ecological diversity (ED, an approximation to functional diversity) and phylogenetic diversity (AvPD) using data on 531 mammal species representing South American old autochthonous (marsupials, xenarthrans), mid-Cenozoic immigrants (hystrico...

  12. First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic coastal waters, with notes on the use of macrociliary patterns for beroid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Migotto, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Beroe forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 is an oceanic ctenophore with a global distribution. The present study provides the first record of Beroe forskalii for the South American Atlantic coast, including a redescription of the species and a discussion on the utility of macrociliary patterns for the correct identification of at least some beroid species, exemplified by a comparison of the macrociliary patterns of Beroe forskalii and Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821). PMID:24871741

  13. Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control ani...

  14. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua

  15. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  16. Digging Deeper: A Case Study of Farmer Conceptualization of Ecosystem Services in the American South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Courtney E.; Quinn, John E.; Halfacre, Angela C.

    2015-10-01

    The interest in improved environmental sustainability of agriculture via biodiversity provides an opportunity for placed-based research on the conceptualization and articulation of ecosystem services. Yet, few studies have explored how farmers conceptualize the relationship between their farm and nature and by extension ecosystem services. Examining how farmers in the Southern Piedmont of South Carolina discuss and explain the role of nature on their farm, we create a detail-rich picture of how they perceive ecosystem services and their contributions to the agroeconomy. Using 34 semi-structured interviews, we developed a detail-rich qualitative portrait of these farmers' conceptualizations of ecosystem services. Farmers' conceptualization of four ecosystem services: provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural are discussed, as well as articulation of disservices. Results of interviews show that most interviewees expressed a basic understanding of the relationship between nature and agriculture and many articulated benefits provided by nature to their farm. Farmers referred indirectly to most services, though they did not attribute services to biodiversity or ecological function. While farmers have a general understanding and appreciation of nature, they lack knowledge on specific ways biodiversity benefits their farm. This lack of knowledge may ultimately limit farmer decision-making and land management to utilize ecosystem services for environmental and economic benefits. These results suggest that additional communication with farmers about ecosystem services is needed as our understanding of these benefits increases. This change may require collaboration between conservation biology professionals and extension and agriculture professionals to extended successful biomass provisioning services to other ecosystem services.

  17. Digging Deeper: A Case Study of Farmer Conceptualization of Ecosystem Services in the American South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Courtney E; Quinn, John E; Halfacre, Angela C

    2015-10-01

    The interest in improved environmental sustainability of agriculture via biodiversity provides an opportunity for placed-based research on the conceptualization and articulation of ecosystem services. Yet, few studies have explored how farmers conceptualize the relationship between their farm and nature and by extension ecosystem services. Examining how farmers in the Southern Piedmont of South Carolina discuss and explain the role of nature on their farm, we create a detail-rich picture of how they perceive ecosystem services and their contributions to the agroeconomy. Using 34 semi-structured interviews, we developed a detail-rich qualitative portrait of these farmers' conceptualizations of ecosystem services. Farmers' conceptualization of four ecosystem services: provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural are discussed, as well as articulation of disservices. Results of interviews show that most interviewees expressed a basic understanding of the relationship between nature and agriculture and many articulated benefits provided by nature to their farm. Farmers referred indirectly to most services, though they did not attribute services to biodiversity or ecological function. While farmers have a general understanding and appreciation of nature, they lack knowledge on specific ways biodiversity benefits their farm. This lack of knowledge may ultimately limit farmer decision-making and land management to utilize ecosystem services for environmental and economic benefits. These results suggest that additional communication with farmers about ecosystem services is needed as our understanding of these benefits increases. This change may require collaboration between conservation biology professionals and extension and agriculture professionals to extended successful biomass provisioning services to other ecosystem services.

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Florida Atlantic Coastal Transport Study (FACTS) project 07 March 1984 - 01 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South from March 7, 1984 to September 1, 1985. Data were...

  19. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North American Coastline-South from 09 June 1982 to 06 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600133)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North American Coastline - South from 09 June 1982 to 06...

  20. CRED Simrad em3002d multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 16 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....