WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult smoking trends

  1. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  2. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  3. Trends in smoking prevalence in Danish adults, 1964-1994. The influence of gender, age, and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Gottschau, A;

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of time trends in smoking prevalence provide a better understanding of the determinants of smoking. The present study analyses changes over time in the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking in relation to sex, age, and education. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were...... effects of sex, age, education, time period, and study group on the prevalence of smoking and of heavy smoking were assessed. RESULTS: Smoking was least prevalent in women, in the oldest age group (more than 70 years), and among those with 8 years or more of school education. During the study period (from...... among the well educated. During the study period, the unadjusted prevalence of heavy smoking decreased from 52% to 38% in men, while it increased from 17% to 21% in women. The multivariate analysis showed that the time trend for heavy smoking only depended on sex, while educational attainment and age...

  4. Cigarette Smoking Trends Among U.S. Working Adult by Industry and Occupation: Findings From the 2004–2012 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hendricks, Scott A.; Jamal, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine trends in age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults by industry and occupation during 2004–2012, and to project those prevalences and compare them to the 2020 Healthy People objective (TU-1) to reduce cigarette smoking prevalence to ≤12%. Methods We analyzed the 2004–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Respondents were aged ≥18 years working in the week prior to the interview. Temporal changes in cigarette smoking prevalence were assessed using logistic regression. We used the regression model to extrapolate to the period 2013–2020. Results Overall, an estimated 19.0% of working adults smoked cigarettes: 22.4% in 2004 to 18.1% in 2012. The largest declines were among workers in the education services (6.5%) industry and in the life, physical, and social science (9.7%) occupations. The smallest declines were among workers in the real estate and rental and leasing (0.9%) industry and the legal (0.4%) occupations. The 2020 projected smoking prevalences in 15 of 21 industry groups and 13 of the 23 occupation groups were greater than the 2020 Healthy People goal. Conclusions During 2004–2012, smoking prevalence declined in the majority of industry and occupation groups. The decline rate varied by industry and occupation groups. Projections suggest that certain groups may not reach the 2020 Healthy People goal. Consequently, smoking cessation, prevention, and intervention efforts may need to be revised and strengthened, particularly in specific occupational groups. PMID:25239956

  5. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  6. Trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, body mass index and alcohol consumption in Danish adults with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Snorgaard, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: In recent decades there has been an increased focus on non-pharmacological treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking, body mass index (BMI), and alcohol consumption reported in 2000, 2005 and 2010 by Danish subjects...... with diabetes. METHODS: Data comprised level of leisure time PA (inactive; moderate active; medium active; high active); smoking; BMI; and alcohol consumption, provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys. Participants older than 45 years with or without diabetes were included from cross...... reduced from 27.2% to 16.4%, p=0.015, in women with diabetes. In men with diabetes, BMI increased from 27.2 ± 4.0 to 28.6 ± 5.1 kgm(-2), p=0.003, and men who exceeded the maximum recommendation for alcohol consumption increased from 9.4% to 19.0%, p=0.007. The leisure time PA level was reduced in...

  7. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics Alcohol Use and Older Adults COPD Lung Cancer The information in this topic was provided by the National Cancer Institute Topic last reviewed: June 2014 For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older ...

  8. Time trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index in Danish adults with and without COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Molsted, Stig

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Promotion of a healthy lifestyle and non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has received great attention in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking......, alcohol consumption, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Participants aged 25 years or older with and without COPD were included in the analyses. RESULTS: In multiple logistic regression analyses, odds ratio (OR) of being physically active in the leisure time in 2010 compared to 2000 was 1.70 (95.......001, and 0.74 kg · m(-2) (0.63-0.86), p < 0.001, in participants with and without COPD. The COPD participants with higher levels of education and/or living in a marriage or a relationship were more likely to be physically active, non-smoking and not exceeding the recommended alcohol limits. CONCLUSION...

  9. Smoking Prevalence in Adults, 1984-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Adult smoking prevalence in California, males and females aged 18+, starting in 1984. Caution must be used when comparing the percentages of smokers over time as...

  10. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  11. Smoking and All-cause Mortality in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Gellert, Carolin;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality in ...

  12. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2014 (Nation) By Gender 1 Men are ...

  13. Smoking among pregnant women in Cantabria (Spain: trend and determinants of smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariscal Marcial

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cantabria (Spain has one of the highest prevalence of smoking among women of the European Union. The objectives are to assess the trend of smoking during pregnancy in a five-year period and the determinants of smoking cessation during pregnancy in Cantabria. Methods A 1/6 random sample of all women delivering at the reference hospital of the region for the period 1998–2002 was drawn, 1559 women. Information was obtained from personal interview, clinical chart, and prenatal care records. In the analysis relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Multivariable analysis was carried out using stepwise logistic regression. Results Smoking prior to pregnancy decreased from 53.6% in 1998 to 39.4% in 2002. A decrease in smoking cessation among women smoking at the beginning of pregnancy was observed, from 37.3% in 1998 to 20.6% in 2002. The mean number of cigarettes/day (cig/d before pregnancy remained constant, around 16 cig/d, whereas a slight trend to increase over time was seen, from 7.7 to 8.9 cig/d. In univariate analysis two variables favoured significantly smoking cessation, although they were not included in the stepwise logistic regression analysis, a higher education level and to be married. The logistic regression model included five significant predictors (also significant in univariate analysis: intensity of smoking, number of previous pregnancies, partner's smoking status, calendar year of study period (these four variables favoured smoking continuation, and adequate prenatal care (which increased smoking cessation. Conclusion The frequency of smoking among pregnant women is very high in Cantabria. As smoking cessation rate has decreased over time, a change in prenatal care programme on smoking counseling is needed. Several determinants of smoking cessation, such as smoking before pregnancy and partner's smoking, should be also addressed by community programmes.

  14. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; FRIEND, KAREN B.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 mid...

  15. Tendencias del tabaquismo en adultos en México entre 1988 y 2008 Adult smoking trends in Mexico between 1988 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Franco-Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las tendencias, durante las pasadas dos décadas, de varios indicadores de tabaquismo y explorar si las políticas de contención de la epidemia de tabaquismo en México, implantadas desde 2004, han tenido ya un impacto favorable hacia 2008. Material y métodos. Se analizan las tendencias de datos comparables sobre la prevalencia de nunca fumadores y de fumadores diarios, utilizando las cinco encuestas nacionales de adicciones realizadas entre 1988 y 2008. En el análisis se incluye a personas entre 18 y 65 años de edad y se realizan ajustes por índice de marginación, edad y sexo. Resultados. Entre 2002 y 2008 aumentó en 19.6% el porcentaje de nunca fumadores y disminuyó 24.8% el porcentaje de fumadores diarios. Estos cambios fueron más importantes en los hombres que en las mujeres, pero en estas últimas se redujo en el mismo periodo en 21.1% el promedio de cigarrillos fumados a diario y se incrementó en 13.9% el porcentaje que había intentado dejar de fumar. La prevalencia de fumadores diarios se ha reducido más aceleradamente desde 2005, lo que coincide con el incremento en los impuestos a los cigarrillos. Conclusiones. Se observa en México, durante las dos últimas décadas, una tendencia al incremento del porcentaje de nunca fumadores y a la reducción del porcentaje de fumadores diarios. A pocos años de haberse implantado en México políticas de control del tabaquismo más efectivas, en particular el incremento en los impuestos al tabaco, se observan ya resultados favorables.Objetive. To describe the changes in several smoking indicators occurred in Mexico over the past two decades and to explore if the tobacco control policies implemented in Mexico, since 2004, show a favorable impact on tobacco consumption by 2008. Materials and Methods. We analyze trends in comparable data on the prevalence of never and daily smokers, using the five National Addiction Surveys conducted between 1988 and 2008. The analysis

  16. Smoking cessation and mortality trends among two United States populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstrom, J E

    1999-09-01

    The long-term impact of smoking cessation on mortality is assessed among two U.S. populations: a large cohort of U.S. veterans aged 55-64 at entry and followed from 1954 through 1979 and the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS) cohort of a national sample of U.S. adults aged 55-74 at entry and followed from 1971 through 1992. Direct and indirect survey data indicate that 50-70% of those who were current cigarette smokers at entry had quit smoking during the 19- to 26-year follow-up periods. The impact of smoking cessation on mortality among the cigarette smokers as a whole has been assessed by determining the time trend of the relative risk (RR) of death and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the cigarette smokers compared with never-smokers over the entire follow-up period in both cohorts. The total death rates for the 1954/57 U.S. veteran smokers as a whole (63,159 males) have converged only slightly toward those of never-smokers, from RR = 1.65 (1.58-1.72) during 1954-1959 to RR = 1.61 (1.58-1.63) during 1954-1979. The lung cancer death rates for 1954/57 smokers as a whole have not converged toward those of never-smokers, with RR = 10.89 (7.70-15.41) during 1954-1959 and RR = 11.10 (9.78-12.61) during 1954-1979. The total death rates for the 1971-1975 NHEFS smokers as a whole (694 males and 1116 females) have not converged toward those of never-smokers. For males, RR = 1.92 (1.46-2.52) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.96 (1.63-2.36) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 1.79 (1.31-2.46) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.79 (1.47-2.17) during 1971-1992. The lung cancer death rates have diverged, based on small numbers of deaths. For males, RR = 15.76 (2.06-120.61) during 1971-1982 and RR = 22.20 (5.31-92.92) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 2.92 (0.57-15.06) during 1971-1982 and RR = 4.74 (1.94-11.59) during 1971-1992. These trends are contrary to the substantial convergence predicted by the death rate trends among U.S. veterans who were former smokers at the

  17. Shisha smoking: An emerging trend in Southeast Asian nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srinivas S; Yaldrum, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Shisha smoking, with origins in India and the Arab world, is today spreading rapidly into other parts of the world. One such region is Southeast Asia,where shisha bars are commonly seen around educational institutions. The general public remains unaware of the harmful effects of shisha smoking and many assume that shisha smoking does not involve tobacco. Shisha smoking is not adequately addressed in the current anti-tobacco policies by most governments of Southeast Asia. Only a few countries have already taken concrete measures of including shisha smoking in anti-tobacco policies. We highlight the emerging trend of shisha smoking in Southeast Asian nations, associated health effects, and the loopholes in the governmental policies that are being exploited by the vendors of shisha. While most research, taxation policies, and health education on tobacco-related products have focused on cigarettes, additional methods of tobacco delivery become more common. PMID:25995064

  18. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N;

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  19. Smoking trends among women in India: Analysis of nationally representative surveys (1993–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Singh, Rana J.; Lal, Pranay

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern among policy makers with respect to alarming growth in smoking prevalence among women in the developing countries. Methods: Using disaggregated data from five nationally representative surveys: Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2010, National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) 2004–2005, NFHS-II 1998-1999, National Sample Survey (NSS) 52nd Round 1995–1996, NSS 50th Round 1993-1994 we analysed female smoking trend from 1993-2009. Tobacco use among females was monitored for almost two decades focusing on gender, literacy, and state-specific trends among respondents aged >15 years. Results: Smoking use among women has doubled from 1.4% to 2.9% (P < 0.001) during the period 2005-2010. The prevalence of smoking increased with decrease in per capita State Gross Domestic Product and literacy status for both men and women. Conclusion: As the overall smoking prevalence grows, female smoking is growing at a faster rate than smoking among males, which is an emerging concern for tobacco control in India and requires the attention of policymakers. PMID:25422803

  20. Smoking trends among women in India: Analysis of nationally representative surveys (1993-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Goel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern among policy makers with respect to alarming growth in smoking prevalence among women in the developing countries. Methods: Using disaggregated data from five nationally representative surveys: Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2010, National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III 2004-2005, NFHS-II 1998-1999, National Sample Survey (NSS 52 nd Round 1995-1996, NSS 50 th Round 1993-1994 we analysed female smoking trend from 1993-2009. Tobacco use among females was monitored for almost two decades focusing on gender, literacy, and state-specific trends among respondents aged >15 years. Results: Smoking use among women has doubled from 1.4% to 2.9% (P < 0.001 during the period 2005-2010. The prevalence of smoking increased with decrease in per capita State Gross Domestic Product and literacy status for both men and women. Conclusion: As the overall smoking prevalence grows, female smoking is growing at a faster rate than smoking among males, which is an emerging concern for tobacco control in India and requires the attention of policymakers.

  1. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  2. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Adult Cancer Survivors in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin Joo; Park, Hyun Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated not only with increased risk of cancer incidence, but also influences prognosis, and the quality of life of the cancer survivors. Thus, smoking cessation after cancer diagnosis is necessary. However, smoking behavior among Korean cancer-survivors is yet unknown. Materials and Methods We investigated the smoking status of 23770 adults, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the Health Interview Survey of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Exami...

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Smoking, Nebraska, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Thomas; Buss, Bryan; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Mannino, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a public health risk; the prevalence of smoking among adults in Nebraska is 18.4%. Studies indicate that maltreatment of children alters their brain development, possibly increasing risk for tobacco use. Previous studies have documented associations between childhood maltreatment and adult health behaviors, demonstrating the influence of adverse experiences on tobacco use. We examined prevalence and associations between adverse childhood experiences and smoking among N...

  4. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gendall

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies.Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05. The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18 with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  5. Measurement of environmental tobacco smoke exposure among adults with asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, M D; Katz, P P; Yelin, E. H.; Hammond, S K; Blanc, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    Because the morbidity and mortality from adult asthma have been increasing, the identification of modifiable environmental exposures that exacerbate asthma has become a priority. Limited evidence suggests that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) may adversely affect adults with asthma. To study the effects of ETS better, we developed a survey instrument to measure ETS exposure in a cohort of adults with asthma living in northern California, where public indoor smoking is limited. To...

  6. Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.  Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/5/2013.

  7. Socio-economic and Psychosocial Determinants of Smoking and Passive Smoking in Older Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong Mei; HU Zhi; ORTON Sophie; WANG Jia Ji; ZHENG Jian Zhong; QIN Xia; CHEN Ruo Ling

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of socio-economic and psychosocial factors with active and passive smoking in older adults. Methods Using a standard interview method, we examined random samples of 6071 people aged≥60 years in 5 provinces of China during 2007-2009. Results World age-standardised prevalence for current and former smoking in men was 45.6% and 20.5%, and in women 11.1%and 4.5%. Current smoking reduced with older age but increased with men, low socioeconomic status (SES), alcohol drinking, being never-married, pessimistic and depressive syndromes. Former smoking was associated with men, secondary school education, a middle-high income, being a businessman, being widowed, less frequencies of visiting children/relatives and friends, and worrying about children. Among 3774 never-smokers, the prevalence of passive smoking was 31.5%, and the risk increased with women, low SES, alcohol drinking, being married, having a religious believe, and daily visiting children/relatives. There were sex differences in the associations, and an interaction effect of education and income on smoking and passive smoking. Conclusion Older Chinese had a higher level of smoking and passive smoking than those in high income countries, reflecting China’s failures in controlling smoking. The associations with low SES and different psychosocial aspects and sex differences suggest preventative strategies for active and passive smoking.

  8. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives. PMID:26235612

  9. Exposure to Smoke During Development: Fetal Programming of Adult Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergen Hugo T

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well established that smoking has potent effects on a number of parameters including food intake, body weight, metabolism, and blood pressure. For example, it is well documented that 1 there is an inverse relationship between smoking and body weight, and 2 smoking cessation is associated with weight gain. However, there is increasing evidence that smoking can exert deleterious effects on energy balance through maternal exposure during fetal development. Specifically, there appears to be an increased incidence of metabolic disease (including obesity, and cardiovascular disease in children and adults that were exposed to smoke during fetal development. The present review will examine the relationship between maternal smoke and adult disease in offspring. The epidemiological studies highlighting this relationship will be reviewed as well as the experimental animal models that point to potential mechanisms underlying this relationship. A better understanding of how smoking effects changes in energy balance may lead to treatments to ameliorate the long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to smoke as well as increasing the health benefits associated with smoking cessation.

  10. An Updated Global Picture of Cigarette Smoking Persistence among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, Jonathan P.; Barondess, David A.; Storr, Carla L.; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee N.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Takeshima, Tadashi; Tomov, Toma; Williams, David R.; Anthony, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cross-national variance in smoking prevalence is relatively well documented. The aim of this study is to estimate levels of smoking persistence across 21 countries with a hypothesized inverse relationship between country income level and smoking persistence. Methods Data from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative were used to estimate cross-national differences in smoking persistence–the proportion of adults who started to smoke and persisted in smoking by the date of the survey. Result There is large variation in smoking persistence from 25% (Nigeria) to 85% (China), with a random-effects meta-analytic summary estimate of 55% with considerable cross-national variation. (Cochran's heterogeneity Q statistic=6,845; p<0.001). Meta-regressions indicated observed differences are not attributable to differences in country income level, age distribution of smokers, or how recent the onset of smoking began within each country. Conclusion While smoking should remain an important public health issue in any country where smokers are present, this report identifies several countries with higher levels of smoking persistence (namely, China and India). PMID:23626929

  11. The contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position to adult obesity and smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Chris; Graham, Hilary; Due, Pernille;

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US.......Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US....

  12. The Effect of Smoke-Free Air Law in Bars on Smoking Initiation and Relapse among Teenagers and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ce Shang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Existing evidence has shown that most smoking uptake and escalation occurs while smokers are teenagers or young adults. Effective policies that reduce smoking uptake and escalation will play an important role in curbing cigarette smoking. This study aims to investigate the effect of smoke-free air (SFA) laws in bars on smoking initiation/relapse while controlling for other confounders. Methods: The national longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) from 1997–2009 was linked to s...

  13. Body mass index and regular smoking in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Nelson, Elliot C; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between relative body weight and transition from experimentation to regular smoking in young adult women. In the current study, data from 2494 participants in wave 4 of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (aged 18-29years) who reported ever smoking a cigarette were analyzed using logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) at time of interview was categorized according to CDC adult guidelines, and regular smoking was defined as having ever smoked 100 or more cigarettes and having smoked at least once a week for two months in a row. Since the OR's for the overweight and obese groups did not differ significantly from one another in any model tested, these groups were combined. Forty-five percent of women who had ever smoked had become regular smokers. Testing of interactions between potential covariates and levels of the categorical BMI variable revealed a significant interaction between overweight/obesity and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; p<0.001) associated with regular smoking. Among women reporting CSA, the association between overweight/obesity and having become a regular smoker was negative (n=374; OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28-0.81). Both underweight and overweight/obesity were positively associated with transition to regular smoking among women who did not report CSA (n=2076; OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35 and OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.20, respectively). These results suggest that experiencing CSA alters the association between BMI and regular smoking in women who have experimented with cigarettes. PMID:20634004

  14. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  15. Adult smoking trends in Mexico: an analysis of the Mexican National Addiction Surveys Tendencias del tabaquismo en adultos en México: análisis de las Encuestas Nacionales de Adicciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Franco-Marina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe and explain the recent trends of four smoking indicators in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparable data from four national probabilistic household surveys (1988-1992 were analyzed using statistical techniques for survey data. The analysis was restricted to persons aged 18 to 65 years. Changes in indicators compare 2002 to 1988. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of never smokers increased by 10% and increased more in men. The prevalence of daily smokers shows a 16% reduction in men and reductions are concentrated in persons 45 and older. The average number of cigarettes smoked daily shows a 31% decrease in men and no decrease in women. The prevalence of heavy smokers (one pack or more is 60% higher in women in 2002. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico does not closely follow the WHO model for the evolving tobacco epidemic. Nevertheless, the tobacco epidemic is in an advanced stage, with a decreasing prevalence in men and a rising one in women and the young. The improvement in the smoking situation was mainly due to the country’s economic stagnation during the analyzed period and to public awareness of the dangers of tobacco exposure rather than to a sound control policy on the part of the state.OBJETIVO: Describir y explicar las tendencias recientes de cuatro indicadores de tabaquismo en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizan datos comparables de las cuatro Encuestas Nacionales de Adicciones (1988-1992 mediante técnicas estadísticas adecuadas para datos muestrales. En el análisis se incluye a personas entre 18 y 65 años de edad. Los cambios en indicadores comparan 2002 con respecto a 1988. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia en ambos sexos de nunca fumadores aumentó 10% pero dicho aumento ocurrió solo en hombres. La prevalencia de fumadores diarios se redujo un 16% en hombres y en ambos sexos las reducciones más importantes ocurrieron en las personas de 45 y más años. El promedio de cigarrillos diarios se redujo en 31% en hombres

  16. IMPACT OF SMOKING ON ADULTS LUNG AGE AND VENTILATORY FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Farouk Helal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a large body of evidence exists on the effect of smoking on lung age and pulmonary function, much less attention has been dedicated to using these effects as an effective strategy in smoking cessation. Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of smoking on lung age and ventilatory function in adult Saudi in order to use these effects in a future strategy for smoking cessation. Methods: Eighty one smoker students with their mean age 23.88 ± 2.7 years were enrolled in this study. Every student performed a ventilatory function tests in order to measure lung age, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at the end of the first second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and peak expiratory flow rate PEFR. Results: The result showed significant deterioration in the mean value of FEV1, PEFR and the estimated lung age and a non-significant difference in the mean values of FVC. Conclusion: Smoking has a significant effect on ventilaroty function and deteriorating estimated lung age.

  17. Trends in smoking behaviour between 1985 and 2000 in nine European countries by education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Giskes (Katrina); C. Borrell (Carme); R. Prattala; G. Costa (Giuseppe); E. Dahl; J.A.A. Dalstra; S. Platt; J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); B. Federico; U. Helmert (Uwe); P.O. Ostergren; K. Judge; K. Moussa; N.K. Rasmussen; E. Lahelma; A.E. Kunst (Anton); J. Benach (Joan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To examine whether trends in smoking behaviour in Western Europe between 1985 and 2000 differed by education group. DESIGN: Data of smoking behaviour and education level were obtained from national cross sectional surveys conducted between 1985 and 2000 (a pe

  18. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mohan Palipudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. Results: The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9% (male-58.2% and female-51.7%, in workplace (63% (male-67.8% and female-30.4%, and in any public place (57.8% (male-90.4% and female-25.1% 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3% and health care facilities (5.8%; however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%, and restaurants (27.6%. SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Conclusions: Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on

  19. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers’ and smokers’ smoking expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline C. Fitz; Kaufman, Annette; Philip J. Moore

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectatio...

  20. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Homes and Vehicles Among US Adults, 2009–2010

    OpenAIRE

    King, Brian A.; Dube, Shanta R; Homa, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of US states and localities have implemented comprehensive policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in all indoor areas of public places and worksites. However, private settings such as homes and vehicles remain a major source of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for many people. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of voluntary smoke-free rules and SHS exposure in homes and vehicles among US adults. Methods We obtained data from the 2009–2010 Natio...

  1. Influence of genes and family environment on adult smoking behavior assessed in an adoption study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Holst, C; Prescott, E;

    2001-01-01

    Twin studies suggest that genetic factors influence smoking behavior. However, in these studies, genetic and environmental influences may be confounded. We examined whether smoking behavior of adoptees is associated with smoking behavior in adoptive and biological relatives in a design in which t...... associated with adoptive or biological parents' status as current smokers. This study of smoking behavior in adult adoptees and their biological and adoptee family supports the finding in twin studies of a genetic influence on smoking within the same generation....

  2. Diverging trends of chronic bronchitis and smoking habits between 1998 and 2010

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    Accordini Simone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No study has been carried out on the time trend in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB in recent years, despite its clinical and epidemiological relevance. We evaluated the trend in CB prevalence during the past decade among young Italian adults. Methods A screening questionnaire was mailed to general population samples of 20–44 year-old subjects in two cross-sectional surveys: the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA (1998/2000; n = 18,873, 9 centres and the screening stage of the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study (2007/2010; n = 10,494, 7 centres. CB was defined as having cough and phlegm on most days for a minimum of 3 months a year and for at least 2 successive years. The prevalence rates and the risk ratios (RRs for the association between CB and each potential predictor were adjusted for gender, age, season of response, type of contact, cumulative response rate, and centre. Results CB prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 12.1-12.9% in 1998/2000 and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.7-13.7% in 2007/2010; it increased among never smokers (from 7.6 to 9.1%, p = 0.003, current light smokers ( Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in current smoking, CB prevalence did not vary among young Italian adults. The temporal pattern of CB prevalence can only be partly explained by the increase of unemployment/premature retirement, asthma and allergic rhinitis, and suggests that other factors could have played a role.

  3. Tobacco smoking – popularity and main trends on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bartoń

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.

  4. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from ot...

  5. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young ...

  6. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981179

  7. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  8. Trends in smoking and quitting in China from 1993 to 2003: National Health Service Survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Juncheng; Cai, Min; Gao, Jun; Tang, Shenglan; Xu, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective China has about 350 million smokers, more commonly men. Using data from National Health Service Surveys conducted in 1993, 1998 and 2003, we (i) estimated trends in smoking prevalence and cessation according to sociodemographic variables and (ii) analysed cessation rates, quitting intentions, reasons for quitting and reasons for relapsing. Methods Data were collected from approximately 57 000 households and 200 000 individuals in each survey year. Household members > 15 years of age were interviewed about their smoking habits, quitting intentions and attitudes towards smoking. We present descriptive data stratified by age, sex, income level and rural versus urban residence. Findings In China, current smoking in those > 15 years old declined 60–49% in men and 5–3.2% in women over 1993–2003. The decline was more marked in urban areas. However, heavy smoking (≥ 20 cigarettes daily) increased substantially overall and doubled in men. The average age of uptake also dropped by about 3 years. In 2003, 7.9% of smokers reported intending to quit, and 6% of people who had ever smoked reported having quit. Of former smokers, 40.6% quit because of illness, 26.9% to prevent disease and 10.9% for financial reasons. Conclusion Smoking prevalence declined in China over the study period, perhaps due to the combined effect of smoking cessation, reduced uptake in women and selective mortality among men over 40 years of age. However, heavy smoking increased. People in China rarely quit or intend to quit smoking, except at older ages. Further tobacco control efforts are urgently needed, especially in rural areas. PMID:20931062

  9. Has the curve been broken? Trends between 1994 and 2006 in smoking and alcohol use among Greenlandic school children

    OpenAIRE

    Niclasen, Birgit; Schnohr, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the development of smoking and alcohol use among Greenlandic schoolchildren and propose future preventive strategies. Study design. National survey in schoolchildren grade 6-11. Methods. Analysis of data from the 1994, 1998, 2 002 and 2 006 Health Behaviour in SchoolAged Children (HBSC) surveys in Greenland. Trends in the prevalence of the categories never having smoked, non-smoking, daily smoking, never tried alcohol, never been drunk and been drunk 4 times or more wer...

  10. Does Having Children Affect Adult Smoking Prevalence and Behaviours at Home?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson AK

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking prevalence and smoking behaviours have changed in society and an increased awareness of the importance of protecting children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is reported. The aim of this study was to find out if smoking prevalence and smoking behaviours were influenced by parenthood, and if differences in health-related quality of life differed between smoking and non-smoking parents. Methods Questionnaires were sent to a randomly selected sample, including 1735 men and women (20–44 years old, residing in the south-east of Sweden. Participation rate was 78%. Analyses were done to show differences between groups, and variables of importance for being a smoker and an indoor smoker. Results Parenthood did not seem to be associated with lower smoking prevalence. Logistic regression models showed that smoking prevalence was significantly associated with education, gender and mental health. Smoking behaviour, as well as attitudes to passive smoking, seemed to be influenced by parenthood. Parents of dependent children (0–19 years old smoked outdoors significantly more than adults without children (p Conclusion As smoking behaviour, but not smoking prevalence, seems to be influenced by parenthood, it is important to consider the effectiveness of commonly used precautions when children's risk for ETS exposure is estimated.

  11. Determinants of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Vietnamese Adults: California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey, 2007–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Whitney L.; van Erp, Brianna; Stoddard, Pamela; Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2014-01-01

    Because smoking rates are high among Vietnamese men, we used data from the 2007–2008 California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey to estimate secondhand smoke exposure and associated risk factors among Vietnamese nonsmokers. Thirty percent of nonsmokers were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, 8% at work, 52% in bars, and 67% on a college campus. At home, odds of SHS exposure were greater for women than for men and for adults aged less than 40 years than for older adults. Odds of SHS...

  12. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  13. Trends in Adult and Continuing Education in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Ekkehard Nuissl

    2011-01-01

    This contribution summarizes the most important trends in adult education in Germany as they were elaborated in a secondary analytic research project of the DIE (Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung – German Institute for Adult Education) in 2007. According to the study, participation in continuing education in Germany is increasing after long years of decrease, even though, overall, financing of adult education has been further reduced. Cooperation as well as competition between continu...

  14. Effect of military deployment in operational area on the trend of smoking among troops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify effect of military deployment in operational area on trend of smoking cigarettes among troops. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was carried out in an Army Brigade deployed in Operation Al-Mizan, Swat, from Jan to March 2014. Material and Methods: Whole troops of an army brigade deployed in operation Al-Mizan, Swat were the part of present study. Total strength of brigade comprised of 1850 troops. Out of these 1850, officers constituted 53 (2.86%) and rest 1797 (97.14%) were Junior Commissioned officers (JCOs), noncommissioned officers (NCOs) and soldiers. All ranks other than officers were collectively termed as soldiers. All the individuals were given structured questionnaire to fill. The information was gathered on variables like age, rank, unit, education, duration of deployment in operational area, habit of smoking, intensity of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked daily) and change in the habit and intensity of smoking after being deployed in the operational area. Information was also gathered from the individuals about the reasons for change in the habit (starting or stopping smoking) and intensity of smoking after deployment in operational area. Forty nine individuals with less than 6 months duration in operational area were excluded. All the other officers and soldiers (1801) having served more than 6 months in the operational area were included in the study. Results: There were total 1801 individuals included in the study. Officers constituted 52 (2.88%) of the total and rest 1749 (97.12%) were soldiers. The mean age of officers was 26.34 ± 4.6 years and mean age of soldiers was 27.92 ± 4.5 years. The overall frequency of smoking in officers and soldiers in the operational area came out to be 29.6%, however the overall frequency of smoking in these individuals before coming to operational area was 26.8%. There were 3 officers and 47 soldiers who started smoking in the operational area

  15. Relationship between nicotine dependence and temperament and character traits in adults with cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Zincir, Selma Bozkurt; Zincir, Nihat; Sünbül, Esra Aydın; Kaymak, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health problems today. Nicotine dependence and difficulty to cessate smoking are assumed to be originating both from psychopharmacological effects of nicotine and genetic and environmental factors. The other possible factor which mediates to keep on smoking behavior may be personality traits. Aims: To find out the associations between temperament and character traits and nicotine dependence levels among the adult outpatients presen...

  16. Determinants of daily smoking in Turkish young adults in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhulst Frank C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As little is known about the determinants of smoking in large ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and other Western European countries, we studied the determinants of smoking young adult offspring of Turkish migrants to the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 439 Turkish adults (18–28 y in 2003. Smokers were compared with never smokers for five groups of determinants: demographic and socioeconomic factors, behavioral and emotional problems, psychosocial factors, and cultural factors. Associations were measured by prevalence rate ratios. Results Prevalences for men were 51% for daily smoking, 12% for former smoking, and 38% for never smoking. For women they were 44%, 11%, and 47%, respectively. Without adjustment for other determinants, higher prevalence was associated with: emotional problems, boredom, life events, and being male; and, specifically among women, with low self-esteem and having children. The strongest determinants of daily smoking In multivariate models were alcohol use and demographic and socio-economic factors. Of the cultural factors only strong Muslim identification was associated with lower smoking prevalence. Conclusion The high prevalence of smoking warrants action. Many of the well-known determinants of smoking in Western countries were also important among young adults from ethnic minorities. Women with children and people of a low educational level deserve special attention.

  17. Time trends of smoking cessation analyzed with six mathematical survival models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elketroussi, M; Fan, D P

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, six mathematical models were applied to model time trends of smoking cessation. Both statistical and non-statistical methods were used and included the exponential, ideodynamic, log-logistic, Pareto, sickle and Weibull models. All models included the possibilities of both permanent abstinence and relapse to smoking. Time trends from all models were compared with data from the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) program. The Pareto, log-logistic, Weibull and ideodynamic models yielded satisfactory fits to the data while the sickle and exponential models did not. Even though the data used in this paper were not sufficient to distinguish among these four models, the methodology will be useful for further narrowing the model choices as additional data for the testing become available. PMID:2050432

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  19. Four Arguments against the Adult-Rating of Movies with Smoking Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Millett; Polansky, Jonathan R.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Christopher Millett and colleagues examine government inaction on the WHO recommendation for adult content ratings in films with smoking, and highlight the generous film industry subsidies these countries provide.

  20. Young LGBT Adults Are Target of FDA Stop-Smoking Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults is the real and perceived social stigma, discrimination and anxiety they experience when they "come out," ... More Health News on: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Health Smoking Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  1. Variations in the Gender Ratio of Multiple Sclerosis Linked to Converging Smoking Trends in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios, Natalia; Alonso, Alvaro; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Ascherio, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    male to female ratios in smoking behavior obtained from national statistics. In addition, in separate analyses we also examined in depth the within-country trends of smoking and MS for two populations in which statistics on MS are readily available: Canada and Denmark. RESULTS: We show that the gender...... trends in Canada and Denmark show that, depending on model assumptions, smoking could explain 20 to 89% of the change in the female to male ratios of MS. CONCLUSIONS/RELEVANCE: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that smoking increases the risk of MS. Smoking trends might partially explain...... changes in the MS gender ratio. Supported by: Dr. Ascherio: funding for studies of MS from NIH/NINDS. Natalia Palacios: Training Program in Environmental Epidemiology funded under grant no. T32 ES07069. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Society finances the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. Category - MS...

  2. Smoking and Diet in Healthy Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in Tehran, Iran, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Heydari; Farrokh Heidari; Mahmoud Yousefifard; Mostafa Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking and unhealthy diet are two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between these two risk factors amongst healthy adults 30-60 years old in Tehran, Iran. Methods Overall, 2602 healthy adults 30 to 60 years old in Tehran were studied. The demographic characteristics, anthropometric and smoking status of the participants were questioned. The frequency of consumption of red meat, white meat, f...

  3. Determinants of daily smoking in Turkish young adults in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst Frank C; Crijnen Alfons AM; van der Ende Jan; van Oort Floor VA; Mackenbach Johan P; Joung Inez MA

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background As little is known about the determinants of smoking in large ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and other Western European countries, we studied the determinants of smoking young adult offspring of Turkish migrants to the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 439 Turkish adults (18–28 y) in 2003. Smokers were compared with never smokers for five groups of determinants: demographic and socioeconomic factors, behavioral and emotional problems, psychosocial factor...

  4. Vital Signs – Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-05

    This podcast is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.  Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/5/2013.

  5. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  6. Trends and Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Among HIV Seropositive and Seronegative Men: The Multicenter Aids Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar-Khaleel, Wajiha Z; Cook, Robert L; Shoptaw, Steven; Surkan, Pamela; Stall, Ronald; Beyth, Rebecca J; Teplin, Linda A; Plankey, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We measured the trend of cigarette smoking among HIV-seropositive and seronegative men over time from 1984 to 2012. Additionally, we examined the demographic correlates of smoking and smoking consumption. Six thousand and five hundred and seventy seven men who have sex with men (MSM) from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) were asked detailed information about their smoking history since their visit. Prevalence of smoking and quantity smoked was calculated yearly from 1984 to 2012. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to estimate prevalence ratios of smoking in univariate and multivariate models. In 2012, 11.8 and 36.9 % of men who were enrolled in the MACS before 2001 or during or after 2001 smoked cigarettes, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, black, non-Hispanic, lower education, enrollment wave, alcohol use, and marijuana use were positively associated with current smoking in MSM. HIV serostatus was not significant in the multivariate analysis. However, HIV variables, such as detectable viral load, were positively associated. Though cigarette smoking has declined over time, the prevalence still remains high among subgroups. There is still a need for tailored smoking cessation programs to decrease the risk of smoking in HIV-seropositive MSM. PMID:26093780

  7. Smoking behaviors in a community-based cohort of HIV-infected indigent adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayaraghavan, M.; Penko, J; Vittinghoff, E.; Bangsberg, DR; Miaskowski, C; Kushel, MB

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study of a community-based cohort of HIV-infected indigent adults to examine smoking behaviors and factors associated with quitting. We assessed "hardcore" smoking behaviors associated with a low probability of quitting. Of the 296 participants, 218 were current smokers (73.6 %). The prevalence of "hardcore" smoking was high: 59.6 % smoked ≥15 cigarettes per day, and 67.3 % were daily smokers. During the study interval, 20.6 % made at least one quit attempt. Of the...

  8. Prevalence of smoking and incidence of initiation in the Latin American adult population: the PLATINO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdivia Gonzalo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PLATINO project was launched in 2002 in order to study the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Latin America. Because smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, detailed data on it were obtained. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of smoking and incidence of initiation among middle-aged and older adults (40 years or older. Special emphasis was given to the association between smoking and schooling. Methods PLATINO is a multicenter study comprising five cross-sectional population-based surveys of approximately 1,000 individuals per site in Sao Paulo (Brazil, Santiago (Chile, Mexico City (Mexico, Montevideo (Uruguay and Caracas (Venezuela. The outcome variable was smoking status (never, former or current. Current smokers were those who reported to smoke within the previous 30 days. Former smokers were those who reported to quit smoking more than 30 days before the survey. Using information on year of birth and age of smoking onset and quitting, a retrospective cohort analysis was carried out. Smoking prevalence at each period was defined as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period plus those who were already smokers at the beginning of the period, divided by the total number of subjects. Incidence of smoking initiation was calculated as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period divided by the number of non-smokers at its beginning. The independent variables included were sex, age and schooling. Results Non-response rates ranged from 11.1% to 26.8%. The prevalence of smoking ranged from 23.9% (95%CI 21.3; 26.6 in Sao Paulo to 38.5% (95%CI 35.7; 41.2 in Santiago. Males and middle-aged adults were more likely to smoke in all sites. After adjustment for age, schooling was not associated with smoking. Using retrospective cohort analysis, it was possible to detect that the highest prevalence of smoking is found between 20–29 years, while the

  9. Social Network Characteristics and Daily Smoking among Young Adults in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Rostila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have shown that friends’ smoking behavior is strongly associated with an individual’s own risk for smoking. However, few studies have examined whether other features of social networks, independently or conjointly with friends’ smoking behavior, may influence the risk for smoking. Because it is characterized by the growing importance of friendship networks, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may constitute a particularly relevant period on which to focus our investigation of network influences on smoking behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the consequences of peer smoking as well as other network characteristics (friends’ other health behaviors, relationship content, and structural aspects of the network on the risk for smoking among young adults. The data was based on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish 19-year-olds carried out in 2009 (n = 5,695 with a response rate of 51.6%. Logistic regression was the primary method of analysis. The results show that having a large percentage of smokers in one’s network was by far the most important risk factor for daily smoking. The risk of daily smoking was 21.20 (CI 14.24. 31.54 if 76%–100% of the network members smoked. Having a high percentage of physically active friends was inversely associated with daily smoking. The risk of smoking was 0.65 (CI 0.42. 1.00 if 76%–100% of the network members were physically active. No main associations between the other network characteristics (relationship content and structural aspects of the network and smoking were found. However, there was an interaction between the percentage of smokers in the network and relationship content (i.e., trust, relationship quality and propensity to discuss problems: positive relationship content in combination with peer smoking may increase the risk of smoking. Women with a high percentage of smokers in their networks were also at higher risk of daily

  10. Disparities in smoking and acute respiratory illnesses among sexual minority young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John; Jarrett, Traci; Horn, Kimberly

    2010-10-01

    Morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking remain major public health issues. Particularly, smoking has been associated with increased risk of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Literature indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) persons smoke more than the general population. Additionally, young adulthood is the second-most prevalent period of smoking uptake. Given this constellation of risk correlates, the authors examined whether sexual minority young adults experience increased odds of ARIs (i.e., strep throat, bronchitis, sinus infection, and asthma). Using cross-sectional data from the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment, prevalence estimates of smoking were generated among young adult (age range, 18-24 years) lesbian/gay, bisexual, unsure, and heterosexual college students (n = 75,164). Nested logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether smoking status mediated the risk of ARIs among sexual orientation groups. Compared with heterosexual smokers, gay/lesbian smokers were more likely to have had strep throat, and bisexual smokers were more likely to have had sinus infection, asthma, and bronchitis. Whereas smoking mediated the risk of ARI, sexual minorities still showed higher odds of ARIs after adjustment for smoking. Sexual minority young adults may experience respiratory health disparities that may be linked to their higher smoking rates, and their higher rates of smoking lend urgency to the need for cessation interventions. Future studies are needed to explore whether chronic respiratory disease caused by smoking (i.e., lung cancer, COPD, emphysema) disproportionately affect sexual minority populations. PMID:20496074

  11. Socioeconomic position and smoking behaviour in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Holstein, B; Avlund, K;

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: The associations between smoking and various socioeconomic indicators may have different implications and causes, which may also vary according to sex and birth cohort. This study analyses how two dimensions of socioeconomic position, an individual (education) and a structural (occupation....... Logistic regression was used to analyse the influence of education and occupation on smoking behaviour controlling for sex and birth cohort. RESULTS: In cohorts born after 1930 ever and current smoking were related to years of school education and current occupation. The prevalences of ever and current...... smoking were highest among the least educated, unskilled workers, unemployed persons and persons who received welfare benefits. A significant interaction between birth cohort and education indicated that the educational difference in ever and current smoking increased significantly with increasing year of...

  12. Racial/Ethnic and Nativity Patterns of U.S. Adolescent and Young Adult Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Becky; Lariscy, Joseph T; Hummer, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    We document racial/ethnic and nativity differences in U.S. smoking patterns among adolescents and young adults using the 2006 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (n=44,202). Stratifying the sample by nativity status within five racial/ethnic groups (Asian American, Mexican American, other Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white), and further by sex and age, we compare self-reports of lifetime smoking across groups. U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites, particularly men, report smoking more than individuals in other racial/ethnic/nativity groups. Some groups of young women (e.g., foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans, foreign-born and U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and foreign-born blacks) report extremely low levels of smoking. Foreign-born females in all of the 25-34 year old racial/ethnic groups exhibit greater proportions of never smoking than their U.S.-born counterparts. Heavy/moderate and light/intermittent smoking is generally higher in the older age group among U.S.-born males and females whereas smoking among the foreign-born of both sexes is low at younger ages and remains low at older ages. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of considering both race/ethnicity and nativity in assessments of smoking patterns and in strategies to reduce overall U.S. smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable health disparities. PMID:25339787

  13. Evaluation of smoking genotoxicity in Turkish young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse G Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that cigarette smoke is a DNA damage causitive agent on exfoliative buccal mucosa and urothelial cells and peripheric blood lymphocytes of young smokers, but it has most destructive effect on urothelial cells.

  14. Maternal smoking during pregnancy predicts adult offspring cardiovascular risk factors - evidence from a community-based large birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Mamun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with offspring obesity. However, little is known about whether maternal smoking in pregnancy predicts other offspring cardiovascular risk factors including waist circumference (WC, waist-hip-ratio (WHR, pulse rate (PR, systolic (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. METHODS: We studied a sub-sample of 2038 (50% males young adults who were born in Brisbane, Australia to investigate the prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with young adult cardiovascular risk factors. We compared offspring mean BMI, WC, WHR, SBP, DBP and PR and the risk of being overweight and obese at 21 years by three mutually exclusive categories of maternal smoking status defined as never smoked, smoked before and/or after pregnancy but not in pregnancy or smoked during pregnancy and other times. RESULTS: Offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy had greater mean BMI, WC, WHR and PR and they were at greater risk of being obese at 21 years compared to offspring of those mothers who never smoked. The mean of these risk factors among those adult offspring whose mothers stopped smoking during pregnancy, but who then smoked at other times in the child's life, were similar to those mothers who never smoked. These results were independent of a range of potential confounding factors. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest a prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring obesity as well as PR in adulthood, and reinforce the need to persuade pregnant women not to smoke.

  15. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  16. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by ho...

  17. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (...

  18. Smoking and diet in healthy adults: a cross-sectional study in tehran, iran, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking and unhealthy diet are two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between these two risk factors amongst healthy adults 30-60 years old in Tehran, Iran.Overall, 2602 healthy adults 30 to 60 years old in Tehran were studied. The demographic characteristics, anthropometric and smoking status of the participants were questioned. The frequency of consumption of red meat, white meat, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, bread and cereals and fast food were questioned to be daily, weekly, monthly, once every 6 months or yearly and categorized as "healthy" or "unhealthy".Of the 2602 participants, 974 (37.4% had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their life time and continued daily or smoked occasionally. Smokers significantly consumed more fast food and white meat but less fruit and vegetables and dairy product (P<0.0001. Totally, 586 (22.5% consumed "unhealthy" diet. A positive association between cigarette smoking and unhealthy diet (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.40-2.03 were found. After adjusting the analysis for the effect of age, education and gender, the odds ratio of consuming unhealthy diet for the smoker increased to 1.83 (1.50, 2.25 compared with non-smoker.Our study found a noticeable association between cigarette smoking and unhealthy diet. Smoking cessation and changing diet program for smokers is recommended.

  19. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people (“everyday” and “everyday or sometimes”) were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. Results While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62–1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79–4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Conclusions Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality

  20. The nicotine addiction and the assessment of the effectiveness of smoking cessation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szpringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is currently one of the most significant health and social issues. The consequences of smoking affect both individuals as well as entire society. Addiction to nicotine has been recognised as a major environmental factor fostering numerous diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of and motives for quitting smoking among the adult inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The authors were also interested in the level of nicotine addiction. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 209 inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski who were former or ongoing smokers. The study employed a survey technique, with the authors’ own questionnaire as a study tool. The Fagerström test determining addiction to nicotine (nicotine dependence was used too. Results and conclusions: The study revealed that smoking is a serious social issue. The majority of respondents had quit smoking (63.1%, 19.1% had never made any attempt to quit, whereas in 17.7% of respondents the cessation was unsuccessful and they returned to smoking. All respondents were aware of health-affecting consequences of smoking, but were unable to list more than four smoking-related diseases (lung and tongue cancers, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Attempts to cease smoking were made by 81,0% of the survey participants, mostly for health and financial reasons (42.0% and 21.3% respectively. Cessation of smoking resulted in numerous side effects, such as irritability (36.4%, outbursts of anger (20.7%, gaining weight (20.4% or binge eating of sweets (11.7%. The factor preventing respondents from quitting smoking was stress (29,0%.

  1. The effect of obesity on spirometry tests among healthy non-smoking adults

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The effects of obesity on pulmonary functions have not been addressed previously among Saudi population. We aim to study the effects of obesity on spirometry tests among healthy non-smoking adults. Methods A cross sectional study conducted among volunteers healthy non-smoking adults Subjects. We divided the subjects into two groups according to their BMI. The first group consisted of non-obese subjects with BMI of 18 to 24.9 kg/m2 and the second group consisted of obese ...

  2. Cigarette Smoking Among Urban American Indian Adults - Hennepin and Ramsey Counties, Minnesota, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jean; Poupart, John; Rhodes, Kristine; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Lamont, Genelle; D'Silva, Joanne; Erickson, Darin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, it was estimated that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among American Indians was 36.5%, the highest of all racial/ethnic groups in the continental United States (1). Among American Indians, considerable cultural and geographic variation in cigarette smoking exists. Smoking prevalence among American Indians is lowest in the Southwest and highest in the Upper Midwest/Northern Plains (2). Little information is available about tobacco use among urban American Indians, who might not have ever lived on a reservation or be enrolled in or affiliated with a tribe. In Minnesota, a significant proportion of American Indians reside in urban areas. Among Minnesota's residents who identify as American Indian alone or in combination with another race, 30% live in Hennepin County and Ramsey County, which encompass Minneapolis and St. Paul, respectively (collectively known as the Twin Cities). The predominant tribes (Ojibwe [Chippewa] and Dakota/Lakota/Nakota [Sioux]) traditionally have used locally grown tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), red willow, and other plants for religious ceremonies, although nonceremonial tobacco is often substituted for traditional plants. To assess prevalence of cigarette smoking among this population, it is important to distinguish ceremonial tobacco use (smoked or used in other ways) from nonceremonial tobacco use. To obtain estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among American Indians in Hennepin and Ramsey counties, the American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey was administered to 964 American Indian residents in 2011, using respondent-driven sampling. Among all participants, 59% were current smokers, 19% were former smokers, and 22% had never smoked. Approximately 40% of employed participants reported that someone smoked in their workplace area during the preceding week. High prevalences of cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among urban American Indians in Minnesota underscores the need for a comprehensive and culturally

  3. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shona C.; Chen, Shan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rokicki, Slawa; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in public multi-unit housing (MUH) is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear. Methods We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.02 ng/ml) and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng). Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine. Results Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively). Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml), with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%). TSE in the home, car, and other peoples’ homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15–0.25), while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161), a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6%) compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4%) (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3) (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%). Conclusions Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population. PMID:27171392

  4. Self-administration of nicotine and cigarette smoke extract in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellner, Candice A; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2016-10-01

    Although smoking initiation typically occurs during adolescence, most preclinical studies of tobacco use involve adult animals. Furthermore, their focus is largely on nicotine alone, even though cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether aqueous constituents in cigarette smoke affect acquisition of nicotine self-administration during adolescence in rats. Adolescent and adult male rats, aged postnatal day (P) 25 and 85, respectively, were food trained on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule, then allowed to self-administer one of 5 doses of nicotine (0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, or 30 μg/kg) or aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with equivalent nicotine content. Three progressively more difficult schedules of reinforcement, FR1, FR2, and FR5, were used. Both adolescent and adult rats acquired self-administration of nicotine and CSE. Nicotine and CSE similarly increased non-reinforced responding in adolescents, leading to enhanced overall drug intake as compared to adults. When data were corrected for age-dependent alterations in non-reinforced responding, adolescents responded more for low doses of nicotine and CSE than adults at the FR1 reinforcement schedule. No differences in adolescent responding for the two drugs were seen at this schedule, whereas adults had fewer responses for CSE than for nicotine. However, when the reinforcement schedule was increased to FR5, animals dose-dependently self-administered both nicotine and CSE, but no drug or age differences were observed. These data suggest that non-nicotine tobacco smoke constituents do not influence the reinforcing effect of nicotine in adolescents. PMID:27346207

  5. Child Maltreatment and Adult Cigarette Smoking: A Long-term Developmental Model

    OpenAIRE

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine: (a) child maltreatment’s association with young adult daily cigarette smoking, (b) variations in this association by gender, and (c) mediators of this association. Methods For all study participants (N = 1,125, 94% African American), data from multiple sources (e.g., child welfare records) were collected prospectively at child, adolescent, and young adult time points. Authors enlisted multivariate probit regression for objectives a and b versus exploratory and confirmato...

  6. Smoking trends amongst young doctors of a tertiary care hospital - Mayo Hospital, Lahore - Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Health Organization cites tobacco use as one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. Tobacco is the number one preventable cause of disability and death. Tobacco has many negative health effects which many of the smokers know them well. In Pakistan tobacco use is common in general public and the health professionals don't lack behind this habit. To study the smoking trends amongst young doctors of Mayo Hospital. Questionnaire based descriptive study. This study was conducted at the Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital - A tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Out of 250 doctors, 180 (72%) were males and 70 (28%) were female. Amongst 180 male doctors 97 (53.88%) were smokers and 83 (46.21%) were non smokers. Amongst 70 female doctors 8 (11.43%) were smokers and 62 (88.57%) were non smokers. Smoking is common among male young doctors but it is less common in female doctors. (author)

  7. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001?2011

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    Melanie A Wakefield

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375. The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%, with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001 to 17.3% (in June 2011. The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

  8. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  9. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

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    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  10. Obesity trends of adults in northern Iran (2006-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Veghari; Mehdi Sedaghat; Siavash Maghsodlo; Samieh Banihashem; Pooneh Moharloei; Abdolhamid Angizeh; Ebrahim Tazik; Abbas Moghaddami

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main aim of study was to determine obesity trends between 2006 to 2010 among adults aged 15-65 years in northern Iran. Material and Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study that enrolled 6,487 subjects chosen by multi stage cluster random sampling. Subjects were randomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20 cases. Weight and height were measured and socio-demographic factors recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Cochran’s test ...

  11. Evaluation of smoking genotoxicity in Turkish young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Ayse G.; Durakbasi-Dursun, H. Gul; Demirel, Sennur; Acar, Aynur

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the past few decades, it has been widely known in developed countries that tobacco is dangerous, but it is still insufficiently realized how big these dangers really are. AIMS: To determine and evaluate micronuclei (MN) frequencies of young smokers and nonsmokers in three different tissues (peripheric blood lymphoctes, buccal mucosa, and exfoliative urothelial cells) at the same time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MN assay was performed on buccal mucosa, urothelial cells, and peripheric blood lymphocyte samples obtained from 15 healthy male smokers (>5 pack-years) and 15 healthy male nonsmoker controls who had not been exposed to any known genotoxic agent. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The statistical differences between smoker and nonsmoker groups were calculated by using student t test. The differences between smoker-group tissues were compared by ANOVA. RESULTS: It was found that MN frequency (mean value ± standard deviation) in oral mucosa cells from smokers and controls were 1.20 ± 0.22% and 0.26 ± 0.10%; in urothelial exfoliative cells, 1.29 ± 0.28% and 0.12 ± 0.08%; in peripheric blood lymphocytes, 1.53 ± 0.23% and 0.38 ± 0.12%, respectively. The mean MN frequencies in buccal mucosa, urothelial exfoliative cells, and peripheric blood lymphocytes were significantly higher in smokers than in those of controls (P<0.05). All tissues were affected from smoking, but the most destructive effect was seen in urothelial cells of smokers (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that cigarette smoke is a DNA damage causitive agent on exfoliative buccal mucosa and urothelial cells and peripheric blood lymphocytes of young smokers, but it has most destructive effect on urothelial cells. PMID:21814336

  12. Disparities in Adult Cigarette Smoking - United States, 2002-2005 and 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Brandi N; Garrett, Bridgette E; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2016-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has substantially declined since the release of the 1964 Surgeon General's report on smoking and health,* disparities in tobacco use exist among racial/ethnic populations (1). Moreover, because estimates of U.S. adult cigarette smoking and tobacco use are usually limited to aggregate racial or ethnic population categories (i.e., non-Hispanic whites [whites]; non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans [blacks]; American Indians and Alaska Natives [American Indians/Alaska Natives]; Asians; Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders [Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders]; and Hispanics/Latinos [Hispanics]), these estimates can mask differences in cigarette smoking prevalence among subgroups of these populations. To assess the prevalence of and changes in cigarette smoking among persons aged ≥18 years in six racial/ethnic populations and 10 select subgroups in the United States,(†) CDC analyzed self-reported data collected during 2002-2005 and 2010-2013 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (2) and compared differences between the two periods. During 2010-2013, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among the racial/ethnic populations and subgroups ranged from 38.9% for American Indians/Alaska Natives to 7.6% for both Chinese and Asian Indians. During 2010-2013, although cigarette smoking prevalence was relatively low among Asians overall (10.9%) compared with whites (24.9%), wide within-group differences in smoking prevalence existed among Asian subgroups, from 7.6% among both Chinese and Asian Indians to 20.0% among Koreans. Similarly, among Hispanics, the overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 19.9%; however, within Hispanic subgroups, prevalences ranged from 15.6% among Central/South Americans to 28.5% among Puerto Ricans. The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among men than among women during both 2002-2005 (30.0% men versus 23.9% women) and 2010-2013 (26.4% versus 21.1%) (p<0.05). These

  13. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

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    Steven Moylan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette

  14. Point-of-care urine tests for smoking status and isoniazid treatment monitoring in adult patients.

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    Ioana Nicolau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to isoniazid (INH preventive therapy (IPT is an impediment to effective control of latent tuberculosis (TB infection. TB patients who smoke are at higher risk of latent TB infection, active disease, and TB mortality, and may have lower adherence to their TB medications. The objective of our study was to validate IsoScreen and SmokeScreen (GFC Diagnostics, UK, two point-of-care tests for monitoring INH intake and determining smoking status. The tests could be used together in the same individual to help identify patients with a high-risk profile and provide a tailored treatment plan that includes medication management, adherence interventions, and smoking cessation programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 200 adult outpatients attending the TB and/or the smoking cessation clinic were recruited at the Montreal Chest Institute. Sensitivity and specificity were measured for each test against the corresponding composite reference standard. Test reliability was measured using kappa statistic for intra-rater and inter-rater agreement. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore possible covariates that might be related to false-positive and false-negative test results. IsoScreen had a sensitivity of 93.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 80.3, 98.2 and specificity of 98.7% (94.8, 99.8. IsoScreen had intra-rater agreement (kappa of 0.75 (0.48, 0.94 and inter-rater agreement of 0.61 (0.27, 0.90. SmokeScreen had a sensitivity of 69.2% (56.4, 79.8, specificity of 81.6% (73.0, 88.0, intra-rater agreement of 0.77 (0.56, 0.94, and inter-rater agreement of 0.66 (0.42, 0.88. False-positive SmokeScreen tests were strongly associated with INH treatment. CONCLUSIONS: IsoScreen had high validity and reliability, whereas SmokeScreen had modest validity and reliability. SmokeScreen tests did not perform well in a population receiving INH due to the association between INH treatment and false-positive Smoke

  15. Obesity trends of adults in northern Iran (2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Veghari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main aim of study was to determine obesity trends between 2006 to 2010 among adults aged 15-65 years in northern Iran. Material and Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study that enrolled 6,487 subjects chosen by multi stage cluster random sampling. Subjects were randomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20 cases. Weight and height were measured and socio-demographic factors recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Cochran’s test were used to compare the groups and statistical significance was defined as p value < 0.05. Obesity was defined by WHO classification based on Body Mass Index (BMI criteria. Results: Generally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were seen in 31.5% and 23.0%, respectively. It was significantly common in women more than men (31.8% vs 14.1% (P=0.001. The mean of BMI significantly decreased 0.079 kg/m2 in men (P=0.004 and 0.059 kg/m2 in women (P=0.030 in each of years. In urban areas, obesity decreased in men aged group 15-35 year (P=0.016 and women aged 35-50 years (P=0.003, but in rural areas, obesity increased in men aged 50-65 years (P=0.003 and in women 15-35 years (P=0.025. Conclusion: Alarming rates of obesity were found in Iranian northern adults and a rising trend was shown in rural area whereas it was contrary in urban area. Associated factors leading to the obesity increase need to be identified and national action are necessary to reduce the adult obesity.

  16. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

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    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  17. Secular Trends and Smoke-Free Policy Development in Rural Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Parker, Lindsay; Lindgreen, Janine; Riker, Carol; Kercsmar, Sarah; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and pulmonary disorders. Smoke-free policies are the most effective way to prevent exposure to SHS. A 5-year community-based randomized control trial (RCT) is in progress to assess factors associated with smoke-free policy development in rural communities. Considering…

  18. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. Results We found that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention to individual users. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping method, with a clear link between behavioral goals, theoretical methods, and practical strategies and materials, proved useful for systematic development of a digital smoking cessation intervention for adults. PMID:27101996

  19. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

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    B. Routy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8 vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented.

  20. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routy, B; Hoang, J; Gruber, J

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8) vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented. PMID:25789184

  1. Smoking cessation among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: preferred cessation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Overland, Simon; Aarø, Leif E

    2011-04-01

    Despite generally declining smoking rates, particularly among young people, a large number of people remain smokers and many young people still pick up smoking. Helping smokers quit therefore remains a high priority for the public health sector. In the present study we examined adolescents and young adults' preferences regarding cessation methods and if these differed between genders and depended on smoking frequency. The data came from a nationally representative survey in Norway among 16-20 year olds. Only regular (weekly and daily) smokers were included in the statistical analyses (n = 509, 51% females). The findings suggest that the majority of both male (83.6%) and female (78.4%) smokers would prefer to quit smoking without help. More males than females reported that they would consider using snus as a cessation aid, while females more often reported willingness to attend cessation classes or use brochures and diaries as cessation aids. Both males and females had similar preferences albeit low, regarding the use of health services, nicotine gum or patches and internet and sms-services to quit smoking. Daily smokers would more often than weekly smokers prefer to attend cessation classes, seek help from health services, use nicotine gum or patches or use brochures and diaries. In contrast, weekly smokers preferred to use snus as a cessation aid more often than daily smokers. Identifying and making appropriate cessation methods attractive may lead to successful quitting and consequently public health gains. PMID:21054423

  2. Cigarette Taxes and Older Adult Smoking: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Johanna Catherine; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Kenkel, Donald S

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use the Health and Retirement Study to test whether older adult smokers, defined as those 50 years and older, respond to cigarette tax increases. Our preferred specifications show that older adult smokers respond modestly to tax increases: a $1.00 (131.6%) tax increase leads to a 3.8-5.2% reduction in cigarettes smoked per day (implied tax elasticity = -0.03 to -0.04). We identify heterogeneity in tax elasticity across demographic groups as defined by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status and by smoking intensity and level of addictive stock. These findings have implications for public health policy implementation in an aging population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25721732

  3. Cotinine-assessed second-hand smoke exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferis, B. J.; Lawlor, D.A.; Ebrahim, S.; Wannamethee, S.G.; Feyerabend, C; Doig, M; McMeekin, L.; Cook, D. G.; Whincup, P H

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure measured by serum cotinine is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk among contemporary older British adults. Design Prospective population-based study with self-reported medical history and health behaviours. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum cotinine and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Setting Primary care centres in 25 British towns in 1998–2001. Patients 8512 60–79-year-ol...

  4. Effect of cigarette smoking on evolution of ventilatory lung function in young adults: an eight year longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakkola, M S; Ernst, P.; Jaakkola, J J; N'gan'ga, L W; Becklake, M R

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data on the quantitative effects of cigarette smoking on lung function in young adults. These effects are important in the understanding of the early stages of chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: A longitudinal study over eight years was carried out to estimate quantitatively the effect of cigarette smoking on ventilatory lung function in young adults and to examine the possibility that the effect is modified by other factors. The study population were 15 to 40 yea...

  5. Reference equations for lung function screening of healthy never-smoking adults aged 18-80 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, S P; Kuster, D; Schindler, C.; Rochat, M K; Braun, J; Held, L.; Brändli, O

    2008-01-01

    The need for updated spirometric reference values to be used on European populations is widely acknowledged, especially for subjects aged >70 yrs. Their reference values are generally based on extrapolations. The aim of the present study was to calculate reference values for lung function screening of healthy, never-smoking adults aged 18-80 yrs and to compare them with the most widely used reference equations. Results of screening spirometry of 8,684 healthy, never-smoking adults were used t...

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles© 2008 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24825031

  7. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (±5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26901590

  8. [Economic factors and gender differences in the prevalence of smoking among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Nelson Leitão

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study that seeks to identify the relevant economic variables in the prevalence of smoking in a group of 37 countries. The chosen methodology was to estimate multiple linear regression using the least square approach. The econometric exercise is performed by gender, seeking to examine whether there are different motivations for cigarette smoking among the adult population of men and women. The results show that although taxation is a common element in the decision of both sexes, the decision to smoke among women is also sensitive to price and other social and cultural factors. These factors were based on the fact that women who live in countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveal a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette consumption. The evidence presented in this study, therefore, reinforces the perception that taxation is in fact a crucial tool in the control of smoking, but in the specific case of women, higher prices and the promotion of greater equality with men, are also important. PMID:26816163

  9. A dose-response relationship between maternal smoking during late pregnancy and adult intelligence in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Sanders, Stephanie A; Reinisch, June Machover

    2005-01-01

    An association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and cognitive and behavioural development has been observed in several studies, but potential effects of maternal smoking on offspring adult intelligence have not been investigated. The objective of the present study was to investigate a potential association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring intelligence in young adulthood. Adult intelligence was assessed at the mean age of 18.7 years by a military draft board intelligence test (Borge Priens Prove) for 3044 singleton males from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort with information regarding maternal smoking during the third trimester coded into five categories (about 50% of the mothers were smokers). The following potential confounders were included as covariates in multivariable analyses: parental social status and education, single mother status, mother's height and age, number of pregnancies, and gestational age. In separate analyses, birthweight and length were also included as covariates. Maternal cigarette smoking during the third trimester, adjusted for the seven covariates, showed a negative association with offspring adult intelligence (P=0.0001). The mean difference between the no-smoking and the heaviest smoking category amounted to 0.41 standard deviation, corresponding to an IQ difference of 6.2 points [95% confidence interval 0.14, 0.68]. The association remained significant when further adjusted for birthweight and length (P=0.007). Both unadjusted and adjusted means suggested a dose-response relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring adult intelligence. When subjects with missing data were excluded, essentially the same results were obtained in the reduced sample (n=1829). These results suggest that smoking during pregnancy may have long-term negative consequences on offspring adult intelligence. PMID:15670102

  10. Acute post cessation smoking. A strong predictive factor for metabolic syndrome among adult Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the influence of tobacco exposure in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in the adult Saudi population. Six hundred and sixty-four adults (305 males and 359 females) aged 25-70 years were included in this cross-sectional study conducted at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, between June 2006 and May 2007. We classified the participants into non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers (defined as complete cessation for 1-2 years). All subjects were screened for the presence of MS using the modified American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and World Health Organization (WHO) definitions. Metabolic syndrome was highest among ex-smokers regardless of definition used. Relative risk for ex-smokers (95% CI: 2.23, 1.06-4.73) was more than twice in harboring MS as compared to non-smokers (95% CI: 2.78, 1.57-4.92) (p=0.009). Acute post-cessation smoking is a strong predictor for MS among male and female Arabs. Smoking cessation programs should include a disciplined lifestyle and dietary intervention to counteract the MS-augmenting side-effect of smoking cessation. (author)

  11. Trends in the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease among Adults with Diabetes in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Al-Lawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate trends in the estimated 10-year risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD among adults with diagnosed diabetes in Oman. In addition, the effect of hypothetical risk reductions in this population was examined. Methods: Data from 1,077 Omani adults aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes were collected and analysed from three national surveys conducted in 1991, 2000 and 2008 across all regions of Oman. The estimated 10-year CVD risk and hypothetical risk reductions were calculated using risk prediction algorithms from the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE, Diabetes Epidemiology Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic Criteria in Europe (DECODE and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH risk tools. Results: Between 1991 and 2008, the estimated 10-year risk of CVD increased significantly in the total sample and among both genders, regardless of the risk prediction algorithm that was used. Hypothetical risk reduction models for three scenarios (eliminating smoking, controlling systolic blood pressure and reducing total cholesterol identified that reducing systolic blood pressure to ≤130 mmHg would lead to the largest reduction in the 10-year risk of CVD in subjects with diabetes. Conclusion: The estimated 10-year risk for CVD among adults with diabetes increased significantly between 1991 and 2008 in Oman. Focused public health initiatives, involving recognised interventions to address behavioural and biological risks, should be a national priority. Improvements in the quality of care for diabetic patients, both at the individual and the healthcare system level, are required.

  12. The Trend of Smoking Behavior and its Relation to Health Knowledge among Medical and Literature Colleges

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    Wijdan Akram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Smoking is a major public health problem all around the world, especially in developing countries when smoking behavior among college students is a major concern to the society. Object of this study to estimate the prevalence of smoking among university students of medical and literature colleges and to assess the students’ knowledge about the health effects of smoking and attitudes towards public action against smoking. Design: cross sectional study. Setting: Al-Kindy Medical College, Baghdad Medical College and Baghdad literature collage/University of Baghdad for the period from first of March till 1st of April 2010. Approach: A random sample of 252 students of 1st and 2nd stages at the above colleges, 124 Literature students and 128 students in two Medical colleges, had been selected and subjected to the modified Arabic version of the World Health Organization (WHO, standard questionnaire for young people, to study their knowledge, attitudes and practices of smoking. All the information elicited from the questionnaire was collected and analyzed. The statistical differences between literature students and medical students were estimated. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 58, 60% for cigarettes, 65, 56% for sheesha for Medical and Literature students respectively. Friends were the main source of the first cigarette (69%, (62% among students of the literature college and those of the medical college, respectively. followed by parents. Level of awareness of the injurious nature of smoking found to be very high among both medical 100% and literature students 94%, while (74% of medical student and only (51.3% of Literature student Agree with prevention of smoking advertising activity. Conclusion/Recommendations: Smoking still constitutes a major problem among Baghdad university students, in spite of high level of awareness to it’s hazards. This may call for an urgent action to be undertaken by health sectors in

  13. Respiratory effects of secondhand smoke exposure among young adults residing in a "clean" indoor air state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David J; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John D; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures and its association with respiratory symptoms in a sample of young adults residing in a state with a partial clean indoor air law. A cross-sectional telephone survey of Florida households and a single state University was conducted in 2005. Enrolled participants between 18 and 24 years of age completed a 15-20 min interview assessing past and current SHS exposure and current respiratory symptoms (n = 1858). Approximately 60% of the sample were female; nearly 70% were non-Hispanic white, 10% were non-Hispanic Black, and 11% were Hispanic. Over two-thirds reported completing at least some college; 23% reported smoking in the past month. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported visiting a bar or nightclub which exposed them to SHS in the previous month; nearly half (46%) reported SHS exposure while riding in automobiles; 15% reported occupational SHS exposure; and nearly 9% reported living with at least one smoker. In multivariable models, personal smoking behavior, parental smoking history, and exposure to SHS in automobiles and in bars or nightclubs were significantly associated with increased reports of respiratory symptoms. Despite residing in a "clean" indoor air state, the majority of surveyed young adults continue to report exposure to SHS, especially in automobiles and in bars, and these exposures adversely impact respiratory health. All municipalities should pursue clean indoor air legislation which does not exempt bars and restaurants. Educational campaigns directed at reducing SHS exposure in motor vehicles also are needed. PMID:18246415

  14. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland

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    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001 and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001 who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.

  15. Trends in smoking among university students between 2005-2012 in Sakarya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvur, Tuncay Muge; Cinar, Nursan; Oncel, Selim; Akduran, Funda; Dede, Cemile

    2014-01-01

    Turkey protects its entire population of 75 million people with all the MPOWER measures at the highest level. The aim of this study is to make a comparison of smoking and addiction data obtained from Sakarya University students in 2005-6 and 2012-13. A total of 4,200 (2,500 and 1,700 for each academic year) students at Sakarya University in Sakarya, Turkey, were randomly selected for sampling purposes. The selected participants represented Sakarya University students. Data were collected using a pretested anonymous and confidential, self-completed questionnaire which took 15-20 minutes to complete and Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence. Chi-squared, Spearman correlation, and binary logistic regression tests were used to define associations, if any. The level of significance was kept at alpha=0.05. Smoking prevalence dropped by 8.5% (from 26.9% to 18.5%). Male gender, older age, high family smoking index, low self-rated school success, and high peer smoker proportion were common variables that have correlation with smoking status. In the binary logistic regression test the highest contributor to "being a smoker" was found to be the rate of peer smokers. Having all friends smoking puts the student a a 47.5 and 58.0 times higher risk for smoking for males and females, respectively. Our results suggest an admirable diminution of smoking prevalence among Sakarya University students, which can be attributed to MPOWER protection. PMID:24969888

  16. Family History of Lung Cancer and Contemplation of Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Madlensky, Lisa; Bousman, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the United States has decreased, but current rates remain above nationally set objectives. A family history of lung cancer may motivate adult smokers to quit and contribute to further reductions in smoking prevalence. Methods We surveyed adult smokers (N = 838) interviewed as part of the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. We examined the association between family history of lung cancer and smoking cessation precontemplation (no...

  17. Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eek Frida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden followed the trajectory which could be expected from the stages of the global smoking epidemic model in the women's countries of origin, or not. Methods Delivery data on pregnancies in Sweden from 1982 to 2001 was collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. From a total of 2,224,469 pregnant women during this period, all immigrant pregnant women (n = 234,731 were selected to this study. A logistic regression analysis and attributable fraction were used to investigate the association between smoking during pregnancy and the socioeconomic differences among immigrant women. Results Overall, the prevalence of smoking among pregnant immigrant women decreased from 30.3% in 1982 to 11.0% in 2001, albeit with remarkable differences between educational levels and country of origin. The greatest decline of absolute prevalence was recorded among low educated women (27,9% and among other Nordic countries (17,9%. In relative terms, smoking inequalities increased between educational levels regardless of country of origin. The odds ratios for low educational level for women from other Nordic countries increased from 4.9 (95% CI 4.4-5.4 in 1982 to 13.4 (95% CI 11.2-16.2 in 2001, as compared to women with high education in the same group. Further, the total attributable fraction for educational difference increased from 55% in 1982 to 62% in 2001, demonstrating the strong effect of educational attainment. Conclusions Our hypothesis that the socioeconomic time trend of smoking based on the stage of the world wide tobacco epidemic model

  18. Cigarette smoke and adverse health effects: An overview of research trends and future needs

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sibu P.; Deepak K. Bhalla; Whayne, Thomas F.; Gairola, CG

    2007-01-01

    A large volume of data has accumulated on the issues of tobacco and health worldwide. The relationship between tobacco use and health stems initially from clinical observations about lung cancer, the first disease definitively linked to tobacco use. Almost 35 years ago, the Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Health Service reviewed over 7000 research papers on the topic of smoking and health, and publicly recognized the role of smoking in various diseases, including lung cance...

  19. The Impact of Smoking in Adolescence on Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms and the Relationship between Infant Vulnerability Factors for Anxiety and Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms: The TOPP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–1...

  20. Research and development in adult education. Fields and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Esther

    2010-01-01

    The importance of adult education has been growing steadily, whether it's with regard to migration, societal inclusion, the work place, or the professionalization of adult educators themselves. By providing an international perspective on the most important research issues in adult education, this study guide offers a wealth of up-to-date information for anyone interested in this diverse field. The book is designed as a text book providing didactic material for discussion and further explorat...

  1. Informal Adult Learning and the Internet. Trends and Issues Alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    The Internet seems an ideal medium for fostering and supporting informal adult learning because it allows adults to seek out and use resources independently, control the pace and direction of learning, and talk to and consult others. Because it provides access to information, encourages meaningful interaction with information or material, and…

  2. The fMRI BOLD response to unisensory and multisensory smoking cues in nicotine-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Bernadette M; Uhde, Thomas W; Brady, Kathleen T; McClernon, F Joseph; Yang, Qing X; Collins, Heather R; LeMatty, Todd; Hartwell, Karen J

    2015-12-30

    Given that the vast majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of drug cue reactivity use unisensory visual cues, but that multisensory cues may elicit greater craving-related brain responses, the current study sought to compare the fMRI BOLD response to unisensory visual and multisensory, visual plus odor, smoking cues in 17 nicotine-dependent adult cigarette smokers. Brain activation to smoking-related, compared to neutral, pictures was assessed under cigarette smoke and odorless odor conditions. While smoking pictures elicited a pattern of activation consistent with the addiction literature, the multisensory (odor+picture) smoking cues elicited significantly greater and more widespread activation in mainly frontal and temporal regions. BOLD signal elicited by the multisensory, but not unisensory cues, was significantly related to participants' level of control over craving as well. Results demonstrated that the co-presentation of cigarette smoke odor with smoking-related visual cues, compared to the visual cues alone, elicited greater levels of craving-related brain activation in key regions implicated in reward. These preliminary findings support future research aimed at a better understanding of multisensory integration of drug cues and craving. PMID:26475784

  3. Trends and Issues in the Professional Development of Teachers of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathleen P.; Lawler, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the current context for professional development of adult educators, including the complex influences of multiple constituents. Outlines trends--technology for instructional delivery, funding challenges, and adult learner diversity--and issues--technology learning, professionalization, focus, and assessment. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  4. Spanish-English Speech Perception in Children and Adults: Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Gorman, Brenda K.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trends and phonetic category formation in bilingual children and adults. Participants included 30 fluent Spanish-English bilingual children, aged 8-11, and bilingual adults, aged 18-40. All completed gating tasks that incorporated code-mixed Spanish-English stimuli. There were significant differences in…

  5. Effectiveness of Non-Primary Care-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults with Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Shilpa J; Harrington, Kathy F; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects over 25 million adults, many of whom are smokers. The negative health impact of diabetes and comorbid smoking is significant and requires comprehensive interdisciplinary management. The National Diabetes Education Program has identified specific providers, known as PPOD, who include pharmacists, podiatrists, optometrists, and dentists, as key individuals to improve diabetes-related clinical outcomes. These providers are encouraged to work together through interdisciplinary collaboration and to implement evidence-based strategies as outlined in the PPOD toolkit. The toolkit encourages healthcare providers to ask, advise, and assist patients in their efforts to engage in risk reduction and healthy behaviors, including smoking cessation as an important risk factor. While individual PPOD providers have demonstrated effective smoking cessation interventions in adults with other acute and chronic systemic diseases, they lack specific application and focus on adults with diabetes. This literature review examines the current role of PPOD providers in smoking cessation interventions delivered to adults with diabetes. PMID:27424070

  6. Influence of cigarette smoking in the rate pressure product among young adults: a case control study from Manipal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulki Ganesh Kamath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cigarette smoking is an important cause of mortality across the world, resulting in death of nearly six million people. Nearly 40% of the deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease and 20% are due to lung cancer. Cigarette smoking is said to increase the susceptibility towards vascular injuries by impacting phases of atherosclerosis, and altering blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR and elevating plasma catecholamine levels. The objective of this study was to assess if cigarette smoking increases the rate pressure product (RPP at rest and after standing in young adult light smokers compared to non-smokers. Methods 30 young adult smokers and 30 non-smokers (19 - 24 years were enrolled in this case control study. The smoking pack-years was calculated. Blood pressure (BP was measured and RPP was calculated. The mean values between both groups were compared using the univariate analysis of variance adjusted for confounding variables. Results The smoking pack-years was 1.6±1.0 (0.2-4.5. RPP in smokers was 88.8±8.0, 96.2±10.2 at rest and after standing respectively. RPP in non-smokers at rest was 81.6±8.1 and 89.5±10.3 after standing. RPP was statistically significant in between both groups at rest. Conclusion Smoking increases the RPP significantly in young adult light smokers due to an increased HR when compared to non-smokers, at rest. This study reinforces that young adults who are light smokers have an increased workload on the heart, which affects their cardiac performance.

  7. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among adults in Myanmar

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    A A Sein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Second-hand smoke (SHS is a threat to people′s health particularly in South-East Region including Myanmar. Aim: To describe the exposure to SHS among the adult population of Myanmar. Materials and Methods: The analysis was done based on the data relating to SHS exposure from 2009 Noncommunicable Risk Factor Survey conducted in Myanmar. A total of 7,429 respondents aged 15-64 from a nationally representative household-based cross-sectional multi-stage probability sample were used. Gender-specific estimates of the proportion of adults exposed to SHS were examined across various socio-demographic characteristics. Results: The exposure to SHS was 55.6% (52% among males and 57.8% among females at home, 63.6% (71.9% among males and 54.7% among females in indoor places and 23.3% (38.8% among males and 13.6% among females in public places. SHS exposure at home was more common among females. However, males were more likely to be exposed at work and public places than females. SHS exposure at home and public places decreased with age in both sexes. In these settings, SHS exposure was related to education, residence, employment status, marital status, and income level. At workplaces, it was mainly related to educational attainment and occupational status. Conclusion: Exposure was significantly high in settings having partial ban as compared with settings having a complete ban. The solution is simple and straightforward, smoke-free environments. The findings emphasize the need for continuing efforts to decrease the exposure and to increase the knowledge of its harmful effects.

  8. Age Trends and Age Norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 In Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3) is a modification of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) designed to be more understandable to adolescents. Data from adults aged 21 to 91 showed that the NEO-PI-3 also functions as well or better than the NEO-PI-R in adults. Age trends from combined adolescent (n = 500) and adult (n = 635)…

  9. Recent trends in chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Joseph S; Hung William W; Boockvar Kenneth S; Siu Albert L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To examine concurrent prevalence trends of chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults. Methods We analyzed the 1998, 2004 and 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative survey of older adults in the United States, and included 31,568 community dwelling adults aged 65 and over. Measurements include: prevalence of chronic diseases including hypertension, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease and arthr...

  10. Trends in Roll-Your-Own Smoking: Findings from the ITC Four-Country Survey (2002–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Young

    2012-01-01

    Methods. Participants were 19,456 cigarette smokers interviewed during the longitudinal International Tobacco Control (ITC Four-Country Survey in Canada, USA, UK, and Australia. Results. “Predominant” RYO use (i.e., >50% of cigarettes smoked increased significantly in the UK and USA as a proportion of all cigarette use (both P<.001 and in all countries as a proportion of any RYO use (all P<.010. Younger, financially stressed smokers are disproportionately contributing to “some” use (i.e., ≤50% of cigarettes smoked. Relative cost was the major reason given for using RYO, and predominant RYO use is consistently and significantly associated with low income. Conclusions. RYO market trends reflect the price advantages accruing to RYO (a product of favourable taxation regimes in some jurisdictions reinforced by the enhanced control over the amount of tobacco used, especially following the impact of the Global Financial Crisis; the availability of competing low-cost alternatives to RYO; accessibility of duty-free RYO tobacco; and tobacco industry niche marketing strategies. If policy makers want to ensure that the RYO option does not inhibit the fight to end the tobacco epidemic, especially amongst the disadvantaged, they need to reduce the price advantage, target additional health messages at (young RYO users, and challenge niche marketing of RYO by the industry.

  11. Time trends of smoking cessation: a micro-population computer simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elketroussi, M; Fan, D P

    1992-10-01

    The Micro-population model of Risk-group Dynamics (MRD) approaches smoking behavior at the level of the individual and integrates physiological and social factors to describe the evolution of behavior change in the population. MRD is innovative in several ways: (1) the model describes mathematically the interactions among these behavioral factors; (2) the model accounts for both the variability of these factors among different persons and the universality of basic rules describing these factors in all individuals; and (3) the model can be applied to various types of populations and a wide range of intervention strategies. MRD combines the physiological, psychological and social determinants into a hazard function for relapse to smoking. This hazard function is then organized into a three term expression incorporating: a baseline hazard characteristic to each individual, a decreasing term for the diminishing aspect of the initial hazard and an effect of external interventions. The model gives promising results when applied to the Multiple Risk Factors Intervention Trial (MRFIT) data using the assumptions of a Weibull distribution for the baseline hazard, a negative exponential for the decrease in the initial hazard and a constant intensity for the external intervention. PMID:1428217

  12. Trends in Current Tobacco Use, Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts among Saudi Population during Periods of 17 Years (1996-2012: Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M Almutairi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the causes behind increase trends in smoking and extent of tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. We also explored the issues related to and its impact tobacco control research and policy in the Kingdom.Data were collected from various published articles, public data based such as WHO, Geneva and CDC Atlanta. Data were also obtained from surveys conducted by various institutions under The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS for high school students and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS for medical student. Tobacco importation data and death rates were estimated by various International Organizations.Tobacco importation in Saudi Arabia increased from 1996 to 2012. The proportion of smokers in the KSA almost doubled especially in males from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2012. Mortality attributable to tobacco in the KSA was estimated to account for 280, 000 premature deaths over the same period (without accounting for smuggled tobacco. The economic burden of tobacco consumption over the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the KSA was 20.5 billion US dollars (based on 2011 prices. Anti-tobacco measures in KSA have been reinforced by the enactment of anti-tobacco laws and collaboration among different government agencies and ministries.If effective tobacco control strategies are not enacted, serious consequences, increasing premature mortality rates among them, will continue to threaten the KSA.

  13. Transient receptor potential genes, smoking, occupational exposures and cough in adults

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    Smit Lidwien AM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient receptor potential (TRP vanilloid and ankyrin cation channels are activated by various noxious chemicals and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cough. The aim was to study the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in TRP genes and irritant exposures on cough. Methods Nocturnal, usual, and chronic cough, smoking, and job history were obtained by questionnaire in 844 asthmatic and 2046 non-asthmatic adults from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS. Occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and/or fumes were assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Fifty-eight tagging SNPs in TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1 were tested under an additive model. Results Statistically significant associations of 6 TRPV1 SNPs with cough symptoms were found in non-asthmatics after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were consistent across the eight countries examined. Haplotype-based association analysis confirmed the single SNP analyses for nocturnal cough (7-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.8 × 10-6 and usual cough (9-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.5 × 10-6. Cough symptoms were associated with exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and occupational exposures (p TRPV1 further increased the risk of cough symptoms from irritant exposures in asthmatics and non-asthmatics (interaction p Conclusions TRPV1 SNPs were associated with cough among subjects without asthma from two independent studies in eight European countries. TRPV1 SNPs may enhance susceptibility to cough in current smokers and in subjects with a history of workplace exposures.

  14. Weight Control Methods Related to Cotinine-Verified Smoking among Korean Adult Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Kyun; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yoo, Yeon Gak; An, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background Korean women are known to have a very low smoking rate. However, the actual smoking rate among Korean women is higher than 10% and may continue to increase gradually. In addition, some Korean women use extreme weight control methods that have potentially harmful effects. This study was conducted to elucidate weight control methods related to cotinine-verified smoking among Korean adult women. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 4,189 women aged ≥19 years who had attempted w...

  15. Disparities and trends in indoor exposure to secondhand smoke among U.S. adolescents: 2000-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel T Agaku

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke (SHS exposure causes disease and death among nonsmokers. With a plethora of smoke-free legislation implemented and a steady decrease in cigarette consumption noted over the past decade in the U.S., this study assessed trends in indoor SHS exposure among U.S. adolescents in grades 6-12 during 2000-2009. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2000-2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey - a national survey of U.S. middle and high school students. SHS exposure within an indoor area within the past seven days was self-reported. Trends in indoor SHS exposure during 2000-2009 were assessed overall and by socio-demographic characteristics, using the Wald's test in a binary logistic regression. Within-group comparisons were performed using chi-squared statistics (p<0.05. RESULTS: The proportion of U.S. middle and high school students who were exposed to indoor SHS declined from 65.5% in 2000 to 40.5% in 2009 (p<0.05 for linear trend. Significant declines were also observed across all population subgroups. Between 2000 and 2009, prevalence of indoor SHS exposure declined significantly among both middle (58.5% to 34.3% and high school (71.5% to 45.4% students. Prevalence of indoor SHS exposure was significantly higher among girls (44.0% in 2009 compared to boys (37.2% in 2009 during each survey year. Similarly, prevalence of indoor SHS exposure during 2000-2009 was highest among non-Hispanic whites (44.2% in 2009 and lowest among non-Hispanic Asians (30.2% in 2009. During each survey year, prevalence was highest among the oldest age group (≥18 years and lowest among the youngest (9-11 years. Also, prevalence was significantly higher among current cigarette smokers (83.8% in 2009 compared to nonsmokers (34.0% in 2009. CONCLUSION: Significant declines in indoor SHS exposure among U.S. middle and high school students occurred during 2000-2009. While the results are encouraging, additional efforts are needed to further reduce youth

  16. National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens Gretchen A; Singh Gitanjali M; Lu Yuan; Danaei Goodarz; Lin John K; Finucane Mariel M; Bahalim Adil N; McIntire Russell K; Gutierrez Hialy R; Cowan Melanie; Paciorek Christopher J; Farzadfar Farshad; Riley Leanne; Ezzati Majid

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical ...

  17. A century of trends in adult human height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  18. Correlates of smoking initiation among young adults in Ukraine: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovsky Konstantin S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim: To estimate the impact of smoking restrictions in homes and schools, and tobacco advertising and information on smoking initiation by young people in Ukraine. Methods Data of 609 young people aged 15–29 was taken from the national representative survey conducted in June 2005. Outcome measures: The reported age of cigarette initiation was used to characterize the start of smoking experimentation, and the reported age of daily smoking initiation was considered to be a characteristic of established smoking. Analysis: survival analysis Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Age of smoking initiation was reported by 87% of young men and 61% of young women, the beginning of daily smoking by 71% and 33% respectively. Being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke and having no household smoking restrictions was associated with a higher risk of earlier smoking initiation both for men and women. For women, this risk was associated with age, HR = 0.95, (95% CI 0.91–0.98, that is, younger girls were more likely to smoke their first cigarette earlier in their lifetime. Those women had a higher risk of early smoking initiation who reported to receive tobacco-related information from magazines, HR = 1.40 (1.01–1.92, and outdoor tobacco advertising, HR = 1.99 (1.45–2.75. With both men and women, the risk of establishing daily smoking was higher in those with lower levels of tobacco-related knowledge and less household smoking restrictions. For women, the risk was higher in those who live in larger cities HR = 1.77 (1.10–2.86, and who received information about tobacco smoking from colleagues or friends HR = 1.83 (1.13–2.95. Conclusion Encouraging people to eliminate their homes of tobacco smoke and tobacco advertising bans can be effective measures in preventing the initiation of smoking among young people. Young female smoking initiation is of special concern in Ukraine, since they are more responsive

  19. The Relationship Between Young Adult Smokers' Beliefs About Nicotine Addiction and Smoking-Related Affect and Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R; Peterson, Laurel M; Muscanell, Nicole L; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Stock, Michelle L

    2016-06-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (n = 333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use. PMID:25903051

  20. Implementation of a campus-wide Irish hospital smoking ban in 2009: prevalence and attitudinal trends among staff and patients in lead up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    We report the evidence base that supported the decision to implement the first campus-wide hospital smoking ban in the Republic of Ireland with effect from 1 January 2009. Three separate data sources are utilized; surveillance data collected from patients and staff in 8 surveys between 1997 and 2006, a 1-week observational study to assess smoker behaviour in designated smoking shelters and an attitudinal interview with 28 smoker patients and 30 staff on the implications of the 2004 indoors workplace smoking ban, conducted in 2005. The main outcome measures were trends in prevalence of smoking over time according to age, sex and occupational groups and attitudes to the 2004 ban and a projected outright campus ban. Smoking rates among patients remained steady, 24.2% in 1997\\/98 and 22.7% in 2006. Staff smoking rates declined from 27.4% to 17.8%, with a strong occupational gradient. Observational evidence suggested a majority of those using smoking shelters in 2005 were women and health-care workers rather than patients. Attitudes of patients and staff were positive towards the 2004 ban, but with some ambivalence on the effectiveness of current arrangements. Staff particularly were concerned with patient safety issues associated with smoking outdoors. The 2004 ban was supported by 87.6% of patients and 81.3% of staff in 2006 and a majority of 58.6% of patients and 52.4% of staff agreed with an outright campus ban being implemented. These findings were persuasive in instigating a process in 2007\\/08 to go totally smoke-free by 2009, the stages for which are discussed.

  1. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    OpenAIRE

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Jozaa Z. Al-Tamimi; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; AL-SHWAIYAT, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them.Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girl...

  2. Trends in the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease among Adults with Diabetes in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad Al-Lawati; Magdi Morsi; Asya Al-Riyami; Ruth Mabry; Medhat El-Sayed; Mahmoud Abd El-Aty; Hawra Al-Lawati

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate trends in the estimated 10-year risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults with diagnosed diabetes in Oman. In addition, the effect of hypothetical risk reductions in this population was examined. Methods: Data from 1,077 Omani adults aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes were collected and analysed from three national surveys conducted in 1991, 2000 and 2008 across all regions of Oman. The estimated 10-year CVD risk and hypothet...

  3. Trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the INMA-Granada cohort: an evaluation of the Spanish anti-smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariana F; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Freire, Carmen; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Calvente, Irene; Ramos, Rosa; Castilla, Ane M; Ocón, Olga; Dávila, Cristina; Arrebola, Juan P; Olea, Nicolás

    2015-04-01

    The smoke-free legislation implemented in Spain in 2006 imposed a partial ban on smoking in public and work places, but the result did not meet expectations. Therefore, a more restrictive anti-smoking law was passed five years later in 2011 prohibiting smoking in all public places, on public transport, and the workplace. With the objective of assessing the impact of the latter anti-smoking legislation on children's exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS), we assessed parent's smoking habits and children's urine cotinine (UC) concentrations in 118 boys before (2005-2006) and after (2011-2012) the introduction of this law. Repeated cross-sectional follow-ups of the "Environment and Childhood Research Network" (INMA-Granada), a Spanish population-based birth cohort study, at 4-5 years old (2005-2006) and 10-11 years old (2011-2012), were designed. Data were gathered by ad-hoc questionnaire, and median UC levels recorded as an objective indicator of overall SHS exposure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between parent's smoking habits at home and SHS exposure, among other potential predictors. An increase was observed in the prevalence of families with at least one smoker (39.0% vs. 50.8%) and in the prevalence of smoking mothers (20.3% vs. 29.7%) and fathers (33.9% vs. 39.0%). Median UC concentration was 8.0ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.0-21.8) before legislation onset and 8.7ng/mL (IQR: 2.0-24.3) afterwards. In the multivariable analysis, the smoking status of parents and smoking habits at home were statistically associated with the risk of SHS exposure and with UC concentrations in children. These findings indicate that the recent prohibition of smoking in enclosed public and workplaces in Spain has not been accompanied by a decline in the exposure to SHS among children, who continue to be adversely affected. There is a need to target smoking at home in order to avoid future adverse health effects in a population that has no

  4. Association of Smoking and Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) Use With High Blood Pressure Among Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Fikru Tesfaye, MD, MPH, PhD; Peter Byass, PhD; Yemane Berhane, MD, MPH, PhD; Ruth Bonita, PhD; Stig Wall, PhD

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods We employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. The World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance of risk factors for chronic diseases was applied on a probabilistic sample of 4001 men and women aged 25 to 64 years in Addis Ababa. We determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and khat (Catha edulis ...

  5. Developmental Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Increases Adult Atherogenesis and Alters Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Deletions in apoE−/− Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Melissa Pompilius; Westbrook, David G.; Dale Uyeminami; Jamelle Brown; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in...

  6. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently. PMID:26054448

  7. The Association between active and passive smoking and latent tuberculosis infection in adults and children in the united states: results from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Lindsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children. METHODS: We used the 1999-2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598 and children 3-19 years (n = 2943 and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI. RESULTS: LTBI prevalence in 1999-2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999-2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born, household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17-4.55. Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87-4.60. Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20-5.45 and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09-4.72 were significantly associated with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI

  8. Current Trends in Adult Degree Programs: How Public Universities Respond to the Needs of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although many adult students turn to online degree programs due to their flexibility and convenience, a majority of prospective adult learners prefer to take classes on traditional brick-and-mortar campuses. This chapter examines how public research universities create pathways to degree attainment and boost degree completion rates among adult…

  9. Maternal smoking promotes chronic obstructive lung disease in the offspring as adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In utero and/or childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure is well known to adversely affect lung function and to depreciate child's health in many ways. Fewer studies have assessed the long-term effects on COPD development and disease severity in later adulthood. Methods COPD patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire regarding their personal as well as the smoking habits of their parents. Data were compared with the disease history, e.g. COPD exacerbation rate, and their lung function data. Results Between 2003 and 2004 COPD patients were recruited a in a private practice specialized in pulmonary medicine (n = 133 and b in a hospital (n = 158. 75% of their fathers and only 15.4 of all mothers smoked regularly. COPD patients from smoking mothers had lower FEV1 predicted than those raised in household without maternal smoking exposure: 39.4 ± 9.5% vs. 51.9 ± 6.0% (P = 0.037. Fathers had no effect on FEV1 regardless if they are smokers or non-smokers. Rate of severe exacerbations requiring hospitalization remained unaffected by parental second hand smoke exposure. Conclusion Maternal smoking negatively affects lung function of their offspring even in late adulthood when they develop COPD. It even aggravates the cumulative effect of active cigarette consumption. Clinical course of the COPD remained unaffected.

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to secondhand smoke-related Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Deaths among nonsmoking adults due to secondhand smoke-related lung cancer and heart disease. Problem 58 million nonsmokers in the US are still exposed to secondhand smoke. Who is ...

  11. Adult and prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke as risk indicators of fertility among 430 Danish couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H;

    1998-01-01

    menstrual cycles or until a clinically recognized pregnancy. At enrollment and each month throughout the follow-up, both partners completed a questionnaire that asked them about their smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of caffeinated beverages. The effect of current smoking and smoking exposure in...... utero was evaluated by using a logistic regression model with pregnancy outcome of each cycle in a Cox discrete model calculating the fecundability odds ratio. After adjustment for female body mass index and alcohol intake, diseases in female reproductive organs, semen quality, and duration of menstrual...

  12. Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Eek Frida; Ostergren P-O; Moussa Kontie M; Kunst Anton E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden followed the trajectory which could be expected from the stages of the glob...

  13. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  14. Association of Smoking and Khat (Catha edulis Forsk Use With High Blood Pressure Among Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikru Tesfaye, MD, MPH, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWe assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.MethodsWe employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. The World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance of risk factors for chronic diseases was applied on a probabilistic sample of 4001 men and women aged 25 to 64 years in Addis Ababa. We determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and khat (Catha edulis Forsk chewing. We measured blood pressure by using a digital device and determined mean levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.ResultsSmoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and chewing khat were widely prevalent among men. Among men, the prevalence of current daily smoking was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%–12.5%. Binge drinking of alcohol was reported by 10.4% (95% CI, 9.0%–11.9% of men. Similarly, 15.9% (95% CI, 14.1%–17.6% of men regularly chewed khat. Consequently, 26.6% of men and 2.4% of women reported practicing one or more of the behaviors. Current daily smoking and regular khat chewing were significantly associated with elevated mean diastolic blood pressure (β = 2.1, P = .03 and β = 1.9, P = .02, respectively.ConclusionCigarette smoking and khat chewing among men in Addis Ababa were associated with high blood pressure, an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Health promotion interventions should aim to prevent proliferation of such behaviors among young people and adoption by women. Surveillance for risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be implemented nationwide to provide information for policy decisions and to guide prevention and control programs.

  15. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  16. Relationship between Secondhand Smoking with Depressive Symptom and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Non-Smoker Adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Wook; Shin, Jin-Young; Goo, Ae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that mental health is affected not only by smoking, but also by secondhand smoking. But the most researches have been conducted in North America and/or Europe. We examined whether this relationship remains evident within the South Korean population. Specifically, we investigated the effect of secondhand smoking on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Methods We analyzed data from 6,043 non-smoking adults who participated in the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We compared the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in 3,006 participants who were exposed to secondhand smoking in the office or at home with 3,037 non-exposed participants. Results In unadjusted logistic regression analysis, secondhand smoking exposure group had more suicidal ideations than no secondhand smoking exposure (16.1% vs. 12.2%; odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.241–1.804), but risk of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between two groups (15.2% vs. 12.2%; OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.997–1.460). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Among those exposed to secondhand smoking, the OR for depressive symptoms was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.866–1.299) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.139–1.802) for suicidal ideation. Overall, secondhand smoking at home was significantly related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Among females, secondhand smoking exposure at home only (not in the office) was related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Conclusion Exposure to secondhand smoking, especially at home, may be associated with an increase in especially in female depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among adults in South Korea. PMID:27073608

  17. Relationship between salivary stress biomarker levels and cigarette smoking in healthy young adults: an exploratory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Nao; Nakanishi, Kosuke; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Hanioka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the relationships among salivary stress biomarkers, cigarette smoking, and mood states. Methods The study population comprised 49 healthy sixth-year dental students at Fukuoka Dental College (39 men, 10 women; age, 23–31 years). Lifetime exposure to smoking was calculated using the Brinkman index (BI). Resting saliva samples were collected, and concentrations of cortisol, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necros...

  18. [Time trend in adult obesity indicators in Brazilian state capitals, 2006-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Santos, Maria Aline Siqueira; Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo; Oliveira, Taís Porto; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Oliveira, Max Moura de; Jaime, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze time trends in excess weight (overweight, obesity and class III obesity) among adults (≥ 18 years of age) in Brazilian capitals between 2006 and 2013. It is a study of temporal trends in excess weight indicators using data from the telephone-based Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (Vigitel). The Prais regression model was performed. In 2013, the following statistics were observed in the adult population: overweight in 32.2%; obesity in 17.5%, and class III obesity in 1.5%. From 2006 to 2013, there was a significant increase in major indicators, for sex, age group, level of schooling (years) and regions. Overweight and obesity indicators demand attention since they result in a burden on the individual, society and health services. PMID:27076005

  19. Vocational technical and adult education: Status, trends and issues related to electronic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    Data are analyzed, and trends and issues are discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large scale electronic delivery in vocational/technical and adult education. Issues connected with vocational/technical education are investigated, with emphasis on those issues in the current spotlight which are relevant to the possibilities of electronic delivery. The current role of media is examined in vocational/technical instruction.

  20. Trends in Cohabitation Outcomes: Compositional Changes and Engagement Among Never-Married Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is now the modal first union for young adults, and most marriages are preceded by cohabitation even as fewer cohabitations transition to marriage. These contrasting trends may be due to compositional shifts among cohabiting unions, which are increasingly heterogeneous in terms of cohabitation order, engagement, and the presence of children, as well as across socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The author constructs 5-year cohabitation cohorts for 18- to 34-year-olds fr...

  1. Nationwide Hospitalization Trends in Adult Congenital Heart Disease Across 2003–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Shikhar; Sud, Karan; Menon, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess trends in hospitalization, outcomes, and resource utilization among patients admitted with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD). Methods and Results We used the 2003–2012 US Nationwide Inpatient Sample for this study. All admissions with an ACHD were identified using standard ICD codes. Resource utilization was assessed using length of stay, invasive procedure utilization, and cost of hospitalization. There was a significant increase in the number of both simple...

  2. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The data of 7,801 adults aged 19 years and over collected during the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Information on smoking habits and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was obtained by self-reports using a standardized questionnaire. Risks of environmental tobacco smoke exposure conferred by sociodemographic variables and behavioral risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression methods. Results Overall, 36.1% of nonsmokers (defined as those not currently smoking and 50.1% of current smokers were found to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke either at work or at home. Among the nonsmokers, women were more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 5.22, 95%CI, 4.08-6.67. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between education level and the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (OR = 1.73, 95%CI, 1.38-2.17 for those with a high school education; OR = 2.30, 95%CI, 1.68-3.16 for those with a middle school education; and OR = 2.58, 95%CI, 1.85-3.59 for those with less than an elementary school education vs. those with a college education or more. In addition, those with office, sales service, or manual labor jobs were found to be at significantly higher risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work than those with professional, administrative, or managerial jobs. Also, the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace was significantly higher for alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (OR = 1.23, 95%CI, 1.07-1.47. After adjusting

  3. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  4. Cigarette smoking in young-adult workers: a cross-sectional analysis from Abruzzo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiatti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The “Valentino” cross-sectional study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence and pattern of cigarette smoking according to occupational group in a representative sample of workers aged 18-35 years from Abruzzo, Italy.

    Methods: Randomly selected workers anonymously self-compiled a structured questionnaire containing validated items. Job type was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations.

    Results: The sample consisted of 3989 workers. Current smoking prevalence was 45.9%, varying across occupational groups and ranged from 37.2% among clerical support workers, up to 57.1% among craft, agricultural and fishery sector workers. After controlling for several potential confounders using logistic regression, craft, agricultural, forestry and fishery workers (adjusted odds ratio 1.65; 95%confidence intervals 1.21-2.27, and call-center operators (1.91; 1.44-2.53 were significantly more likely to be current smokers than professionals and clerical or support workers. Interestingly, when alcohol and cannabis use were included in multivariate analysis, the association between smoking and gender was no longer significant.

    Conclusions: An independent association was found between specific occupational classes and tobacco smoking, suggesting occupation type should be considered in prioritizing subsets of populations towards which smoking cessation campaigns should be targeted first.

  5. The Relationship between Smoking Status and Suicidal Behavior in Korean Adults: The 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So-Eun; Shim, Ji-Hyun; Noh, Hyung; Hwang, Hwan-Sik; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between smoking status and suicidal ideations or suicide attempts in Korean adults. Methods The study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and involved 17,065 participants. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between smoking status and suicidal behavior. The results were adjusted for covariates including depression and physical disease. Results Afte...

  6. Low FEV1, smoking history, and obesity are factors associated with oxygen saturation decrease in an adult population cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vold ML

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monica Linea Vold,1,3 Ulf Aasebø,1,2 Hasse Melbye3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway Background: Worsening of pulmonary diseases is associated with a decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO2. Such a decrease in SpO2 and associated factors has not been previously evaluated in a general adult population. Aim: We sought to describe SpO2 in a sample of adults, at baseline and after 6.3 years, to determine whether factors predicting low SpO2 in a cross-sectional study were also associated with a decrease in SpO2 in this cohort. Methods: As part of the Tromsø Study, 2,822 participants were examined with pulse oximetry in Tromsø 5 (2001/2002 and Tromsø 6 (2007/2008. Low SpO2 by pulse oximetry was defined as an SpO2 ≤95%, and SpO2 decrease was defined as a ≥2% decrease from baseline to below 96%. Results: A total of 139 (4.9% subjects had a decrease in SpO2. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 <50% of the predicted value and current smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years were the baseline characteristics most strongly associated with an SpO2 decrease in multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio 3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.60–7.89] and 2.48 [95% CI 1.48–4.15], respectively. Male sex, age, former smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, and C-reactive protein ≥5 mg/L were also significantly associated with an SpO2 decrease. A significant decrease in FEV1 and a new diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the observation period most strongly predicted a fall in SpO2. A lower SpO2 decrease was observed in those who quit smoking and those who lost weight, but these tendencies were not statistically significant. Conclusion: A decrease in SpO2 was most strongly associated with severe airflow limitation and a history of

  7. Association of Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in a Puerto Rican Adult Population

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    William A Calo

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study supports previous reports of an increased risk of MetSyn among current smokers, particularly those with a heavier consumption. Tobacco control strategies, such as preventing smoking initiation and disseminating evidence-based cessation programs, are necessary to reduce the burden of MetSyn in Puerto Rico.

  8. Smoking and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated associations of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) by age. Methods. Data came from the Pooling Project on Diet and Coronary Heart Disease (8 prospective studies, 1974-1996; n = 192 067 women and 74 720 men, aged 40-89 years). Results. During follow-up, 4326 cases...

  9. A STUDY OF EFFECT OF SMOKING ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

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    Prashanth Babu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking now is identified as a major cause of respiratory diseases, heart related ailments, cancer and a wide variety of other health problems. It is well known that the acute effects of smoking produce an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, increase in carotid artery occlusion, and sometimes instantaneous Myocardial infarction. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of smoking on blood pressure in young apparently healthy individuals. OBJECTIVE: To compare blood pressure values between smokers and non-smokers. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary, Karnataka. The study included 100 apparently healthy males, 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers, between ages 20-35 years. Demographic data, history of smoking habit (quantity and duration and detailed medical history were obtained from the subjects. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. Results were compared from the two groups using statistical tools. RESULTS: There was statistically significant increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure as well as diastolic blood pressure in smokers when compared to non-smokers. CONCLUSION: The study shows that systolic as well as diastolic blood pressures were elevated in the absence of any cardiac disease in smokers.

  10. CUMULATIVE AND REVERSIBLE EFFECTS OF LIFETIME SMOKING ON SIMPLE TESTS OF LUNG FUNCTION IN ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from a random sample of 8191 men and women from six U.S. cities are used to fit a model describing the effects of cumulative and current cigarette smoking on pulmonary function. he data show that smokers suffer an irreversible loss of FVC and FEV1 which is described by a lin...

  11. Asthma, Smoking and BMI in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, L.; Naqvi, H.; Russ, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent research evidence from the general population has shown that tobacco smoking and raised body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma outcomes. There are indications that asthma morbidity and mortality may be higher among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) than the general population, but the reason for this is…

  12. A Review of Adult Obesity Prevalence, Trends, Risk Factors, and Epidemiologic Methods in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalo Karageorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Kuwait is among the countries with the highest obesity rates worldwide; however, little is known about the state of obesity epidemiology research in Kuwait. In this paper, we therefore review the findings and methodology of studies on the prevalence, trends and risk factors of obesity in Kuwait. Methods. The PubMed database was searched using the keyword combination: obesity and adults and Kuwait. Out of 111 articles, 39 remained after abstract review, and 18 were selected after full-text review. Results. The studies were all cross-sectional and published in the last fifteen years (1997–2012. The sample size ranged from 177 to 38,611 individuals. Only 30% of studies used random sampling. The prevalence (BMI ≥ 30 in studies with a nationally representative sample ranged from 24% to 48% overall and in adults >50 years was greater than 52%. Rates were significantly higher in women than those in men. Studies that examined trends showed an increase in obesity prevalence between 1980 and 2009. Multiple risk factors including sociocultural factors were investigated in the studies; however, factors were only crudely assessed. Conclusion. There is a need for future studies, particularly surveillance surveys and prospective cohort studies utilizing advanced methods, to monitor trends and to comprehensively assess the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic in Kuwait.

  13. Increasing trends in central obesity among Chinese adults with normal body mass index, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Central obesity is thought to be more pathogenic than overall obesity and studies have shown that the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality was strongest in those with a normal body mass index (BMI). The objective of our study was to determine secular trends in the prevalence of central obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) among Chinese adults with normal BMI from 1993 to 2009 and to examine the impact of performance of combined BMI and WC on the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults. Methods We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted from 1993 to 2009. From which we included a total of 52023 participants aged ≥ 18 years. Results The age-standardized prevalence of central obesity among Chinese adults with BMI < 25 kg/m2 increased from 11.9% in 1993 to 21.1% in 2009 (P for linear trend <0.001). The upward trends were noted in both genders, all ages, rural/urban settings, and education groups (all P for linear trend <0.001), with greater increments in men, participants aged 18–64 years, and rural residents (P for interaction terms survey × sex, survey × age, and survey × rural/urban settings were 0.042, 0.003, and < 0.001, respectively). Trends in the prevalence of central obesity were similar when a more stringent BMI < 23 kg/m2 cut point (Asian cut point) was applied. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. More than 65% individuals with obesity would be missed if solely BMI was measured. Conclusions We observed an upward trend in the prevalence of central obesity among participants with normal BMI irrespective of sex, age, rural/urban settings, and education level. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. Approximately two thirds of the individuals with obesity would be missed if WC was not measured. It is, therefore, urgent to emphasize the importance of

  14. Trends and variability in the levels of urinary thiocyanate, perchlorate, and nitrate by age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke over 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-07-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2005-2012 were used to study the trends and variability in the levels of urinary thiocyanate (u-SCN), perchlorate (u-P8), and nitrate (u-NO3) by gender, race/ethnicity, active smoking, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home for those aged 12-19 and ≥20years old. For those aged ≥20years, adjusted levels of u-SCN, u-P8, and u-NO3 (i) were lower for males than females (p0.05), and adjusted levels of u-P8 and u-NO3 for NHB were lower than for NHW (p<0.01) as well as higher for NHB than MA for u-SCN (p<0.01) and lower for NHB than MA (p<0.01) for u-P8 and u-NO3. Among those aged ≥20years, active smoking was associated with higher adjusted levels of u-SCN (p<0.01) in a dose-response manner and active smoking was associated with lower adjusted levels of u-P8 (p<0.01) in a dose-response manner. Exposure to ETS was associated with higher adjusted levels of u-SCN (p=0.02) and lower adjusted levels of u-P8 (p<0.01) among ≥20years old. Adjusted levels of u-P8 decreased over 2005-2012 among both 12-19 (p<0.01) and ≥20years old (p=0.04). There was borderline increase in the adjusted levels of u-NO3 for those aged ≥20years (p=0.05) over 2005-2012. PMID:26994809

  15. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  16. Incidence and trends in psychopathology symptoms over time in adults with severe to profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms was examined in 124 adults with severe to profound ID. Then, trends in symptoms of psychopathology over time were studied in 74 of those individuals who had data collected quarterly over the span of one year. Data from the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Second Edition (DASH-II) were evaluated for each of the 13 subscales, as well as the total DASH-II score. For all of the scales except PDD/Autism, symptoms did not fluctuate significantly over the one year period. The PDD/Autism scale revealed a significant change in symptoms from Time 1 to Time 3. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21144701

  17. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise;

    2016-01-01

    that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements......ITALIC! Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. ITALIC! Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs....... After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. ITALIC! Results We found...

  18. Cigarette smoking in young-adult workers: a cross-sectional analysis from Abruzzo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Chiatti; Simone Chiadò Piat; Bruno Federico; Giovanni Capelli; Francesco Di Stanislao; Pamela Di Giovanni; Francesco Schioppa; Lamberto Manzoli

    2010-01-01

    Background: The “Valentino” cross-sectional study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence and pattern of cigarette smoking according to occupational group in a representative sample of workers aged 18-35 years from Abruzzo, Italy.

    Methods: Randomly selected workers anonymously self-compiled a structured questionnaire containing validated items. Job type was coded according to the I...

  19. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  20. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. ALFaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  1. Secular trends in child and adult sexual violence--one decreasing and the other increasing: a population survey in Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Hannah; Garavan, Rebecca; Byrne, Joanne; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a worldwide problem affecting children and adults. Knowledge of trends in prevalence is essential to inform the design and evaluation of preventive and intervention programmes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence for both sexes and to document the prevalence of adult and child abuse by birth year in the general population. METHODS: National cluster-randomized telephone interview study of 3120 adults in Ireland was done. RESULTS: C...

  2. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (padvertising and promotion, controlling access to tobacco products, and promoting cessation assistance for smokers to quit, as well as continuing and implementing mass media campaigns that contain graphic anti-smoking ads, such as the Tips from Former Smokers (TIPS) campaign. PMID:25996096

  3. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strine Tara W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  4. Trends and risk factors of hyperglycemia and diabetes among Kuwaiti adults: National Nutrition Surveillance Data from 2002 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Faruk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current prevalence estimates for diabetes in Arabian Gulf countries are some of the world’s highest, yet regional trends and contributing factors are poorly documented. The present study was designed to determine temporal changes in the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and diabetes and associated factors in Kuwaiti adults. Methods Data analysis from the nationally representative cross-sectional Kuwait National Nutrition Surveillance System. 2745 males and 3611 females, aged 20–69 years, attending registration for employment or pensions and Hajj Pilgrimage health check-ups or accompanying children for immunizations from 2002 through 2009 were participated. Socio-demographic and lifestyle information, height and weight, and blood samples were collected. Results During the 8 years (2002–09, prevalences of IFG in males and females decreased by 7.4% and 6.8% and of diabetes by 9.8% and 8.9% in males and females, respectively. Linear regression for blood glucose level with time, adjusted for age, BMI, blood cholesterol and education level, showed a greater decrease in males than females (1.12 vs 0.93 mmol/L; males also showed an increase in 2002–2003 followed by a marked decrease in 2006–2007 while females showed a significant decrease in 2008–2009. Both males and females showed the largest decrease in the 2nd half of the study accounting for the majority of the overall decrease (1.13 mmol/L for males and 0.87 mmol/l for females for the 4 years. Compared with 2002–03, the OR for IFG in males decreased with time, and becoming significantly lower (OR=0.32; 95% CI: 0.21-0.49 for 2008–09. In females, the OR for IFG decreased significantly with time, except in 2006–07. Similarly, the OR for diabetes in males decreased to 0.34 (95% CI: 0.24-0.49 and in females to 0.33 (95% CI: 0.22-0.50 in 2008–09. For both genders, age and BMI were independently positively associated with IFG and diabetes, while education

  5. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoking prenatally is a risk factor for reduced semen quality, but whether the exposure has adverse effects on reproductive hormones, pubertal development or adult BMI remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between these factors...

  6. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  7. Family roles and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking histories to marital and parental status. Data from a large, representative sample of U.S. adults in 1985 were analyzed separately for white men, white women, black men, and black women, with controls for age, education, and marital status included in the analyses. Divorced and separated adults were the most likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking; currently married adults and widowed adults were intermediate; and never married adults were the least likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking. (There were some exceptions to these patterns for never married and widowed blacks). The differences in smoking adoption had begun during adolescence, before the usual age of marriage, which suggests that the differences in smoking, adoption were not caused by marriage or divorce. Rather, it appears that personal characteristics or early experiences influenced both the likelihood of smoking adoption and the likelihood of marriage or divorce. Currently married adults were more likely to have quit smoking than never married, divorced and separated, or widowed adults. It may be that the social support provided by marriage increases smoking cessation. In contrast to the strong relationships between marital status and smoking, relationships between parental status and smoking were relatively weak and variable. Among white women, mothers of preschoolers were less likely to be smokers than women without children. The mothers of preschoolers were more likely to have quit smoking, possibly as a result of increased smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:2787160

  8. Secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults in rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjia Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. METHOD: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35-74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. RESULT: The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35-44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05. The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold. Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action.

  9. Burden of total and cause-specific mortality related to tobacco smoking among adults aged ≥ 45 years in Asia: a pooled analysis of 21 cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged ≥45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan-accounting for ∼71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI = 1.37-1.51 and 1.48-fold (1.38-1.58 elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI = 14.3%-17.2% and 3.3% (2.6%-4.0% of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged ≥45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of ∼1,575,500 (95% CI = 1,398,000-1,744,700. Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged ≥45 y. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged ≥45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are

  10. Smoking problem in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y Aditama

    2002-01-01

    Smoking is an important public health probLem in Indonesia. Up to 60% of male adult population as well as about 4% of female adult population are smokers. In fact, some of Indonesian kretek cigarettes have quite high tar and nicotine content. Besides health effect, smoking habit also influence economic status of the individuals as well as the family. In health point of view, even though reliable nation wide morbidity and mortality data are scarce, report from various cities showed smoking rel...

  11. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  12. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  13. Recent trends in chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Joseph S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine concurrent prevalence trends of chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults. Methods We analyzed the 1998, 2004 and 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative survey of older adults in the United States, and included 31,568 community dwelling adults aged 65 and over. Measurements include: prevalence of chronic diseases including hypertension, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease and arthritis; prevalence of impairments, including impairments of cognition, vision, hearing, mobility, and urinary incontinence; prevalence of disability, including activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Results The proportion of older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased from 13.1% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 12.4%-13.8% in 1998 to 7.8% (95% CI, 7.2%-8.4% in 2008, whereas the proportion reporting 1 or more chronic diseases increased from 86.9% (95% CI, 86.2%-89.6% in 1998 to 92.2% (95% CI, 91.6%-92.8% in 2008. In addition, the proportion reporting 4 or more diseases increased from 11.7% (95% CI, 11.0%-12.4% in 1998 to 17.4% (95% CI, 16.6%-18.2% in 2008. The proportion of older adults reporting no impairments was 47.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-48.4% in 1998 and 44.4% (95% CI, 43.3%-45.5% in 2008, whereas the proportion of respondents reporting 3 or more was 7.2% (95% CI, 6.7%-7.7% in 1998 and 7.3% (95% CI, 6.8%-7.9% in 2008. The proportion of older adults reporting any ADL or IADL disability was 26.3% (95% CI, 25.4%-27.2% in 1998 and 25.4% (95% CI, 24.5%-26.3% in 2008. Conclusions Multiple chronic disease is increasingly prevalent among older U.S. adults, whereas the prevalence of impairment and disability, while substantial, remain stable.

  14. Lung cancer trends: smoking, obesity, and sex assessed in the Staten Island University’s lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shilpi; Hassan, Samer; Bhatt, Vijaya R.; Abdul Sater, Houssein; Dilawari, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of lung cancer in the United States decreased by 1.8% from 1991 to 2005 while it increased by 0.5% in females. We assessed whether nonsmokers afflicted with lung cancer at Staten Island University Hospital are disproportionately female in comparison to national averages. We also evaluated different factors including race, histology, and body mass index (BMI) in correlation with smoking history. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2005 to 2011 on ...

  15. Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heikkilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166,130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166,130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18. Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up, there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

  16. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude;

    2016-01-01

    categories (<18·5 kg/m(2) [underweight], 18·5 kg/m(2) to <20 kg/m(2), 20 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2), 25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2), 30 kg/m(2) to <35 kg/m(2), 35 kg/m(2) to <40 kg/m(2), ≥40 kg/m(2) [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior...... probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue. FINDINGS: We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates...

  17. Neighbour and traffic noise annoyance at home - prevalence and trends among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Ekholm, Ola

    Neighbour and traffic noise are affecting many people in their everyday life, implying adverse effects on quality of life and health. In many countries, the most dominant noise sources disturbing people in their homes are traffic and neighbours. The aims of the present study were to examine the...... prevalence of adult Danes that are annoyed in their home by noise from neighbours and traffic, respectively, and to examine the trends over time. Data are derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2013. The sample sizes were quite large (approx. 25 000 individuals per...... health status. Noise annoyance was assessed by asking the respondent whether they had been annoyed by noise from traffic or noise from neighbours, respectively, in their home during the past two weeks. The possible answer categories were: ‘Yes, very annoyed’, ‘yes, slightly annoyed’, ‘no’. The prevalence...

  18. Parental smoking in childhood and adult obstructive lung disease: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Svanes, C; Omenaas, E; Jarvis, D.; Chinn, S.; Gulsvik, A; Burney, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Early exposure to parental smoking appears to influence the development of the airways and predispose to respiratory symptoms. A study was undertaken to determine whether the consequences of parental smoking could be traced in adulthood.

  19. Lifelong education for older adults in Malta: Current trends and future visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, Marvin

    2012-04-01

    With European demographic developments causing a decline of the available workforce in the foreseeable future and the unsustainability of dominant pay-as-you-go pension systems (where contributions from the current workforce sustain pensioners), governments need to come up with strategies to deal with this upcoming challenge and to adjust their policies. Based on a study carried out between September 2009 and May 2010, this article evaluates the policies guiding late-life education in Malta, as well as the local plethora of learning opportunities for older adult education, and participation rates. The Maltese government is committed to supporting the inclusion of older persons (aged 60+) in lifelong education policies and programmes, to the extent that local studies have uncovered a recent rise in the overall participation of older adults in formal, non-formal and informal areas of learning. While the present and future prospects for late-life education in Malta seem promising, a critical scrutiny of present ideologies and trends finds the field to be no more than seductive rhetoric. Though the coordination of late-life education in Malta does result in various social benefits to older learners and Maltese society in general, it also occurs within five intersecting lines of inequality - namely an economic rationale, elitism, gender bias, the urban-rural divide and third ageism. This article ends by proposing policy recommendations for the future of late-life education.

  20. Trends and patterns of caffeine consumption among US teenagers and young adults, NHANES 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, N L; Barraj, L M; Bi, X; Jack, M M

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine consumption among US teenagers (13-17y), young adults (18-24y) and adults (25-29y) for a 10 year period was examined using NHANES 2003-12. Of the 85% who consume caffeine 84% consume caffeinated beverages. This percentage remained constant despite new caffeine sources. Less than 7.1% of the population consume energy drinks. While mean caffeine intake among teenage caffeine consumers decreased from 62 to 55 mg/day (p-value = 0.018) over the 10-year period, no discernable trend was observed for other age groups. Caffeine intake from energy drinks increased, and was only statistically significant for age 18-24y accounting for <9% of total caffeine intake. Mean caffeine intake per consumption occasion was equivalent between coffee and energy drinks for teenagers and young adults. During a 30-min period mean caffeine consumption was similar when an energy drink was the only consumption event or when it occurred with other caffeinated beverage products suggestive of a substitution effect. Linear regression models of caffeine intake from energy drinks against caffeine from coffee, tea and soda among energy drink consumers in the upper 50th percentile shows a statistically significant inverse relationship (R2 = 28%, coffee: β = -0.35, p < 0.001; tea: β = -0.44, p < 0.001; soda: β = -0.22, p = 0.036) and further supports the substitution concept. PMID:27288929

  1. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Routy, B.; J. Hoang; Gruber, J

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette ...

  2. Lung cancer trends: smoking, obesity, and sex assessed in the Staten Island University’s lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shilpi Gupta,1 Samer Hassan,1 Vijaya R Bhatt,2 Houssein Abdul Sater,1 Asma Dilawari31Hematology-Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Hematology-Oncology, Nebraska Medical Ctr, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Hematology-Oncology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Olney, Maryland, USAIntroduction: The incidence of lung cancer in the United States decreased by 1.8% from 1991 to 2005 while it increased by 0.5% in females. We assessed whether nonsmokers afflicted with lung cancer at Staten Island University Hospital are disproportionately female in comparison to national averages. We also evaluated different factors including race, histology, and body mass index (BMI in correlation with smoking history.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2005 to 2011 on 857 patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to their smoking status: current or ever-smokers, and former or never-smokers. A chi-square test for categorical data and multivariate logistic regression analyses was used to study the relation between BMI and the other clinical and demographic data.Results: Forty-nine percent of patients were men and 51% were women with a mean age at diagnosis of 67.8 years. Current smokers were most common (50.2% followed by ever-smokers (18.2%, former smokers (15.8% and never-smokers (15.6%. Forty eight percent had stage IV lung cancer upon presentation. Never-smokers with lung cancer were 24 times more likely to be females. However, the proportion of female former smokers (31.6% was lower than the proportion of male former smokers (68.4% (P=0.001. There was no significant association between American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC stage, sex, race, and histological type in the two smoking groups. Current/ever-smokers tended to be younger at age of diagnosis (P=0.0003. BMI was lower in the current/ever-smokers (26.8 kg/m2 versus former/never-smokers (28.8 in males (P=0.0005. BMI was significantly higher in

  3. National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Gretchen A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. Results The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty interval 5.7-7.2% in 1980 to 12.0% (11.5-12.5% in 2008. Half of this rise occurred in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000, and half occurred in the 8 years between 2000 and 2008. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight increased from 24.6% (22.7-26.7% to 34.4% (33.2-35.5% during the same 28-year period. In 2008, female obesity prevalence ranged from 1.4% (0.7-2.2% in Bangladesh and 1.5% (0.9-2.4% in Madagascar to 70.4% (61.9-78.9% in Tonga and 74.8% (66.7-82.1% in Nauru. Male obesity was below 1% in Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia, and was highest in Cook Islands (60.1%, 52.6-67.6% and Nauru (67.9%, 60.5-75.0%. Conclusions Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since 1980, and the increase has accelerated. Although obesity increased in most countries, levels and trends varied substantially. These data on trends in overweight and obesity may be used to set

  4. Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wichai Aekplakorn; Rungkarn Inthawong; Pattapong Kessomboon; Rassamee Sangthong; Suwat Chariyalertsak; Panwadee Putwatana; Surasak Taneepanichskul

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) and II (BMI ≥...

  5. Associations between a History of Traumatic Brain Injuries and Current Cigarette Smoking, Substance Use, and Elevated Psychological Distress in a Population Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-07-15

    This study describes the prevalence of reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with reports of current substance use, cigarette smoking, and psychological distress among Canadian adults in a population sample. A cross-sectional sample of 1999 Ontario adults 18-93 years of age were surveyed by telephone in 2011 as part of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. Loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or at least one overnight hospitalization resulting from symptoms associated with the TBI injury represented minimum criteria for TBI. An estimated 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.8, 19.0) of adults reported a TBI in their lifetime. Men had higher prevalence of TBI than women. Adults who reported a history of TBI had higher odds of reported past-year daily smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15), using cannabis (AOR = 2.80) and nonmedical opioids (AOR = 2.90), as well as screened significantly for recent elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.97) in the past few weeks, compared to adults without a history of TBI. Co-occurrence of a history of TBI with current elevated psychological distress and substance use warrants vigilance among medical practitioners to assess the possibility of a history of TBI during reviews of the history leading to the occurrence of these conditions. PMID:25496189

  6. TOBACCO SMOKING IN ADULTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF KASHMIR J&K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Tobacco is a major risk factor of numerous adult chronic non - communicable diseases. In India, the GATS Survey revealed that the prevalence of smoking is more than one - third in the adults (35%, the overall prevalence in males being 48% and among females it is 20%. AIM : The aim of our study was to determine the socio - demography of tobacco use in rural setting and to assess the knowledge, attitude & practices of tobacco use in the rural area. METHODS : All patients aged 18 years or above attending subcentre at village Panzinara of Block Sumbal. The data was collected on a semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS : 71 patients attending the sub center for various health states were taken up for the study. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 58 - 68 years (23.9%. Males comprised 56.3%. 63.4% gave positive response to ever any tobacco use & amongst the tobacco users 80% were daily users. Tob acco use was significantly associated with male sex. 51.1% of the patients had started tobacco use in adolescent age of 10 - 19 years. 62.2% were Hookah smokers, 24.4% cigarette smokers. Tobacco being injurious to health was known by 39.4% patients, 21.1% kn ew it lead to some cancers, 4.2% were aware that it can cause hypertension, diabetes & cancers. 35.3% were aware that it is to be avoided. CONCLUSION : In spite of awareness about hazards of tobacco use & knowledge of non - communicable diseases, this high pr evalence calls for more active psychological, social & medical interventions for tobacco users. Targeting the adolescent population for raising awareness would be additionally beneficial.

  7. The relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking in low and middle income countries: cross-sectional analysis of the global adult tobacco survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is receiving growing attention due to accumulating evidence suggesting increasing prevalence in some populations and deleterious health effects. Nevertheless, the relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking remain unknown, particularly in low and middle income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed waterpipe and cigarette smoking using data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a household survey of adults aged ≥15 years conducted between 2008-2010 in LMICs. Factors associated with waterpipe and cigarette use were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Factors associated with the quantity of waterpipe and cigarette smoking were assessed using log-linear regression models. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, residence, education, occupation and smokeless tobacco use, waterpipe smoking was significantly higher among cigarette users than in non-cigarette users in India (5.6% vs. 0.6%, AOR 13.12, 95% CI 7.41-23.23 and Russia (6.7% vs. 0.2%, AOR 27.73, 95% CI 11.41-67.43, but inversely associated in Egypt (2.6% vs. 3.4%, AOR 0.21, 95% CI 0.15-0.30 and not associated in Vietnam (13.3% vs. 4.7%, AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74-1.23. Compared to non-cigarette smokers, waterpipe smokers who also used cigarettes had more waterpipe smoking sessions per week in Russia (1.3 vs. 2.9, beta coefficient 0.31, 95% CI 0.06, 0.57, but less in Egypt (18.2 vs. 10.7, beta coefficient -0.45, 95% CI -0.73, -0.17 and Vietnam (102.0 vs. 79.3, beta coefficient -0.31, 95% CI -0.56, -0.06 and similar amounts in India (29.4 vs. 32.6, beta coefficient -0.12, 95% CI -0.46, 0.22. CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe smoking is low in most LMICs but important country-level differences in use, including concurrent cigarette smoking, should be taken into account when designing and evaluating tobacco control interventions.

  8. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... never smoked. If you quit smoking, you greatly reduce your risk, even if you have smoked for ... even a senior citizen is that when they reduce the carbon monoxide that comes with smoking, they ...

  9. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress & Smoking Causes of Stress Quiz: What's Your Stress Level? Smoking & Depression Understanding Depression Quiz: Are You Depressed? Coping With ... Stress & Smoking Causes of Stress Quiz: What's Your Stress Level? Smoking & Depression Understanding Depression Quiz: Are You Depressed? Coping With ...

  10. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... with It The Basics The Basics: Overview Quitting smoking is one of the most important things you ...

  11. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the link between cancer and smoking. If you smoke, you are at much higher risk for lung ... life can also be affected by second-hand smoke, the smoke that non-smokers are exposed to ...

  12. Smoking status and abdominal obesity among normal- and overweight/obese adults: Population-based FINRISK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Eeva-Liisa; Saarni, Suoma E; Männistö, Satu; Borodulin, Katja; Patja, Kristiina; Kinnunen, Taru H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have reported direct associations of smoking with body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity. However, the interplay between them is poorly understood. Our first aim was to investigate the interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC). Our second aim was to examine how the association of smoking status with WC varies among normal and overweight/obese men and women. We examined 5833 participants from the National FINRISK 2007 Study. The interactions between smoking and BMI on WC were analyzed. Participants were categorized into eight groups according to BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese) and smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker, occasional/light/moderate daily smoker, heavy daily smoker). The associations between each BMI/smoking status -group and WC were analyzed by multiple regressions, the normal-weight never smokers as the reference group. The smoking status by BMI-interaction on WC was significant for women, but not for men. Among the overweight/obese women, ex-smokers (β = 2.73; 1.99, 3.46) and heavy daily smokers (β = 4.90; 3.35, 6.44) had the highest estimates for WC when adjusted for age, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity. In comparison to never smoking overweight/obese women, the β-coefficients of ex-smokers and heavy daily smokers were significantly higher. Among men and normal weight women the β -coefficients did not significantly differ by smoking status. An interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity was observed in women: overweight/obese heavy daily smokers were particularly vulnerable for abdominal obesity. This risk group should be targeted for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:27486563

  13. Tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kolappan, C.; Gopi, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of tuberculosis in adult men in India is 2–4 times higher than in women. Tobacco smoking is prevalent almost exclusively among men, so it is possible that tobacco smoking may be a risk factor for developing pulmonary tuberculosis. A nested case control study was carried out to study the association between tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis.

  14. Active or passive exposure to tobacco smoking and allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Saulyte

    2014-03-01

    .43 [1.12-1.83] when cohort studies only were examined, but not when all studies were combined. The findings are limited by the potential for confounding and bias given that most of the individual studies used a cross-sectional design. Furthermore, the studies showed a high degree of heterogeneity and the exposure and outcome measures were assessed by self-report, which may increase the potential for misclassification.We observed very modest associations between smoking and some allergic diseases among adults. Among children and adolescents, both active and passive exposure to SHS were associated with a modest increased risk for allergic diseases, and passive smoking was associated with an increased risk for food allergy. Additional studies with detailed measurement of exposure and better case definition are needed to further explore the role of smoking in allergic diseases.

  15. Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-04-01

    Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake. PMID:20028601

  16. Adolescent smoking and parenting : Associations between smoking related parental behaviors and adoslescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is to address the link between parenting and adolescent smoking. We address this question since the role of parents has been traditionally neglected in smoking research as well as prevention programs. Recent research has shown that the prevention of adult smoking in

  17. Smoking, Antioxidant Supplementation and Dietary Intakes among Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 10 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 yea...

  18. Allowing cigarette or marijuana smoking in the home and car: prevalence and correlates in a young adult sample

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Mabel; Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lang, Delia L.; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2014-01-01

    Given the increased marijuana use, negative health consequences of marijuana secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and dearth of research regarding marijuana SHSe in personal settings, we examined the prevalence and correlates of allowing marijuana versus cigarette smoking in personal settings among 2002 online survey respondents at two southeastern US universities in 2013. Findings indicated that 14.5% allowed cigarettes in the home, 17.0% marijuana in the home, 35.9% cigarettes in cars and 27.3%...

  19. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence, consumption, initiation, and cessation between 2001 and 2008 in the Netherlands. Findings from a national population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelhout Gera E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widening of socioeconomic status (SES inequalities in smoking prevalence has occurred in several Western countries from the mid 1970’s onwards. However, little is known about a widening of SES inequalities in smoking consumption, initiation and cessation. Methods Repeated cross-sectional population surveys from 2001 to 2008 (n ≈ 18,000 per year were used to examine changes in smoking prevalence, smoking consumption (number of cigarettes per day, initiation ratios (ratio of ever smokers to all respondents, and quit ratios (ratio of former smokers to ever smokers in the Netherlands. Education level and income level were used as indicators of SES and results were reported separately for men and women. Results Lower educated respondents were significantly more likely to be smokers, smoked more cigarettes per day, had higher initiation ratios, and had lower quit ratios than higher educated respondents. Income inequalities were smaller than educational inequalities and were not all significant, but were in the same direction as educational inequalities. Among women, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Among low educated women, smoking prevalence remained stable between 2001 and 2008 because both the initiation and quit ratio increased significantly. Among moderate and high educated women, smoking prevalence decreased significantly because initiation ratios remained constant, while quit ratios increased significantly. Among men, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking consumption only. Conclusions While inequalities in smoking prevalence were stable among Dutch men, they increased among women, due to widening inequalities in both smoking cessation and initiation. Both components should be addressed in equity-oriented tobacco control policies.

  20. Effect of Shisha (Waterpipe) Smoking on Lung Functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi Young Adult Shisha Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; AlShehri, Khaled Ahmed; AlHarbi, Bader Bandar; Barayyan, Omar Rayyan; Bawazir, Abdulrahman Salem; Alanazi, Omar Abdulmohsin; Al-Zuhair, Ahmed Raad

    2014-01-01

    Shisha (waterpipe) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers). The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM) range 17–33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73) of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM) range 18–28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75-85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group. PMID:25233010

  1. Effect of Shisha (Waterpipe Smoking on Lung Functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO among Saudi Young Adult Shisha Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shisha (waterpipe smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers. The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM range 17–33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73 of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM range 18–28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75–85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group.

  2. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality of life can also be affected by second-hand smoke, the smoke that non-smokers are exposed ... can tell me what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: Well, it makes me cough and ...

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on the ... smoke, you are at much higher risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. If ...

  4. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke-free. Some businesses might be afraid to ban smoking, but there’s no strong evidence that going ... Some states and cities even have laws that ban smoking in the car if carrying passengers under ...

  5. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over 50 to help them quit smoking. I mean, one of the key areas that we try ... not smoke in rooms where children are. I mean, certainly we want everybody to quit smoking. But ...

  6. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Announcer: Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on the link between cancer and smoking. If you smoke, you are at much higher ...

  7. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Announcer: Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on the link between cancer and smoking. If you smoke, you are at much ...

  8. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on ... smoke, you are at much higher risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. ...

  9. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at much higher risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. If you quit ... your risk, even if you have smoked for a long time. Dr. Scott Leischow: Quitting smoking is ...

  10. Forty-Year Trends in Tooth Loss Among American Adults With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Huabin; Pan, Wei; Sloan, Frank; Feinglos, Mark; Wu, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the trends in tooth loss among adults with and without diabetes mellitus in the United States and racial/ethnic disparities in tooth loss patterns, and to evaluate trends in tooth loss by age, birth cohorts, and survey periods. Methods Data came from 9 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1971 through 2012. The trends in the estimated tooth loss in people with and without diabetes were assessed by age groups, surve...

  11. Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate population-level caffeine intakes, using data from 24-h dietary recall. First, caffeine intakes by age-group and beverage type were estimated using the most recent 2011-2012 data (n = 7456). Second, fourteen years trends in caffeine consumption, overall and by beverage type, were evaluated for adults and children. Trend analyses were conducted by age groups. Last, trends in caffeine intakes by purchase location and beverage type were estimated. In 2011-2012, children aged four to eight years consumed the least caffeine (15 mg/day), and adults aged 51-70 years consumed the most (213 mg/day). The population mean (age ≥ four years) was 135 mg/day, driven largely by coffee (90 mg/day), tea (25 mg/day), and soda (21 mg/day). For the 14-19 years and 20-34 years age-groups, energy drinks contributed 6 mg/day (9.9%) and 5 mg/day (4.5%), respectively. The bulk of caffeine came from store-bought coffee and tea. Among both children and adults combined, caffeine intakes declined from 175 mg/day (1999-2000) to 142 mg/day (2011-2012), largely driven by a drop in caffeine from soda (41 mg/day to 21 mg/day). Store-bought coffee and tea remain principal drivers of caffeine intake in the US. Sodas and energy drinks make minor contributions to overall caffeine intakes. PMID:26978391

  12. Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Drewnowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were used to estimate population-level caffeine intakes, using data from 24-h dietary recall. First, caffeine intakes by age-group and beverage type were estimated using the most recent 2011–2012 data (n = 7456. Second, fourteen years trends in caffeine consumption, overall and by beverage type, were evaluated for adults and children. Trend analyses were conducted by age groups. Last, trends in caffeine intakes by purchase location and beverage type were estimated. In 2011–2012, children aged four to eight years consumed the least caffeine (15 mg/day, and adults aged 51–70 years consumed the most (213 mg/day. The population mean (age ≥ four years was 135 mg/day, driven largely by coffee (90 mg/day, tea (25 mg/day, and soda (21 mg/day. For the 14–19 years and 20–34 years age-groups, energy drinks contributed 6 mg/day (9.9% and 5 mg/day (4.5%, respectively. The bulk of caffeine came from store-bought coffee and tea. Among both children and adults combined, caffeine intakes declined from 175 mg/day (1999–2000 to 142 mg/day (2011–2012, largely driven by a drop in caffeine from soda (41 mg/day to 21 mg/day. Store-bought coffee and tea remain principal drivers of caffeine intake in the US. Sodas and energy drinks make minor contributions to overall caffeine intakes.

  13. Multiple Chronic Conditions among Adults Aged 45 and Over: Trends Over the Past 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needs and use for Medicare and other payers. Keywords: hypertension, diabetes, cancer, prevalence The percentage of adults ... with two or more chronic conditions had increasing difficulty obtaining needed medical care and prescription drugs because ...

  14. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation betw...

  15. Trends in Antihyperglycemic Medication Prescriptions and Hypoglycemia in Older Adults: 2002-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Kristin K.; Salimah Shariff; Kuan Liu; Irene Hramiak; Jeffrey L Mahon; Eric McArthur; Garg, Amit X

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, several new antihyperglycemic medications have been introduced including those associated with a lower hypoglycemia risk. We aimed to investigate how these medications are being prescribed to older adults in our region. Methods We conducted population-based cross-sectional analyses of older adults (mean age 75 years) with treated diabetes in Ontario, Canada from 2002 until 2013, to examine the percentage prescribed insulin, sulphonylureas, alpha-glucosidase in...

  16. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  17. AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over: characteristics, trends and spatial distribution of the risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana de Almeida Nogueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic trend and spatial distribution of the risk of AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over.METHOD: population-based, ecological study, that used secondary data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan/AIDS of Paraíba state from the period January 2000 to December 2010.RESULTS: during the study period, 307 cases of AIDS were reported among people 50 years of age or over. There was a predominance of males (205/66, 8%, mixed race, and low education levels. The municipalities with populations above 100 thousand inhabitants reported 58.5% of the cases. There was a progressive increase in cases among women; an increasing trend in the incidence (positive linear correlation; and an advance in the geographical spread of the disease, with expansion to the coastal region and to the interior of the state, reaching municipalities with populations below 30 thousand inhabitants. In some locations the risk of disease was 100 times greater than the relative risk for the state.CONCLUSION: aging, with the feminization and interiorization of the epidemic in adults 50 years of age and over, confirms the need for the induction of affirmative policies targeted toward this age group.

  18. From pharmaco-therapy to pharmaco-prevention: trends in prescribing to older adults in Ontario, Canada, 1997-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developed world is undergoing a demographic transition with greater numbers of older adults and higher rates of chronic disease. Most elder care is now provided by primary care physicians, who prescribe the majority of medications taken by these patients. Despite these significant trends, little is known about population-level prescribing patterns to primary care patients aged 65+. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study to examine 10-year prescribing trends among family physicians providing care to patients aged 65+ in Ontario, Canada. Results Both crude number of prescription claims and prescription rates (i.e., claims per person increased dramatically over the 10-year study period. The greatest change was in prescribing patterns for females aged 85+. Dramatic increases were observed in the prescribing of preventive medications, such as those to prevent osteoporosis (+2,347% and lipid-lowering agents (+697%. And lastly, the number of unique classes of medications prescribed to older persons has increased, with the proportion of older patients prescribed more than 10 classes of medications almost tripling during the study period. Conclusions Prescribing to older adults by family physicians increased substantially during the study period. This raises important concerns regarding quality of care, patient safety, and cost sustainability. It is evident that further research is urgently needed on the health outcomes (both beneficial and harmful associated with these dramatic increases in prescribing rates.

  19. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  20. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... smokes. Dr. Leischow: We encourage senior citizens, as well as others, to in particular not smoke in rooms where children are. I mean, certainly we want everybody to quit smoking. But if people do smoke, they shouldn't be in rooms where -- they shouldn't have children ...

  1. Recent trends in chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis among neonates and adults in an Irish hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, Michael

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two important and frequently overlooked causes of neonatal and adult conjunctivitis. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In order to improve primary treatment, prevention, and control of infection caused by these organisms, an analysis of all cases presenting from July 2002 to December 2006 at a major Irish regional teaching hospital was performed. RESULTS: There were 51 cases of conjunctivitis in total. Among neonates and adults, C. trachomatis was the most common cause of conjunctivitis. Of the adult patients, 75% were men. The annual incidence of adult chlamydial conjunctivitis increased yearly from 2002 and correlated with an overall increase in genital chlamydia infection in the region. Neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis has an overall incidence of 0.65\\/1000 live births and is continuing to rise annually. In 2006, gonococcal conjunctivitis accounted for 20% of all cases of conjunctivitis caused by sexually transmitted bacteria presenting to our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in the incidence of gonococcal keratitis serves to remind us that this important infection should be borne in mind when treating cases of purulent conjunctivitis. The diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment with systemic antibiotics.

  2. Incidence and Trends in Psychopathology Symptoms over Time in Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…

  3. The Influence of the Knowledge Society: Trends in Adult Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasworm, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Current understandings of a knowledge economy have been emerging from two defining forces: the rise in quality and intensity of knowledge as a key commodity for economic development and the increasing globalization through information technology of both knowledge exchange and economic activities. The future of adult higher education is focused on…

  4. Older Adults and Substance-Related Disorders: Trends and Associated Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Daniel; Heberlein, Emily; Engel, Rafael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to examine the changing service profile of older adults receiving substance abuse services over the past decade and the increased costs of treating this population. Design and Methods. Medicaid claims for mental health and substance abuse services data from a medium sized county in an eastern state were analyzed for individuals aged 50 years and older in calendar year 2000 or 2009. Univariate statistics are presented to describe the substance abuse and mental...

  5. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics. Thi...... ban. This change in attitude can support implementation of future legislation on smoking and may lead to positive changes in smoking norms....

  6. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p1 and α2 globulin were significantly higher (p1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α1 and α2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  7. Trends in obesity and abdominal obesity in the older adult population of Spain (2000-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis; León-Muñoz, Luz María; Regidor, Enrique; Banegas, José R.; Rodriguez Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work examines the trend in obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish population aged 60 years and over during the first decade of the 21st century. Methods: We analyze data from a representative study of the Spanish population aged 60 years and older conducted in 2000-2001 and from the Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) conducted in 2008-2010. Results: In men, the distribution of BMI did not vary in the period 2000-2010. In contrast, in women there...

  8. Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Tazik; Abdolhamid Angizeh; Pooneh Moharloei; Samieh Banihashem; Mehdi Sedaghat; Gholamreza Veghari; Abbas Moghaddami

    2012-01-01

     Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and wome...

  9. No Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕川

    2005-01-01

    No Smoking Day comes once a year. It calls on people to quit smoking, but there're still so many smokers in the world. Worse still, the number of smokers is increasing day by day. As we know, smoking is a bad habit. Smoking is harmful not only to a smoker himself but also to the people around. It is said that if you smoke one cigarette, your life will be a second shorter. In other words, smoking means buying death with money. I've learned from a newspaper that tens of thousands of people in the world die fr...

  10.  Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Tazik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and women, respectively.Results: Compared to 2010, the mean waist circumference in2006 changed from 87.2 cm to 88.1 cm in men (p=0.237, andfrom 90.3 cm to 88.6 cm in women (p=0.045. The comparisonbetween 2006 and 2010 revealed that the prevalence of centralobesity slightly decreased, 6.8�0and 2.4�0in urban women andmen, respectively. Generally, the mean of waist circumferencesignificantly decreased in urban women (by 0.069 cm in each year;p=0.020; however, the decrease of waist circumference in urbanmen was not significant (0.006 cm decrease each year; p=0.915.Conclusion: The prevalence of central obesity declined amongboth males and females in the urban area; however, there wasan attenuated increasing trend in the rural area. The disparity oftrends between the two regions should be considered for furtherstudy.

  11. Trends in Antihyperglycemic Medication Prescriptions and Hypoglycemia in Older Adults: 2002-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K Clemens

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, several new antihyperglycemic medications have been introduced including those associated with a lower hypoglycemia risk. We aimed to investigate how these medications are being prescribed to older adults in our region.We conducted population-based cross-sectional analyses of older adults (mean age 75 years with treated diabetes in Ontario, Canada from 2002 until 2013, to examine the percentage prescribed insulin, sulphonylureas, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, metformin, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Over the study period, we also examined their hospital encounters for hypoglycemia (emergency room or inpatient encounter.The mean age of treated patients increased slightly over the study quarters and the proportion that were women declined. With the exception of chronic kidney disease, cancer, dementia, and neuropathy, the percentage with a comorbidity appeared to decline. The percentage of treated patients prescribed metformin, gliclazide and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors increased as did combination therapy. Glyburide and thiazolidinedione prescriptions declined, and insulin use remained stable. In those with newly treated diabetes, the majority were prescribed metformin, with smaller percentages prescribed insulin and other oral agents. Although the absolute number of treated patients with a hypoglycemia encounter increased until mid-2006 and then decreased, the overall percentage with an encounter declined over the study period (0.8% with an event in the first quarter, 0.4% with an event in the last quarter.Antihyperglycemic medications with safer profiles are being increasingly prescribed to older adults. In this setting there has been a decrease in the percentage of treated patients with a hospital encounter for hypoglycemia.

  12. Determinants of Smoking Behavior among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Judith Cartledge; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews literature on determinants of smoking behavior among nurses, examining history and current trends of cigarette use among nurses. Cites national and international studies showing nurses to smoke more than any other health professionals. Discusses stress as primary theory of smoking causation among nurses. Considers role of nursing education…

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Dyspnea Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scano Giorgio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms in adults. The relationship of dyspnea with cigarette smoking has been examined in smokers and ex-smokers and the beneficial effects of smoking cessation have been demonstrated. Recent studies reported that in subjects who smoke cigarettes the risk of developing respiratory symptoms is higher in a dose-dependent way. Environmental tobacco smoke heavily influences the incidence of respiratory symptoms in both adults and in children. Up to the present time, the mechanisms whereby cigarette smoking causes dyspnea perception remain to be defined. Abnormalities in sensory nerves might diminish the perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers. In this regard, it has been postulated that prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke may lead to chronic depletion of sensory nerve neurotransmitters. Eosinophil airway inflammation has been proposed as a determinant of breathlessness via mechanisms affecting either the mechanical pathways that control breathlessness or the afferent nerves involved in perception of dyspnea. An increased number of eosinophils in some smokers implies the possibility that smoking may trigger immunological or other reactions associated with eosinophilia. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is by far one of the greatest risk factors for most respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea. Smoking is associated with the development of symptoms in a dose-dependent way and eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR increase the risk of developing dyspnea.

  14. Pumping Iron in Australia: Prevalence, Trends and Sociodemographic Correlates of Muscle Strengthening Activity Participation from a National Sample of 195,926 Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bennie, Jason A; Zeljko Pedisic; Jannique G Z van Uffelen; Charity, Melanie J.; Harvey, Jack T; Banting, Lauren K; Ineke Vergeer; Biddle, Stuart J.H.; Eime, Rochelle M

    2016-01-01

    Objective The current Australian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular muscle-strengthening activity (e.g. strength or resistance training). However, public health surveillance studies describing the patterns and trends of population-level muscle-strengthening activity participation are sparse. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle-strengthening activity participation in a national-representative sam...

  15. Pain assessment in the critically ill adult: Recent evidence and new trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Céline

    2016-06-01

    Pain assessment in the critically ill adult remains a daily clinical challenge. Position statements and practice guidelines exist to guide the ICU care team in the pain assessment process. The patient's self-report of pain remains the gold standard measure for pain and should be obtained as often as possible. When self-report is impossible to obtain, observational pain scales including the Behavioural Pain Scale (BPS) and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) have been recommended for clinical use in the critically ill adult. However, their adaptation and validation in brain-injured and burn ICU patients is required. Family caregivers may help in the identification of pain-related behaviours and should be more involved in the ICU pain assessment process. Fluctuations in vital signs should only be considered as cues for further assessment of pain with appropriate tools, and may better represent adverse events of severe pain. Other physiologic measures of pain should be explored in the ICU, and pupillometry appears as a promising technique to further study. Implementation of systematic pain assessment approaches using tools adapted to the patient's ability to communicate and condition has shown positive effects on ICU pain practices and patient outcomes, but randomised control trials are needed to confirm these conclusions. PMID:27067745

  16. How pluralistic is the research field on adult education? : Dominating bibliometrical trends, 2005-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fejes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available What the field of adult education research is and how it can be described has been a debated issue over the decades. Several scholars argue that the field today is heterogeneous, borrowing theories and methods from a range of disciplines. In this article, we take such statements as a starting point for empirical analysis. In what ways could it be argued that the field is pluralistic rather than monolithic; heterogeneous rather than homogenous? Drawing on bibliographic data of the top cited articles in three main adult education journals between 2005 and 2012, we illustrate how the citation patterns have tendencies of homogeneity when it comes to the geographical country of authorship, since the USA, UK, Australia and Canada dominate, as well as the research methods adopted, since qualitative approaches have near total dominance. Furthermore, there is a tendency to adopt similar theoretical approaches, since sociocultural perspectives, critical pedagogy and post-structuralism represent more than half of the articles in our sample. At the same time, the results of our analysis indicate signs of scholarly pluralism, for instance, in terms of authorship, since both early career researchers and established researchers are represented among the top cited publications. We conclude the article by arguing that empirical analysis of publication and citation patterns is important to further the development of reflexivity within the field, not least for early career researchers, who might benefit from knowledge about what has been recognized among peers as worth citing in recent times.

  17. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. PMID:25773456

  18. Methods of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J L

    1992-03-01

    gum or transdermal patches. These products are particularly useful for smokers who show evidence of strong physiologic addiction to nicotine. Attitudes toward smoking have shifted dramatically. In the 1950s, fewer than 50% of American adults believed that cigarette smoking caused lung cancer. In 1986, this proportion had increased to 92%. A majority of the public favors policies restricting smoking in public places and worksites. Half of all Americans who ever smoked had stopped smoking by 1988. Of those who continue to smoke, more than 70% report that they would like to quit. By increasing their knowledge about smoking-cessation methods, health professionals can support and encourage the large majority of smokers who want to quit. PMID:1548971

  19. Rural Print Media Portrayal of Secondhand Smoke and Smoke-Free Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Helme, Donald W.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Adkins, Sarah M.; Amundsen, Shelby J.; Lee, Erin; Riker, Carol A.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how the print media portrays secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy in rural communities. Baseline print media clips from an ongoing 5-year study of smoke-free policy development in 40 rural communities were analyzed. We hypothesized that community population size would be positively associated with media favorability toward smoke-free policy. Conversely, pounds of tobacco produced and adult smoking prevalence would be negatively associated with media ...

  20. Trends in adult leukemia incidence and survival in Denmark, 1943-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Nielsen, Ove Juul; Johansen, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Registry with registration starting from 1943, we calculated age-specific, period-specific, and age-standardized (world standard) incidence rates of chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for persons above the age of......The etiology of leukemia is largely unknown. Ecological data indicating trends in incidence and survival can provide information about changes in risk factors, can reflect underlying changes in diagnostic classification, and can measure therapeutic advances. From the records of the Danish Cancer...... 18. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and median survival times were calculated. Between 1943 and 2003, there were 26,036 cases of leukemia reported. The age-specific incidence rates of CLL, CML, and AML were higher for older men and women, while the incidence rates of ALL by age were more homogeneous...

  1. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using in addition to the medications they may use for smoking cessation, so a senior citizen who's ... for hypertension, or the like, and want to use a medication for smoking cessation should see their ...

  2. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. If you quit smoking, you greatly ... health care provider. So I don't want to make it sound like an easy process. But ...

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... quitting smoking, and in fact, on that website, we have a manual just for people that are ... I mean, one of the key areas that we try to address with senior citizens quitting smoking ...

  4. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... smokes. Dr. Leischow: We encourage senior citizens, as well as others, to in particular not smoke in ... it increases their chances for developing asthma as well as disease down the road. Teacher: Okay, kids, ...

  5. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... quality of life can also be affected by second-hand smoke, the smoke that non-smokers are exposed ... can tell me what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: Well, it makes me cough and ...

  6. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting smoking is hard for most smokers and it's hard whether they've been smoking five years, it's hard if they've been smoking for 40 ... provider. So I don't want to make it sound like an easy process. But having said ...

  7. In Adult Smokers Unwilling or Unable to Quit, Does Changing From Tobacco Cigarettes to Electronic Cigarettes Decrease the Incidence of Negative Health Effects Associated With Smoking Tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the e-cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices.

  8. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, does changing from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes decrease the incidence of negative health effects associated with smoking tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer; Brown, Brandon; Schwiebert, Peter; Ramakrisnan, Kalyanakrishnan; McCarthy, Laine H.

    2016-01-01

    Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the electronic cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices. PMID:26855963

  9. Current Trends in the Monitoring and Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Raczyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR in young adults have significantly improved in recent years. Research methods have widened significantly, for example, by introducing spectral optical tomography of the eye. Invasive diagnostics, for example, fluorescein angiography, are done less frequently. The early introduction of an insulin pump to improve the administration of insulin is likely to delay the development of diabetic retinopathy, which is particularly important for young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The first years of diabetes occurring during childhood and youth are the most appropriate to introduce proper therapeutic intervention before any irreversible changes in the eyes appear. The treatment of DR includes increased metabolic control, laserotherapy, pharmacological treatment (antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory treatment, enzymatic vitreolysis, and intravitreal injections, and surgery. This paper summarizes the up-to-date developments in the diagnostics and treatment of DR. In the literature search, authors used online databases, PubMed, and clinitrials.gov and browsed through individual ophthalmology journals, books, and leading pharmaceutical company websites.

  10. Smoking and cancer: smoking cessation.

    OpenAIRE

    Austoker, J; Sanders, D.; Fowler, G

    1994-01-01

    Smoking is the single most important cause of cancer. The risk of developing cancer is reduced by stopping smoking and decreases substantially after five years. Reduction in smoking must be central to any programme aimed seriously at the prevention of cancer. An individual approach, based in primary care, has the potential to bring about modest but important reductions in risk. Many randomised trials have shown the effectiveness of various smoking cessation interventions in primary care. Give...

  11. The SmokefreeTXT (SFTXT) Study: Web and Mobile Data Collection to Evaluate Smoking Cessation for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derick; Parvanta, Sarah; Dolina, Suzanne; Kelly, Bridget; Dever, Jill; Southwell, Brian G; Sanders, Amy; Augustson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been shown to be effective in delivering interventions for various diseases and health conditions, including smoking cessation. While there are many published studies regarding smoking cessation text messaging interventions, most do not provide details about the study’s operational methods. As a result, there is a gap in our understanding of how best to design studies of smoking cessation text messaging programs. Objective The purpose of this paper is to detail the operational methods used to conduct a randomized trial comparing three different versions of the National Cancer Institute’s SmokefreeText (SFTXT) program, designed for smokers 18 to 29 years of age. We detail our methods for recruiting participants from the Internet, reducing fraud, conducting online data collection, and retaining panel study participants. Methods Participants were recruited through website advertisements and market research online panels. Screening questions established eligibility for the study (eg, 18 to 29 years of age, current smoker). Antifraud measures screened out participants who could not meet the study requirements. After completing a baseline survey, participants were randomized to one of three study arms, which varied by type and timing of text message delivery. The study offered US $20 gift cards as incentives to complete each of four follow-up surveys. Automated email reminders were sent at designated intervals to increase response rates. Researchers also provided telephone reminders to those who had not completed the survey after multiple email reminders. We calculated participation rates across study arms and compared the final sample characteristics to the Current Population Survey to examine generalizability. Results Recruitment methods drove 153,936 unique visitors to the SFTXT Study landing page and 27,360 began the screener. Based on the screening questions, 15,462 out of 27,360 responders (56.51%) were

  12. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Kamen; Blosnich, John R.; Megan Lytle; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J; Mustian, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) adults smoke cigarettes at higher rates than heterosexual adults. Smoking after receiving a cancer diagnosis is a major health concern, yet risk of continued smoking among sexual minority cancer survivors is as yet unknown. The current study examines current smoking among sexual minority vs. heterosexual adult cancer survivors. Method: Data drawn from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in five states (Ala...

  13. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  14. Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in an adult type 2 diabetes Spanish population between 2003 and 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen de Burgos-Lunar

    Full Text Available In patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of hypertension is higher than in non-diabetic subjects. Despite the high cardiovascular risk involving hypertension in these patients, its prevalence and control are not well known. The aims of this study were: to estimate the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes attended in Primary Care; and to analyse its time trend from 2003 to 2009. A serial cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2009 was performed in 21 Primary Care Centres in Madrid. The study population comprised all patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in their computerised medical history. Overall annual prevalence during the period 2003-2009 was calculated from and according to sex and age groups. Linear trend tests, regression lines and coefficients of determination were used. In 2003 89.78% (CI 87.92-91.64 of patients with type 2 diabetes suffered hypertension and 94.76% (CI: 92.85-96.67 in 2009. This percentage was greater for women and for patients over 65 years old. 30% of patients suffered previously undiagnosed hypertension in 2003 and 23.1% in 2009. 97% of diagnosed patients received pharmacological treatment and 28.79% reached the blood pressure objective in 2009. The average number of antihypertensive drugs taken was 2.72 in 2003 and 3.27 in 2009. Only 5.2% of patients with type 2 diabetes show blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg. Although significant improvements have been achieved in the diagnosis and control of hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes, these continue to remain far from optimum.

  15. When You Smoke, They Smoke: Children's Rights and Opinions about Vehicular Smoking Bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Morgan Anne

    International law guarantees every person the highest attainable standard of health, and this should include protection from the health risks of environmental tobacco smoke. As knowledge of these risks has increased, there has been an incremental expansion of smoking bans in public space. Since 2007, they have extended to the private space of the motor vehicle in an attempt to protect child passengers. This thesis aimed to understand the views and interests of children and youth on vehicular smoking bans, and the extent to which these have been sought after and considered in previous discussions of this policy initiative in Canada. A print media analysis found a lack of concern for children's perspectives. Rights, when considered, were generally those of adults. In focus groups, children discussed the unfairness of exposure to smoke in any space, but especially within the motor vehicle, and articulated a desire for increased participation in decision-making. Keywords: Smoking, smoking bans, rights, children's opinions, vehicles, Canada.

  16. Hair analysis following chronic smoked-drugs-of-abuse exposure in adults and their toddler: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaseit Esther

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Over the past two decades, the study of chronic cocaine and crack cocaine exposure in the pediatric population has been focused on the potential adverse effects, especially in the prenatal period and early childhood. Non-invasive biological matrices have become an essential tool for the assessment of a long-term history of drug of abuse exposure. Case report We analyze the significance of different biomarker values in hair after chronic crack exposure in a two-year-old Caucasian girl and her parents, who are self-reported crack smokers. The level of benzoylecgonine, the principal metabolite of cocaine, was determined in segmented hair samples (0 cm to 3 cm from the scalp, and > 3 cm from the scalp following washing to exclude external contamination. Benzoylecgonine was detectable in high concentrations in the child's hair, at 1.9 ng/mg and 7.04 ng/mg, respectively. Benzoylecgonine was also present in the maternal and paternal hair samples at 7.88 ng/mg and 6.39 ng/mg, and 13.06 ng/mg and 12.97 ng/mg, respectively. Conclusion Based on the data from this case and from previously published poisoning cases, as well as on the experience of our research group, we conclude that, using similar matrices for the study of chronic drug exposure, children present with a higher cocaine concentration in hair and they experience more serious deleterious acute effects, probably due to a different and slower cocaine metabolism. Consequently, children must be not exposed to secondhand crack smoke under any circumstance.

  17. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... wireless devices Head injuries Smoking Hormone therapy SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ...

  18. Dynamics of smoking prevalence and tobacco products market in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, Belarus ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and then adopted several governmental documents aimed to decrease the population tobacco use. The aim of the paper is to review available data to estimate trends of smoking prevalence and tobacco market in Belarus and to evaluate impact of policies implemented since 2005 on population tobacco use.METHODS: The explorative study was conducted including online search of data on tobacco use and tobacco market and estimation of the revealed indicators dynamics by year.RESULTS: Surveys conducted by the National Statistical Committee and by the Institute of Sociology provide rather different levels of smoking rates, especially in women. However, both groups of surveys indicate that in 1995-2011 smoking prevalence in men and women had the opposite trends: an increase among women and a decrease among men. Both groups of surveys also indicate that for the adult population in general the current smoking rates were increasing in early 2000s and decreasing in late 2000s, having returned by the end of the decade to the rates observed at its beginning. However, the sales of cigarettes increased by 59% in 2005-2010 and continued to grow in 2011.DISCUSSION: The differences of smoking prevalence indicators of various survey agencies are caused by differences in sampling, interviewing procedure, questionnaires and other methodological features. The tobacco control policies introduced since 2005 resulted in a decrease of total population smoking prevalence by about 5% in 2006-2010. For further tobacco use decline, all tobacco control policies should be implemented in line with the FCTC provisions and guidelines. The steep increase of cigarette sales in Belarus in 2005-2010 cannot be explained by tobacco use increase within the country. A probable cause of sales increase is smuggling of large amounts of Belarus-produced cigarettes to other countries.

  19. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  20. Exhaled carbon monoxide and its associations with smoking, indoor household air pollution and chronic respiratory diseases among 512,000 Chinese adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Q.; Li, L; Smith, M; Y. Guo; Whitlock, G.; Bian, Z.; Kurmi, O; Collins, R.; Chen, J.; S. Lv; Pang, Z.; Chen, C.; Chen, N.; Xiong, Y; R. Peto

    2013-01-01

    Background Exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) level is positively associated with tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from biomass/coal burning. Relatively little is known about its determinants in China despite the population having a high prevalence of smoking and use of biomass/coal. Methods The China Kadoorie Biobank includes 512 000 participants aged 30-79 years recruited from 10 diverse regions. We used linear regression and logistic regression methods to assess the associations of COex l...

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, and the smoke breathed out by the smoker. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals. Hundreds of those chemicals are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children ...

  2. Trends and socioeconomic differences in policy triggers for thinking about quitting smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hummel; G.E. Nagelhout; M.C. Willemsen; P. Driezen; L. Springvloet; U. Mons; A.E. Kunst; R. Guignard; S. Allwright; B. van den Putte; C. Hoving; G.T. Fong; A. McNeill; M. Siahpush; H. de Vries

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the current study is to investigate trends and socioeconomic differences in policy triggers for thinking about quitting in six European countries. Methods Data were derived from all available survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys (2003-2013).

  3. Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Brent J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all studies reporting smoking status collect self-reported data. The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic characteristics and selected, common smoking-related diseases as predictors of invalid reporting of non-smoking. Valid self-reported smoking may be related to the degree to which smoking is a behavior that is not tolerated by the smoker's social group. Methods True smoking was defined as having serum cotinine of 15+ng/ml. 1483 "true" smokers 45+ years of age with self-reported smoking and serum cotinine data from the Mobile Examination Center were identified in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invalid non-smoking was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting non-smoking. To assess predictors of invalid self-reported non-smoking, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for age, race/ethnicity-gender categories, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Multiple logistic regression modeling took into account the complex survey design and sample weights. Results Among smokers with diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 15%, ranging from 0% for Mexican-American (MA males to 22%–25% for Non-Hispanic White (NHW males and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB females. Among smokers without diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 5%, ranging from 3% for MA females to 10% for NHB females. After simultaneously taking into account diabetes, education, race/ethnicity and gender, smokers with diabetes (ORAdj = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.35–7.34, who did not graduate from high school (ORAdj = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30–3.22 and who were NHB females (ORAdj = 5.12; 95% CI: 1.41–18.58 were more likely to self-report as non-smokers than smokers without diabetes, who were high school graduates, and MA females, respectively. Having a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension did not predict invalid reporting of non-smoking. Conclusion Validity of self

  4. Racial resentment and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment. PMID:25562312

  5. Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity from a Physician or Other Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or Other Health Professional Recommend ... to begin or continue to do exercise or physical activity. Between 2000 and 2010, the percentage of adults ...

  6. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the annual evolution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population of the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. METHODS: Annual interviews (around 54,000 per year from VIGITEL (Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Telephone Interviews were used. Self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index and nutritional status. Prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are presented according to gender, age and schooling and to each city. Linear regression model was used to evaluate the time trend of prevalence. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight in adults in the 27 cities monitored by VIGITEL increased from 43.2% (2006 to 51.0% (2012, with an annual increase rate of 1.37%. Prevalence of obesity increased from 11.6% to 17.4%, with an annual increase rate of 0.89%. The study showed a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of overweight in all cities, and for both genders, all age groups and all levels of schooling. Similar trends were also verified for obesity. CONCLUSIONS: If the trends verified from 2006 to 2012 are maintained, in ten years, around two-thirds of the adults in Brazilian state capitals will be overweight, and a quarter will be obese. This perspective requests urgent response from government and intersectoral actions to combat the obesogenic environment.

  7. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  8. 浙江省2013年成人烟草流行现状调查分析%Surveys on prevalence of adult cigarette smoking in Zhejiang province in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 徐越; 吴青青; 郭妤洁; 徐水洋

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解浙江省2013年成人烟草使用的流行现状.方法 采用多阶段、按地理位置进行整群随机抽样,在浙江省15个县区对2 779名15~69岁的居民进行面对面问卷调查.结果 浙江省15 ~ 69岁的人群现在吸烟率为25.62%,常吸烟率为21.85%,男性现在吸烟率为50.88%,女性为0.78%.40.56%的每日吸烟者每天醒后30 min以内吸第1支烟.95.19%的吸烟者尚无戒烟的意愿.64.04%的调查对象报告有人在自己家中吸烟.67.48%的吸烟者认为烟草价格上涨对他没有影响.21.09%的人通过商店和电视看到过烟草广告.知晓吸烟会导致卒中、心脏病和肺癌3种疾病的为42.00%.89.69%的人不知道低焦油卷烟的危害与一般卷烟相同.同意在公共场所完全禁烟的人达73.92%.结论 浙江省男性吸烟人群水平依然处于高平台期,总吸烟人群中戒烟率低,家庭二手烟暴露严重,人们对吸烟的认识模糊不清,烟草控制措施有待加强.%Objective To understand the status of tobacco epidemic among adults in Zhejiang province in 2013.Methods A total of 2 779 residents aged 15-69 years from 15 counties were selected using stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method and surveyed by face to face interview to complete questionnaire.Results The current smoking prevalence was 25.62% among the adults 15-69 years old in Zhejiang province,50.88% among males and 0.78% among females.The daily smoking prevalence was 21.85%;40.56% of the current daily smokers smoked within 30 minutes after waking;95.19% of current smokers were not willing to quit;64.04% of all respondents reported someone smoked in their own homes;67.48% smokers thought they would continue to smoke even if the price of tobacco rises;21.09% of all respondents saw tobacco AD at shops and on TV;42.00% of people were aware that smoking could cause stroke,heart attack and lung cancer;89.69% smokers still believed that low

  9. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 106 tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of ∼1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from ∼26 to 215 mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation

  10. How Do Friends Influence Smoking Uptake? Findings from Qualitative Interviews with Identical Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Kim; White, Victoria; Mullins, Robyn; Davey, Claire; Wakefield, Melanie; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The smoking behavior of friends is a major risk factor for adolescent smoking uptake. To explore the social context of smoking experimentation and consolidation with a particular focus on friends, the authors interviewed both members of 14 young adult identical twin pairs who were discordant for smoking. The different smoking status of twins was…

  11. Exposure to second-hand smoke and the risk of tuberculosis in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadeep Patra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO Global Health Estimates, tuberculosis (TB is among the top ten causes of global mortality and ranks second after cardiovascular disease in most high-burden regions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the role of second-hand smoke (SHS exposure as a risk factor for TB among children and adults.We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to August 31, 2014. Our a priori inclusion criteria encompassed only original studies where latent TB infection (LTBI and active TB disease were diagnosed microbiologically, clinically, histologically, or radiologically. Effect estimates were pooled using fixed- and random-effects models. We identified 18 eligible studies, with 30,757 children and 44,432 adult non-smokers, containing SHS exposure and TB outcome data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Twelve studies assessed children and eight studies assessed adult non-smokers; two studies assessed both populations. Summary relative risk (RR of LTBI associated with SHS exposure in children was similar to the overall effect size, with high heterogeneity (pooled RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.00-2.83. Children showed a more than 3-fold increased risk of SHS-associated active TB (pooled RR 3.41, 95% CI 1.81-6.45, which was higher than the risk in adults exposed to SHS (summary RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.68. Positive and significant exposure-response relationships were observed among children under 5 y (RR 5.88, 95% CI 2.09-16.54, children exposed to SHS through any parent (RR 4.20, 95% CI 1.92-9.20, and children living under the most crowded household conditions (RR 5.53, 95% CI 2.36-12.98. Associations for LTBI and active TB disease remained significant after adjustment for age, biomass fuel (BMF use, and presence of a TB patient in the household, although the meta-analysis was limited to a subset of studies that adjusted for these variables. There was a loss of association

  12. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: Well, it makes me cough and when I ... it just keeps going and going and going. Boy: I sneeze and my eyes get watery. Boy: ...

  13. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a person can quit at any age -- they should quit at any age and there are plenty ... want to use a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find ...

  14. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  15. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... senior citizen is that when they reduce the carbon monoxide that comes with smoking, they reduce the demand on their heart. When you breathe carbon monoxide into your bloodstream it makes your heart work ...

  16. Quitting Smoking

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    Full Text Available ... about heart disease, it's about overall health and what we can do to make our life as ... seats -- let's get started. Who can tell me what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: ...

  17. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... monoxide that comes with smoking, they reduce the demand on their heart. When you breathe carbon monoxide ... take away that carbon monoxide it reduces the demand on the heart and immediately reduces the risk ...

  18. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to in particular not smoke in rooms where children are. I mean, certainly we want everybody to ... be in rooms where -- they shouldn't have children in those same rooms because it really particularly ...

  19. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... there are plenty of places senior citizens can go for help to quit smoking. Announcer: To help ... for people over 50. Dr. Leischow: They can go to our website, which is smokefree.gov and ...

  20. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fingers no longer register on the screen as skin temperature continues to drop. Dr. Leischow: Quitting smoking is not just about cancer, not just about heart disease, it's about overall ...

  1. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out if there are going to be any interactions that might cause any problems. We talk a ... Dr. Leischow: Quitting smoking is not just about cancer, not just about heart disease, it's about overall ...

  2. Quitting Smoking

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    Full Text Available ... and in many cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don' ... plenty of places senior citizens can go for help to quit smoking. Announcer: To help older people ...

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  4. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there ...

  5. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... senior citizen is that when they reduce the carbon monoxide that comes with smoking, they reduce the demand on their heart. When you breathe carbon monoxide into your bloodstream it makes your heart ...

  6. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 (43.2%) nonsmokers who lived below the poverty level were exposed to secondhand smoke. Occupation 10 ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  7. 北京市怀柔区成年居民吸烟状况调查%Status Survey on Smoking Behavior Among adult Residents in Beijing Huairou District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娅娟; 高建梅; 胡海燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨北京市怀柔区成年居民的吸烟状况调查。方法采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样的方法,对怀柔区16个乡镇(街道)、48个行政村(居委会)的16726人常住成年居民进行吸烟情况问卷调查,内容包括人口学特征、吸烟率、烟龄、平均每天吸烟支数、有无戒烟打算等。结果北京市怀柔区18岁及以上常住居民吸烟率为24.4%;其中男性吸烟率明显高于女性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);吸烟率最高的年龄段为50~59岁,其次为40~49岁;初中文化居民吸烟率最高,其次是高中/中专文化居民;在吸烟的4073人中,烟龄10年以上、平均每日吸烟支数11~20支居民的比例最高;女性吸烟者吸烟支数在5支以下比例明显高于男性,10支以上比例明显低于男性,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论怀柔区成年居民吸烟率仍然较高,烟草控制仍然面临着巨大挑战,应加强健康教育工作和采取有针对性的干预措施控制烟草消费。%Objective To investigate the smoking status of adult residents in Huairou District of Beijing city. Methods The people were sampled randomly in several different stages,16 726 local adults were selected from 48 administrative vilages (neighborhood committees) in 16 towns (street) in Huairou district.Questionnaire survey of smoking was conducted among the participants,including demographic characteristics, smoking rates,smoking history, the average numbers of cigarettes smoked per day, the thoughts of quitting smoking.Results In Huairou District of Beijing City,18 years of age and older residents smoking rate was 24.4%;the smoking rate of male was significantly higher than that in female,the difference is statisticaly significant(P<0.05);smoking rate in the age group with the highest 50 to 59 years old,folowed by 40~49 years old;junior high school culture residents smoking rate was the highest,folowed by

  8. Anxiety Sensitivity as a Moderator of Association between Smoking Status and Panic-related Processes in a Representative Sample of Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Kotov, Roman; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Antipova, Anna V.

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated a moderational role of anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety and anxiety-related states; McNally, 2002) in the relation between smoking status and anxiety/depressive symptoms in a Russian epidemiological sample (n = 390; 197 females, Mean age = 43.55). Consistent with prediction, anxiety sensitivity moderated the association of smoking status with indices of anxiety and depressive symptoms; the effects were evident after controlling for the variance accounte...

  9. Changes in smoking prevalence among U.S. adults by state and region: Estimates from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 1992-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Melissa M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control policies at the state level have been a critical impetus for reduction in smoking prevalence. We examine the association between recent changes in smoking prevalence and state-specific tobacco control policies and activities in the entire U.S. Methods We analyzed the 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS by state and two indices of state tobacco control policies or activities [initial outcome index (IOI and the strength of tobacco control (SOTC index] measured in 1998-1999. The IOI reflects cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation, whereas the SOTC reflects tobacco control program resources and capacity. Pearson Correlation coefficient between the proportionate change in smoking prevalence from 1992-93 to 2006-07 and indices of tobacco control activities or programs was the main outcome measure. Results Smoking prevalence decreased from 1992-93 to 2006-07 in both men and women in all states except Wyoming, where no reduction was observed among men, and only a 6.9% relative reduction among women. The percentage reductions in smoking in men and women respectively were the largest in the West (average decrease of 28.5% and 33.3% and the smallest in the Midwest (18.6% and 20.3%, although there were notable exceptions to this pattern. The decline in smoking prevalence by state was correlated with the state's IOI in both women and men (r = -0.49, p Conclusion State level policies on cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation correlate strongly with reductions in smoking prevalence since 1992. Strengthening and systematically implementing these policies could greatly accelerate further reductions in smoking.

  10. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Secondhand Smoke and Cancer On This Page What is secondhand smoke? How is secondhand smoke exposure measured? Does secondhand ...

  11. Health hazards of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, M P; LeMaistre, C A; Newell, G R

    1988-01-01

    "Environmental tobacco smoke" (ETS) is the term used to characterize tobacco combustion products inhaled by nonsmokers in the proximity of burning tobacco. Over 3800 compounds are in tobacco smoke, many of which are known carcinogens. Most ETS exposure is from sidestream smoke emitted from the burning tip of the cigarette. Sidestream smoke is hazardous because it contains high concentrations of ammonia, benzene, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and many carcinogens. Nonsmokers chronically exposed to ETS are believed to assume health risks similar to those of a light smoker. Children of parents who smoke have more respiratory infections, more hospitalizations for bronchitis and pneumonia, and a smaller rate of increase in lung function compared to children of parents who do not smoke, particularly during the first year of life. Among adults with preexisting health conditions such as allergies, chronic lung conditions, and angina, the symptoms of these conditions are exacerbated by exposure to ETS. The acute health effects among healthy adults include headaches, nausea, and irritation of the eyes and nasal mucous membranes. The evidence for a relationship between ETS and cancer at sites other than lung is insufficient to draw any positive conclusions. For lung cancer, studies have consistently shown an excess risk between 10% and 300%, with a summary relative risk of 1.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.1-1.5). A dose-response relation is suggested but difficult to assess completely. Histologic types of lung cancer are generally similar to those most closely associated with active smoking, although other histologic types have also been found. Both excess relative risks and the dose responses are underestimates of the true excess risk and of the range of dose-response effect. Although the temporal relationship between exposure and disease occurrence is established, many questions are unanswered. The findings are consistent with many known biologic effects of active smoking and

  12. ADHD as a Serious Risk Factor for Early Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Holzner, Sebastian; Feige, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Perlov, Evgeniy; Ebert, Dieter; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tobacco smoking and ADHD frequently co-occur. So far, the bulk of research on the ADHD-smoking comorbidity has been done in children with ADHD and nonclinical adult samples. To assess smoking habits in adults with ADHD, the authors used the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Method: In 60 adult outpatients, with an ADHD…

  13. Survey on the Status of Smoking in Adult Population in Shandong Province of China during 2011%山东省2011年18岁及以上人群吸烟状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卉呈; 张吉玉; 颜流霞; 鹿子龙; 蔡小宁; 楚洁; 郭晓雷

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解山东省18岁及以上成年人群吸烟状况.方法 在山东省内,采用四阶段不等概率分层整群随机抽样方法,抽取18~ 69岁的15 350人为调查对象,通过问卷调查获得调查对象基本信息和烟草相关信息.率的统计分析根据抽样设计采用加权的Surveyfreq方法进行分析和处理.结果 本次共收集有效问卷15 334人并纳入分析,山东省18岁及以上人群吸烟率为31.7% (95%CI,29.9%~33.5%),其中男性59.8%,女性3.2%;现在吸烟率为28.5%(95%CI,26.8% ~ 30.1%),其中男性56.2%,女性2.4%;18岁及以上男性人群戒烟率为13.6% (95%CI,11.9%~15.4%),城市地区为16.0%,农村地区12.6%;二手烟暴露率为52.3% (95% CI,46.4%~58.2%),其中男性为47.3%,低于女性的55.1%,城市地区二手烟暴露率为58.2%,高于农村地区的49.4%.结论 山东省成年人群吸烟率较高,戒烟率较低,二手烟暴露率高,需进一步加强烟草控制工作.%Objective The aim of this study was to study the status of smoking,second-hand smoking (SHS) and quitting smoking in the adult population in Shandong province.Methods Stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select a total of 15350 subjects aged from 18 to 69 in Shandong province for a questionnaire survey,which collected the basic personal information of the subjects and their smoking status.The information was analyzed by Weighted Surveyfreq model.Results Totally,15334 questionnaires were qualified for the analysis.In Shandong province,the average smoking rate was 31.7% (95% CI,29.9~33.5%) for the group of 18 years old and above (with 59.8% in male and 3.2% in female); the rate of SHS in urban areas was 58.2%,which was higher than that in rural areas (49.2%); the rate of quitting smoking was 13.6% (95% CI,11.9~15.4%) in male,with 16.0% in urban areas and 13.6% in rural areas.Conclusion Attentions should be paid to the status of

  14. Does Reactance against Cigarette Warning Labels Matter? Warning Label Responses and Downstream Smoking Cessation amongst Adult Smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Yong, Hua-Hie; McKeever, Robert; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some researchers have raised concerns that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages may lead to message rejection and reduced effectiveness of HWL messages. This study aimed to determine how state reactance (i.e., negative affect due to perceived manipulation) in response to both pictorial and text-only HWLs is associated with other types of HWL responses and with subsequent cessation attempts. Methods Survey data were collected every 4 months between September 2013 and 2014 from online panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US were analyzed. Participants with at least one wave of follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 4,072 smokers; 7,459 observations). Surveys assessed psychological and behavioral responses to HWLs (i.e., attention to HWLs, cognitive elaboration of risks due to HWLs, avoiding HWLs, and forgoing cigarettes because of HWLs) and cessation attempts. Participants then viewed specific HWLs from their countries and were queried about affective state reactance. Logistic and linear Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models regressed each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses on reactance, while controlling for socio-demographic and smoking-related variables. Logistic GEE models also regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent survey on reactance, each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses (analyzed separately), adjustment variables. Data from all countries were initially pooled, with interactions between country and reactance assessed; when interactions were statistically significant, country-stratified models were estimated. Results Interactions between country and reactance were found in all models that regressed psychological and behavioral HWL responses on study variables. In the US, stronger reactance was associated with more frequent reading of HWLs and thinking about health risks. Smokers from all four countries with stronger reactance reported greater

  15. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Hiroko [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories 10-1, Tebiro 6-chome, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan); Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agencourt Bioscience Corp., 500 Cummings Center, Suite 2450, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Marcelino, Luisa A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gruhl, Amanda N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); SLC Ontario, 690 Dorval Drive, Suite 200, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3W7 Canada (Canada); Zarbl, Helmut [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, 170 Freylinghuysen Road, Room 426, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Willey, James C. [Medical College of Ohio, 3120 Glendale Avenue, Room 12, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Furth, Emma E. [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 3400 Spruce Street, 6 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Morgenthaler, Stephan [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), SB/IMA, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2008-11-10

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 10{sup 6} tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of {approx}1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from {approx}2{sup 6} to 2{sup 15} mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation.

  16. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  17. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  18. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  19. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  20. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , ...

  1. Smoking and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  2. Modeling the Effects of Indoor Passive Smoking at Home, Work, or Other Households on Adult Cardiovascular and Mental Health: The Scottish Health Survey, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Shiue

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive smoking has contributed increased risks of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and mortality, but the cumulative effects from work or other households were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to model the effects of indoor passive smoking from own home, work, and other households in a country-wide, population-based setting. Data in the Scottish Health Survey between 2008 and 2011 after the law banning smoking in public places were analyzed. Information including demographics, lifestyle factors, and self-reported cardiovascular disease and mental health was obtained by household interview. Analyses included chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment, it was observed that being exposed to indoor passive smoking, in particular in more than two places of exposure, was significantly associated with risks of stroke, angina, heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, and GHQ ≥ 12. The significance remained for angina, GHQ ≥ 12 and probably heart attack in never smokers. The cumulative risks also impacted on sleep problems, self-recognition, making decisions, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, happiness and self-worth. The significance remained for sleep problems, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, and happiness in never smokers. Elimination of indoor passive smoking from different sources should still be a focus in future public health programs.

  3. Factors associated to smoking habit among older adults (The Bambuí Health and Aging Study Fatores associados ao hábito de fumar entre idosos (Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Viana Peixoto

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and associated factors of the smoking habit among older adults. METHODS: A population-based study was carried out comprising 1,606 (92.2% older adults (>60 years old living in the Bambuí town, Southeastern Brazil in 1997. Data was obtained by means of interview and socio-demographic factors, health status, physical functioning, use of healthcare services and medication were considered. The multiple multinomial logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between smoking habits (current and former smokers and the exploratory variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of current and past smoking was 31.4% and 40.2% among men, and 10.3% and 11.2% among women, respectively (p80 years and schooling (>8 years and positive association with poor health perception and not being married. Among women, independent and negative associations with current smoking were observed for age (75-79 and >80 years and schooling (4-7 and >8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was a public health concern among older adults in the studied community, particularly for men. Yet, in a low schooling population, a slightly higher level was a protective factor against smoking for both men and women. Programs for reducing smoking in the elderly population should take these findings into consideration.OBJETIVO: Descrever as características e fatores associados ao hábito de fumar em uma população idosa. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional realizado com 1.606 (92,2% idosos (>60 anos residentes na cidade de Bambuí, Estado de Minas Gerais, em 1997. As variáveis estudadas foram: fatores sociodemográficos, condições de saúde, função física, uso de serviço de saúde e de medicamentos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista. A regressão logística multinomial foi utilizada para avaliar associações independentes entre o hábito de fumar (atual e passado e as variáveis exploratórias. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de

  4. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardakis Manolis K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  5. Smoking cessation support in Iran: Availability, sources & predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Eshrati, Babak; Sadri, Gholamhossein

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Smoking cessation advice is known as an important factor in motivating smokers to quit smoking. We investigated the extent, sources and predictors of receiving unsolicited advice and seeking active advice for smoking cessation in Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed as a part of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) on 9093 adult individuals (both men and women) in 2004-2005. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, sources and preferences for smoki...

  6. An Analysis of the Social-Contextual Responsiveness of Adult Education in Urban Family Literacy Programs: Trends, Obstacles, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elish-Piper, Laurie

    2000-01-01

    Examines the responsiveness of the adult education component in urban family literacy programs in the Midwest. Finds that most of the programs were aware of the concept of responsive, family-centered programs; however, their practices did not support such an approach. (NH)

  7. Rural print media portrayal of secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, Donald W; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E; Adkins, Sarah M; Amundsen, Shelby J; Lee, Erin; Riker, Carol A; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the print media portrays secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy in rural communities. Baseline print media clips from an ongoing 5-year study of smoke-free policy development in 40 rural communities were analyzed. The authors hypothesized that community population size would be positively associated with media favorability toward smoke-free policy. Conversely, pounds of tobacco produced and adult smoking prevalence would be negatively associated with media favorability. There was a positive correlation between population size and percentage of articles favorable toward smoke-free policy. The authors did not find a correlation between adult smoking or tobacco produced and media favorability toward smoke-free policy, but we did find a positive relationship between tobacco produced and percentage of pro-tobacco articles and a negative relationship between adult smoking prevalence and percentage of articles about health/comfort. Implications for targeting pro-health media in rural communities as well as policy-based initiatives for tobacco control are discussed. PMID:21460255

  8. Admission to a psychiatric unit and changes in tobacco smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoking and withdrawal from smoking complicates the assessment and treatment of mental illness. We aimed to establish whether psychiatric inpatients smoke different amounts after admission than beforehand and, if so, to find out why. Forty-three inpatients on a working age adult psychiatry ward completed self-report questionnaires about smoking habits. Those who smoked a different amount after admission had a follow-up interview to find out why they thought this had occurred. The interview incorporated qualitative and quantitative aspects which were analysed accordingly. Fifty-six percent of participants were smokers before admission, rising to 70% afterwards. Of the smokers, 17% smoked less after admission, and 63% smoked more. The average number of cigarettes smoked per person per day increased from five to thirteen. The main reasons for smoking more were boredom, stress and the wish to socialise.

  9. Estimated and forecasted trends in domain specific time-use and energy expenditure among adults in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Popkin, Barry M; Ng, Shu Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background Examination of historical trends and projections in estimated energy expenditure in Russia is important given the country’s economic downturns and growth. Methods Nationally representative data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) from 1995–2011 was used to determine the metabolic equivalents of task (MET)-hours per week from occupational, domestic, travel, and active leisure physical activity (PA) domains, as well as sedentary leisure time (hours per week) among a...

  10. Does Marriage Lead to Specialization? An Evaluation of Swedish Trends in Adult Earnings Before and After Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Sundström, Marianne; Ginther, Donna K.

    2010-01-01

    We examine whether marriage leads to specialization in Sweden by implementing a model that differentiates specialization in the household by cohabitation and marriage. Our paper evaluates this model using panel data to analyze trends in earnings before and after marriage between 1985 and 1995 for married and long-term cohabiting Swedish couples with children. To identify the effect of marriage on earnings we use the reform of the widow’s pension system that resulted in a marriage boom in Swed...

  11. Smoking and Cessation Behaviors Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Canty-Mitchell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a major factor in increased rates for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Despite numerous studies related to smoking behaviors and patterns in adolescents and adults, few studies examine both smoking behaviors and cessation patterns in college-aged students. The purpose of this study was to describe smoking and cessation patterns in undergraduate students at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington. Students (N= 159; M =20.9 years; 73% female; 91.2% white; 68% single completed a 41-question online health-related survey; 17 items pertained to smoking. Based on data analyses, 17% smoked cigarettes and 77.4% had tried to quit smoking between one time to greater than six times in the past. Students wanted to quit smoking for health and financial reasons and thought that changing habits, self-motivation, and exercise were the most effective ways to quit smoking. Results indicated a need to include physical, psychosocial and medicinal components in smoking cessation programs.

  12. Clinical Feature And Pathogeny Analysis Of Brain Hemorrhage In Young Adult Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianming; Zeng Xiaoyun

    2000-01-01

    Objection: The trend of brain hemorrhage cases of young adults have increased recently. In this article, We studied brain hemorrhage clinical feature and pathogenic causes of 72 young adults, Whose ages are all beneath 45Y. We found That the major pathogen reasons of young adult brain hemorrhage are blood system diseases、 arteriovenous malformation of cerebral blood vessel、 hypertension arteriosclerosis、 arteritis and rheumatic heart disease et. We also found that the trend can be related to hard work、 tense life、 drinking too much alcohol and eating high lipid food, and cercbral vascular disease family history. So in order to reduce the incidence of young adult brain hemorrhage, Young adults should not drink and smoke heavily, should not eat too much high lipid food. Young adults who have hypertension and brain vessel disease family history should be regularly measured blood pressure and blood lipid. If they had hypertension, should be treated regularly.

  13. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  14. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  15. Age plays an important role in the relationship between smoking status and obesity risk: a large scale cross-sectional study of Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Pu; Hong, Liu; Sun, Hang; Zhao, Yi Fan; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of age plays in the relationship between smoking status and obesity in both Chinese men and women. Methods: From Chinese Physical and Psychological Database, participants were divided into non-smokers, current smokers, and former smokers. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat percentage, fat mass, and fat free mass were measured. The mean, standard deviation and frequency of these indicators were calculated for each age bracket. One-way ANOVA and po...

  16. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  17. Trend in obesity prevalence in European adult cohort populations during follow-up since 1996 and their predictions to 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne von Ruesten

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in obesity prevalence in recent years and to predict the obesity prevalence in 2015 in European populations. METHODS: Data of 97,942 participants from seven cohorts involved in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study participating in the Diogenes project (named as "Diogenes cohort" in the following with weight measurements at baseline and follow-up were used to predict future obesity prevalence with logistic linear and non-linear (leveling off regression models. In addition, linear and leveling off models were fitted to the EPIC-Potsdam dataset with five weight measures during the observation period to find out which of these two models might provide the more realistic prediction. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 6 years, the obesity prevalence in the Diogenes cohort increased from 13% to 17%. The linear prediction model predicted an overall obesity prevalence of about 30% in 2015, whereas the leveling off model predicted a prevalence of about 20%. In the EPIC-Potsdam cohort, the shape of obesity trend favors a leveling off model among men (R²  = 0.98, and a linear model among women (R² = 0.99. CONCLUSION: Our data show an increase in obesity prevalence since the 1990ies, and predictions by 2015 suggests a sizeable further increase in European populations. However, the estimates from the leveling off model were considerably lower.

  18. Who in U. S. A. Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸿钧

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is awidespread habit in the UnitedStates today. About forty-three per-cent of the adult men and thirty-onepercent of the adult women smokeregularly. It is quite encouraging tonote, however, that millions of peo-ple have given up the smoking。

  19. Trends in U.S. Adult Chronic Disease Mortality, 1960–1999: Age, Period, and Cohort Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I examine temporal changes in U.S. adult mortality by chronic disease cause of death and by sex over a 40-year period in the second half of the twentieth century. I apply age-period-cohort (APC) analyses that combine conventional approaches and a new method of model estimation to simultaneously account for age, period, and cohort variations in mortality rates for four leading causes of deaths, including heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and breast cancer. The results show tha...

  20. Recent temporal trends in sleep duration, domain-specific sedentary behaviour and physical activity. A survey among 25-79-year-old Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Hammer-Helmich, Lene;

    2013-01-01

    (p <0.0001) per day, respectively. Time spent on MVPA had increased by 2.9 minutes per day (p <0.0001). The 24-hour energy expenditure had decreased by 0.41 METs (p <0.0001). Conclusions: Adult Danish men and women spend an increased amount of time sitting down at work and during leisure time, but......Background: Prevalence of sedentary behaviour is high in many countries, but little is known about temporal trends in sitting time. Objective: To examine temporal changes in sleep and domain-specific sedentary behaviour and moderate to vigorous leisure time physical activity (MVPA). Methods: Two......-report questionnaire and sociodemographic information from central registers. Data were weighted for survey design and for non-response and were analysed by multiple regression analyses. Results: In 2007, the entire survey population reported a mean daily sleeping duration of 7.4 hours, leisure time sitting of 3...

  1. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in Your Own Skin Your Weight Loss Expectations & Goals ... is: a) Smoke that is breathed out by the smoker b) Pollution from smoke stacks and car exhaust c) Smoke ...

  2. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ... do not have to be a smoker for smoking to cause harm. Exposure to someone else's smoking ( ...

  3. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  4. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000437.htm Smoking and surgery To use the sharing features on ... you succeed. There Are Many Reasons to Quit Smoking Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can ...

  5. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD. Smoking is also a trigger for COPD flare-ups. Smoking damages the air sacs, airways, and the ... have COPD. Smoking can cause an exacerbation, or flare-up, of your symptoms. You do not have to ...

  6. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, M; Bentham, J.; Stevens, G.A.; Zhou, B.; Y. Lu; Bixby, H.; Cowan, M J; Riley, L. M.; Hajifathalian, K; Fortunato, L.; Taddei, C.; Bennett, J E; Miranda, J.J.; Paciorek, C.J.; Ezzati, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries. / Methods: We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarch...

  7. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, M; Bentham, J; Stevens, GA; Zhou, B.; Lu, Y; Bixby, H.; Cowan, MJ; Riley, LM; Hajifathalian, K.; Fortunato, L; Taddei, C; Bennett, JE; Paciorek, CJ; Ezzati, M; Abdeen, ZA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries. Methods: We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierar...

  8. Trends in the Levels of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins and the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Adults with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in the Southwest Chinese Han Population during 2003–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Tian; Hewen Chen; Fang Jia; Gangyi Yang; Shengbing Li; Ke Li; Lili Zhang; Jinlin Wu; Dongfang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the trends of serum lipid levels and dyslipidemia in adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus during 2003–2012 in Southwest China. Methods. Serum lipid measurements of 994 adults were obtained from 5 independent, cross-sectional studies (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012). The main outcome measures were mean serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; bo...

  9. The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Maziak, Wasim; Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed; Islam, Farahnaz; Jaber, Rana; Auf, Rehab; Salloum, Ramzi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In the past decade, waterpipe smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon. In this review, we provide an updated picture of the main epidemiological trends in waterpipe smoking globally. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major biomedical databases between 2004 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, hookah, shisha along with epidemiology, patterns, prevalence and predictors. We also used different spellings of wa...

  10. Test ventilation with smoke, bubbles, and balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, P.L.; Cucchiara, A.L.; McAtee, J.L.; Gonzales, M.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of smoke, bubbles, and helium-filled balloons was videotaped to demonstrate the mixing of air in the plutonium chemistry laboratories, a plutonium facility. The air-distribution patterns, as indicated by each method, were compared. Helium-filled balloons proved more useful than bubbles or smoke in the visualization of airflow patterns. The replay of various segments of the videotape proved useful in evaluating the different techniques and in identifying airflow trends responsible for air mixing. 6 refs.

  11. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  12. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    consistent evidence that smoking bans reduced exposure to SHS in workplaces, restaurants, pubs and in public places. There was a greater reduction in exposure to SHS in hospitality workers compared to the general population. We failed to detect any difference in self-reported exposure to SHS in cars. There was no change in either the prevalence or duration of reported exposure to SHS in the home as a result of implementing legislative bans. Twenty-three studies reported measures of active smoking, often as a co-variable rather than an end-point in itself, with no consistent evidence of a reduction in smoking prevalence attributable to the ban. Total tobacco consumption was reduced in studies where prevalence declined. Twenty-five studies reported health indicators as an outcome. Self-reported respiratory and sensory symptoms were measured in 12 studies, with lung function measured in five of them. There was consistent evidence of a reduction in hospital admissions for cardiac events as well as an improvement in some health indicators after the ban. AUTHORS\\' CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to a reduction in exposure to passive smoking. Hospitality workers experienced a greater reduction in exposure to SHS after implementing the ban compared to the general population. There is limited evidence about the impact on active smoking but the trend is downwards. There is some evidence of an improvement in health outcomes. The strongest evidence is the reduction seen in admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is an increase in support for and compliance with smoking bans after the legislation.

  13. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil;

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  14. Smoke-Free Universities Help Students Avoid Establishing Smoking by Means of Facilitating Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to clarify whether smoke-free policies affect the initiation or the quit­ting of smoking among young adults. Methods: In this natural quasi-experiment study, three universities with different enforcement of smoke-free policies were considered in Kazan City, Russian Federation. Exposure data were collected in 2008-2009 through measurement of particulate matter concentrations in typical sets of premises in each university to distinguish smoke-free universities (SFU and those not smoke-free (NSFU. All present third year students were surveyed in class in April-June 2011. Number of valid questionnaires equaled 635. The questionnaire was adapted from the Health Professions Students Survey and con­tained questions on smoking initiation, current tobacco use, willingness to quit, quit attempts, percep­tion of smoke-free policies enforcement, and the demographic data. Results: Among students of SFU, the percentage of current smokers was smaller than in NSFU: 42% vs. 64% in men and 32% vs. 43% in women. Prevalence of daily smoking was 11-12% in SFU, 26% in NSFU overall and 42% among male students. No advantage of SFU in limiting smoking initiation was found. Percentage of former smokers in SFU was 33% vs. 10% in NSFU. Among current smokers, 57% expressed willingness to quit in SFU and only 28% in NSFU. About 60% of current smokers in SFU attempted to quit within a year and only 36% did so in NSFU with 23% vs. 3% having done three or more attempts. Conclusion: Smoke-free universities help young adults to avoid establishing regular smoking by means of facilitating quitting smoking.

  15. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. PMID:24482055

  16. Adolescents' knowledge and opinions about smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Aryal, Umesh Raj; Petzold, Max;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of tobacco products among adolescents in Southeast Asia represents a major public health burden. Two out of ten adolescents attending school are tobacco users and several factors influence them to initiate tobacco use. Most studies related to tobacco use are quantitative, wher...... reduce smoking. CONCLUSION: Curbing the tobacco epidemic in Nepal requires healthy public policies and multifaceted interventions to address the knowledge gap on health consequences associated with smoking among adolescents, teachers and parents/adults....

  17. Opportunities for Policy Interventions to Reduce Youth Hookah Smoking in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel S Morris; Fiala, Steven C.; Pawlak, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Preventing youth smoking initiation is a priority for tobacco control programs, because most adult tobacco smokers become addicted during adolescence. Interventions that restrict the affordability, accessibility, and marketing of cigarettes have been effective in reducing youth cigarette smoking. However, increasing numbers of youth are smoking tobacco using hookahs. Predictors of smoking tobacco with hookahs are the same as those for smoking cigarettes. Established interventions that curb yo...

  18. The Role of Family on Hookah Smoking Initiation in Women: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hookah smoking has recently emerged as a popular alternative to cigarette smoking particularly among young adults and women. This study focused on the role of family members’ smoking behaviours as a possible risk factor for initiation of hookah smoking in women. 36 in-depth interviews were conducted with Iranian women of diverse ages for understanding the factors contributing to the initiation of hookah smoking. Four main themes were identified from the data. This study focused on the role of...

  19. Starting to smoke: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian indigenous youth

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston Vanessa; Westphal Darren W; Earnshaw Cyan; Thomas David P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adult smoking has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not initiate smoking during this period it is unlikely they ever will. In high income countries, smoking rates among Indigenous youth are disproportionately high. However, despite a wealth of literature in other populations, there is less evidence on the determinants of smoking initiation among Indigenous youth. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of smoking among Australian Indigenous young pe...

  20. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques-Vidal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male. In 1993–1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. In 1993–1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval −0.11 (−0.15; −0.06 vs. −0.03 (−0.08; 0.02 g/day/year for SFA and −5.2 (−7.8; −2.7 vs. −1.03 (−3.8; 1.8 mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction <0.05. Higher educated women had a greater decrease in iron intake than lower educated women: −0.03 (−0.04; −0.02 vs. −0.01 (−0.02; 0.00 mg/day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012.

  1. Smoking is a major preventable risk factor for Rheumatoid arthritis Estimations of risks after various exposures to cigarette smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källberg, Henrik; Ding, Bo; Padyukov, Leonid; Bengtsson, Camilla; Rönnelid, Johan; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have demonstrated that smoking and genetic risk factors interact in providing an increased risk for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Less is known on how smoking contributes to RA in the context of genetic variability, and what proportion of RA that may be caused by smoking. Objectives To determine the association between amount of smoking and risk of RA in the context of different HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles, and to estimate proportions of RA cases attributed to smoking. Design, Setting, and Participants Data from the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) case-control study encompassing 1204 cases and 871 controls were analysed. Main Outcome Measure Estimated odds ratio to develop RA and excess fraction of cases attributable to smoking according to amount of smoking and genotype. Results Smoking was estimated to be responsible for 35 % of the ACPA+ cases. For each HLA-DRB1 SE genotype, smoking was dose-dependently associated with increased risk of ACPA+ RA (p-trend<0.001). In individuals carrying two copies of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope, 55 % of ACPA-positive RA were attributable to smoking. Conclusions Smoking is a preventable risk factor for RA. The increased risk due to smoking is dependent on amount of smoking and genotype. PMID:21149499

  2. School smoking policies and smoking prevalence among adolescents: multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, L.; Roberts, C; Tudor-Smith, C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between school smoking policies and smoking prevalence among pupils.
DESIGN—Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from surveys of schools and pupils.
SETTING—55 secondary schools in Wales.
SUBJECTS—55 teachers and 1375 pupils in year 11 (aged 15-16).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Self-reported smoking behaviour.
RESULTS—The prevalence of daily smoking in schools with a written policy on smoking for pupils, teachers, and other adults, with no pupils or teache...

  3. Depression and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Someone Quit Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Smoking & Mood Stress Depression Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight ... Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation ... » Tools » Depression Basics » Depression and Smoking Depression and Smoking Why ...

  4. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  5. Within family transmission of secondhand smoke sensitivity and smoking attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laszlo Tarnoki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. The role of genetic factors in nicotine dependence is well understood, but no information is available on the inheritability of second-hand smoke (SHS exposure sensitivity and their co-variance. [b]materials and methods[/b]. 186 adult same-gender pairs of twin (146 monozygotic, 40 dizygotic; 44±17 years±SD completed a questionnaire. [b]results[/b]. The model showed a significant role of unshared environmental factors influencing the co-variance between smoking habit and SHS sensitivity (r[sub]e[/sub]=-0.191, 95% CI, -0.316 to -0.056, or the total phenotypic correlation of r[sub]ph[/sub]=-0.406, p<0.001 without evidence for genetic covariation. Age, gender and country-adjusted analysis indicated 51.5% heritability for smoking habit (95% confidence interval/CI/, 6.2 to 89.8%, 49.7% for SHS sensitivity (95%CI, 19.1–72.0%, 35.5% for general opinions on SHS exposure in restaurants/cafés (95%CI, 10.7–58.6%, and 16.9% in pubs/bars (95%CI, 0.0–49.0%. [b]conclusions[/b]. The co-variance between SHS sensitivity and smoking habits is driven mainly by the unshared environment. SHS sensitivity is moderately inheritable. The considerable influence of environmental factors on general opinions on SHS exposure in designated indoor public venues emphasizes the importance of smoking bans and health behaviour interventions at the individual level in developing an anti-smoking attitude.

  6. Smoking: know the facts

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet outlines the health and financial benefits of stopping smoking. It provides key facts on the health dangers associated with smoking, information on second-hand smoke, information on the dangers of smoking to babies, and contact details for help and support available. It also lists the various forms of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and non-nicotine medications available.This poster highlights some of the main health and financial benefits of stopping smoking. An associated A5...

  7. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Poutvaara, Panu; Siemens, Lars-H. R.

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  8. Olfactory and erectile dysfunction association in smoking and non-smoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Süay; Dülger, Seyhan; Çoban, Soner; Özmen, Ömer Afşın; Güzelsoy, Muhammed; Dikiş, Özlem Şengören; Akdeniz, Önder

    2016-06-01

    The studies evaluating the effect of smoking on olfaction reveals opposite results. In vitro and animal studies and epidemiological evidence from volunteers and patients, demonstrated the association between olfaction and erectile functions. In smoking man the reduction of olfactory acuity could adversely affect sexuality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and olfactory dysfunction (OD) by comparing a group of healthy adult men with a group of smoking adult men. This prospective study involved 62 volunteers, who were recruited and divided into two groups; one consisted of 35 smoking adult men, and the other included 27 healthy non-smoking men. All participants in both groups were examined in detail for any condition with the potential to cause OD. They all had a normal genitourinary system suffered from no circulatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease nor hyperlipidemia; they had no history of medication affecting genitourinary system. Butanol threshold test and sniffin' stick® (Burghart, Wedel; Germany) screening test was used to asses olfactory functions in both groups. Participants' sexual desire was assessed using an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scale. The means of sniffin' sticks scores, butanol threshold scores and IIEF-5 scores were statistically higher in non-smoking group. Butanol threshold scores and sniffin' sticks scores are correlated statistically with IIEF-5 in non-smoking and smoking groups. This study found an association between olfaction and erectile function in smoking and non-smoking men. As far as we know this study is the third published study to show the relationship olfactory and erectile function. In the future studies electrophysiological olfactory methods could be used to confirm in large cohorts the results obtained by the psychophysical approach. PMID:27037193

  9. Wreaking “Havoc” on Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Hong, Juliette S.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 25% of young adult Oklahomans smoked cigarettes in 2012. Tobacco marketing campaigns target young adults in social environments like bars/nightclubs. Social Branding interventions are designed to compete directly with this marketing. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to reduce smoking among young adult “Partiers” in Oklahoma. The Partier social subculture was described as follows: attendance at large nightclubs, fashion consciousness, valuing physical attractiveness, and achieving social status by exuding an image of confidence and financial success. Design Repeated cross-sectional study with three time points. Setting/Participants Randomized time location survey samples of young adult Partier bar and club patrons in Oklahoma City (Time 1 [2010], n=1,383; Time 2 [2011], 1,292; and Time 3 [2012], 1,198). Data were analyzed in 2013. Intervention The “HAVOC” Social Branding intervention was designed to associate a smoke-free lifestyle with Partiers’ values, and included events at popular clubs, brand ambassador peer leaders who transmit the anti-tobacco message, social media, and tailored anti-tobacco messaging. Main outcome measures Daily and nondaily smoking rates, and binge drinking rates (secondary). Results Overall, smoking rates did not change (44.1% at Time 1, 45.0% at Time 2, and 47.4% at Time 3 (p=0.17), but there was a significant interaction between intervention duration and brand recall. Partiers reporting intervention recall had lower odds of daily smoking (OR=0.30 [0.10, 0.95]) and no difference in nondaily smoking, whereas among Partiers without intervention recall had increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.74 [1.04, 2.89], nondaily AOR=1.97 [1.35, 2.87]). Among non-Partiers, those who recalled HAVOC reported no difference in smoking, and those who did not recall HAVOC reported significantly increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.53 [1.02, 2.31], nondaily AOR=1.72 [1.26, 2.36]). Binge drinking rates were significantly

  10. Targeting Body Image Schema for Smoking Cessation among College Females: Rationale, Program Description, and Pilot Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Fava, Joseph L.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking among young adults is a significant public health problem. Despite the negative health effects, many young women smoke for weight and body image reasons. Understanding the factors that prompt young women to initiate and continue smoking is important for designing smoking cessation interventions. The aim of the current article is to outline…

  11. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Jane S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009, and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid, and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid. Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.

  12. Patterns and causes of gender differences in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, I

    1991-01-01

    In the early twentieth century in the United States and other Western countries, women were much less likely than men to smoke cigarettes, due in part to widespread social disapproval of women's smoking. During the mid-twentieth century, growing social acceptance of women's smoking contributed to increased smoking adoption by women. Increased social acceptance of women's smoking was part of a general liberalization of norms concerning women's behavior, reflecting increasing equality between the sexes. These historical trends were due in part to increases in women's employment. However, in the contemporary period employment appears to have little or no effect on women's smoking. Sex role norms and general expectations concerning gender-appropriate behavior have had a variety of effects on gender differences in smoking. First, general characteristics of traditional sex roles, including men's greater social power and generally greater restrictions on women's behavior, contributed to widespread social pressures against women's smoking. Second, traditional sex role norms and expectations have fostered gender differences in personal characteristics and experiences which influence smoking adoption. For example, rebelliousness has been more expected and accepted for males, and greater rebelliousness among adolescent males has contributed to greater smoking adoption by males. Finally, certain aspects of sex roles have contributed to gender differences in appraisal of the costs and benefits of smoking. For example, physical attractiveness is emphasized more for females and the contemporary beauty ideal is very slender, so females are more likely to view weight control as a benefit of smoking. Several other hypotheses concerning the causes of gender differences in smoking are not supported by the available evidence. For example, it appears that women's generally greater concern with health has not contributed significantly to gender differences in the prevalence of smoking

  13. Ear Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Anthony L.; Yuan Ming Di; Christopher Worsnop; Brian H. May; Cliff Da Costa; Xue, Charlie C.L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of ear acupressure (EAP) as a stand-alone intervention for smoking cessation and the feasibility of this study design. Adult smokers were randomised to receive EAP specific for smoking cessation (SSEAP) or a nonspecific EAP (NSEAP) intervention which is not typically used for smoking cessation. Participants received 8 weekly treatments and were requested to press the five pellets taped to one ear at least three times daily. Participants were fol...

  14. An investigation on the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha%长沙市大学生尝试吸烟者吸烟行为演变及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 陈凤磊; 史翔宇; 陈浩; 林丹; 谭红专

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha.Methods Stratified sampling method was adopted and 3600 undergraduate students from grade 1 to 3 in Changsha city were investigated through a self-administered questionnaire.All the experimental smokers during the last month were selected and divided into two groups based on the present smoking status.x2 test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare the differences of cigarette smoking among subpopulations and to explore the determinants.Results Among the 1550 experimental smokers of undergraduate students,the prevalence of cigarette smoking was 30.8%(95%CI:28.5-33.1).Students from the second-class(OR=2.367)or the third-class universities(OR=2.562)were more likely to adopt smoking behavior than those from top universities.Students majored in sports or arts(OR=2.456)were significantly more inclined to smoke than the liberal arts students.Students whose father were cadres(OR=1.602)were more likely to become smokers than those whose fathers were workers.Students being males(OR=7.386),having high monthly expenses(OR=1.139),with positive attitude to smoking benefits(OR=1.140)were risk factors for smoking.Number of smoking members in the family(OR=1.801)was significantly associated with the prevalence of cigarette smoking.Knowledge on diseases caused by smoking(OR=0.806)was protecting factor to smoking among the experimental smokers.Conclusion Those experimental smokers among undergraduate students might become smokers and the determinants of cigarette smoking behavior would include:ranking of universities,students' major,gender,father' s occupation,amount of pocket money,number of smoking members in the family,knowledge about smoking,the attitude to the benefit of smoking.%目的 分析长沙市大学生尝试吸烟者吸烟行为演变及影响因素.方法 采用问卷调查方式在长沙市的高校

  15. "My Mum and Dad Said It Calms You down": Children's Perceptions of Smoking as a Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Beth S.; Dugdill, Lindsey; Porcellato, Lorna A.; Springett, R. Jane

    2012-01-01

    While studies have shown that adults use smoking to deal with stress, little research has been carried out with children to explore their perceptions of smoking as a coping strategy. Qualitative questionnaire and interview data were generated with children aged 9-11 years. Participants perceived that adults smoked to relieve boredom and stress,…

  16. Trends in Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Mohan, Indu; Narula, Jagat

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD), are epidemic in India. The Registrar General of India reported that CHD led to 17% of total deaths and 26% of adult deaths in 2001-2003, which increased to 23% of total and 32% of adult deaths in 2010-2013. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Global Burden of Disease Study also have highlighted increasing trends in years of life lost (YLLs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from CHD in India. In India, studies have reported increasing CHD prevalence over the last 60 years, from 1% to 9%-10% in urban populations and dyslipidemias, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, abdominal obesity, psychosocial stress, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. Suitable preventive strategies are required to combat this epidemic. PMID:27372534

  17. The social definition of women's smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, A K

    1985-01-01

    The history of women's smoking behaviour is one of changing normative definitions. Recent trends have been explained in terms of the symbolic value of smoking, representing for women freedom and independence. This view is emphasised by advertising. However, other evidence suggests the continued existence of an older, more negative cultural stereotype. A two-part study of young women undergoing professional training for nursing and teaching throws some light on the way in which female smoking behaviour is currently socially interpreted. The first phase indicated that among the minority of parents who had expressed their attitudes towards their daughter's smoking in relation to sex-role norms, smoking was presented as unacceptable for women. More than half the sample perceived a negative cultural stereotype to be operating in contemporary society and two-thirds recognised its existence in the past. This stereotype presents smoking as a male behaviour and hence inappropriate for women. Women who do smoke are liable to be labelled as having unfeminine or degrading attributes. The stereotype operated more strongly in the general social background rather than in reference to personal relationships and hence its influence on contemporary behaviour is likely to be limited. It was rejected as out-dated or a male belief by some but nevertheless it represented the personal opinion of others. In terms of a more favourable definition the female smoker was perceived in terms of an elegant/sophisticated dimension and in relation to an extrovert personality. The view of sample members that the growing acceptability of women's smoking was related to social change indirectly supported the view that sees smoking as symbolic of independence. Those who saw smoking in neutral terms, i.e. as not having sex-role attributes, perceived smoking in this sense as normal social behaviour for men and women alike. The second phase suggested that smokers and non-smokers have divergent views about

  18. Cigarette smoking among economically active population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking is one of the major risk factors for chronic diseases and results in huge economic and social costs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of smoking. Moreover, we evaluated the association between selected socio-economic factors and tobacco smoking among economically active individuals. Material and Methods: The study population covered 2254 economically active men and 1666 women. Data were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: About 37.3% of men and 28.2% of women smoke regularly. Daily smoking was significantly associated with low level of education in men (primary vs. high education OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.9-5.3; p < 0.001; vocational vs. high education: OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.5-3.0; p < 0.001 and women (primary vs. high education OR = 2.8, CI: 1.4-5.5; p < 0.01; vocational vs. high education: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9; p < 0.01. Daily smoking was significantly associated with age of women (40-49 years vs. 20-29 years OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.1-2.44; p < 0.01, lack of awareness of health effects of smoking in both genders (men unaware vs. aware: OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.8-4.6; p < 0.01 and women unaware vs. aware: OR = 2,9, 95% CI: 1.5-5.7; p < 0.01. Smoking was associated with lack of complete smoking bans at workplaces of respondents. Conclusions: Comprehensive interventions are needed to reduce the prevalence of smoking among economically active individuals. Med Pr 2013;64(3:359–371

  19. Avoiding Secondhand Smoke (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-19

    Exposure to secondhand smoke causes serious health problems in both children and adult nonsmokers. In this podcast, Dr. David Homa discusses health hazards posed by exposure to secondhand smoke. .  Created: 2/19/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/19/2015.

  20. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C;

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  1. 'The smoking toolkit study': a national study of smoking and smoking cessation in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangeli Eleni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up-to-date data tracking of national smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour is required to evaluate and inform tobacco control strategies. The Smoking Toolkit Study (STS was designed for this role. This paper describes the methodology of the STS and examines as far as possible the representativeness of the samples. Methods The STS consists of monthly, cross sectional household interviews of adults aged 16 and over in England with smokers and recent ex-smokers in each monthly wave followed up by postal questionnaires three and six months later. Between November 2006 and December 2010 the baseline survey was completed by 90,568 participants. STS demographic, prevalence and cigarette consumption estimates are compared with those from the Health Survey for England (HSE and the General Lifestyle Survey (GLF for 2007-2009. Results Smoking prevalence estimates of all the surveys were similar from 2008 onwards (e.g 2008 STS = 22.0%, 95% C.I. = 21.4% to 22.6%, HSE = 21.7%, 95% C.I. = 20.9% to 22.6%, GLF = 20.8%, 95% C.I. = 19.7% to 21.9%, although there was heterogeneity in 2007 (chi-square = 50.30, p Conclusion There is reason to believe that the STS findings (see http://www.smokinginengland.info are generalisable to the adult population of England.

  2. What public health strategies are needed to reduce smoking initiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; White, Victoria M; Emery, Sherry L

    2012-03-01

    Smoking initiation is a key behaviour that determines the future health consequences of smoking in a society. There is a marked difference in smoking patterns around the world, driven by initiation rates. While a number of high-income countries have seen smoking prevalence decline markedly from peak, many low-income and middle-income countries appear to still be on an upward trend. Unlike cessation where changes are limited by nicotine dependence, rates of smoking initiation can change rapidly over a short time span. Interventions that can be effective in achieving this include increases in the price of tobacco products, mass media anti-smoking advertising, smoke-free policies, smoking curricula in schools, restrictions on marketing opportunities for the tobacco industry as well as social norms that lead to restrictions on adolescents' ability to purchase cigarettes. Comprehensive tobacco control programmes that aim to denormalise smoking behaviour in the community contain all of these interventions. Rapid reductions in smoking initiation in adolescents have been documented in two case studies of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in California and Australia. Consistent and inescapable messages from multiple sources appear to be key to success. However, the California experience indicates that the rapid decline in adolescent smoking will not continue if tobacco control expenditures and the relative price of cigarettes are reduced. These case studies provide strong additional evidence of the importance of countries implementing the provisions of the Framework Treaty on Tobacco Control. PMID:22345263

  3. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places. PMID:23631250

  4. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get the smell of smoke out. Reduced athletic performance. People who smoke usually can't compete with ... heartbeat, decreased circulation, and shortness of breath) impair sports performance. Greater risk of injury and slower healing time. ...

  5. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  6. Smart smoke alarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  7. Similar Trends in Serum VEGF-D Levels and Kidney Angiomyolipoma Responses with Longer Duration Sirolimus Treatment in Adults with Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vidhya; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Franz, David Neal; Ashwal, Stephen; Sagalowsky, Arthur; DiMario, Francis J.; Cutler, Drew; Krueger, Darcy; Camposano, Susana; Paolini, Jan; Dabora, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Context We have previously shown that serum VEGF-D is elevated at baseline, correlates with kidney angiomyolipoma size at baseline and 12 months, and decreases with sirolimus treatment in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). To further investigate the utility of serum VEGF-D for longer term monitoring of TSC kidney disease, we present VEGF-D level results with 24 month follow-up. Objective To compare 24 month VEGF-D levels in two subgroups of sirolimus treated patients (OFF SIROLIMUS AFTER 12 MONTHS or ON SIROLIMUS AFTER 12 MONTHS). Design and Intervention(s) Serum VEGF-D was measured in samples collected from subjects enrolled in a phase 2 multicenter trial evaluating sirolimus for the treatment of kidney angiomyolipomas associated with TSC or TSC/LAM. All participants were treated with sirolimus from 0–12 months. During months 12–24, sirolimus was discontinued in one subgroup. The other subgroup was treated with additional sirolimus. Setting Adult TSC participants were recruited from six clinical sites in the United States (comprehensive TSC clinics, 5; urology clinic, 1). Patients There were 28 TSC patients who completed all 24 months of the study and serum samples were available at 24 months from 18/28 patients. Main Outcome Measure(s) We compared the percent change in VEGF-D levels (baseline to 24 months) in patients from the two treatment subgroups. Results At 24 months, VEGF-D levels decreased by 67% compared with baseline (to 787±426 pg/ml) in the ON SIROLIMUS AFTER 12 MONTHS group versus a 13% decrease (to 2971±4014 pg/ml) in the OFF SIROLIMUS AFTER 12 MONTHS group (p = 0.013, Mann-Whitney test). A similar trend was observed in kidney angiomyolipoma size but not in pulmonary function tests. Conclusions Serum VEGF-D may be useful for monitoring response to treatment with sirolimus and kidney angiomyolipoma size in patients with TSC, but confirmation is needed. Trial Registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00126672. PMID:23437092

  8. Smoking and Pancreatic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.

  9. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  10. Teenage smoking behaviour following a high-school smoking ban in Chile: interrupted time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Joshua A; Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of a smoking ban in high schools on smoking behaviour among Chilean students. Methods We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis, using repeated cross-sectional data from Chile’s school population survey (2000–2011) for high-school students aged 12–18 years and a control group of persons aged 19–24 years. Poisson regression models were used to assess trends in smoking behaviour before and after the policy changes. The outcome measures were self-reported smoking prevalence (any smoking in the past month) and high frequency of smoking (smoking 15 days or more per month). Findings From 2005 to 2011, the prevalence of smoking declined among high-school students by 6.8% per year compared with 3.6% decline per year in the control group. The decline in the target group was 2.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18 to 5.00) greater. We estimated that 5–6 years after enforcing the law, smoking prevalence among high-school students was 13.7% lower as a result of the ban. The impact of the smoking ban was primarily driven by declines in smoking prevalence among students in grades 8 to 10. The smoking ban did not significantly alter the frequency of smoking. Conclusion The 2005 school smoking ban reduced smoking prevalence among younger high-school students in Chile. Further interventions targeting older individuals and frequent smokers may be needed. PMID:26170504

  11. Smoking and financial stress

    OpenAIRE

    Siahpush, M; Borland, R; Scollo, M

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Stress relief is commonly provided as a reason for smoking. However, it is plausible that the cost of smoking may create financial stress, particularly among the poor. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between smoking and financial stress.

  12. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care provider about whether counseling, acupuncture, or hypnosis would be helpful. J Take a quit-smoking class or join a support group. E-cigarettes should not replace smoking or be used to help quit smoking. American Diabetes Association    1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)    www. diabetes. ...

  13. Economics of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Parrott, S; Godfrey, C

    2004-01-01

    Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.

  14. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  15. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  16. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  17. Parent, sibling and peer influences on smoking initiation, regular smoking and nicotine dependence. Results from a genetically informative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Xian, Hong; Pan, Hui; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Grant, Julia D; Sartor, Carolyn E; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2012-03-01

    We sought to determine whether parenting, sibling and peer influences are associated with offspring ever smoking, regular smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) after controlling for familial factors. We used a twin-family design and data from structured diagnostic surveys of 1919 biological offspring (ages 12-32 years), 1107 twin fathers, and 1023 mothers. Offspring were classified into one of four familial risk groups based on twin fathers' and their co-twins' history of DSM-III-R nicotine dependence. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to model familial risk, paternal and maternal parenting behavior and substance use, sibling substance use, and friend and school peer smoking, alcohol and drug use. Ever smoking was associated with increasing offspring age, white race, high maternal pressure to succeed in school, sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Offspring regular smoking was associated with these same factors with additional contribution from maternal ND. Offspring ND was associated with increasing offspring age, male gender, biological parents divorce, high genetic risk from father and mother ND, maternal problem drinking, maternal rule inconsistency and sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Friend smoking had the largest magnitude of association with offspring smoking. This effect remains after accounting for familial liability and numerous parent and sibling level effects. Smoking interventions may have greatest impact by targeting smoking prevention among peer groups in adolescent and young adult populations. PMID:22094168

  18. Collaboration Between Oregon’s Chronic Disease Programs and Medicaid to Decrease Smoking Among Medicaid-Insured Oregonians With Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    R. David Rebanal, MPH; Richard Leman, MD

    2005-01-01

    Background Environmental tobacco smoke is a leading environmental asthma trigger and has been linked to the development of asthma in children and adults. Smoking cessation and reduced exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are key components of asthma management. We describe a partnership involving two state agencies and 14 health plans; the goal of the partnership was to decrease smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among Medicaid-insured Oregonians with asthma. Context Oregon’...

  19. Pharmacokinetic predisposition to nicotine from environmental tobacco smoke: a risk factor for pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J M; Eliopoulos, C; Klein, J; Greenwald, M; Koren, G

    1998-01-01

    During the last decade several studies have shown that children whose parents smoke have higher rates of asthma. Recently, hair concentrations of cotinine have been shown to reflect systemic exposure to this constituent of smoke in both children and adults. At the present time it is not known, however, why some children exposed to passive smoking have asthma while others, similarly exposed, do not. The present study aimed at verifying whether asthmatic children are different from nonasthmatic children exposed to similar degrees of passive smoking in the way their bodies handle nicotine, a constituent of cigarette smoke. Seventy-eight asthmatic children were compared to 86 control children, all attending a consulting pediatric clinic in Toronto. A questionnaire completed by the parents and children detailed the daily number of cigarettes the child was exposed to and the identity of the smokers. Clinical data were extracted from the patients' charts. Urinary (corrected for creatinine) and hair concentrations of cotinine were measured by radioimmunoassays. The asthmatic and control children were of similar age, gender, and ethnic distribution, parental education, and socioeconomic status. Parents of asthmatic children tended to report a lower daily number of cigarettes (7.4 +/- 1.3/day vs. 11.2 +/- 2.3/day, p = 0.14), and this report agreed with the trend of urinary cotinine (47.1 +/- 9.1 ng/mg vs. 62.6 +/- 11.5 ng/mg, respectively). Conversely, children with asthma had on average twofold higher concentrations of cotinine in their hair (0.696 +/- 0.742 ng/mg) than control children (0.386 +/- 0.383) (p = 0.0001). In a similar manner, the hair:urine concentration ratio was significantly higher in children with asthma (0.028 +/- 0.002) than in their controls (0.18 +/- 0.003) (p = 0.0001). These results suggest that under exposure to similar amounts of nicotine, children with asthma have on average twofold higher systemic exposure to this constituent of cigarette smoke

  20. One Last Puff? Public Smoking Bans and Smoking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Silke; Kvasnicka, Michael; Siedler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term effects of public smoking bans on individual smoking behavior. In 2007 and 2008, state-level smoking bans were gradually introduced in all of Germany's federal states. We exploit this variation to identify the effect that smoke-free policies had on individuals’ smoking propensity and smoking intensity. Using rich longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, our difference-in-differences estimates show that the introduction of smoke-free ...

  1. [Prevention of coronary heart disease: smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, T; Meinertz, T

    2005-01-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of illness and premature death in Germany, claiming over 110,000 lives a year because it directly increases the risk of dying from heart disease, stroke, emphysema and a variety of cancers. The overwhelming majority of smokers begin tobacco use before they reach adulthood. Among those young people who smoke, the average age is now 13-14. In Germany, about 39% of male and 31% of female adults (age 18-60 years) continue to smoke, despite information about the unequivocally negative health consequences of smoking. The exact mechanisms of smoking-related vascular disease are not yet known. Smoking causes acute hemodynamic alterations such as increase in heart rate, systematic and coronary vascular resistance, myocardial contractility, and myocardial oxygen demand. These short-term effects could lower the ischemic threshold in smokers with coronary artery disease and contribute to the increased risk for acute cardiovascular events. Endothelial damage is thought to be an initiating event in atherosclerosis and early studies have demonstrated that long-term smoking has direct toxic effects with structural changes of human endothelial cells. Recent research has shown the importance of the functional role of the endothelium in regulating vascular tone, platelet-endothelial interactions, leukocyte adhesion and smooth muscle cell proliferation via synthesis and release of a variety of substances such as nitric oxide. There is strong evidence that smoking leads to endothelial dysfunction mainly by increased inactivation of nitric oxide by oxygen-derived free radicals. Smoking also increases oxidative modification of LDL and is associated with lower HDL plasma levels. Smoking induces a systemic inflammatory response with increased leukocyte count and elevation of the C-reactive protein level. Importantly, the prothrombotic effects of smoking have been repeatedly demonstrated to cause alterations in platelet function, imbalance of

  2. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  3. Tobacco Smoking Using a Waterpipe (Hookah): What You Need to Know

    OpenAIRE

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Smoking tobacco using a waterpipe (hookah) is increasing worldwide and is remarkably common among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Contrary to misperceptions that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents fewer health risks than cigarette smoking, recent data demonstrate clearly that the smoke from a waterpipe contains many of the same toxicants that are in cigarettes, including the dependence-producing drug nicotine, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pulmonary disea...

  4. Effects of parental smoking on medical care utilization by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T M

    1984-01-01

    A household interview survey of 2,582 adult members of the Kaiser-Permanente Medical Care Program of Oregon conducted in 1970-71 contained detailed questions about cigarette smoking patterns. Detailed, computerized medical records were maintained for all inpatient and outpatient care rendered between 1967 and 1974 to the 1,761 children of the interviewed sample. Adjusted for age, family size, socioeconomic status, and duration of Health Plan membership, children in non-smoking households used significantly more outpatient services than did children in smoking households, a relationship largely accounted for by their use of more preventive medical services than by children in smoking households. There were no significant differences in inpatient medical care use and outpatient care use for respiratory illness by children of smoking and non-smoking households. PMID:6689838

  5. Tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and cessation training among the third-year medical and dental students in selected Member States of South-East Asia region: A trend analysis on data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey, 2005-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D N Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Medical and Dental Global Health Professions Student Surveys (GHPSS are surveys based in schools that collect self-administered data from students on the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and tobacco cessation training, among the third-year medical and dental students. Materials and Methods: Two rounds of medical and dental GHPSS have been conducted in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, among the third-year medical and dental students, between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011. Results: The prevalence of any tobacco use among third-year male and female medical students did not change in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011; however, it reduced significantly among females in Myanmar (3.3% in 2006 to 1.8% in 2009 and in Sri Lanka (2.5% in 2006 to 0.6% in 2011. The prevalence of any tobacco use among third-year male dental students did not change in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Thailand between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011; however, in Myanmar, the prevalence increased significantly (35.6% in 2006 to 49.5% in 2009. Among the third-year female students, a significant increase in prevalence was noticed in Bangladesh (4.0% in 2005 to 22.2% in 2009 and Thailand (0.7% in 2006 to 2.1% in 2011. It remained unchanged in the other three countries. Prevalence of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS both at home and in public places, among medical students, decreased significantly in Myanmar and Sri Lanka between 2006 and 2009 and in 2011. Among dental students, the prevalence of SHS exposure at home reduced significantly in Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar, and in public places in India. However, there was an increase of SHS exposure among dental students in Nepal, both at home and in public places, between 2005 and 2011. Medical students in Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka reported a declining trend in schools, with a smoking ban policy in place, between 2005 and

  6. Time Trend Analysis of the Prevalence and Incidence of Diagnosed Asthma and Traditional Chinese Medicine Use among Adults in Taiwan from 2000 to 2011: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Ma

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the annual trends of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM use for prevalent and incident asthmatic adults in Taiwan from 2000 to 2011. The annual prevalence and incidence of asthma in adults among subgroups of sociodemographic factors were also investigated.A population-based study was conducted using a random sample with one million beneficiaries of all residents aged ≥18 years enrolled in the National Health Insurance program. Adults diagnosed with asthma were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The annual prevalence and incidence of asthma in the adult population were estimated by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes to identify relevant cases from 2000 to 2011.The number of annual prevalent cases of diagnosed asthma increased from 56,885 in 2000 to 101,535 in 2011. The prevalence increased significantly on annual basis, whereas the incidence rate fluctuated over time. The prevalence of TCM use by adults with asthma decreased significantly (p<0.05, from 38.58% in 2000 to 29.26% in 2011. The number of annual incident cases of diagnosed asthma decreased from 3,896 in 2000 to 2,684 in 2011. TCM use rates in asthma incident adults decreased significantly (p<0.05, from 54.24% in 2000 to 38.19% in 2011.The prevalence of TCM utilization is high among adults with asthma in Taiwan. However, our study demonstrated a substantial decrease in the annual prevalence of TCM use by prevalent and incident asthmatic adults in Taiwan from 2000 to 2011. In addition, the prevalence of TCM use was higher among incident cases, compared with those with prevalent cases.

  7. Association between decreasing trend in the mortality of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants in Japan: analysis of Japanese vital statistics and Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (JSHCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm with a very poor outcome. However, several studies have shown a progress in the treatment. To evaluate the effect of the progress in the treatment of ATLL in a whole patient population, we used vital statistics data and estimated age-adjusted mortality and trends in the mortality from 1995 to 2009. Since allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been introduced as a modality with curative potential during study period, we also evaluated the association of the annual number of allo-HSCT and the trend of the mortality of ATLL. Endemic (Kyushu) and non-endemic areas (others) were evaluated separately. Significance in the trend of mortality was evaluated by joinpoint regression analysis. During the study period, a total of 14 932 patients died of ATLL in Japan, and mortality decreased significantly in both areas (annual percent change (95% confidence interval (CI)): Kyushu, −3.1% (−4.3, −1.9); others, −3.4% (−5.3, −1.5)). This decreasing trend in mortality seems to be associated with an increase in the number of allo-HSCTs (Kyushu, R-squared=0.70, P=0.003; and others, R-squared=0.55, P=0.058). This study reveals that the mortality of ATLL is now significantly decreasing in Japan and this decreasing trend might be associated with allo-HSCT

  8. Smoking and lifestyle in an urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Martínez L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is harmful for one’s health and affects many people in the world. Its consequences are high morbidity and mortality from cardio-respiratory diseases and cancer. This complex public health issue also entails high costs. In order to understand this addiction, it is necessary to find out whether its presence is an isolated habit or a part of an unhealthy behavior. Objective: to explore the relationship between smoking and some components of a lifestyle. Methodology: a cross-sectional study with 4,000 adults aiming at identifying the link between smoking and certain aspects of lifestyle such as age, gender, education, socioeconomic level, physical inactivity, eating habits, recreation and alcohol. Results: age and socioeconomic level were not found to be associated with smoking; however, gender, schooling level, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, unhealthy eating habits, and inadequate recreation were found to be statistically and epidemiologically related to smoking. Conclusions: smoking is associated with other adverse components of an unhealthy lifestyle. Community control and health promotion activities should address this issue through comprehensive strategies aimed at modifying human behavior in order to achieve more effective results.

  9. Smoking and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hee

    2011-10-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  10. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  11. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Lochbuehler; M. Peters; R.H.J. Scholte; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  12. Are the predictors of hookah smoking differ from those of cigarette smoking? report of a population-based study in Shiraz, Iran, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahifard

    2013-01-01

    Results: Response rate was 98%. Prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9.7%. Among cigarette users, 12.6% reported smoking 2 years. Almost half of those surveyed (48.9% smoked 20 cpd. Almost a quarter (20.4% of the cigarette smokers tried to quit in the past year. Being male, married, aged 37-54, having higher perceived levels of stress, a non-manual occupation, and sedentary lifestyle were positively associated with cigarette smoking. Manual labor occupations, housewife/jobless status, and going frequently to restaurants were positive predictors of hookah smoking. Conclusions: Compared to cigarettes, hookah smoking was more prevalent among Iranian adults. Approximately, the prevalence of hookah smoking in women is the same as men, whereas cigarette use was 31 times more common in men. Cigarette and hookah smoking were associated with less healthy lifestyle habits in both men and women.

  13. Differential impact of local and federal smoke-free legislation in Mexico: a longitudinal study among adult smokers Impacto diferencial de la legislación federal y local de espacios libres de humo de tabaco en México: un estudio longitudinal entre fumadores adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Thrasher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the impact of Mexico City and federal smoke-free legislation on secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure and support for smoke-free laws. Material and Methods. Pre- and post-law data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control (ITC Policy Evaluation Suvey in four Mexican cities. For each indicator, we estimated prevalence, changes in prevalence, and between-city differences in rates of change. Results. Self-reported exposure to smoke-free media campaigns generally increased more dramatically in Mexico City. Support for prohibiting smoking in regulated venues increased overall, but at a greater rate in Mexico City than in other cities. In bars and restaurants/cafés, self-reported SHS exposure had significantly greater decreases in Mexico City than in other cities; however, workplace exposure decreased in Tijuana and Guadalajara, but not in Mexico City or Ciudad Juárez. Conclusions. Although federal smoke-free legislation was associated with important changes smoke-free policy impact, the comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City was generally accompanied by a greater rate of change.Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de la legislación federal y del Distrito Federal (DF de espacios libres de humo de tabaco (ELHT sobre la exposición al humo de tabaco y el apoyo a las leyes. Material y métodos. Se analizaron datos antes y después de la ley en una cohorte de fumadores adultos de cuatro ciudades mexicanas donde se aplicó la Encuesta Internacional para Evaluar las Políticas Públicas para el Control del Tabaco (Encuesta ITC. Para cada indicador, se estimó la prevalencia, cambios en la prevalencia y diferencias entre ciudades en las tasas de cambio. Resultados. La exposición autorreportada a las campañas sobre los ELHT incrementaron dramáticamente en el DF. El apoyo para prohibir fumar en lugares regulados aumentó en general, pero aumentó más en el DF. La exposici

  14. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  15. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

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    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  16. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

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    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  17. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects. PMID:21740388

  18. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Mazo Sara S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends

  19. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look

  20. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to

  1. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? If You Smoke If Other People Smoke en español Fumar y el asma You may have family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, ...

  2. Early smoking experience in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Urbán, Róbert

    2010-01-01

    Initial smoking experience is a potential predictor of later smoking. Our study has a twofold aim: (1) to provide further support for construct validity of retrospective measurement of an early smoking experience questionnaire (ESE) in a representative sample of adolescents; (2) to examine the association of initial smoking experience with sensation-seeking, current smoking and nicotine dependence.

  3. Stubbing Out Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing,home to 4 million smokers,is to introduce a gradual cigarette ban China’s capital will ban smoking in most public places starting from May 1,signaling a big step toward tobacco control in a nation of 350 million smokers and a move to meet China’s pledge of a smoke-free Olympics. Beijing has had some restrictions on smoking since 1996,when the municipal government prohibited smoking in large public venues such as schools,sports venues and movie theaters.

  4. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  5. Prevalência do tabagismo em adultos residentes nas capitais dos estados e no Distrito Federal, Brasil, 2008 Prevalence of smoking among adults residing in the Federal District of Brasília and in the state capitals of Brazil, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de tabagismo na população adulta do Brasil e propor recomendações para a redução do uso do tabaco. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional, que incluiu uma amostra da população (18 anos ou mais residente nas capitais dos 26 estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal. Considerou-se para a determinação da amostra um intervalo de confiança de 95% e um erro amostral de 2%. Os participantes foram selecionados e entrevistados por meio do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL. Foram realizadas estimativas referentes à proporção de fumantes e o consumo de cigarros/dia conforme variáveis sociodemográficas. Adicionalmente, calculou-se a razão de prevalência de tabagismo entre homens e mulheres. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 16,1% (20,5% no sexo masculino e 12,4% no sexo feminino. A proporção de adultos que declararam fumar > 20 cigarros ao dia foi de 4,9%, sendo maior no sexo masculino (6,5% vs. 3,6%. Houve maior prevalência de tabagismo entre indivíduos com menor escolaridade (OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoking in the adult population of Brazil, in order to propose recommendations for the reduction of tobacco use. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study including a sample composed of residents (> 18 years of age of the capital cities of 26 Brazilian states and in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil. For the determination of sample size, a 95% confidence interval and a 2% sample error were defined. The participants were selected and interviewed by means of the Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL, Telephone-based System for the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases.The proportion of smokers and the number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated and

  6. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  7. Trends in Oral Antibiotic, Proton Pump Inhibitor, and Histamine 2 Receptor Blocker Prescription Patterns for Children Compared With Adults: Implications for Clostridium difficile Infection in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Howard S; Ma, Chan-Xing

    2016-07-01

    The use of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and histamine 2 receptor blocker (H2B) was compared between children and adults in the community from 2005 through 2011. Antibiotic prescription rates remained stable for children, but increased significantly for adults, P = .03. PPI prescription rates increased for children, P = .02 and for adults, P = .009. H2B prescription rates increased for children, P = .03, but not for adults. Antibiotic prescription rates were significantly higher in children than adults in all 7 years, P < .0001. In contrast, PPI prescription rates were significantly higher in adults than children in all 7 years, P < .0001. H2B prescription rates were significantly higher in adults than children 1 to 18 years old P < .0001; however, H2B prescription rates were highest in children <1 year old, P = .0001. The high use of oral antibiotics, PPI, and H2B among outpatients may be a contributing factor to the rise of Clostridium difficile infection in the community. PMID:26350427

  8. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's ... do continue smoking, don't smoke in the house or car. continue Exposure to Smoke Outside the ...

  9. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health More CDC Sites Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Secondhand ... in the 2014 Surgeon General’s Report 4 Secondhand Smoke Causes Cardiovascular Disease Exposure to secondhand smoke has ...

  10. Social inequality in adolescent daily smoking: has it changed over time?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Due, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens T;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: In most northern European countries adolescent smoking is most prevalent in lower social classes but there is little information about time trends in social inequality. This paper describes trends in social inequality in daily smoking among adolescents from 1991 to 2006 by both...... girls 1.28 and 1.95. CONCLUSIONS: Daily smoking was most prevalent among students from lower social classes and the level of inequality fluctuated over time. Conclusions on social inequality in adolescent smoking may appear differently when described by absolute and relative measures. The absolute and...

  11. ISSMOKING IN THE MOVIES ASSOCIATED WITH INITIATION OF SMOKING IN ADOLESCENTS? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhyan Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today smoking among adolescentsis an economic, social and public health concern in the world.As of 2013,tobacco kills nearly 6 million people each year and approximately 900,000 people die every year in India due to smoking and WHO (2013 also estimate that 30% of smokers are adult males and 80% of the world's one billion smokers live in low and middle income countries.This study used the systematic review method to determine the association between smoking scene in movies and initiation of smoking habits among adolescents. A comprehensive review of past studies was carried out in this connection that included more than 25 studies. The result of the study concluded that exposure to smoking in movies influence the attitudes and beliefs of children about smoking and most of the children initiate smoking first time after watching their favourite stars smoking on screen. Most of the studies recommended that parental restrictions on R-rated films significantly diminishadolescents' exposure to films smoking and subsequent smoking acceptance. Most of the studies also argued that that watching antismoking announcements before watching movie smoking appears to blunt the encouraging effects of movie smoking on children smoking.It can be supposed that stringentimplementation of regulations pertaining to cigarette filming in form on any media and community interferencesconcentrating on parents are required for effective control of tobacco and smoking problem among youth in India and world

  12. Temporal trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity prevalence among economically-active working-age adults in Scotland between 1995 and 2011: a population-based repeated cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jin; Coombs, Ngaire; Stamatakis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Obesity has been an alarming public health issue in the UK. Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity have been well-studied, however limited studies addressed inequality trends over time and none of them in Scotland. Methods We used nationally-representative data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) across four time points between 1995 and 2010/2011. Respondents were economically active adults aged 16–65 years (N=27 059, 12 218 men). Socioeconomic position (SEP) was assessed by high...

  13. Smoking and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often among female smokers. Can smoking affect my children? Men whose mothers smoked half a pack of cigarettes (or more) ... life (such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease). Children whose ... for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and for developing asthma. I don’ ...

  14. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: June 2016 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC What Kids Say About: Tobacco Helping a Parent Who Smokes Smoking and Asthma Your Lungs & Respiratory System Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  15. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  16. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  17. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention. PMID:26264661

  18. Trends in population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in a rural area of Northwest China from 1982 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in average blood pressure levels and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults in a rural area of Northwest China, and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS: Four cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted between 1982 and 2010 among randomly selected adults in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Data on blood pressure, body mass index, family history of hypertension, and socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected in similar way by trained investigators in four surveys. Data of 8575 participants aged 35-64 years was analyzed. Averages and proportions were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Average blood pressure in the population has increased since 1982 from 76.9 mm Hg to 79.6 mm Hg in 2010 (diastolic and from 120.9 to 129.7 mm Hg (systolic. Prevalence of hypertension increased from 18.4% in 1982 to 30.5% in 2010, and awareness of hypertension increased from 16.8% to 38.4% in 2010. Treatment of hypertension increased from 1.0% in 1982 to 17.4% in 2010, and control of hypertension increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 3.5% in 2010. All these gradients were statistically significant (P<0.01 for trend. Population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension were positively associated with increasing age, body mass index and having family history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Average blood pressure levels and the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in rural areas of Hanzhong have increased since 1982. However, awareness, treatment and control rates remain low. Public health programs and practical strategies are required to improve prevention and control of hypertension in rural Northwest China. In particular, attention should be given to the elderly and obese, and to those with a family history of hypertension, while raising awareness and treatment among younger adults.

  19. Decrease in smoking prevalence--Minnesota, 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    Following the landmark 1998 settlement of the lawsuit, State of Minnesota versus Philip Morris, Inc., et al., Minnesota implemented a series of tobacco control efforts to limit the harm caused by tobacco use. In 2001, quitline services for tobacco users without health insurance coverage for cessation services were introduced and statewide mass media campaigns publicizing them were initiated. In 2005, Minnesota imposed a $0.75 per pack tax on cigarettes, followed in 2009 by a $0.62 per pack increase in federal excise tax, contributing in large part to a more than $2 increase in the average price of cigarettes. In 2007, a comprehensive, statewide smoke-free law was passed. Using surveillance data from the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) and cigarette pack sales data, this report examines the effects of these tobacco-related public health efforts. Compared with a 15% decline in national adult smoking prevalence since 1999, adult smoking prevalence in Minnesota decreased 27.1%, from 22.1% in 1999 to 16.1% in 2010. During the same period, per capita cigarette sales in Minnesota decreased 40%. In addition, in 2010 compared with 1999, a higher percentage of adults reported that smoking was restricted in their homes (87.2% versus 64.5%), and adults were less likely to report exposure to secondhand smoke (45.6% versus 67.2%). In the past decade, Minnesota has benefited from sustained tobacco control. Future progress in decreasing adult smoking and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke will depend on a concerted effort across the public health community to keep tobacco control a priority. PMID:21307824

  20. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  1. Heavy smoking and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2006-01-01

    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necroinflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes.Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis.Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with supression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache,fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling sensation

  2. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva;

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...

  3. Smoke-Free Homes and Home Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinpin Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined home exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS in China. This study aimed to document: (1 the prevalence and correlates of exposure to SHS in homes (in adult non-smokers in Shanghai, and (2 enforcement of rules, harm reduction behaviors, and self-efficacy for maintaining smoke-free homes in Shanghai. A total of 500 participants were recruited using a multistage proportional random sampling design in an urban and suburban district to complete a survey. Among the total 355 nonsmokers, 127 (35.8% participants reported being exposed to SHS in the past 7 days. Participants living with smokers in the home, with no smoking restriction at home, and having children younger than 18 were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home. Higher self-efficacy in maintaining a smoke-free home was negatively associated with home SHS exposure. Having visitors who smoke was the greatest policy enforcement challenge. Ineffective measures such as opening windows were more commonly used in homes with partial bans. Educational initiatives to protect against SHS exposure in the home should promote smoke-free homes, address challenges to implementing such policies, and address misconceptions regarding the effectiveness of supposed harm reduction behaviors.

  4. Teenage smoking behaviour following a high-school smoking ban in Chile: interrupted time-series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea B. Feigl; Salomon, Joshua A.; Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L.; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of a smoking ban in high schools on smoking behaviour among Chilean students. Methods: We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis, using repeated cross-sectional data from Chile’s school population survey (2000–2011) for high-school students aged 12–18 years and a control group of persons aged 19–24 years. Poisson regression models were used to assess trends in smoking behaviour before and after the policy changes. The outcome measures were sel...

  5. Teenage smoking behaviour following a high-school smoking ban in Chile: interrupted time-series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea B. Feigl; Salomon, Joshua A.; Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L.; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of a smoking ban in high schools on smoking behaviour among Chilean students. Methods We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis, using repeated cross-sectional data from Chile’s school population survey (2000–2011) for high-school students aged 12–18 years and a control group of persons aged 19–24 years. Poisson regression models were used to assess trends in smoking behaviour before and after the policy changes. The outcome measures were self-...

  6. Changes in Smoking Prevalence and Number of Cigarettes Smoked Per Day Following the Implementation of a Comprehensive Tobacco Control Plan in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Micaela H. Coady; Jasek, John; Davis, Karen; Kerker, Bonnie; Kilgore, Elizabeth A.; Perl, Sarah B.

    2012-01-01

    The New York City (NYC) Health Department has implemented a comprehensive tobacco control plan since 2002, and there was a 27% decline in adult smoking prevalence in NYC from 2002 to 2008. There are conflicting reports in the literature on whether residual smoker populations have a larger or smaller share of “hardcore” smokers. Changes in daily consumption and daily and nondaily smoking prevalence, common components used to define hardcore smokers, were evaluated in the context of the smoking...

  7. Impact of Scottish smoke-free legislation on smoking quit attempts and prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. METHODS: We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT prescribed in Scotland in 2003-2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. RESULTS: NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001 higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001. Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July-September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001 more than expected from the underlying trend. CONCLUSIONS: Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support.

  8. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects smokin

  9. Smoking, childhood IQ and cognitive function in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, Janie; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between smoking history and cognitive function in old age, and whether it remains after controlling for childhood cognitive ability (IQ) and adult socioeconomic status (SES).Methods: In the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study, 1080 men and women, who previously participated in a nationwide IQ-type test in childhood, were followed up at age 70. The associations between smoking history and age 70 IQ, general cognitive ability (g), processing speed, memory, and...

  10. Factors That Predict Persistent Smoking of Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoeun; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Park, Yong-Soon; Shin, Jin Young; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-01-01

    We conducted this cross-sectional study to elucidate factors that predict persistent smoking of the Korean cancer survivors. The subjects were 130 adult (≥19 yr old) cancer survivors who were smokers at the diagnosis of cancer and have participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2007 to 2011. We categorized them into the persistent smokers and the quitters, according to change in smoking status between the time of cancer diagnosis and the time o...

  11. Recent trends in aviation turbine fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R.

    1982-01-01

    Plots and tables, compiled from Department of Energy (and predecessor agency) inspection reports from 1969 to 1980, present ranges, averages, extremes, and trends for most of the 22 properties of Jet A aviation turbine fuel. In recent years, average values of aromatics content, mercaptan sulfur content, distillation temperature of 10 percent recovered, smoke point, and freezing point show small but recognizable trends toward their specification limits. About 80 percent of the fuel samples had at least one property near specification, defined as within a standard band about the specification limit. By far the most common near-specification properties were aromatics content, smoke point, and freezing point.

  12. The Trend of Mean BMI Values of US Adults, Birth Cohorts 1882-1986 Indicates that the Obesity Epidemic began Earlier than Hitherto Thought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komlos, J.; Brabec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2010), s. 631-638. ISSN 1042-0533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : BMI * semiparametric model * generalized additive model * trend estimation * birth cohort effects Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2010

  13. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality in California, 1979–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Cowling, David W; Yang, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Background The adult smoking prevalence has declined more in California than the rest of the US in the past 2 decades. Further, California has faster declines in cancer mortality, lung cancer incidence and heart disease mortality. However, no study has examined smoking-related cancer mortality between California and the rest of the US. Methods The smoking-attributable cancer mortality rate (SACMR) from 1979 to 2005 in California and the rest of the US are calculated among men and women 35 yea...

  14. Smoking and dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Kasat, V.; Ladda, R

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of “PubMed” was made with the key words “dental implant,” “nicotine,” “smoking,” “tobacco,” and “osseointegration.” Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in ...

  15. Smoking and Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin-Austen, R. B.; Lee, P. N.; Marmot, M.G.; Stern, G M

    1982-01-01

    In a case control study of the relationship between smoking habits and Parkinson's disease a negative association was demonstrated with a relative risk of 0 x 52. A history of smoking up to 20 years earlier was associated with a risk of developing Parkinson's disease equal to about half that in non-smokers. The type of disease, age of onset and rate of progression were associated with a similar reduction in risk implying that in respect of smoking history the disease is homogeneous. The posit...

  16. Long-Term Trends in Adult Mortality for U.S. Blacks and Whites: An Examination of Period- and Cohort-Based Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, Ryan K.; Hummer, Robert A.; Powers, Daniel A.; Beck, Audrey; Lin, Shih-Fan; Finch, Brian Karl

    2014-01-01

    Black-white differences in U.S. adult mortality have narrowed over the past five decades, but whether this narrowing unfolded on a period or cohort basis is unclear. The distinction has important implications for understanding the socioeconomic, public health, lifestyle, and medical mechanisms responsible for this narrowing. We use data from 1959 to 2009 and age-period-cohort (APC) models to examine period- and cohort-based changes in adult mortality for U.S. blacks and whites. We do so for a...

  17. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers. PMID:27373532

  18. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  19. Tobacco and health:a study of young adults in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tuisku, A. (Anna)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although smoking in adolescents and young adults has been declining in the 21st century in Finland, about 17% of 18-year-olds still smoke on a daily basis. Young adults are in fact one of the age groups that are most likely to smoke in several countries. Nevertheless, a large proportion of them are known to want to quit smoking. Relatively little is known about the smoking habits of young adults. There are no evidence-based guidelines for smoking cessation in this age group. I...

  20. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    7/13 REVISION Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as cannabis (can-a-bis) is the most widely used illegal drug ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  1. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rennen; G.E. Nagelhout; B. van den Putte; E. Janssen; U. Mons; R. Guignard; F. Beck; H. de Vries; J.F. Thrasher; M.C. Willemsen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  2. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  3. Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117 de la población adulta (>16 años de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005. El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%. El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117 of the adult population (>16 years in Barcelona (2004-2005. This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and

  4. Association of Secondhand Smoke Exposure with Pediatric Invasive Bacterial Disease and Bacterial Carriage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Howie, Stephen R. C.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Middaugh, Nicole Anna; Ezzati, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The deleterious health effects of smoking on smokers are well established, but smoking also seriously damages the health of nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke (SHS), which is released by burning cigarettes and exhaled by smokers, contains hundreds of toxic chemicals that increase the risk of adults developing lung cancer and heart disease. Children, however, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of SHS exposure (also known as passive smoking) because they are still ...

  5. Untreated Isolated Sytolic Hypertension among Middle-Aged and Old Adults in the United States: Trends in the Prevalence by Demographic Factors During 1999–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH predominates hemodynamic hypertension subtypes and becomes a significant factor for cardiovascular and renal outcomes in middle-aged and old adults. The prevalence and changes of untreated ISH have not been fully investigated in this population. A total of 12,097 participants aged ≥40 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010. The overall prevalence of untreated ISH was 15.2%. The prevalence decreased significantly from 16.8% in 1999–2004 to 13.5% in 2005–2010. Females, non-Hispanic blacks, and adults with low education had higher prevalence of untreated ISH than males, non-Hispanic whites, and adults with high education, respectively. Compared with 1999–2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005–2010 reduced in old adults (28.0% versus 37.7%, females (14.3% versus 19.5%, and non-Hispanic whites (12.7% versus 16.2%. The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH decreased in 2005–2010 in non-Hispanic white females (12.8% versus 18.6% and females who did not attend college (16.9% versus 21.8%. Untreated ISH is more prevalent in old and female subjects, and significant improvements in these groups suggest that public health measures or changes are in the right direction.

  6. Trends in the Levels of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins and the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Adults with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in the Southwest Chinese Han Population during 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the trends of serum lipid levels and dyslipidemia in adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus during 2003–2012 in Southwest China. Methods. Serum lipid measurements of 994 adults were obtained from 5 independent, cross-sectional studies (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012. The main outcome measures were mean serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; body mass index; hemoglobin A1C level; and the percentages of patients with dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Results. The mean total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased from 4.92 ± 1.15 to 5.30 ± 1.17 mmol/L (P = 0.039 and 2.72 ± 0.83 to 3.11 ± 1.09 mmol/L (P = 0.004, respectively, and the mean HDL cholesterol level declined from 1.22 ± 0.30 to 1.06 ± 0.24 mmol/L (P < 0.001. The percentages of patients with dyslipidemia increased gradually. The incidence of coronary heart and cerebrovascular diseases increased from 8.2% to 19.1% and 6.6% to 15.3%, respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusion. Unfavorable upward trends were observed in serum lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease in adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southwest China during 2003–2012.

  7. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is associated with lung problems. Back to top Hookahs Hookahs—sometimes called water pipes—are used to smoke ... that is available in a variety of flavors. Hookahs originated in ancient Persia and India and have ...

  8. Efecto del tabaquismo, los síntomas respiratorios y el asma sobre la espirometría de adultos de la Ciudad de México Effect of tobacco smoking, respiratory symptoms and asthma on spirometry among adults attending a check-up clinic in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Regalado-Pineda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto del tabaquismo, los síntomas respiratorios y el asma sobre la función pulmonar espirométrica en población adulta mexicana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se generaron ecuaciones de predicción basadas en modelos de regresión lineal múltiple para la capacidad vital forzada (FVC, el vollumen espiratorio forzado al primer segundo (FEV1 y FEV1/FVC de espirometrías obtenidas de adultos que acuden a evaluación de salud y se determinó el efecto del tabaquismo, los síntomas respiratorios y el asma sobre los modelos de estos parámetros. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 919 sujetos de entre 14 y 86 años de edad. El asma disminuye la FVC y el FEV1 en hombres con un cambio en la R² OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking, respiratory symptoms, and asthma on lung function among Mexican adults who were evaluated during a medical exam in a private health clinic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reference prediction equations were generated for spirometry parameters [forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expired volume in one second (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC] based on multiple linear regression models. The effect of tobacco smoking, respiratory symptoms and asthma on these equations were explored. RESULTS: Spirometry tests were performed on 919 subjects from 14 to 86 years of age. Asthma decreased FVC and FEV1 in men with a R² change <1%. Respiratory symptoms decreased the FEV1/FVC ratio in both sexes. Tobacco smoking was associated with a significant reduction in FEV1 in women. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma lightly reduced lung function in males while tobacco smoking decreased FEV1, particularly in females.

  9. [Laws that ban smoking in indoor places in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Salgado, Raydel; Avila-Tang, Erika; Stillman, Frances A; Wipfli, Heather; Samet, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    Recently Mexico passed federal and state-level laws banning smoking in indoor spaces. These actions are totally in accordance with measures proposed in the WHO-FCTCs article 8, ratified by Mexico in 2004. This essay reviews scientific evidence that secondhand smoke causes both chronic and acute diseases among non smokers, children and adults. There is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke, so the only effective intervention to protect Mexican people from such harmful exposure is by promoting 100% smoke free indoor air, as the two new laws do. Total banning of smoking is associated with reduction in smoking prevalence, amount of cigarette smoked per day, and an increase in cessation rates. Reductions in acute respiratory symptoms and hospitalization of acute myocardial infarction have been also reported. Well documented examples show that main tobacco industry arguments against smoke free policy: negative economic impact and lack of support from the public, are unjustified. These two laws strengthen the Mexican tobacco control program. Next steps include their implementation, evaluation, enforcement of compliance and encouragement for similar laws at state level. PMID:18604354

  10. Improved fish smoking: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fish is an important source of food and income to many people in the developing world. In Africa, some 5 percent of the population, about 35 million people, depend wholly or partly on the fisheries sector, mostly artisanal fisheries, for their livelihood. Various traditional methods are employed to preserve and process fish for consumption and storage. These include smoking, drying, salting, frying and fermenting and various combinations of these. In Ghana, smoking is the mo...

  11. Role of Smokes in Warfare .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Mishra

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The role smokes in warfare is reviewed with particular reference to the world wars, and various types os smokes are discussed. The smokes that can defeat modern opto-electronics including infrared (IR/millimetre wave (MMW guidance and thermal imager are described. Environment-friendly non-toxic smokes are dealt with briefly. The future of smokes in these circumstances is mentioned.

  12. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Decreased Sperm Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between cigarette smoking and sperm densityin men of reproductive age. Methods We enrolled 224 male employees of a modern petrochemicalplant in Nanjing,China. These men had no prior history of infertility or other reproductive diseases.Epidemiologic data, including information on smoking and other occupational and lifestyle exposures wereobtained by a questionnaire interview. Semen specimens were collected from each participant and analyzedaccording to the WHO guidelines. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of smokingon sperm density. Results Approximately 67% of the subjects had ever smoked cigarettes. Differ-ent measurements of smoking behavior were each associated with decrensed sperm density. There was asignificant dose-response trend between the tertiles of total smoking amount in pack-years and sperm den-sity. As compared to men who never smoked, current smokers had a significant reduction in sperm densi-ty (-13.3×106/ml; 95% CI,-24. 1,-2.5) ,while ex-snokers had only a small decrement inspern density (-2.6× 106/al; 95 % CI,-18. 7 ,13. 5). Starting smoking at less than 20 yearsof age was associated with significant reduction in sperm density (-14.8×106/md; 95% CI ,- 27. 4, - 2.2). Starting smoking at 20 years or older was associated with a slightly snaller de-crease (-10.1×106/ml; 95% CI,-21.7,1.4). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is associ-ated with decreased sperm density ,showing an evident dose-response trend in this population.

  13. Determinants of smoking and smoking cessation among health professionals in Serbia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstev Srmena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bearing in mind a high smoking prevalence in Serbia (34% in adult population; men 38%, women 30% and leading role of health professionals in intervention and prevention, a cross-sectional study was performed smong the representative sample of health professionals in Serbia. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of smoking and smoking cessation prior to the total smoking ban in November 2010. Methods. In this nationwide study, 3,084 physicians and nurses from 4 types of institutions and four geographical regions were selected and 2,282 included (response rate 74.0%. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were used to calculate prevalence rates, and multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate independent predictors of smoking pattern. Risks were expressed as odds ratios (OR which represent approximation of relative risks of exposed persons with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results. We found a high smoking prevalence of 38.0%, the same for women and men (37.8% and 37.6%, respectively; p = 0.138, higher among nurses (41.7% than physicians (29.1% (p = 0.000, as well as among those employed in general hospitals (42.6% and institutes of public health (43.8% (p = 0.000. Significantly increased risk of being an ever or current smoker was noticed for nurses (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.14; and OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.52-2.40, respectively, those employed in general hospitals (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.73 and OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.09-1.79, respectively, and with worse self-estimated health (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.30; and OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34, respectively. Intentions to quit smoking or to reduce the number of cigarettes were more frequent in women (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.01-2.27 and participants who worse evaluated their health (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.39- 2.18. Conclusion. High smoking prevalence in health professionals could be a barrier for the full implementation of

  14. [Smoking cessation: practice guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgne, A

    2002-09-01

    Smoking is a habit sustained and amplified by dependency on nicotine. Despite knowing the risks to their health, smokers have great difficulty in stopping. The syndrome of nicotine withdrawal and the related complications when stopping smoking: depression, weight gain, are adequate justifications of the many failures to stop smoking. However, we have now come out of the empiricism, effective treatment is available and scientifically validated international recommendations have been established. They involve: the practice of minimal advice which consists of questioning every patient about smoking habits and encouraging them to stop; the treatments of nicotine substitution, patch, chewing gum, tablets or inhaler, used at effective dosage and sometimes in association with each other; more recently, Bupropion (Zyban, LP), a psychotropic inhibitor of Dobutamine and Noradrenalin recapture; behavioural and cognitive therapies, alone or in association with pharmacological therapy. The measurement of the score of tobacco dependency with the Fagerström test enables definition of a therapeutic strategy. Of course, these treatments are only effective in smokers motivated to stop smoking. The decision to stop smoking should only be taken after a period of reflection during which the role of information and advice given by all health professionals is primordial. Also, the long-term follow-up and counsel are essential to prevent relapse, especially during the first year. PMID:12407795

  15. GENES BEHIND SMOKE ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmos Soós

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Smoke can break dormancy and promote seed germination of many plant species. We investigated changes in the gene expression changes after imbibition of light-sensitive Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids achenes with dilute smoke water compared to water control samples kept in dark or continuous light. Although no difference was detected in the smoke water vs. water control samples germinated in light, smoke water treatment resulted in the differential display of several expressed sequence tags (ESTs when compared to water control samples kept in dark. The most pronounced fragments isolated correspond to known genes with functions related to cell wall expansion, abscisic acid regulation, regulation of translation, the cell division cycle, carbohydrate metabolism and desiccation tolerance. These data clearly indicate that the smoke water, which stimulates germination of light-sensitive Grand Rapids lettuce seeds in the dark, rapidly affects genes that are essential for cell division, cell wall expansion and mobilization and utilization of nutrients for the resumption of embryo growth. Although the master genes remained unknown, our hope is that the using of maize microarray will reveal the whole molecular background of smoke action.

  16. Tabagismo: conhecimentos, atitudes, hábitos e grau de dependência de jovens fumantes em Salvador Tabaquismo: conocimientos, actitudes, hábitos y grado de dependencia de jóvenes fumadores en Salvador Smoking: knowledge, attitudes, habits and degree of dependence of young adults in Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Farias de Almeida

    2006-12-01

    óvenes en el control del tabaquismo.This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of smoking dependence and to characterize social demographic data, habits and attitudes of young smokers. Answered the questionnaire102 students from Salvador, State of Bahia, of which 11 were smokers. Their mean age and the age in which they first smoked were 18.2 and 13.4 years respectively. Most of them were male, in the first year of senior high school, of brown skin color and had close relatives who smoke. The majority of those young smokers had been advised about the risks of smoking at home and in school, but few had knowledge about the benefits of quitting. Almost half of them had been smoking for more than three years and had started to smoke out of curiosity. More than half of them smoked one cigarette per day, with low levels of nicotine, bought the cigarettes in shops, and wanted and tried to quit smoking, but never succeeded. The degree of dependence was low for most of them. This study offers hints for nurses to act against smoking with young adults.

  17. Household and School-Level Influences on Smoking Behavior among Korean Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. Methods and Findings We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or vocational high schools had greater risks of smoking for each type of smoking behavior than those in single-sex schools or general high schools, respectively even after controlling for individual-level factors. Higher family affluence and higher weekly allowances were associated with greater risks of ever smoking, current smoking and daily smoking even after controlling for parental education and other confounders. Conclusions Whilst caution is required in interpreting results given the cross-sectional nature of the study, our findings suggest that in addition to raising the price of cigarettes, youth anti-smoking interventions in South Korea may benefit from focusing on coeducation schools and vocational high schools. PMID:24896251

  18. Household and school-level influences on smoking behavior among Korean adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Heo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or vocational high schools had greater risks of smoking for each type of smoking behavior than those in single-sex schools or general high schools, respectively even after controlling for individual-level factors. Higher family affluence and higher weekly allowances were associated with greater risks of ever smoking, current smoking and daily smoking even after controlling for parental education and other confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst caution is required in interpreting results given the cross-sectional nature of the study, our findings suggest that in addition to raising the price of cigarettes, youth anti-smoking interventions in South Korea may benefit from focusing on coeducation schools and vocational high schools.

  19. A surveillance summary of smoking and review of tobacco control in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The burden of smoking-related diseases in Jordan is increasingly evident. During 2006, chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs accounted for more than 50% of all deaths in Jordan. With this evidence in hand, we highlight the prevalence of smoking in Jordan among youth and adults and briefly review legislation that governs tobacco control in Jordan. The prevalence of smoking in Jordan remains unacceptably high with smoking and use of tobacco prevalences ranging from 15% to 30% among students aged 13-15 years and a current smoking prevalence near 50% among men. Opportunities exist to further reduce smoking among both youth and adults; however, combating tobacco use in Jordan will require partnerships and long-term commitments between both private and public institutions as well as within local communities.

  20. Childhood IQ and social factors on smoking behaviour, lung function and smoking-related outcomes in adulthood: linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. Taylor; Hart, C. L.; Smith, G. D.; Starr, J M; Hole, D; Whalley, L.J.; Wilson, V.; Deary, I J

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of childhood IQ and adult social factors, and smoking behaviour, lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV(1)), and smoking-related outcomes in adulthood. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHOD: Participants were from the Midspan prospective studies conducted on Scottish adults in the 1970s. The sample consisted of 938 Midspan participants born in 1921 who were successfully matched with their cognitive ability test results on the...

  1. Mathematical Model for Addiction: Application to Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Data for Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, David P.; Elketroussi, Mehdi

    1989-01-01

    Describes habituation and addiction, both psychological and physiological, using simple equations of mathematical model of ideodynamics, optimized to smoking data from Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) program. With only four constant parameters, it was possible to calculate accurate time trends for recidivism to smoking among…

  2. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Carvalho Malta; Silvania Caribé Andrade; Rafael Moreira Claro; Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the annual evolution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population of the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. METHODS: Annual interviews (around 54,000 per year) from VIGITEL (Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Telephone Interviews) were used. Self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index and nutritional status. Prevalence ...

  3. Impacting Cultural Trends in Childcare and Older Adult Living Situations through Service Learning in Beijing, China Using An Interdisciplinary Design Approach

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jeanneane Wood-Nartker; Amanda Rink; Autumn Nethercott; Qun Julie Zuo; Dr. Eileen E. Malonebeach, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Increased life expectancy and a low birth rate are accelerating a demographic shift in China. Many young people are leaving rural areas and moving to urban centers, while others are migrating out of the country to study or pursue careers. These changes are pushing China into an aging “boom” that is challenging smaller numbers of family members to provide care for an increasing number of older adults. In addition to family responses to the need for elder care, societal responses ar...

  4. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    particular concerns. Inside vehicles, in fact, the smoke of one single cigarette causes concentrations of fine particulate matter three times higher than what is considered the threshold of hazard. According to surveys conducted by DOXA (an Italian statistical and opinion research company) in 2011-2012, two thirds of Italian smokers smoked in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez, Gallus et al., 2014]. Despite this, 80% of Italian adults (and 49% of current smokers) supported a smoking ban in private cars, and 93% (and 84% of current smokers) supported such a ban in cars carrying children [Martinez-Sanchez, Gallus et al., 2014]. We therefore welcome the incoming Minister's Decree banning tobacco smoking in private vehicles in presence of minors or pregnant women. The risk associated to SHS exposure is still largely underestimated. To give an idea of its harmful effect, we recommend viewing a video realised by colleagues at the National Cancer Institute of Milan, showing how the indoor air pollution generated by one single cigarette is 4 to 6 times higher than that produced by a diesel truck [Ruprecht et al., 2015]. There is a need to further inform the (Italian) population, including in particular smokers with young children, about the harmful effects of SHS, in order to increase the number of smoke-free homes and cars. In this sense, paediatricians or paediatric dentists have today the opportunity to give a major help. Their contribution can imply a minimum effort, e.g., providing informative leaflets, or making available, in the waiting rooms of their clinics, monitors showing informative videos, including the one previously described [Ruprecht et al., 2015]. PMID:26637246

  5. Impacting Cultural Trends in Childcare and Older Adult Living Situations through Service Learning in Beijing, China Using An Interdisciplinary Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jeanneane Wood-Nartker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased life expectancy and a low birth rate are accelerating a demographic shift in China. Many young people are leaving rural areas and moving to urban centers, while others are migrating out of the country to study or pursue careers. These changes are pushing China into an aging “boom” that is challenging smaller numbers of family members to provide care for an increasing number of older adults. In addition to family responses to the need for elder care, societal responses are emerging with regard to public care for older adults, as well as care solutions related to children. This international project sought to contribute to the development of insightful alternatives for families who are challenged to provide care for older adults and children, and are seeking high quality care situations through public avenues. To that end, a group of students were invited to engage in an interdisciplinary, immersive service-learning project to address these societal needs, which involved the design of a combined nursing home, adult day program, and child day care center to be located in Beijing. Students were able to: 1 participate in an interdisciplinary student project between interior designers from the U.S. and architectural students from Beijing that addressed the universal design needs of children and older adults, 2 immerse themselves in another culture while fostering a fresh model of civic engagement, 3 design using new cultural norms combined with historic elements such as Feng Shui and sustainability principles, and 4 see the impact of social and political/government policy on modern building practices. These outcomes were compared with the diverse experiences received by other CMU students throughout their university service-learning experiences to determine the impact on their education and their desire to participate in future service-learning activities. Before research was conducted, it was hypothesized that at least 75% of students

  6. Trend analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of exploration is to find reserves that will earn an adequate rate of return on the capital invested. Neither exploration nor economics is an exact science. The authors must therefore explore in those trends (plays) that have the highest probability of achieving this goal. Trend analysis is a technique for organizing the available data to make these strategic exploration decisions objectively and is in conformance with their goals and risk attitudes. Trend analysis differs from resource estimation in its purpose. It seeks to determine the probability of economic success for an exploration program, not the ultimate results of the total industry effort. Thus the recent past is assumed to be the best estimate of the exploration probabilities for the near future. This information is combined with economic forecasts. The computer software tools necessary for trend analysis are (1) Information data base - requirements and sources. (2) Data conditioning program - assignment to trends, correction of errors, and conversion into usable form. (3) Statistical processing program - calculation of probability of success and discovery size probability distribution. (4) Analytical processing - Monte Carlo simulation to develop the probability distribution of the economic return/investment ratio for a trend. Limited capital (short-run) effects are analyzed using the Gambler's Ruin concept in the Monte Carlo simulation and by a short-cut method. Multiple trend analysis is concerned with comparing and ranking trends, allocating funds among acceptable trends, and characterizing program risk by using risk profiles. In summary, trend analysis is a reality check for long-range exploration planning

  7. Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiologic effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the...

  8. Tobacco use and its contribution to early cancer mortality with a special emphasis on cigarette smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Shopland, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the relationship between tobacco use and early cancer mortality. It presents a retrospective examination of trends in smoking behavior and how these trends affected the national lung cancer mortality pattern during this century. Information on smoking prevalence is presented for black and white men and women for each 5-year birth cohort between 1885 and 1969. The author argues that the lung cancer mortality pattern observed in the United States since 1950 is...

  9. Distributing questionnaires about smoking to patients: impact on general practitioners' recording of smoking advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynne Alison

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of questionnaire-based data collection methods on the consulting behaviour of general practitioners (family physicians who participate in research. Here data collected during a research project which involved questionnaires on smoking being distributed to patients before and after appointments with general practitioners (GPs is analyzed to investigate the impact of this data collection method on doctors' documenting of smoking advice in medical records. Methods Researchers distributed questionnaires on smoking behaviour to 6775 patients who attended consultations during surgery sessions with 32 GPs based in Leicestershire, UK. We obtained the medical records for patients who had attended these surgery sessions and also for a comparator group, during which no researcher had been present. We compared the documenting of advice against smoking in patient's medical records for consultations within GPs' surgery sessions where questionnaires had been distributed with those which occurred when no questionnaires had been given out. Results We obtained records for 77.9% (5276/6775 of all adult patients who attended GPs' surgery sessions, with 51.9% (2739 being from sessions during which researchers distributed questionnaires. Discussion of smoking was recorded in 8.0% (220/2739 of medical records when questionnaires were distributed versus 4.6% (116/2537 where these were not. After controlling for relevant potential confounders including patients' age, gender, the odds ratio for recording of information in the presence of questionnaire distribution (versus none was 1.78 (95% CI, 1.36 to 2.34. Conclusion Distributing questionnaires about smoking to patients before and after they consult with doctors significantly increases GPs' recording of discussions about smoking medical records. This has implications for the design of some types of research into addictive behaviours and further research into how data

  10. Smoking and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Behrakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is considered to be one of the most significant causes of complications in pregnancy and is associated with an unfavourable outcome in childbirth compared with pregnancy in non-smokers. Specifically, smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of placenta praevia, abruptio placentae, ectopic gestation and premature rupture of the membranes (PRM. In addition, research has established that smoking during pregnancy increases the rates of low birth weight (LBW, perinatal mortality, premature birth and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. As these children grow up they present a variety of health problems, including respiratory illness, behaviour disturbances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and high arterial blood pressure. LBW is also associated with an increased incidence of health problems in the neonatal period. Effects have been documented of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the future fertility of male infants and the occurrence of congenital abnormalities, and a connection has been reported between daily maternal smoking in early pregnancy and infantile autism. Pneumon 2010, 23(2:153-167.

  11. Tobacco smoking: From 'glamour' to 'stigma'. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review, we explore the history of tobacco smoking, its associations and portrayal of its use with luxury and glamour in the past, and intriguingly, its subsequent transformation into a mass consumption industrialized product encouraged by advertising and film. Then, we describe the next phase where tobacco in parts of the world has become an unwanted product. However, the number of smokers is still increasing, especially in new markets, and increasingly younger individuals are being attracted to it, despite the well-known health consequences of tobacco use. We also explore current smoking behaviors, looking at trends in the prevalence of consumption throughout the world, discrimination against smokers, light and/or intermittent smokers, and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We place these changes in the context of neuroscience, which may help explain why the cognitive effects of smoking can be important reinforcers for its consumption despite strong anti-smoking pressure in Western countries. PMID:26449875

  12. Similar Trends in Serum VEGF-D Levels and Kidney Angiomyolipoma Responses with Longer Duration Sirolimus Treatment in Adults with Tuberous Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowska, Izabela A.; Lee, Nancy; Kumar, Vidhya; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Franz, David Neal; Ashwal, Stephen; Sagalowsky, Arthur; DiMario, Francis J.; Cutler, Drew; Krueger, Darcy; Camposano, Susana; Paolini, Jan; Dabora, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Context We have previously shown that serum VEGF-D is elevated at baseline, correlates with kidney angiomyolipoma size at baseline and 12 months, and decreases with sirolimus treatment in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). To further investigate the utility of serum VEGF-D for longer term monitoring of TSC kidney disease, we present VEGF-D level results with 24 month follow-up. Objective To compare 24 month VEGF-D levels in two subgroups of sirolimus treated patients (OFF SIROLIMUS...

  13. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  14. User Preferences for a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C.; Heron, Kristin E.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Magee, Joshua C.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults are more likely to smoke and less likely to seek treatment than older smokers. They are also frequent users of communication technology. In the current study, we conducted focus groups to obtain feedback about preferences for a text message-based smoking cessation program from potential users. Participants ("N" = 21, "M" age = 25.6…

  15. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  16. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the burning of tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars or pipes and the smoke exhaled by smokers. ... Exit The 1992 EPA Risk Assessment, “Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking” concluded that environmental tobacco smoke ...

  17. Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper.

  18. Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kathleen; Yang, So Min; Kim, Seong Heon; Han, Kyoung Hee; Park, Se Jin; Shin, Jae Il

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper. PMID:25479074

  19. The Impacts of Smoking Bans on Smoking in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Beomsoo Kim; Ahram Kim

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about potential harmful effect of second-hand or environmental tobacco smoke. As a result, smoking bans in workplace become more prevalent. In Korea, workplace smoking ban policy become more restrictive in 2003 when National health enhancing law was changed. Using Korea National Health and Nutrition survey in 2001 and 2005 we examine the impacts of law change on current smoker and cigarettes smoked per day. We compare indoor working occupations which are constrained...

  20. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based on a...... bans in schools were associated with lower odds ratios of daily smoking, which was the one positive association in the study. The study found no association between cigarette prices and adolescent daily smoking prevalence, and also the somewhat unexpected finding that having an age limit for allowing...... voluntary bans. If this association is causal, introducing mandatory bans may reduce adolescent smoking prevalence. The findings that price was unrelated to smoking prevalence undermine findings elsewhere that adolescent smokers are more price-sensitive than adult smokers, but longitudinal studies are...