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Sample records for adult smoking trends

  1. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health, smoking, and physical activity of Japanese adults from 2000 to 2010

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    Tomoya Hanibuchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities in Japan are attracting increasing attention. Temporal trends in health disparities should be continuously monitored using multiple indices of socioeconomic status (SES and health-related outcomes. We explored changes in socioeconomic differences in the health of Japanese adults during 2000–2010. The data was taken from the Japanese General Social Surveys, the cross-sectional surveys for nationally representative samples of Japanese adults. We used 14,193 samples (individuals of 20–64 years of age in our analysis. We estimated age-adjusted prevalence ratios of the lowest SES group in comparison with the highest SES group using Poisson regression models with robust error variance. Relative index of inequality (RII and slope index of inequality (SII were also calculated. We examined the changes in the association between health-related outcomes (self-rated health (SRH, smoking, and physical activity and SES indices (income, education, occupation, and subjective social class identification. The results showed temporally expanding trends for the associations of current smoking with SES, especially among women, in both relative and absolute measures. In contrast, no expanding trends were seen for SRH and physical activity. Although the smoking rates declined through the first decade of the 21st century, the socioeconomic disparities in smoking prevalence among Japanese adults expanded, especially among women. Researchers and policymakers should continuously monitor the trends that may cause future disparities in smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Keywords: Japan, Socioeconomic disparity, Temporal trends, Smoking, Self-rated health

  2. Smoking trends among Filipino adults in California, 1990-2002.

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    Romero, Romina A; Messer, Karen; West, Joshua H; White, Martha M; Trinidad, Dennis R

    2008-04-01

    Filipinos comprise about 18% of the Asian/Pacific Islander American (APIA) population and are increasing. Few studies have examined Filipino current smoking prevalence rates (CSPR) and none have described trends over time. Trends in CSPR were estimated for Filipinos and non-Hispanic whites (NHW) from 1990-2002 from the California Tobacco Surveys (N>42,000/year). CSPR for Filipino males declined: 23.7% (95% CI: 18.7, 28.7) in 1990 to 18.7% (15.3, 22.1) in 2002 (pFilipino women was non-significant (p=0.24), 9.8% (5.5, 14.1) in 1990 and 7.7% (5.3, 10.1) in 2002. During the same period, CSPR among NHW males declined: 24.4% (23.8, 25.0) in 1990 to 18.8% (18.1, 19.4) in 2002 (pFilipinos suggest that English language use is associated with current smoking among females (pFilipino current smokers declined similarly to male NHW from 1990-2002; female rates were lower but did not decline. Future smoking prevention and cessation programs would benefit by taking into account important differences in smoking rates between genders and age groups.

  3. Smoking trend indicators in Brazilian capitals, 2006-2013

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the trend of indicators related to smoking in the capitals of Brazil from 2006 to 2013. Information on smoking trends extracted from the survey of risk and protective factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are analyzed through telephone interviews - VIGITEL conducted from 2006-2013 for the adult population in Brazilian capitals. To estimate the trend, the simple linear regression model was used. The prevalence of smokers in Brazil showed a relative reduction of 0.62% for each year of the survey, ranging from 15.6% in 2006 to 11.3% in 2013. A decrease was observed in both sexes in all age ranges except between 55 and 64 years in all education levels and regions. The total population of former smokers remained stable, with a reduction for men. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day decreased from 4.6% (2006 to 3.4% (2013, or 0.162 percentage points per year. Passive smoking at home decreased among women 13.4% (2009 to 10.7% (2013, a reduction of 0.72% per annum. Passive smoking at work has remained stable over the period. The smoking trend reduced in the period in most indicators, reflecting the importance of the tobacco control actions in the country.

  4. Trends in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV compared with the general adult population, United States - 2009-2014.

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    Frazier, Emma L; Sutton, Madeline Y; Brooks, John T; Shouse, R Luke; Weiser, John

    2018-06-01

    Smoking increases HIV-related and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality for persons with HIV infection. We estimated changes in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV and adults in the general U.S. population from 2009 to 2014 to inform HIV smoking cessation programs. Among HIV-positive adults, rates of current smoking declined from 37.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 34.7-40.6) in 2009 to 33.6% (CI: 29.8-37.8) in 2014. Current smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.6% (CI: 19.9-21.3) in 2009 to 16.8% (CI: 16.2-17.4) in 2014. HIV-positive adults in care were significantly more likely to be current smokers compared with the general U.S. population; they were also less likely to quit smoking. For both HIV-positive adults in care and the general population, disparities were noted by racial/ethnic, educational level, and poverty-level subgroups. For most years, non-Hispanic blacks, those with less than high school education, and those living below poverty level were more likely to be current smokers and less likely to quit smoking compared with non-Hispanic whites, those with greater than high school education, and those living above poverty level, respectively. To decrease smoking-related causes of illness and death and to decrease HIV-related disparities, smoking cessation interventions are vital as part of routine care with HIV-positive persons. Clinicians who care for HIV-positive persons who smoke should utilize opportunities to discuss and implement smoking cessation strategies during routine clinical visits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Social branding to decrease smoking among young adults in bars.

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    Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.

  6. Trends in smoking and obesity among US adults before, during, and after the great recession and Affordable Care Act roll-out.

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    Pernenkil, Vikash; Wyatt, Taylor; Akinyemiju, Tomi

    2017-09-01

    This study examined trends in smoking and overweight/obesity rates among United States (US) adults ages 40years and older by race and socio-economic status (SES) across three study periods; pre-recession (2003-2005), recession (2007-2009), and post-recession/Affordable Care Act (2010-2012). Data was obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and multivariable regression analysis was used to examine changes in overweight/obesity, smoking, physical activity and smoking cessation rates over the study periods. There were 2,805,957 adults included in the analysis; 65.5% of the study population was overweight/obese, and 33.3% were current smokers. Smoking prevalence increased marginally among those with lower SES (incomesmoking overall decreased in the post-recession (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) and recession (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.94-0.97) periods. Overweight/obesity increased over the study periods, regardless of race, SES or healthcare access, while smoking rates showed significant declines post-recession compared with pre-recession, except in low SES groups. These findings suggest that strategies focused on reducing overweight/obesity and increasing access to smoking cessation services, especially among low-income adults, are needed. Prospective studies are needed to better evaluate the influence of the economic recession and Affordable Care Act on behavioral risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of the market opening on trends in smoking rates in Taiwan.

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    Hsu, Chih Cheng; Levy, David Theodore; Wen, Chi Pang; Cheng, Ting Yuan; Tsai, Shan Pou; Chen, Ted; Eriksen, Michael P; Shu, Chen Chun

    2005-09-28

    To examine smoking rates before and after the opening of the market to foreign imports. Consumer surveys of Monopoly Bureau, National Health Interview Survey and official tobacco consumption, production and import data were used to calculate smoking rates, cigarette consumption, and the market share of imports. Age-adjusted smoking rates were used to compare trends before and after the market opening. The market share of the imports reached half in 2001 from 2% before opening. Compared to projected rates, smoking rates in 2001 for all and younger males, and all and younger females were increased by 12, 6, 202, and 249%, respectively, over and above the projected trends. The ratio of smoking rates between younger and older adults became larger, from 0.62 to 0.74 in males and from 0.32 to 0.98 in females. Per capita consumption increased after the market opening, particularly when large increases in smuggled cigarettes were considered. The finding that the market opening triggered an increase in smoking rates is contrary to the assertion by U.S. cigarette producers that importation would only make smokers switch brands. Younger adults and females were more affected, reflecting their higher sensitivity to the appeal from foreign cigarettes. Because of the marketing strategy of imports, more young people smoked, at an earlier age. Experience from Taiwan revealed that after the initial increase in smoking rates, the opening had galvanized the anti-smoking sentiments, legitimized and strengthened tobacco control policies and tempered the severity of the adverse impact.

  8. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

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    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  9. Trends in adolescent and young adult smoking in India (2009-2017: patterns and implications

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    Pranay Lal

    2018-03-01

    Although GATS 2017 reveals an increase in the age of initiation and minor decrease in intensity of smoking and improvement in quit rates, in absolute terms the numbers have increased significantly. We find that there were strong age-related gradients in smoking initiation within these three age groups. Substantial initiation occurs among younger youth and young adults, and tapers after the age of 24. Efforts to prevent initiation of smoking should focus not only on adolescents but also on older youth and young adults. This calls for raising the age of purchase and use to 21 years, and also ensure cessation services targeted at early users.

  10. The prevalence and trends of waterpipe tobacco smoking: A systematic review.

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    Mohammed Jawad

    Full Text Available Waterpipe tobacco smoking is harmful to health however its prevalence estimates remain uncertain. We aimed to systematically review the medical literature on waterpipe tobacco prevalence and trends.We searched Medline, Embase and ISI Web of Science for 'waterpipe' and its synonyms, without using language or date restrictions. We included any measure of waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence in jurisdictionally representative populations. We stratified findings by prevalence measure (past 30 day, ever, regular or occasional, daily, other or unspecified and age (adults or youth.We included 129 studies reporting 355 estimates for 68 countries. In general, prevalence estimates among adults were highest in the Eastern Mediterranean, and among youth were about equal between Eastern Mediterranean and European regions. Past 30 day use was highest among Lebanese youth (37.2% in 2008, ever use was highest among Lebanese youth in 2002 and Lebanese university students in 2005 (both 65.3%, regular or occasional use was highest in among Iranian university students (16.3% in 2005, and daily use was highest among Egyptian youth (10.4% in 2005. Trend data were limited but most studies reported increased use over time, ranging from 0.3-1.0% per year among youth in the US to 2.9% per year among youth in Jordan (both for past 30 day use. Results were similar for ever use trends. Turkey (2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2010 and Iraq (6.3% in 2008 and 4.8% in 2012 both witnessed decreased waterpipe use.Waterpipe tobacco smoking is most prevalent in Eastern Mediterranean and European countries, and appears higher among youth than adults. Continued surveillance will be important to assess and inform policy measures to control waterpipe tobacco use.

  11. Socioeconomic Disparities in Smoking Among U.S. Adults With Depression, 2005-2014.

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    Weinberger, Andrea H; Bandiera, Frank C; Leventhal, Adam M; Dierker, Lisa C; Gbedemah, Misato; Tidey, Jennifer W; Goodwin, Renee D

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate changes in the cigarette smoking prevalence among U.S. adults with and without depression from 2005 to 2014 by income and education level and overall. This study examined data from adult respondents (aged ≥18 years) in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual cross-sectional study of U.S. individuals. Data from the years 2005 to 2014 were analyzed for a total analytic sample of n=378,733. The prevalence of past-month cigarette smoking was examined annually from 2005 to 2014 among adults with and without past-year major depression, overall and by income/education, using linear trend analyses. Data analysis occurred in 2017. The prevalence of smoking declined significantly from 2005 to 2014 among those with depression (37.62% to 34.01%; p<0.001) and without depression (23.99% to 19.87%; p<0.001). Yet, smoking remained nearly twice as common among those with depression during this period. Among adults with depression in the lowest income and education groups, the prevalence of smoking was more than double the prevalence of smoking among adults with depression in the highest income and education groups. Disparities in smoking prevalence are pronounced when depression and SES are considered simultaneously. Targeted public health and clinical efforts to reduce smoking among adult smokers of lower SES with depression are needed. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cigarette smoking trends among U.S. working adult by industry and occupation: findings from the 2004-2012 National Health Interview Survey.

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    Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hendricks, Scott A; Jamal, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    To examine trends in age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults by industry and occupation during 2004-2012, and to project those prevalences and compare them to the 2020 Healthy People objective (TU-1) to reduce cigarette smoking prevalence to ≤12%. We analyzed the 2004-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Respondents were aged ≥18 years working in the week prior to the interview. Temporal changes in cigarette smoking prevalence were assessed using logistic regression. We used the regression model to extrapolate to the period 2013-2020. Overall, an estimated 19.0% of working adults smoked cigarettes: 22.4% in 2004 to 18.1% in 2012. The largest declines were among workers in the education services (6.5%) industry and in the life, physical, and social science (9.7%) occupations. The smallest declines were among workers in the real estate and rental and leasing (0.9%) industry and the legal (0.4%) occupations. The 2020 projected smoking prevalences in 15 of 21 industry groups and 13 of the 23 occupation groups were greater than the 2020 Healthy People goal. During 2004-2012, smoking prevalence declined in the majority of industry and occupation groups. The decline rate varied by industry and occupation groups. Projections suggest that certain groups may not reach the 2020 Healthy People goal. Consequently, smoking cessation, prevention, and intervention efforts may need to be revised and strengthened, particularly in specific occupational groups. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco [2014]. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

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    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions. PMID:22649464

  14. Adult current smoking: differences in definitions and prevalence estimates--NHIS and NSDUH, 2008.

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    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  15. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

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    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  16. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

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    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents’ past 12-month smoking from perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends’ smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents’ smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends’ smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends’ smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths’ smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults. PMID:24241785

  17. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.

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    Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

  18. Trends in smoking prevalence in Danish adults, 1964-1994. The influence of gender, age, and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Gottschau, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of time trends in smoking prevalence provide a better understanding of the determinants of smoking. The present study analyses changes over time in the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking in relation to sex, age, and education. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were...... collected by questionnaire in random samples of the general population in the area of Copenhagen. The database used included 71,842 measurements of smoking behaviour for 32,156 subjects aged 30 years or more, who had been examined at intervals between 1964 and 1994. In bi- and multivariate analyses...... the effects of sex, age, education, time period, and study group on the prevalence of smoking and of heavy smoking were assessed. RESULTS: Smoking was least prevalent in women, in the oldest age group (more than 70 years), and among those with 8 years or more of school education. During the study period (from...

  19. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  20. Portrayal of tobacco use in prime-time TV dramas: trends and associations with adult cigarette consumption--USA, 1955-2010.

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    Jamieson, Patrick E; Romer, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Although portrayal of television (TV) and movie tobacco use has been linked with initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents, its association with smoking in adults has not been assessed. Therefore, we examined long-term and annual changes in tobacco portrayal in popular US TV dramas and their associations with comparable trends in national adult cigarette consumption. Tobacco use in 1838 h of popular US TV dramas was coded from 1955-2010. The long-term trend and annual deviations from trend were studied in relation to comparable trends in adult per capita cigarette consumption using correlational and time-series methods that controlled for other potential predictors. TV tobacco portrayal has trended downward since 1955 in line with the historical trend in cigarette consumption. Controlling for changes in cigarette prices and other factors, annual changes of one tobacco instance per episode hour across 2 years of programming were associated with annual change of 38.5 cigarettes per US adult. The decline in TV tobacco portrayal was associated with nearly half the effect of increases in cigarette prices over the study period. The correlation between tobacco portrayal in TV dramas and adult cigarette consumption is consistent with well-established effects of exposure to tobacco cues that create craving for cigarettes in adult smokers. Although tobacco use in TV dramas along with movies has declined over time, portrayal of smoking on screen media should be a focus for future adult tobacco control research and policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Smoking and Passive Smoking

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    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  2. Movie smoking and youth initiation: parsing smoking imagery and other adult content.

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    Matthew C Farrelly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To isolate the independent influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on youth smoking uptake. METHODS: We used discrete time survival analysis to quantify the influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on transitioning from (1 closed to open to smoking; (2 never to ever trying smoking; and (3 never to ever hitting, slapping, or shoving someone on two or more occasions in the past 30 days. The latter is a comparative outcome, hypothesized to have no correlation with exposure to smoking in the movies. RESULTS: Assessed separately, both exposure to smoking imagery and exposure to adult content were associated with increased likelihood of youth becoming open to smoking (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15 and OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04-1.17 and having tried smoking (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.13. Both measures were also separately associated with aggressive behavior (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14 and OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15. A very high correlation between the two measures (0.995, p<0.000 prevented an assessment of their independent effects on smoking initiation. CONCLUSION: Although exposure to smoking in the movies is correlated with smoking susceptibility and initiation, the high correlation between exposure to smoking in the movies and other adult content suggests that more research is needed to disentangle their independent influence on smoking.

  3. Movie smoking and youth initiation: parsing smoking imagery and other adult content.

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    Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; Nonnemaker, James; Crankshaw, Erik; Allen, Jane A

    2012-01-01

    To isolate the independent influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on youth smoking uptake. We used discrete time survival analysis to quantify the influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on transitioning from (1) closed to open to smoking; (2) never to ever trying smoking; and (3) never to ever hitting, slapping, or shoving someone on two or more occasions in the past 30 days. The latter is a comparative outcome, hypothesized to have no correlation with exposure to smoking in the movies. Assessed separately, both exposure to smoking imagery and exposure to adult content were associated with increased likelihood of youth becoming open to smoking (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15 and OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04-1.17) and having tried smoking (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.13). Both measures were also separately associated with aggressive behavior (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14 and OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). A very high correlation between the two measures (0.995, pmovies is correlated with smoking susceptibility and initiation, the high correlation between exposure to smoking in the movies and other adult content suggests that more research is needed to disentangle their independent influence on smoking.

  4. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Vehicles among U.S. Adults-National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014.

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    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Baker Holmes, Carissa; Hu, Sean; King, Brian

    2016-10-26

    In the United States (U.S.), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes more than 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults annually. Adoption of smoke-free laws in public areas has increased, but private settings such as vehicles remain a source of SHS exposure. This study assessed change in voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in personal vehicles among U.S. adults between two periods, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014, using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). NATS is a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. We assessed percentage change in the prevalence of smoke-free vehicle rules among all adults and SHS exposure in vehicles among nonsmoking adults, overall, by sociodemographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, annual household income, U.S. region), and by cigarette smoking status. During 2009-2010 to 2013-2014, the percentage of adults with a 100% smoke-free vehicle rule increased from 73.6% to 79.5% (% change = +8.0%; p exposure in vehicles in the previous 7 days decreased from 9.2% to 8.2% (% change = -10.9%; p Smoke-free rules in private settings such as vehicles, in coordination with comprehensive smoke-free policies in indoor public settings, can help reduce SHS exposure and promote smoke-free norms.

  5. Differential trends in cigarette smoking in the USA: is menthol slowing progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A; Villanti, Andrea C; Mowery, Paul D; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual's health as non-mentholated varieties. The addition of menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of menthol use, national trends in smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. We estimated menthol cigarette use during 2004-2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. Among cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette use was more common among 12-17 year olds (56.7%) and 18-25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004-2010, while menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes also declined, while menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel menthol and Marlboro menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. Young people are heavy consumers of mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a menthol ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  7. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Strzeszynski, Lukasz; Topor-Madry, Roman

    2017-11-21

    criteria for this review. Studies differed in design, settings, duration, content and intensity of intervention, length of follow-up, methods of evaluation and also in definitions and measures of smoking behaviour used. Among seven campaigns reporting smoking prevalence, significant decreases were observed in the California and Massachusetts statewide tobacco control campaigns compared with the rest of the USA. Some positive effects on prevalence in the whole population or in the subgroups were observed in three of the remaining seven studies. Three large-scale campaigns of the seven presenting results for tobacco consumption found statistically significant decreases. Among the eight studies presenting abstinence or quit rates, four showed some positive effect, although in one of them the effect was measured for quitting and cutting down combined. Among the three that did not show significant decreases, one demonstrated a significant intervention effect on smokers and ex-smokers combined. There is evidence that comprehensive tobacco control programmes which include mass media campaigns can be effective in changing smoking behaviour in adults, but the evidence comes from a heterogeneous group of studies of variable methodological quality. One state-wide tobacco control programme (Massachusetts) showed positive results up to eight years after the campaign. Another (California) showed positive results during the period of adequate funding and implementation and in final evaluation since the beginning of the programme. Six of nine studies carried out in communities or regions showed some positive effects on smoking behaviour and at least one significant change in smoking prevalence (Sydney). The intensity and duration of mass media campaigns may influence effectiveness, but length of follow-up and concurrent secular trends and events can make this difficult to quantify. No consistent relationship was observed between campaign effectiveness and age, education, ethnicity or

  8. Secondhand smoke exposure among non smoking adults in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tobacco control policy can only succeed if the burdens of smoking are known. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adults in two Nigerian cities. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study from ...

  9. Deadly progress: changes in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult daily smoking, 2004–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lovett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking is the leading contributor to the burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Reducing tobacco use in this population is a public health priority. Precise monitoring of smoking prevalence trends is central to implementation and evaluation of effective tobacco control. The way in which trends are reported influences understanding of the extent of progress, with potential implications for policy. Our objective was to quantify absolute changes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult (≥18 years old daily tobacco smoking prevalence from 2004 to 2015, including comparisons with the total Australian population, and by age, sex and remoteness. Methods: We analysed multiple nationally representative surveys of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, and total Australian, population conducted from 2004 to 2015. Aligned with strength-based approaches, we applied a progress frame, focusing on absolute differences in smoking prevalence within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Results: The prevalence of current daily smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults nationally was 50.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 47.9, 52.2 in 2004–05 and 41.4% (95% CI 39.1, 43.6 in 2014–15, representing an absolute prevalence decrease of 8.6 percentage points (95% CI 5.5, 11.8 over the past decade. This is comparable with the 6.8 percentage point (95% CI 5.6, 7.9 decrease in smoking prevalence in the total Australian population over the same period, from 21.3% in 2004–05 (95% CI 20.5, 22.0 to 14.5% in 2014–15 (95% CI 13.6, 15.4. Particular success in reducing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smoking was observed among younger age groups, with a decrease of 13.2 percentage points for 18–24-year-olds (95% CI 5.9, 20.4, 9.0 percentage points for 25–34-year-olds (95% CI 2.7, 15.3 and 8.7 percentage points for 35–44-year-olds (95% CI 2.6, 14.8. Smoking

  10. Associations of Bar and Restaurant Smoking Bans With Smoking Behavior in the CARDIA Study: A 25-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Stephanie L; Auchincloss, Amy H; Tabb, Loni Philip; Stehr, Mark; Shikany, James M; Schreiner, Pamela J; Widome, Rachel; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2018-06-01

    Indoor smoking bans have often been associated with reductions in smoking prevalence. However, few studies have evaluated their association with within-person changes in smoking behaviors. We linked longitudinal data from 5,105 adults aged 18-30 years at baseline from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1985-2011) to state, county, and local policies mandating 100% smoke-free bars and restaurants by census tract. We used fixed-effects models to examine the association of smoking bans with within-person change in current smoking risk, smoking intensity (smoking ≥10 cigarettes/day on average vs. <10 cigarettes/day), and quitting attempts, using both linear and nonlinear adjustment for secular trends. In models assuming a linear secular trend, smoking bans were associated with a decline in current smoking risk and smoking intensity and an increased likelihood of a quitting attempt. The association with current smoking was greatest among participants with a bachelor's degree or higher. In models with a nonlinear secular trend, pooled results were attenuated (confidence intervals included the null), but effect modification results were largely unchanged. Findings suggest that smoking ban associations may be difficult to disentangle from other tobacco control interventions and emphasize the importance of evaluating equity throughout policy implementation.

  11. Exposure to secondhand smoke and voluntary adoption of smoke-free home and car rules among non-smoking South African adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olufajo, Olubode; Agaku, Israel T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a well-established health hazard. To determine the effectiveness of existing smoke-free policies and adoption of smoke-free rules in South Africa, we assessed exposure to SHS from several sources among non-smoking adults during 2010. Methods: Data were analyzed for 3,094 adults aged ≥16 years who participated in the 2010 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were used to assess presence of smoke-f...

  12. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; Phillips, Elyse; Gentzke, Andrea S; Homa, David M; Babb, Stephen D; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J

    2018-01-19

    The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that the burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products (1). Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults, and about 480,000 U.S. deaths per year are caused by cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (1). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU-1.1),* CDC analyzed data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2016, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults was 15.5%, which was a significant decline from 2005 (20.9%); however, no significant change has occurred since 2015 (15.1%). In 2016, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male, aged 25-64 years, American Indian/Alaska Native or multiracial, had a General Education Development (GED) certificate, lived below the federal poverty level, lived in the Midwest or South, were uninsured or insured through Medicaid, had a disability/limitation, were lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), or had serious psychological distress. During 2005-2016, the percentage of ever smokers who quit smoking increased from 50.8% to 59.0%. Proven population-based interventions are critical to reducing the health and economic burden of smoking-related diseases among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (1,2).

  13. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  14. Trends in adult exposure to secondhand smoke in vehicles: Findings from the 2009-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2015-10-01

    A growing number of jurisdictions have implemented smoke-free vehicles when children are present due to the substantial health effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). Prior studies on the prevalence of SHS exposure in vehicles have mainly focused on adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of SHS exposure in vehicles among Canadian adults. A repeated cross-sectional data on youth and adult data were drawn from the 2009-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (n=58, 195). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the socio-demographic correlates of exposure to SHS in vehicles. Overall, 19% in 2009 and 18% in 2012 of adults reported SHS exposure in vehicles in the past month. Disparities in the SHS exposure prevalence were observed, with a higher SHS exposure among current smokers, former smokers, males, younger adults, living in a household with smoking-related exposure, and those with less education. The multivariable analyses showed significant associations between socio-demographic characteristics and SHS exposure. Higher odds SHS exposure was found for those younger (aged 20-24, OR=16.27, CI=11.09-23.88; 25-44, OR=6.12, CI=4.14-9.06; 45-64, OR=2.79, CI=1.95-4.02) compared to those aged 65 and over. Likewise, those with less education had greater odds of SHS exposure. Findings suggest that adults SHS exposure is high, especially for young adults and those with less education. Adult passengers may need protection from SHS given that no level of SHS exposure is safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cigarette smoking risk-reducing beliefs: Findings from the United States Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R; Coa, Kisha I; Nguyen, Anh B

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoking risk-reducing beliefs are ideas that certain health promoting behaviors (e.g., exercise) may mitigate the risks associated with smoking. The objective of this study was to describe smoking risk-reducing beliefs and the belief that quitting can reduce the harmful effects of smoking among the U.S. adult population and the associations between these beliefs, current smoking status, and sociodemographics. Data were from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) Cycles 3 and 4 (2013-2014; N=6862). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine bivariate associations among the quit smoking belief, smoking risk-reducing beliefs, and covariates. Weighted ordinal logistic regression models examined the adjusted associations between smoking status and sociodemographics, with quit smoking belief and risk-reducing beliefs. Eighty-two percent of the population reported that quitting cigarette smoking can help reduce the harmful effects of smoking a lot: former smokers and individuals with higher educational attainment were more likely to endorse this belief than never smokers and those with lower educational attainment. Many people endorsed smoking risk-reducing beliefs about exercise (79.3%), fruits and vegetables (71.8%), vitamins (67.2%), and sleep (68.5%). Former smokers were less likely to subscribe to these beliefs than never smokers. Vulnerable populations who may be most at risk of smoking attributable morbidity and mortality were more likely to endorse risk-reducing beliefs. Future studies are needed to better understand how risk-reducing beliefs are formed and if modifying these beliefs may help to reduce cigarette smoking in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 mid...

  17. Social cohesion and the smoking behaviors of adults living with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Z; Albert, Stephanie L

    2016-02-01

    The smoking behavior of adults can negatively impact children through exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and by modeling this unhealthy behavior. Little research has examined the role of the social environment in smoking behaviors of adults living with children. The present study specifically analyzed the relationship between social cohesion and smoking behaviors of adults living with children. Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a random-digit dial cross-sectional survey of California Adults, were used. Adults living with children reported their levels of social cohesion and smoking behaviors (N=13,978). Logistic regression models were used to predict odds of being a current smoker or living in a household in which smoking was allowed, from social cohesion. Overall, 13% of the sample was current smokers and 3.74% lived in households in which smoking was allowed. Logistic regression models showed that each one-unit increase in social cohesion is associated with reduced odds of being a current smoker (AOR=0.92; 95% CI=0.85-0.99) and reduced odds of living in a household in which smoking is allowed (AOR=0.84; 95% CI=0.75-0.93), after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Among adults living with children, higher social cohesion is associated with a lower likelihood of both being and smoker and living in a home where smoking is allowed. Thus, future research is needed to better understand mechanisms that explain the relationship between social cohesion and smoking-related behavior in order to prevent smoking-related health consequences and smoking initiation among children and adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Trends in smoking in an urban population over recent decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartoll, Xavier; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Borrell, Carme

    2016-05-06

    The objective of this study is to describe the distribution of smoking in the population and to assess changes and trends over recent decades. Cross sectional study in a sample of the non-institutionalized resident population (n=3,509) in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) using data from persons over 14 years of age from the health survey of 2011, and assessing trends for 1983-2011 using previous surveys. Dependent variables are having ever been a smoker, having quit, being a current smoker, and smoking daily. Independent variables include sex, age, and time. Prevalence and proportions are estimated, stratifying or adjusting for age. The prevalence of daily smokers is 18.8% in 2011: 22.2% for men and 15.9% for women. The age groups with higher smoking prevalence are 25-34 years for men and 15-24 for women. From 1983 to 2011 the reduction among men has been intense, and for women the prevalence has been decreasing since the survey of 2000. Among smokers, the proportion of both genders who do not smoke daily has increased. The smoking epidemic over the last years shows promising trends. The data do not lend support to the hardening hypothesis for current smokers. Smokers are a shrinking minority, although to improve public health it would be desirable to speed the process of change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [The consequences of passive smoking in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trédaniel, J; Savinelli, F; Vignot, S; Bousquet, G; Le Maignan, C; Misset, J-L

    2006-04-01

    Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation by a non-smoker of smoke generated in his neighbourhood by one or more smokers. The effect of this exposure is already generally recognised in children. In adults the induction of chronic obstructive lung disease has not been demonstrated. This is no longer the case for ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer where the effect of passive exposure of non-smokers to cigarette smoke is recognised. The biological plausibility together with the concordance of results obtained over successive years, as well as the large numbers of patients included in the studies, lead to a confident conclusion that the risks in adult non-smokers are increased by the order of 25%. There is no evidence that bias affects the conclusions reached and the World Health Organisation has recently classified passive smoking as being carcinogenic in man. As a result of these data prevention of passive exposure to cigarette smoke should be part of a larger framework of smoking prevention, especially among the young.

  20. A population study on the time trend of cigarette smoking, cessation, and exposure to secondhand smoking from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yung Chiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS commenced in Taiwan. This survey, conducted on a sample of the whole Taiwanese population, is nationally representative and has a high response rate (>80 %. As a result, the four already completed surveys from 2001 to 2013 can be used to investigate the time trend of smoking prevalence, the rate of cessation, and exposure to secondhand smoking. Methods There were 72918 adults combined from the 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS. Smoking status, exposure to secondhand smoking, and smoking cessation were asked, as well as demographic characteristics and other variables. Statistical analyses with sampling weights were carried out using SAS and SUDAAN. Results In males, the prevalence of smoking significantly decreased (rates in 4 surveys were 44.4 %, 44.6 %, 38.9 %, and 34.2 %, respectively. Since 2005 the rate of smoking cessation increased significantly (p = 0.033. The odd ratio (OR exposure of secondhand among non-smokes (OR in 2009 and 2013 were 0.96 (CI = 0.85–1.08 and 0.78 (CI = 0.70–0.88 comparing to 2005. In females, the prevalence of smoking was stable over time. The rate of smoking cessation only appeared significantly high in the older age group. The OR for exposure to secondhand smoking were 0.81 (CI = 0.74–0.89 and 0.68 (CI = 0.62–0.74, for 2009 and 2013 comparing to 2005, respectively. Conclusion Early anti-smoking legislation in Taiwan might have raised the awareness of the harm of smoking. However, the implementation of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act (THPA in 2009 had great contribution to the reduction of smoking rate, especially in males.

  1. Exposure to secondhand smoke and voluntary adoption of smoke-free home and car rules among non-smoking South African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olufajo, Olubode; Agaku, Israel T

    2014-06-10

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a well-established health hazard. To determine the effectiveness of existing smoke-free policies and adoption of smoke-free rules in South Africa, we assessed exposure to SHS from several sources among non-smoking adults during 2010. Data were analyzed for 3,094 adults aged ≥16 years who participated in the 2010 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were used to assess presence of smoke-free rules among all South Africans, and prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure at work, at home, and at hospitality venues among non-smokers. Overall, 70.6% of all South African adults had 100% smoke-free rules in their private cars, 62.5% in their homes, while 63.9% worked in places with 100% smoke-free policies. Overall, 55.9% of all non-smokers reported exposure to SHS from at least one source (i.e., in the home, workplace or at a hospitality venue). By specific source of exposure, 18.4% reported being exposed to SHS at work, 25.2% at home, 33.4% in a restaurant, and 32.7% at a bar. Presence of work bans on indoor smoking conferred lower likelihood of SHS exposure at work among non-smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09-0.60). Similarly, smoke-free home rules decreased the odds of being exposed to SHS at home among non-smokers (aOR =0.16; 95% CI: 0.09-0.30). Over half of South African adults reported SHS exposure in the home or at public places such as the workplace and at hospitality venues. This underscores the need for comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all public indoor areas without exemptions.

  2. Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings.

  3. Smoking habits and obesity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.

  4. Drinking Level Versus Drinking Pattern and Cigarette Smoking Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Holahan, Carole K; Hixon, J Gregory; Moos, Rudolf H

    2018-04-01

    There is a lack of research on the role of alcohol consumption in cigarette smoking among older adults, and the few studies on alcohol use and smoking with older adults have failed to distinguish between average level and pattern of drinking as predictors of smoking. The main purpose of this study was to examine the independent contributions of average level versus pattern of drinking as predictors of cigarette smoking among older adults. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the link between continued smoking and mortality among older smokers. We investigated average level and pattern of drinking as predictors of current smoking among 1,151 older adults at baseline and of continued smoking and mortality among the subset of 276 baseline smokers tracked across 20 years. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses and, to test mediation, bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals. A high level of average drinking and a pattern of episodic heavy drinking were concurrently associated with smoking at baseline. However, only episodic heavy drinking was prospectively linked to continued smoking among baseline smokers. Continued smoking among baseline smokers increased the odds of 20-year mortality and provided an indirect pathway through which heavy episodic drinking related to mortality. Smokers who misuse alcohol are a challenging population for smoking cessation efforts. Older adults who concurrently misuse alcohol and smoke cigarettes provide a unique target for public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, smoking cessation idea and education level among young adult male smokers in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-02-16

    In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18-45 years old. The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364) in the sample of higher education young adult males Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers.

  6. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoking Behavior Among Young Adult Bar Patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We described frequency of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among young adults patronizing bars and associations between SHS exposure, attitudes, and smoking behavior. Methods. We collected cross-sectional surveys from randomized time–location samples of bar patrons aged 18 to 26 years in San Diego, California, and Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 2010 to 2011. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated associations between SHS exposure, attitudes about dangers of SHS, susceptibility to smoking initiation among nonsmokers, and quit attempts among current smokers. Results. More than 80% of respondents reported past 7-day exposure to any SHS, and more than 70% reported exposure at a bar. Current smokers reported more SHS exposure in cars and their own homes than did nonsmokers. Among nonsmokers, SHS exposure was associated with susceptibility to initiation, but those who believed that SHS exposure is harmful were less susceptible. Belief that SHS is dangerous was associated with quit attempts among smokers. Conclusions. Smoke-free environments and education about the harms of SHS may decrease tobacco use among young adults who frequent bars, where they are heavily exposed to SHS. PMID:24028259

  7. Effect of smoke-free legislation on adult smoking behaviour in England in the 18 months following implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tayu Lee

    Full Text Available Comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed public places and workplaces was implemented in England on 1 July 2007. This study examines the impact of this legislation on smoking prevalence, number of cigarettes smoked and location of smoking, controlling for secular trends through the end of 2008.Repeat cross sectional survey using nationally representative data from the Health Survey for England (HSE. In total there are 54,333 respondents from 2003-2008. Logit and linear regression models were used to examine the effect of the legislation on smoking prevalence and the number of cigarettes smoked daily among continuing smokers which took the underlying trend into account. Our finding suggest that smoking prevalence (current smoker decreased from 25% in 2003 to 21% in 2008 (AOR = 0.96 per year, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98, P<0.01 and the mean number of cigarettes consumed daily by smokers decreased from 14.1 in 2003 to 13.1 in 2008 (coefficient for time trend = -0.28±0.06 SE cig/day per year, P<0.01. After adjusting for these trends the introduction of smoke-free legislation was not associated with additional reductions in smoking prevalence (AOR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.94-1.11, P = 0.596 or daily cigarette use in smokers (0.42±0.28 SE; P = 0.142. The percentage of respondents reporting smoking 'at work' and 'inside pubs or bars' decreased significantly from 14% to 2% (p<0.001 and from 34% to 2% (p<0.001, respectively, after the legislation. The percentage reporting smoking 'inside restaurants, cafes, or canteens' decreased significantly from 9% to 1% (p<0.001 and 'inside their home' decreased significantly from 65% to 55% (p<0.01.There is widespread compliance with the smoke-free legislation in England, which has led to large drops in indoor smoking in all venues, including at home. Declines in smoking prevalence and consumption continued along existing trends; they did not accelerate during the 18 months

  8. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  9. [Teenage and adult pregnancy: different correlations between socio-economic status and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Brigitta; Bácskai, Erika; Gerevich, József; Czobor, Pál

    2013-03-10

    Smoking occurs frequently during pregnancy, thereby putting mother and child at health risks. Low socio-economic status is a risk factor for smoking. To investigate the relationship between smoking and low income in teenage and adult pregnancy, which is an important measure of poor socioeconomic status. The authors used subject-level data from the US NSDUH database, which contains information on pregnancies and smoking. Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher, whereas adult pregnancy with lower prevalence of smoking, compared to the age-matched female population. The association between income and smoking is age-dependent. Among adults there is an inverse relationship (high income -- low-risk of smoking), while in teenage pregnancy smoking increases with income. To investigate in teenage and adult pregnancy the relationship between smoking and low income, which is an important measure of poor socio-economic status. Higher socioeconomic status may be associated with risky behaviour, thereby increasing both the risk of smoking and early pregnancy.

  10. Young adult smoking in peer groups: an experimental observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.

  11. Adult non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study was commissioned by the DHSSPS as part of their smoke-free monitoring and evaluation strategy after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Northern Ireland in April 2007.The research was undertaken to determine the impact of smoke-free legislation on non-smoking adults who live with a smoker.Using research carried out both before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation, this study details for the first time the attitudes and knowledge of non-smoking...

  12. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  13. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; pmovies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  14. Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.

  15. Socioeconomic disparities in secondhand smoke exposure among US never-smoking adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Mannino, David M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-11-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a leading preventable cause of illness, disability and mortality. There is a lack of quantitative analyses on socioeconomic disparities in SHS; especially, it is not known how socioeconomic disparities have changed in the past two decades in the USA. To examine socioeconomic disparities and long-term temporal trends in SHS exposure among US never-smoking adults aged ≥20 years. 15 376 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010 were included in the analysis of socioeconomic disparities; additional 8195 participants from NHANES III 1988-1994 were included in the temporal trend analysis. SHS exposure was assessed using self-reported exposure in the home and workplace as well as using serum cotinine concentrations ≥0.05 ng/mL. Individual socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed using poverty-to-income ratio. During the period 1999-2010, 6% and 14% of participants reported SHS exposure in the home and workplace, respectively; 40% had serum cotinine-indicated SHS exposure. Individual SES was strongly associated with SHS exposure in a dose-response fashion; participants in the lowest SES group were 2-3 times more likely to be exposed to SHS compared with those in the highest SES group. During the period 1988-2010, the prevalence declined over 60% for the three types of SHS exposure. However, for cotinine-indicated exposure, the magnitudes of the declines were smaller for lower SES groups compared with higher SES groups, leading to widening socioeconomic disparities in SHS exposure. SHS exposure is still widespread among US never-smoking adults, and socioeconomic disparities for cotinine-indicated exposure have substantially increased in the past two decades. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  17. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gendall

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies.Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05. The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18 with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  18. How behavioral norm and social influence affect smoking in young adulthood: the experience of Korean young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heali Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This qualitative study explored the smoking behavior and its socio-environmental contexts of Korean young adults aged 19-30 years, the age group with an upward trend of smoking. Methods 8 focus groups with 63 participants in Seoul discussed the meaning, behavior, and experience of smoking and its environment. The groups were formed by the current status of smoking(daily, social, and former, gender, and occupation. Thematic analysis was performed on all focus groups. Results The exposure to paternal and peer smoking in childhood lowered resistance and increased access to smoking. It particularly created a belief that smoking is a behavioral option to release stress. Smoking also meant an opportunity to have a break at work, school, and military service among that allows time to be alone or to socialize with other smokers. Drinking alcohol facilitated smoking to get drunk faster or better, and to be part of drinking occasions and members, which increased the amount of smoking. The young adults were sensitive to social atmosphere and thus conscious about their smoking in public places under the current policies. Whilst they supported the policy that separates smoking areas not to harm non-smokers, they wanted their choice to smoke to be respected as well. Those who perceived quitting smoking to be easy tended to think that they might smoke again but then could quit again easily. High accessibility to cigarettes in the community was a challenge for quitting smoking. Conclusions Parental smoking, solicitation to smoke among friends and colleagues, and a high availability and accessibility to cigarettes in the community are focal topics for tobacco free generation. Clear and rational explanation of tobacco policy and environmental approaches would facilitate controlling tobacco use of young population. This work was supported by the Research Program funded by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(2016P3500300.

  19. 8-year trends in physical activity, nutrition, TV viewing time, smoking, alcohol and BMI: A comparison of younger and older Queensland adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L.; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18–65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007–2014 (n = 12,552). Regression analyses were conducted to compare the proportion of older versus younger adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight in all years combined and examine trends in the proportion of younger and older adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight over time. Older adults were more likely to meet recommended intakes of fruit and vegetable (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.23–1.67), not consume fast food (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 2.25–2.86) and be non-smokers (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 2.53–3.60) in comparison to younger adults. Conversely, older adults were less likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.95) and watch less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.74). Overall, older adults were more likely to report engaging in 3, or at least 4 out of 5 healthy behaviours. The proportion of both older and younger adults meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95–0.98 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.91–0.97 respectively), watching less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.99 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.90–0.99 respectively) and who were a healthy weight (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92–0.99 and OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.98 respectively) decreased over time. The proportion of older adults meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84–0.96) and not consuming fast food (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0

  20. Medicaid Coverage Expansions and Cigarette Smoking Cessation Among Low-income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Jonathan W; Donohue, Julie M; Barry, Colleen L; Huskamp, Haiden A; Jarlenski, Marian

    2017-12-01

    Expanding Medicaid coverage to low-income adults may have increased smoking cessation through improved access to evidence-based treatments. Our study sought to determine if states' decisions to expand Medicaid increased recent smoking cessation. Using pooled cross-sectional data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for the years 2011-2015, we examined the association between state Medicaid coverage and the probability of recent smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children who were current or former smokers (n=36,083). We used difference-in-differences estimation to examine the effects of Medicaid coverage on smoking cessation, comparing low-income adult smokers in states with Medicaid coverage to comparable adults in states without Medicaid coverage, with ages 18-64 years to those ages 65 years and above. Analyses were conducted for the full sample and stratified by sex. Residence in a state with Medicaid coverage among low-income adult smokers ages 18-64 years was associated with an increase in recent smoking cessation of 2.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.9). In the comparison group of individuals ages 65 years and above, residence in a state with Medicaid coverage expansion was not associated with a change in recent smoking cessation (-0.1 percentage point, 95% confidence interval, -2.1 to 1.8). Similar increases in smoking cessation among those ages 18-64 years were estimated for females and males (1.9 and 2.2 percentage point, respectively). Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Medicaid coverage expansions may have increased smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children via greater access to preventive health care services, including evidence-based smoking cessation services.

  1. Cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among young adults: a national record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors affect tooth loss in older age including cigarette smoking; however, evidence regarding the association between smoking and tooth loss during young adulthood is limited. The present study examined the association between cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among adults aged 20–39 years using linked data from two national databases in Japan. Methods Two databases of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS and the Survey of Dental Diseases (SDD, which were conducted in 1999, were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare with permission for analytical use. In the NNS, participants received physical examinations and were interviewed regarding dietary intake and health practices including cigarette smoking, whereas in the SDD, participants were asked about their frequency of daily brushing, and received oral examinations by certified dentists. Among 6,805 records electronically linked via household identification code, 1314 records of individuals aged 20 to 39 years were analyzed. The prevalence of 1+ tooth loss was compared among non-, former, and current smokers. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed including confounders: frequency of tooth brushing, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and intake of vitamins C and E. Results Smoking rates differed greatly in men (53.3% and women (15.5%. The overall prevalence of tooth loss was 31.4% (31.8% men and 31.1% women. Tooth loss occurred more frequently among current smokers (40.6% than former (23.1% and non-smokers (27.9%. Current smoking showed a significant association with 1+ tooth loss in men (adjusted OR = 2.21 [1.40–3.50], P = 0.0007 and women (1.70 [1.13–2.55], P = 0.0111. A significant positive exposure-related relationship between cigarette smoking status and tooth loss was observed (P for trend Conclusion An association between cigarette smoking and tooth loss was evident among young adults throughout Japan. Due to

  2. Contrasting trends of smoking cessation status: insights from the stages of change theory using data from the global adult tobacco survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarous Mbulo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Quitting tobacco use can reduce smokers' risks for disease and premature death. We used the trans-theoretical behavior change model to examine temporal differences in readiness to quit smoking among adults in five countries. Methods We analyzed two independent samples from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a standardized national adult household survey of persons aged ≥15 years, for five countries: Mexico (2009, 2015, Philippines (2010, 2016, Thailand (2009, 2011, Turkey (2008, 2012, and Vietnam (2010, 2016. Response rates ranged 82.5%-96.3% and sample sizes ranged 8,996-20,606. Current smokers were defined as adults who smoked tobacco on a daily or non-daily basis. Using responses to questions assessing intention to quit cigarette smoking, we categorized current smokers into the following stages of change: pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation. Relative change was compared using z-tests ( p < 0.05. Results No significant change in smoking prevalence between wave 1 and 2 occurred for Mexico (15.9% to 16.4%, Thailand (23.7% to 24.0%, or Vietnam (23.8% to 22.5%. In contrast, smoking prevalence declined for Philippines (28.2% to 22.7% and Turkey (31.2% to 27.1%. There was an increase in the proportion of smokers in the pre-contemplation stage in Thailand (76.1% to 85.4% and Vietnam (70.8% to 82.3%, while a decline occurred in Turkey (31.2% to 27.1%; no significant change occurred in Mexico or Philippines. The proportion of smokers in the contemplation stage declined in Thailand (17.6% to 12.0% and Vietnam (21.6% to 14.1%, but increased in Turkey (21.2% to 26.9%; no significant change occurred in Mexico or Philippines. The proportion in the preparation stage declined in Thailand (6.3% to 2.6% and Vietnam (7.6% to 3.6%; no significant changes occurred in, Mexico, Philippines, or Turkey. Conclusions Using the stages of change model, smokers' readiness to quit varies by country. Tailored interventions towards specific stages of

  3. The role of smoking in social networks on smoking cessation and relapse among adults: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, D.J.; Vlas, S.J. de; Empelen, P. van; Lenthe, F.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study,

  4. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Homes and Vehicles Among US Adults, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Homa, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of US states and localities have implemented comprehensive policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in all indoor areas of public places and worksites. However, private settings such as homes and vehicles remain a major source of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for many people. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of voluntary smoke-free rules and SHS exposure in homes and vehicles among US adults. Methods We obtained data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular-telephone survey of adults aged 18 years or older residing in the 50 US states or the District of Columbia. We calculated national and state estimates of smoke-free rules and past-7-day SHS exposure in homes and vehicles and examined national estimates by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and education. Results The national prevalence of voluntary smoke-free home rules was 81.1% (state range, 67.9%–92.9%), and the prevalence of household smoke-free vehicle rules was 73.6% (state range, 58.6%–85.8%). Among nonsmokers, the prevalence of SHS exposure was 6.0% in homes (state range, 2.4%–13.0%) and 9.2% in vehicles (state range, 4.8%–13.7%). SHS exposure among nonsmokers was greatest among men, younger adults, non-Hispanic blacks, and those with a lower level of education. Conclusion Most US adults report having voluntary smoke-free home and vehicle rules; however, millions of people remain exposed to SHS in these environments. Disparities in exposure also exist among certain states and subpopulations. Efforts are needed to warn about the dangers of SHS and to promote voluntary smoke-free home and vehicle rules. PMID:23680508

  5. Impact of Total Vending Machine Restrictions on US Young Adult Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C.; Kadowaki, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In an analysis of smoking using a longitudinal sample of US young adults, we extend research on tobacco vending machine restrictions beyond its prior focus on minors by examining the influence of total vending machine restrictions, which apply to adult-only facilities and represents the only remaining vending machine exemption since the enactment of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We identify whether the passage of a restriction influences an individual’s smoking on repeated observations, and if the propensity is lower among those who live in locations with a restriction. Methods: Combining a repository of US tobacco policies at all geographic levels with the nationally-representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and Census data, we use multilevel logistic regression to examine the impact of total vending machine restrictions on any past 30-day smoking and past 30-day smoking of one pack per day among young adults (ages 19–31), while accounting for other tobacco control policy, community, and individual covariates. Results: We find that total vending machine restrictions decrease any recent smoking (OR = 0.451; p vending machine restrictions on smoking a pack daily. Conclusions: Total vending machine restrictions appear to be an effective, yet highly underutilized, means of tobacco control. Implications: Past scientific inquiries examining vending machine restrictions have focused upon minor access, adolescent perceptions of availability, and subsequent smoking. The potential for total vending machine restrictions, which extend to adult-only facilities, to influence patterns of smoking among those of legal age, remains significant. Those who are subject to total vending machine restrictions for longer periods are less likely to have recently smoked, but individuals do not change their smoking behavior in response to the passage of a restriction. These restrictions do not affect heavy smokers. Such

  6. Diverging trends of chronic bronchitis and smoking habits between 1998 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accordini Simone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No study has been carried out on the time trend in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB in recent years, despite its clinical and epidemiological relevance. We evaluated the trend in CB prevalence during the past decade among young Italian adults. Methods A screening questionnaire was mailed to general population samples of 20–44 year-old subjects in two cross-sectional surveys: the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA (1998/2000; n = 18,873, 9 centres and the screening stage of the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study (2007/2010; n = 10,494, 7 centres. CB was defined as having cough and phlegm on most days for a minimum of 3 months a year and for at least 2 successive years. The prevalence rates and the risk ratios (RRs for the association between CB and each potential predictor were adjusted for gender, age, season of response, type of contact, cumulative response rate, and centre. Results CB prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 12.1-12.9% in 1998/2000 and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.7-13.7% in 2007/2010; it increased among never smokers (from 7.6 to 9.1%, p = 0.003, current light smokers ( Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in current smoking, CB prevalence did not vary among young Italian adults. The temporal pattern of CB prevalence can only be partly explained by the increase of unemployment/premature retirement, asthma and allergic rhinitis, and suggests that other factors could have played a role.

  7. Anxiety Sensitivity Physical and Cognitive Concerns in Relation to Smoking-oriented Cognition: An Examination Among Treatment-seeking Adults Who Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Lopez, Alicia; Tavakoli, Niloofar; Garey, Lorra; Raines, Amanda M; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    Elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and internal sensations) is highly common among adults who smoke, and contributes to several maladaptive smoking beliefs and behaviors. AS is comprised of 3 empirically established factors, relating to fears of social concerns, fears of physical symptoms, and fears of cognitive dyscontrol. Relatively few studies have examined how these 3 subscales pertain to smoking processes. The aim of the present investigation was to examine, among treatment-seeking adults who smoke, the interactive effects of AS-physical and cognitive concerns in relation to: perceived barriers to smoking cessation; smoking-related negative reinforcement expectancies; and smoking-related avoidance and inflexibility. Participants included 470 adults who smoke (47.8% female; mean age 37.2, SD 13.5), who were recruited to participate in a smoking-cessation treatment study. At the baseline assessment, participants completed self-report measures, including the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Barriers to Cessation Scale, Smoking Consequences Questionnaire, and Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale. Results indicated that after controlling for the effects of sex, cigarette dependence, alcohol problems, tobacco-related medical illness, current axis 1 disorder, and AS-social concerns, a significant interaction emerged, such that the association between AS-cognitive concerns and the studied smoking-based cognitions were stronger among lower levels of AS-physical concerns (but not higher physical concerns). The current findings suggest that it may be beneficial to provide specialized smoking-cessation interventions for certain subgroups of adults who smoke, such as those with different AS profiles, to promote healthier beliefs about quitting.

  8. Effect of Smoke-Free Legislation on Adult Smoking Behaviour in England in the 18 Months following Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, John Tayu; Glantz, Stanton A.; Millett, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background Comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed public places and workplaces was implemented in England on 1 July 2007. This study examines the impact of this legislation on smoking prevalence, number of cigarettes smoked and location of smoking, controlling for secular trends through the end of 2008. Method and Findings Repeat cross sectional survey using nationally representative data from the Health Survey for England (HSE). In total there are 54,333 respondents from ...

  9. Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.  Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/5/2013.

  10. Association of sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions with intention to quit smoking in Korean adults: findings from the ITC Korea Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults.

  11. Determinants of daily smoking in Turkish young adults in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhulst Frank C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As little is known about the determinants of smoking in large ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and other Western European countries, we studied the determinants of smoking young adult offspring of Turkish migrants to the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 439 Turkish adults (18–28 y in 2003. Smokers were compared with never smokers for five groups of determinants: demographic and socioeconomic factors, behavioral and emotional problems, psychosocial factors, and cultural factors. Associations were measured by prevalence rate ratios. Results Prevalences for men were 51% for daily smoking, 12% for former smoking, and 38% for never smoking. For women they were 44%, 11%, and 47%, respectively. Without adjustment for other determinants, higher prevalence was associated with: emotional problems, boredom, life events, and being male; and, specifically among women, with low self-esteem and having children. The strongest determinants of daily smoking In multivariate models were alcohol use and demographic and socio-economic factors. Of the cultural factors only strong Muslim identification was associated with lower smoking prevalence. Conclusion The high prevalence of smoking warrants action. Many of the well-known determinants of smoking in Western countries were also important among young adults from ethnic minorities. Women with children and people of a low educational level deserve special attention.

  12. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieming Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61 compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%. Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  14. influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    have any influence on the smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults. The participants ... music to risky areas such as drugs, sex, and smoking, and ..... Nakamuk, Takano, 2005), work stress ..... Anger management for families. Parent.

  15. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks' Diminished Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Mistry, Ritesh

    2018-04-16

    Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217). HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites ( n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks ( n = 409; 18%). The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day) smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender) were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  16. Menthol Cigarette Smoking among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. Purpose To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January–April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Results Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). Conclusions These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. PMID:25245795

  17. Smoking Trends and Disparities Among Black and Non-Hispanic Whites in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Felicitas, Jamie; Fagan, Pebbles; Gruder, Charles L; Blanco, Lyzette; Cappelli, Christopher; Trinidad, Dennis R

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined disparities in smoking trends across Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites in California. Data from the 1996 to 2008 California Tobacco Survey were analyzed to examine trends in smoking behaviors and cessation across Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites. A decrease in overall ever and current smoking was observed for both Black and non-Hispanic Whites across the 12-year time period. A striking decrease in proportions of heavy daily smokers for both Black and non-Hispanic Whites were observed. Proportions of light and intermittent smokers and moderate daily smokers displayed modest increases for Blacks, but large increases for non-Hispanic Whites. Increases in successful cessation were also observed for Blacks and, to a lesser extent, for non-Hispanic Whites. Smoking behavior and cessation trends across Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites were revealing. The decline in heavy daily and former smokers may demonstrate the success and effectiveness of tobacco control efforts in California. However, the increase in proportions of light and intermittent smokers and moderate daily smokers for both Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites demonstrates a need for tobacco cessation efforts focused on lighter smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

  19. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  20. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  1. Epidemiology, attitudes and perceptions toward cigarettes and hookah smoking amongst adults in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Al-Serhan, Ala-Aldeen Ahmad; Nesheiwat, Adel Issa; Da'na, Moh'd; Al-Nawafleh, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study are to assess cigarette and hookah smoking rates amongst adult population in Jordan and to determine predictors of smoking status. Selected beliefs, perceptions and attitudes toward cigarettes and hookah smoking were also assessed. This cross-sectional study was conducted in five regional governorates of Jordan through face-to-face interviews on a random sample of adult population aged 18-79 years. Data was collected using a piloted questionnaire based on the Global Adult Tobacco Questionnaire. The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking in our sample (869) was 59.1 % amongst males and 23.3 % amongst females, while the overall prevalence of hookah smoking was 18.9 % amongst males and 23.1 % amongst females. Leisure and imitation were the most commonly reported reasons for smoking. Regardless of smoking status, people were aware of health risks associated smoking and also had negative perceptions toward smoking. Smoking rates for both genders have reached alarmingly high rates in Jordan. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive national programme to target the country's growing burden of smoking. Suggestions on leisure time activities should be included in such programmes.

  2. Smoking initiation among young adults in the United States and Canada, 1998-2010: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kit S; Nelson, Nanette M; Feldman, Laura L

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the United States and Canada, and recent data indicate that they often initiate smoking as young adults. The objective of this study was to systematically review peer-reviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation and effective prevention efforts among young adults. We searched 5 databases for research articles published in English between 1998 and 2010 on smoking initiation among young adults (aged 18-25) living in the United States or Canada. We extracted the following data from each study selected: the measure of initiation used, age range of initiation, age range of study population, data source, target population, sampling method, and sample size. We summarized the primary findings of each study according to 3 research questions and categories of data (eg, sociodemographic) that emerged during the data extraction process. Of 1,072 identified studies, we found 27 articles that met our search criteria, but several included a larger age range of initiation (eg, 18-30, 18-36) than we initially intended to include. Disparities in young adult smoking initiation existed according to sex, race, and educational attainment. The use of alcohol and illegal drugs was associated with smoking initiation. The risk of smoking initiation among young adults increased under the following circumstances: exposure to smoking, boredom or stress while serving in the military, attending tobacco-sponsored social events while in college, and exposure to social norms and perceptions that encourage smoking. Effective prevention efforts include exposure to counter-marketing, denormalization campaigns, taxation, and the presence of smoke-free policies. Much remains to be learned about young adult smoking initiation, particularly among young adults in the straight-to-work population. Dissimilar measures of smoking initiation limit our knowledge about smoking initiation among young adults. We recommend developing a standardized

  3. Trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, body mass index and alcohol consumption in Danish adults with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Snorgaard, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: In recent decades there has been an increased focus on non-pharmacological treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking, body mass index (BMI), and alcohol consumption reported in 2000, 2005 and 2010 by Danish subjects......-sectional analyses from 2000, 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: In participants with diabetes, leisure time PA levels increased from 2000 to 2010: The percentage of those that were physically active increased from 53.5% to 78.2% (p... in participants with diabetes compared to participants without diabetes throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of physically active Danish participants older than 45 years with diabetes increased from 2000 to 2010, and the most beneficial trends in life style were observed among the women. These trends...

  4. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Vehicles among U.S. Adults—National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2010 and 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Baker Holmes, Carissa; Hu, Sean; King, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (U.S.), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes more than 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults annually. Adoption of smoke-free laws in public areas has increased, but private settings such as vehicles remain a source of SHS exposure. This study assessed change in voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in personal vehicles among U.S. adults between two periods, 2009–2010 and 2013–2014, using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). NATS is a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. We assessed percentage change in the prevalence of smoke-free vehicle rules among all adults and SHS exposure in vehicles among nonsmoking adults, overall, by sociodemographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, annual household income, U.S. region), and by cigarette smoking status. During 2009–2010 to 2013–2014, the percentage of adults with a 100% smoke-free vehicle rule increased from 73.6% to 79.5% (% change = +8.0%; p exposure in vehicles in the previous 7 days decreased from 9.2% to 8.2% (% change = −10.9%; p Smoke-free rules in private settings such as vehicles, in coordination with comprehensive smoke-free policies in indoor public settings, can help reduce SHS exposure and promote smoke-free norms. PMID:27792208

  5. Evaluation of Bar and Nightclub Intervention to Decrease Young Adult Smoking in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Lisha, Nadra E; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-08-01

    Over 20% of young adults in New Mexico currently smoke. We evaluated cigarette smoking prevalence of young adult bar patrons during an anti-tobacco Social Branding intervention. The Social Branding intervention used a smoke-free brand, "HAVOC," to compete with tobacco marketing within the "Partier" young adult peer crowd. A series of cross-sectional surveys were collected from adults aged 18-26 in bars and nightclubs in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from 2009 to 2013 using randomized time-location sampling. Multivariable multinomial regression using full information maximum likelihood estimation to account for missing data evaluated differences in daily and nondaily smoking during the intervention, controlling for demographics, other risk behaviors, and tobacco-related attitudes. Data were collected from 1,069 individuals at Time 1, and 720, 1,142, and 1,149 participants at Times 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Current smoking rates decreased from 47.5% at Time 1 to 37.5% at Time 4 (p < .001). Among Partiers, the odds of daily smoking decreased significantly, but nondaily smoking was unchanged. Partiers that recalled, liked, and understood the smoke-free message of HAVOC had lower odds of nondaily (odds ratio: .48, 95% CI: .31-.75) and daily (odds ratio: .31, 95% CI: .14-.68) smoking than those who did not recall HAVOC. HAVOC recall was associated with attitudes that were also associated with smoking behavior. The significant decrease in daily smoking among young adult Partiers in New Mexico was associated with HAVOC recall and understanding. Social Branding interventions efficiently target and may decrease tobacco use among young adult bar patrons. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks’ Diminished Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although higher socioeconomic status (SES indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. Aims: To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. Methods: This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2017 (n = 3217. HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites (n = 1868; 82% or Blacks (n = 409; 18%. The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Results: In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. Conclusions: In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  7. Exposure to secondhand smoke among adults - Philippines, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquilod, Marina M; Segarra, Agnes B; Barcenas, Glen; Mercado, Susan P; Rarick, James; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Asma, Samira; Andes, Linda J; Talley, Brandon

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the differences in exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among adults at home, in indoor workplaces, and in various public places in the Philippines across various socio-demographic groups. Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in 2009 in the Philippines were used. The data consist of survey answers from 9705 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older. We considered that respondents were exposed to SHS if during the previous 30 days they reported that they lived in a home, worked in a building, or visited a public place where people smoked. The public places included in our analysis were indoor workplaces, public transportation vehicles, restaurants, government buildings or offices, and healthcare facilities. The differences in various socioeconomic and demographic groups' exposure to SHS in these places were also examined. Of respondents who reported working indoors, 36.8% were exposed to SHS. Men (43.3% [95% CI 39.7-46.9]) were more likely than women (28.8% [95% CI 25.4-32.4]) to be exposed to SHS (p exposure for those who visited public buildings was 33.6% in restaurants, 25.5% in government buildings or offices, and 7.6% in healthcare facilities. Despite a national law passed and several local government ordinances that have promulgated smoke-free workplaces, schools, government offices, and healthcare facilities, our findings show that a large proportion of adults were exposed to SHS at work and in public places, which offers opportunities to strengthen and improve enforcement of the smoke-free initiatives and ordinances in the Philippines. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Youth exposure to in-vehicle second-hand smoke and their smoking behaviours: trends and associations in repeated national surveys (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George; Taylor, Steve; Edwards, Richard

    2015-03-01

    To extend the limited international evidence on youth in-vehicle second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure by examining trends in New Zealand, a country with a national smoke-free goal and indoors smoke-free environment legislation. We tracked exposure rates and explored the associations between in-vehicle SHS exposure and smoking behaviours. In-home exposure was also examined for comparative purposes. Data were collected in annual surveys of over 25 000 year 10 school students (14-15-year olds) for a 7-year period (2006-2012). Questions covered smoking behaviour, exposure to smoking and demographics. Youth SHS exposure rates in-vehicle and in-home trended down slightly over time (pvehicle in the previous week in 2012. However, marked inequalities in exposure between ethnic groups, and by school-based socioeconomic position, persisted. The strongest association with SHS exposure was parental smoking (eg, for both parents versus neither smoking in 2012: in-vehicle SHS exposure adjusted OR: 7.4; 95% CI: 6.5 to 8.4). After adjusting for seven other factors associated with initiation, logistic regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations of in-vehicle SHS exposure with susceptibility to initiation and smoking. The slow decline in SHS exposure in vehicles and the lack of progress in reducing relative inequalities is problematic. To accelerate progress, the New Zealand Government could follow the example of other jurisdictions and prohibit smoking in cars carrying children. Other major policy interventions, beside enhanced smoke-free environments, will also likely be required if New Zealand is to achieve its 2025 smoke-free nation goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Support for smoke-free restaurants among Massachusetts adults, 1992-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D R; Mucci, L A

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined trends and predictors of public support for smoke-free restaurants in Massachusetts. Since 1992, the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System has asked survey respondents about their attitudes toward smoking in restaurants. Analyses using data from 1992 to 1999 characterized changes over time in support for smoke-free restaurants and the role of demographic and smoking-related factors in predicting support. During 1992 to 1999, the rate of support for smoke-free restaurants increased from 37.5% to 59.8%, with similar increases among current, former, and never smokers. After adjustment for smoking status, support was associated with socioeconomic characteristics, race/ethnicity, and household smoking rules. Among current smokers, lighter smokers and those who were trying to quit were more likely to endorse smoke-free restaurants. There has been a substantial increase in support for smoke-free restaurants among both smokers and nonsmokers in Massachusetts.

  10. Trends in osteoporosis and low bone mass in older US adults, 2005-2006 through 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, A C; Sarafrazi Isfahani, N; Fan, B; Shepherd, J A

    2017-06-01

    This study examined trends in osteoporosis and low bone mass in older US adults between 2005 and 2014 using bone mineral density (BMD) data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Osteoporosis and low bone mass appear to have increased at the femur neck but not at the lumbar spine during this period. Recent preliminary data from Medicare suggest that the decline in hip fracture incidence among older US adults may have plateaued in 2013-2014, but comparable data on BMD trends for this time period are currently lacking. This study examined trends in the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass since 2005 using BMD data from NHANES. The present study also updated prevalence estimates to 2013-2014 and included estimates for non-Hispanic Asians. Femur neck and lumbar spine BMD by DXA were available for 7954 adults aged 50 years and older from four NHANES survey cycles between 2005-2006 and 2013-2014. Significant trends (quadratic or linear) were observed for the femur neck (mean T-score and osteoporosis in both sexes; low bone mass in women) but not for the lumbar spine. The trend in femur neck status was somewhat U-shaped, with prevalences being most consistently significantly higher (by 1.1-6.6 percentage points) in 2013-2014 than 2007-2008. Adjusting for changes in body mass index, smoking, milk intake, and physician's diagnosis of osteoporosis between surveys did not change femur neck trends. In 2013-2014, the percent of older adults with osteoporosis was 6% at the femur neck, 8% at the lumbar spine, and 11% at either site. There was some evidence of a decline in femur neck BMD between 2005-2006 and 2013-2014, but not in lumbar spine BMD. Changes in the risk factors that could be examined did not explain the femur neck BMD trends.

  11. Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Young Adults In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...

  12. Reliability and validity of self-reported smoking in an anonymous online survey with young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Hall, Sharon M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2011-11-01

    The Internet offers many potential benefits to conducting smoking and other health behavior research with young adults. Questions, however, remain regarding the psychometric properties of online self-reported smoking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of self-reported smoking and smoking-related cognitions obtained from an online survey. Young adults (N = 248) age 18 to 25 who had smoked at least 1 cigarette in the past 30 days were recruited online and completed a survey of tobacco and other substance use. Measures of smoking behavior (quantity and frequency) and smoking-related expectancies demonstrated high internal consistency reliability. Measures of smoking behavior and smoking stage of change demonstrated strong concurrent criterion and divergent validity. Results for convergent validity varied by specific constructs measured. Estimates of smoking quantity, but not frequency, were comparable to those obtained from a nationally representative household interview among young adults. These findings generally support the reliability and validity of online surveys of young adult smokers. Identified limitations may reflect issues specific to the measures rather than the online data collection methodology. Strategies to maximize the psychometric properties of online surveys with young adult smokers are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  14. Socio-demographic determinants of cigarette smoking among adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Social factors such as older age, higher education and lower occupational class influence tobacco smoking behavior among adults in Lagos and the level of knowledge of harmful health effects of tobacco is low among all participants. There is need to design tobacco control programs targeted at adults in the ...

  15. Vital Signs – Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.

  16. The impact of active and passive peer influence on young adult smoking: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-03-01

    Peers influence adolescent and young adult smoking, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. It is necessary to understand whether the current assumption of peer pressure is valid, or whether an alternative explanation as imitation is more appropriate. We examined whether passive (imitation) and/or active (pressure) peer influence affects young adult smoking. An experiment was conducted among 68 daily-smoking students aged 16-24. The actual study aim was masked. Participants had to do a 30-min music task with a confederate. The experiment consisted of a 2 (smoking condition: confederate smokes or not) by 2 (pressure condition: confederate offers the participant a cigarette or not) factorial design, resulting in four conditions: (1) no smoking and no pressure (N=15); (2) smoking but no pressure (N=16); (3) pressure but no smoking (N=20); and (4) smoking and pressure (N=17). The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during this music assignment. Peer smoking significantly predicted the total number of cigarettes smoked by young adults while peer pressure did not. The interaction effect of peer pressure and peer smoking was not significant. Peer pressure did not have a significant additional contribution, over and above smoking of the peer. Passive (imitation) peer influence affected young adult smoking rather than active (pressure) peer influence. Thus, smoking cessation efforts should aim at preventing interaction with smoking peers and raising awareness about its impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Choudhury, Sohel; Mustafa, Zaman; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2011-01-01

    To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9%) (male-58.2% and female-51.7%), in workplace (63%) (male-67.8% and female-30.4%), and in any public place (57.8%) (male-90.4% and female-25.1%) 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3%) and health care facilities (5.8%); however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%), and restaurants (27.6%). SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on protecting the people from hazardous effect of SHS as well as

  18. Young adults' experiences of neighbourhood smoking-related norms and practices: A qualitative study exploring place-based social inequalities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Lapalme, Josée; McCready, Geneviève; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    In this qualitative exploratory study we asked how smoking among young adults relates to the local neighbourhood context to better understand place-based social inequalities in smoking. We used data collected through focus groups with young adults from four economically diverse neighbourhoods in Montreal, Canada. Using the collective lifestyles framework to guide data analysis, we examined within and between neighbourhood social norms, practices, and agency. We found that some smoking-related social norms, practices and agency were particular to neighbourhoods of the same socio-economic status (SES). For example, permissive smoking-related social norms in low-SES neighbourhoods made it difficult to avoid smoking but also reduced local experiences of smoking-related stigma and isolation. In high-SES neighbourhoods, strong anti-smoking norms led to smoking in secret and/or amidst 'acceptable' social settings. Findings may inform future investigations and local-level interventions focused on this age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic theory and evidence on smoking behavior of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Wang, Yang

    2008-11-01

    To describe: (i) three alternative conceptual frameworks used by economists to study addictive behaviors: rational, imperfectly rational and irrational addiction; (ii) empirical economic evidence on each framework and specific channels to explain adult smoking matched to the frameworks; and (iii) policy implications for each framework. A systematic review and appraisal of important theoretical and empirical economic studies on smoking. There is some empirical support for each framework. For rational and imperfectly rational addiction there is some evidence that anticipated future cigarette prices influence current cigarette consumption, and quitting costs are high for smokers. Smokers are more risk-tolerant in the financial domain than are others and tend to attach a lower value to being in good health. Findings on differences in rates of time preference by smoking status are mixed; however, short-term rates are higher than long-term rates for both smokers and non-smokers, a stylized fact consistent with hyperbolic discounting. The economic literature lends no empirical support to the view that mature adults smoke because they underestimate the probability of harm to health from smoking. In support of the irrationality framework, smokers tend to be more impulsive than others in domains not related directly to smoking, implying that they may be sensitive to cues that trigger smoking. Much promising economic research uses the imperfectly rational addiction framework, but empirical research based on this framework is still in its infancy.

  20. Smoking Initiation Among Young Adults in the United States and Canada, 1998-2010: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Kit S.; Nelson, Nanette M.; Feldman, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the United States and Canada, and recent data indicate that they often initiate smoking as young adults. The objective of this study was to systematically review peer-reviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation and effective prevention efforts among young adults. Methods We searched 5 databases for research articles published in English between 1998 and 2010 on smoking initiation among young adults (aged 18-25) ...

  1. Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Rachel M; Mooney-Somers, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence trends and correlates among lesbian, bisexual and queer-identifying (LBQ) women in Sydney, Australia. Data from 5007 respondents to a repeated cross-sectional community survey were used to examine smoking trends between 2004 and 2014. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine smoking correlates. Thirty percent of respondents were current smokers, including 48% of 16 to 24-year-olds. A slight decrease in all-ages smoking over time was not reflected in the youngest age group. LBQ women who smoke have fewer economic, social and psychological resources than both women who never smoke and ex-smokers. High levels of alcohol and illicit drug use are also correlated with current smoking. Population-wide interventions have failed to address the persistently high prevalence of smoking among this sample of LBQ women. Tailored interventions may find utility focusing on personal resilience to deal with general and sexuality-specific stressors, as well as attending to poly-substance use. Acknowledgment of LBQ women as a priority group for tobacco reduction is urgently needed. We call on tobacco control agencies to consider sexuality and gender orientation in policy and partner with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community organisations to develop culturally appropriate interventions. [Deacon RM, Mooney-Somers J Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:546-554]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6% and noncombustible-only users (30.0% than any combustible users (21.3%. The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45–64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments.

  3. National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Marynak, Kristy; King, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6%) and noncombustible-only users (30.0%) than any combustible users (21.3%). The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45–64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments. PMID:27589779

  4. The effects of smoking-related television advertising on smoking and intentions to quit among adults in the United States: 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry; Kim, Yoonsang; Choi, Young Ku; Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether state-sponsored antitobacco advertisements are associated with reduced adult smoking, and interactions between smoking-related advertising types. We measured mean exposure to smoking-related advertisements with television ratings for the top-75 US media markets from 1999 to 2007. We combined these data with individual-level Current Population Surveys Tobacco Use Supplement data and state tobacco control policy data. Higher exposure to state-sponsored, Legacy, and pharmaceutical advertisements was associated with less smoking; higher exposure to tobacco industry advertisements was associated with more smoking. Higher exposure to state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements was positively associated with intentions to quit and having made a past-year quit attempt; higher exposure to ads for pharmaceutical cessation aids was negatively associated with having made a quit attempt. There was a significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements. Exposure to state-sponsored advertisements was far below Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended best practices. The significant negative relationships between antismoking advertising and adult smoking provide strong evidence that tobacco-control media campaigns help reduce adult smoking. The significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertising suggests that the campaigns reinforce one another.

  5. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  6. Effect of graphic cigarette warnings on smoking intentions in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Blanton

    Full Text Available Graphic warnings (GWs on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance. One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions.Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18-24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers were assessed before and after message exposure.GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes, and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes. Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers. No evidence of defensive "boomerang effects" on intention was observed in any subgroup.Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults.

  7. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. A hospital-based study carried out on a cross-section of 500 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke in a never-smoked adult patient in the previous 1 year. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 for the calculation of percentages for categorical variables. Bivariate analysis involving Chi-square test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables at P effects of secondhand smoke on adults, children, and pregnant women was 95.6%, 92.8%, and 65.2%, respectively. The most common specific health effects the respondents were aware for adults, children, and obstetric population were lung cancer (95.6%), precipitation of asthmatic condition (92.8%), and delivery of small babies (65.2%), respectively. The predominant source of awareness of information was radio (93.6%). Awareness of general health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke on adults ( P = 0.041), children ( P = 0.031), and obstetrics population ( P = 0.02) was significantly associated with exposure status. The most common health effects of secondhand smoke the respondents had highest awareness were lung cancer, precipitation of asthmatic attacks, and delivery of small babies in adults, children, and obstetric population, respectively. Awareness of general health effects on adults, children, and obstetrics population was

  8. Twelve Million Smokers Look Online for Smoking Cessation Help Annually: Health Information National Trends Survey Data, 2005-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Amato, Michael S

    2018-04-11

    This study quantified the potential reach of Internet smoking cessation interventions to support calculations of potential population impact (reach × effectiveness). Using a nationally representative survey, we calculated the number and proportion of adult smokers that look for cessation assistance online each year. Five waves (2005, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017) of the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey were examined. The survey asked US adults whether they ever go online to use the Internet, World Wide Web, or email and had used the Internet to look for information about quitting smoking within the past 12 months. We estimated the proportion and number of (1) all US adult smokers, and (2) online US adult smokers that searched for cessation information online. Cross-year comparisons were assessed with logistic regression. The proportion of all smokers who searched online for cessation information increased over the past decade (p < .001): 16.5% in 2005 (95% CI = 13.2% to 20.4%), 20.9% in 2011 (95% CI = 15.55% to 28.0%), 25.6% in 2013 (95% CI = 19.7% to 33.0%), 23.4% in 2015 (95% CI = 16.9% to 31.0%), and 35.9% in 2017 (95% CI = 24.8% to 48.9%). Among online smokers only, approximately one third searched online for cessation information each year from 2005 through 2015. In 2017, that proportion increased to 43.7% (95% CI = 29.7% to 58.7%), when an estimated 12.4 million online smokers searched for cessation help. More than one third of all smokers turn to the Internet for help quitting each year, representing more than 12 million US adults. This research provides contemporary estimates for the reach of Internet interventions for smoking cessation. Such estimates are necessary to estimate the population impact of Internet interventions on quit rates. The research finds more than 12 million US smokers searched online for cessation information in 2017.

  9. Prevalence and Trends of Cigarette Smoking Among Military Personnel in Taiwan: Results of 10-Year Anti-Smoking Health Promotion Programs in Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nain-Feng; Lin, Fu-Huang; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and trends of cigarette smoking among young military conscripts, military officers, and military university students during recently 10 years in Taiwan. Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted annually among young military conscripts and military university students from 2006 to 2014. All the young conscripts were reviewed within 1 month at the military training center and before retiring after 1 year of military services. The military officers were included using purposive sampling from 2004 to 2008 and 2013 to 2014 in different military services. Military university students were included in this study. Freshman and senior students were random sampled as the study subjects. Participants completed a structured questionnaire that included questions on general demographics and health-related behaviors. Current smokers is defined as subjects who smoked ≥1 cigarette/day during the past 30 days or had smoked ≥100 cigarettes in their lifetime or still have the habit of smoking during study. We used a χ 2 test to examine the difference between the prevalence of cigarette smoking among different groups. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was applied to examine the change of prevalence of smoking after repeated cross-sectional surveys among populations. The prevalence of cigarette smoking within military training center and after 1-year military services was 48.6% and 48.1% on 2006, which became 39.2% and 38.6% on 2010, and then further declined to 31.0% and 30.1% on 2014. For military officers, the trends of prevalence of smoking among different military services showed slight decline from 2004 to 2008, but decreased significantly between 2013 and 2014. The prevalence of smoking in 2014 was 32.1%, 32.8%, and 32.4% for the Army, Navy, and Air Force, respectively. More interestingly, the prevalence of smoking of freshman and senior students increased during the first 5 years (2007-2011) of survey and then

  10. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tobacco control in California compared with the rest of the USA: trends in adult per capita cigarette consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Shi, Yuyan; Hendrickson, Erik M; White, Martha M; Noble, Madison L; Kealey, Sheila; Strong, David R; Trinidad, Dennis R; Hartman, Anne M; Messer, Karen

    2017-11-27

    In the 1990s, California led the USA in state-level tobacco control strategies. However, after 2000, California lost ground on cigarette taxes, although it maintained higher levels of smoke-free homes among smokers. Trends in per capita cigarette consumption were assessed through taxed sales data and from self-report in repeated national cross-sectional surveys. Linear regressions identified changes in trends after year 2000 separately for California and the rest of the USA. Using data from each state, a linear regression tested the association between different tobacco control strategies and per capita consumption. Change in self-reported per capita consumption was partitioned into contributions associated with initiation, quitting and reduction in cigarette consumption level. Both taxed cigarette sales and per capita consumption declined rapidly in the USA from 1985 to 2015. Declines were particularly fast in California before 2000 but slowed thereafter. In 2014, per capita consumption in California was 29.4 packs/adult/year, but 90% higher in the rest of the USA. Modelling state-level data, every $1 increase in cigarette taxes reduced consumption by 4.8 (95% CI 2.9 to 6.8) packs/adult/year. Every 5% increase in the proportion of smokers with smoke-free homes reduced consumption by 8.0 (95% CI 7.0 to 8.9) packs/adult/year. The different patterns in California and the rest of the USA are at least partially explained by these two variables. The slow down in per capita consumption in California can be attributed to changes in initiation, quitting and especially smokers reducing their consumption level. Tobacco control strategies need to be continually updated to maintain momentum towards a smoke-free society. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Smoking prevalence trends in Indigenous Australians, 1994-2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, national smoking prevalence has successfully fallen below 20%, but remains about 50% amongst Indigenous Australians. Australian Indigenous tobacco control is framed by the idea that nothing has worked and a sense of either despondency or the difficulty of the challenge. Methods This paper examines the trends in smoking prevalence of Australian Indigenous men and women aged 18 and over in three large national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2002 and 2004. Results From 1994 to 2004, Indigenous smoking prevalence fell by 5.5% and 3.5% in non-remote and remote men, and by 1.9% in non-remote women. In contrast, Indigenous smoking prevalence rose by 5.7% in remote women from 1994 to 2002, before falling by 0.8% between 2002 and 2004. Male and female Indigenous smoking prevalences in non-remote Australia fell in parallel with those in the total Australian population. The different Indigenous smoking prevalence trends in remote and non-remote Australia can be plausibly explained by the typical characteristics of national tobacco epidemic curves, with remote Indigenous Australia just at an earlier point in the epidemic. Conclusion Reducing Indigenous smoking need not be considered exceptionally difficult. Inequities in the distribution of smoking related-deaths and illness may be reduced by increasing the exposure and access of Indigenous Australians, and other disadvantaged groups with high smoking prevalence, to proven tobacco control strategies.

  13. Trends in awareness and use of electronic cigarettes among US adults, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Patel, Roshni; Nguyen, Kimberly H; Dube, Shanta R

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketing has increased considerably since the product entered the US market in 2007, thereby warranting additional surveillance to monitor recent trends in population-level awareness and utilization. We assessed the prevalence, characteristics, and trends in e-cigarette awareness and use among nationally representative samples of US adults during 2010-2013. Data came from the 2010-2013 HealthStyles survey, an annual consumer-based web survey of US adults aged ≥ 18 years. Sample sizes ranged from 2,505 (2010) to 4,170 (2012). Descriptive statistics were used to assess e-cigarette awareness, ever use, and current use (use within the past 30 days) overall and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, US region, and cigarette smoking status. Trends were assessed using logistic regression. During 2010-2013, increases (p e-cigarette awareness (40.9%-79.7%), ever use (3.3%-8.5%), and current use (1.0%-2.6%). Awareness increased among all socio demographic subpopulations during 2010-2013 (p impact of e-cigarettes, continued surveillance of emerging use patterns is critical for public health planning. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  15. Population support before and after the implementation of smoke-free laws in the United States: trends from 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Wolfson, Tanya; Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Gamst, Anthony; Willemsen, Marc C; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2015-03-01

    Several states implemented comprehensive smoke-free laws in workplaces (14 states), restaurants (17 states), and bars (13 states) between 2002 and 2007. We tested the hypothesis that public support for smoke-free laws increases at a higher rate in states that implemented smoke-free laws between 2002 and 2007 (group A) than in states that implemented smoke-free laws after that time or not at all (group B). The period before the implementation (1992-2001) was also considered. Data was used from the Current Population Survey (CPS) Tobacco Use Supplements (TUS), which is representative for the U.S. adult population. Respondents were asked whether they thought smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas, restaurants, and bars and cocktail lounges. Differences in trends were analyzed with binomial mixed effects models. Population support for smoke-free restaurants and bars was higher among group A than among group B before 2002. After 2002, support for smoke-free restaurants and bars increased at a higher rate among group A than among group B. Population support for smoke-free workplaces did not differ between group A and B, and the increase in support for smoke-free workplaces also did not differ between these groups. The positive association between the implementation of smoke-free restaurant and bar laws and the rate of increase in support for these laws partly supported the hypothesis. The implementation of the laws may have caused support to increase, but also states that have higher support may have been more likely to implement smoke-free laws. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Exploring smoking, mental health and smoking-related disease in a nationally representative sample of older adults in Ireland - A retrospective secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Annette; Strawbridge, Judith D; Clancy, Luke; Doyle, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death among individuals with mental health difficulties (MHD). The aim of the current study was to determine the impact of smoking on the physical health of older adults with MHD in Ireland and to explore the extent to which smoking mediated or moderated associations between MHD and smoking-related diseases. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 8175 community-dwelling adults aged 50 and over from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was undertaken. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between MHD, smoking (current/past/never) and smoking-related diseases (respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, smoking-related cancers). A number of variables were employed to identify individuals with MHD, including prescribed medication, self-reported diagnoses and self-report scales. MHD was associated with current (RRRs ranging from 1.84 [1.50 to 2.26] to 4.31 [2.47 to 7.53]) and former (RRRs ranging from 1.26 [1.05 to 1.52] to 1.99 [1.19 to 3.33]) smoking and also associated with the presence of smoking-related disease (ORs ranging from 1.24 [1.01 to 1.51] to 1.62 [1.00 to 2.62]). Smoking did not mediate and rarely moderated associations between MHD and smoking-related disease. Older adults in Ireland with MHD are more likely to smoke than those without such difficulties. They also experience higher rates of smoking-related disease, although smoking had no mediating and no consistent moderating role in these analyses. Findings underscore the need for attention to the physical health of those with MHD including support in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends and timing of cigarette smoking uptake among US young adults: survival analysis using annual national cohorts from 1976 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2015-07-01

    To measure changes over time in cigarette smoking uptake prevalence and timing during young adulthood (ages 19-26 years), and associations between time-invariant/-varying characteristics and uptake prevalence/timing. Discrete-time survival modeling of data collected from United States high school seniors (modal age 17/18) enrolled in successive graduating classes from 1976 to 2005 and participating in four follow-up surveys (to modal age 25/26). The longitudinal component of the Monitoring the Future study. A total of 10 758 individuals reporting no life-time smoking when first surveyed as high school seniors. Smoking uptake (any, experimental, occasional and regular); socio-demographic variables; marital, college and work status; time spent socializing. The percentage of young adults moving from non-smoker to experimental smoking [slope estimate 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.04, P = 0.005] or occasional smoking (slope estimate 0.17, SE = 0.03, P age 19/20, but uptake prevalence at older ages increased over time [e.g. cohort year predicting occasional uptake at modal age 25/26 adjusted hazard odds ratio (AHOR) = 1.05, P = 0.002]. Time-invariant/-varying characteristics had unique associations with the timing of various forms of smoking uptake (e.g. at modal age 21/22, currently attending college increased occasional uptake risk (AHOR = 2.11, P age 19/20, but prevalence of uptake at older ages increased. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Epidemiology of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among innocent never smoked adult nigerians in a resource-poor environment of a primary care clinic in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes is a public health hazard that is increasing globally and emerging in resource-poor nations where the health effects of secondhand smoke are less publicized in biomedical literatures, electronic and print media. As the global prevalence of cigarette smoking increases so does the health hazards and harm associated with secondhand smoke increases with implication for family and community health. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the epidemiology of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among innocent never smoked adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive hospital-based study was carried out on 500 adult Nigerian patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire containing information on relevant epidemiological variables. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke in a never smoked adult in the previous 1 year. Results: The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke was 45.0%. Exposures occur predominantly among males (56.4%, middle-aged adults (44.0%, outside home environment (72.0, during the daytime (63.6%, and dry season (58.7%. The persons involved in the smoking were principally friends and passersby (65.8%. Exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with age (middle-aged adults (P = 0.036 and male gender (P = 0.02. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the variable epidemiology of exposure to secondhand smoke. Tackling relevant epidemiological factors that predispose to exposure to secondhand smoke through programs and policies will facilitate appropriate public health action to safeguard the health of never smoked individuals.

  19. Vital Signs – Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-05

    This podcast is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.  Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/5/2013.

  20. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (± 5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Factors associated with smoking in Asian American adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhongmiao

    2008-05-01

    This review systematically examined the factors associated with smoking in Asian American adults (aged > or =17 years). A total of 21 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 1997 to 2006 were reviewed and abstracted using the matrix method. Statistically significant factors reported by the studies were summarized. Methodological quality of the studies also was assessed (maximum possible score = 10). Acculturation and education were the most frequently reported factors (n = 10, 47.6%). Acculturation was negatively associated with men's smoking but was positively associated with women's smoking. Education was uniformly found to be negatively related to smoking. Age was reported to have either a positive or a negative relationship with smoking (n = 9, 42.9%). Men were more likely to smoke than women (n = 7, 33.3%). The mean methodological score of the reviewed studies was 4.14 (on a scale of 1-10 points; SD = 1.62; range = 2-8). Health promotion professionals need to consider the summarized factors associated with Asian American adults' smoking behavior when planning smoking prevention programs and when recruiting participants for smoking cessation programs. When addressing acculturation, program planners should design different health education materials and use different strategies for men and women. To identify, understand, and incorporate essential factors into effective interventions, future studies should aim at higher methodological quality by using longitudinal design and increasing the use of theory, the test of data validity and reliability, and the report of effect sizes.

  3. The Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation in a Representative Sample of Korean Adult Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Seo, Hong-Gwan

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the stages of change in smoking cessation in a representative sample of Korean adult smokers. The study subjects, all adult smokers (n=2,422), were recruited from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2001. The stages of change were categorized using demographic (age and sex), socioeconomic (education, residence, and household income), and smoking characteristics (age at smoking onset, duration of smoking, and number of cigarettes sm...

  4. Price effects on the smoking behaviour of adult age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, G A

    2008-12-01

    To provide a cigarette price elasticity reference for adult age groups, and to estimate the smoking behaviour changes in US adults in light of unprecedented state excise tax increases on cigarettes during the 1990s. Individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 1993-2000 were merged with state-level cigarette price and tax data. Data were analysed for different age groups using a weighted least squares regression framework. The outcome variables measured were whether an individual was a smoker, whether he/she had tried to quit smoking during the previous year, and how many cigarettes were smoked per day among the total population and among active smokers. This study confirmed previous results that younger individuals are more responsive to price changes than older individuals. Although older age groups are less sensitive to price changes, their smoking behaviour changes are still statistically significant. This study found that while older individuals are less responsive to price changes than younger individuals, their behavioural changes due to cigarette price increases should not be ignored.

  5. An Updated Global Picture of Cigarette Smoking Persistence among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, Jonathan P.; Barondess, David A.; Storr, Carla L.; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee N.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Takeshima, Tadashi; Tomov, Toma; Williams, David R.; Anthony, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cross-national variance in smoking prevalence is relatively well documented. The aim of this study is to estimate levels of smoking persistence across 21 countries with a hypothesized inverse relationship between country income level and smoking persistence. Methods Data from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative were used to estimate cross-national differences in smoking persistence–the proportion of adults who started to smoke and persisted in smoking by the date of the survey. Result There is large variation in smoking persistence from 25% (Nigeria) to 85% (China), with a random-effects meta-analytic summary estimate of 55% with considerable cross-national variation. (Cochran's heterogeneity Q statistic=6,845; p<0.001). Meta-regressions indicated observed differences are not attributable to differences in country income level, age distribution of smokers, or how recent the onset of smoking began within each country. Conclusion While smoking should remain an important public health issue in any country where smokers are present, this report identifies several countries with higher levels of smoking persistence (namely, China and India). PMID:23626929

  6. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study carried out on a cross-section of 500 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke in a never-smoked adult patient in the previous 1 year. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 for the calculation of percentages for categorical variables. Bivariate analysis involving Chi-square test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables at P < 0.05. Results: The age of the respondents ranged from 18 to 74 years, with a mean age of 36 ± 12.4 years. There were 180 (36.0%) males with 320 (64%) females, with a sex ratio of 1.8. Awareness of general health effects of secondhand smoke on adults, children, and pregnant women was 95.6%, 92.8%, and 65.2%, respectively. The most common specific health effects the respondents were aware for adults, children, and obstetric population were lung cancer (95.6%), precipitation of asthmatic condition (92.8%), and delivery of small babies (65.2%), respectively. The predominant source of awareness of information was radio (93.6%). Awareness of general health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke on adults (P = 0.041), children (P = 0.031), and obstetrics population (P = 0.02) was significantly associated with exposure status. Conclusion: The most common health effects of secondhand smoke the respondents

  7. Effects of Early Smoking Habits on Young Adult Female Voices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Toki, Eugenia I; Miller, Kevin J; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette use is a preventable cause of mortality and diseases. The World Health Organization states that Europe and especially Greece has the highest occurrence of smoking among adults. The prevalence of smoking among women in Greece was estimated to be over 30% in 2012. Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. Studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and laryngeal pathologies as well as changes in voice characteristics. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of early smoking habit on young adult female voices and if they perceive any vocal changes using two assessment methods. The Voice Handicap Index and the acoustic analyses of voice measurements were used, with both serving as mini-assessment protocols. Two hundred and ten young females (110 smokers and 100 nonsmokers) attending the Technological Educational Institute of Epirus in the School of Health and Welfare were included. Statistically significant increases for physical and total scores of the Voice Handicap Index were found in the smokers group (P smoking habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trends in nicotine yield in smoke and its relationship with design characteristics among popular US cigarette brands, 1997-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory N; Alpert, Hillel R; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Koh, Howard

    2007-10-01

    To determine whether nicotine yields in the smoke of cigarettes would show an overall increase over time or an increasing trend limited to any particular market category (eg, full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight; mentholated vs non-mentholated), manufacturer, or brand family or brand style, and whether nicotine yields in smoke would be associated with measurable trends in cigarette design. Machine-based measures of nicotine yield in smoke and measures of cigarette design features related to nicotine delivery (ventilation, nicotine content in the tobacco rod and number of puffs), as well as market category descriptors, were obtained from annual reports filed with the Massachusetts Department of Public by tobacco manufacturers for 1997-2005. Trends in nicotine yield and its relationship with design features and market parameters were analysed with multilevel mixed-effects regression modelling procedures. A statistically significant trend was confirmed in increased nicotine yield, of 0.019 (1.1%) mg/cig/year over the period 1997-2005 and 0.029 (1.6%) mg/cig/year over the period 1998-2005. The increasing trend was observed in all major market categories (mentholated vs non-mentholated, and full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight). Nicotine yield in smoke was positively associated with nicotine concentration in the tobacco and number of puffs per cigarette, both of which showed increasing trends during the study period. This study confirms increased machine-measured levels of nicotine, the addictive agent in cigarettes, in smoke, to be a result of increased nicotine in the tobacco rod and other design modifications.

  9. Crossing the smoking divide for young adults: expressions of stigma and identity among smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George; Gifford, Heather

    2013-02-01

    Denormalizing campaigns reframe smoking as an unappealing behavior, more likely to lead to social exclusion than inclusion. Social identity theory suggests this strategy will reinforce smoke-free norms and, as these become mainstream, decrease smoking prevalence. However, little is known about how these campaigns affect perceptions of smoking among young adult smokers and nonsmokers, or behavior toward smokers. A qualitative study was conducted to a) explore how smokers and smoking were perceived in an environment where smoking has become an increasingly unacceptable social behavior and b) examine whether and how this environment stigmatized smokers. About 14 group discussions and 4 in-depth interviews involving 86 participants, aged between 18 and 24 and of Māori, Pacific, and NZ European ethnicities, were conducted as part of a wider study examining young adults' responses to tobacco branding and plain packaging. The themes identified illustrated how nonsmokers' perception of smoking as illogical and self-destructive supported harsh reactions, including stigmatizing behaviors that antagonized smokers. Nonsmokers, who recognized smoking's addictiveness, were more empathic and less judgmental of smokers. Including empathic content in smoking denormalizing campaigns may reduce judgmental reactions that inadvertently create a gulf between status of young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A supportive/empathic tobacco-control denormalization approach could enhance young adult smokers' willingness to make the transition from smoker to smoke free and elicit stronger support for their efforts from nonsmokers.

  10. Time trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index in Danish adults with and without COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Molsted, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Background: Promotion of a healthy lifestyle and non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has received great attention in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking......, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI) from 2000 to 2010 in Danish individuals with and without COPD. Methods: Analyses were based on data provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity's three cross-sectional surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010. Data compromised level of leisure time PA, smoking......, alcohol consumption, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Participants aged 25 years or older with and without COPD were included in the analyses. Results: In multiple logistic regression analyses, odds ratio (OR) of being physically active in the leisure time in 2010 compared to 2000 was 1.70 (95...

  11. Wreaking "havoc" on smoking: social branding to reach young adult "partiers" in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Hong, Juliette S; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-01-01

    More than 25% of young adult Oklahomans smoked cigarettes in 2012. Tobacco marketing campaigns target young adults in social environments like bars/nightclubs. Social Branding interventions are designed to compete directly with this marketing. To evaluate an intervention to reduce smoking among young adult "Partiers" in Oklahoma. The Partier peer crowd was described as follows: attendance at large nightclubs, fashion consciousness, valuing physical attractiveness, and achieving social status by exuding an image of confidence and financial success. Repeated cross-sectional study with three time points. Randomized time location survey samples of young adult Partier bar and club patrons in Oklahoma City (Time 1 [2010], n=1,383; Time 2 [2011], n=1,292; and Time 3 [2012], n=1,198). Data were analyzed in 2013. The "HAVOC" Social Branding intervention was designed to associate a smoke-free lifestyle with Partiers' values, and included events at popular clubs, brand ambassador peer leaders who transmit the anti-tobacco message, social media, and tailored anti-tobacco messaging. Daily and nondaily smoking rates, and binge drinking rates (secondary). Overall, smoking rates did not change (44.1% at Time 1, 45.0% at Time 2, and 47.4% at Time 3; p=0.17), but there was a significant interaction between intervention duration and brand recall. Partiers reporting intervention recall had lower odds of daily smoking (OR=0.30 [0.10, 0.95]) and no difference in nondaily smoking, whereas Partiers who did not recall the intervention had increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.74 [1.04, 2.89]; nondaily AOR=1.97 [1.35, 2.87]). Among non-Partiers, those who recalled HAVOC reported no difference in smoking, and those who did not recall HAVOC reported significantly increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.53 [1.02, 2.31]; nondaily AOR=1.72 [1.26, 2.36]). Binge drinking rates were significantly lower (AOR=0.73 [0.59, 0.89]) overall. HAVOC has the potential to affect smoking behavior among

  12. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  13. Exploring young adult sexual minority women’s perspectives on LGBTQ smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike,...

  14. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  15. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  16. Lifestyle-related determinants of hookah and cigarette smoking in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Siadat, Zahradana; Mohammadifard, Noushin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    To identify lifestyle-related determinants of hookah and cigarette smoking in Iranian adults, a total of 12,514 men and women aged >/=19 years in three counties in central Iran (Isfahan, Najafabad, Arak) were selected in multistage random sampling. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected in interviewer-administered questionnaires, as part of the baseline survey of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Unhealthy lifestyle-related factors independently associated with cigarette and hookah smoking, were identified in sex-specific multivariate logistic regression analyses. High stress levels (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.35-1.78 for men; OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.17-2.27 for women), family member smoking (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.27-4.92 for men; OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 2.20-2.95 for women), and short/long sleep duration (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.39 for men; OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.10-2.35 for women) were associated with cigarette smoking in both men and women. Poor diet was also related to cigarette smoking in men (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.62-1.89). Family member smoking was associated with hookah smoking in both men (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.05-3.12) and women (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.02-4.92), and in addition high stress levels (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.14-5.83) and short/long sleep duration (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02-2.41) were associated with hookah smoking in women. Unhealthy lifestyle-related factors co-occur with cigarette and hookah smoking in Iranian adults, likely increasing the risk for chronic health problems. Sex differences in the determinants of hookah and cigarette smoking may need to be taken into account in planning tobacco control strategies.

  17. Association between electronic cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among US young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Blair N; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Ambrose, Bridget K; Green, Kerry M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18-29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18-24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Did smokefree legislation in England reduce exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmoking adults? Cotinine analysis from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Michelle; Mindell, Jennifer S; Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin; Wardle, Heather; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-03-01

    On 1 July 2007, smokefree legislation was implemented in England, which made virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces smokefree. We examined trends in and predictors of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults to determine whether exposure changed after the introduction of smokefree legislation and whether these changes varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and by household smoking status. We analyzed salivary cotinine data from the Health Survey for England that were collected in 7 of 11 annual surveys undertaken between 1998 and 2008. We conducted multivariate regression analyses to examine secondhand smoke exposure as measured by the proportion of nonsmokers with undetectable levels of cotinine and by geometric mean cotinine. Secondhand smoke exposure was higher among those exposed at home and among lower-SES groups. Exposure declined markedly from 1998 to 2008 (the proportion of participants with undetectable cotinine was 2.9 times higher in the last 6 months of 2008 compared with the first 6 months of 1998 and geometric mean cotinine declined by 80%). We observed a significant fall in exposure after legislation was introduced--the odds of having undetectable cotinine were 1.5 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 1.8] and geometric mean cotinine fell by 27% (95% CI: 17%, 36%) after adjusting for the prelegislative trend and potential confounders. Significant reductions were not, however, seen in those living in lower-social class households or homes where smoking occurs inside on most days. We found that the impact of England's smokefree legislation on secondhand smoke exposure was above and beyond the underlying long-term decline in secondhand smoke exposure and demonstrates the positive effect of the legislation. Nevertheless, some population subgroups appear not to have benefitted significantly from the legislation. This finding suggests that these groups should receive more support to reduce their exposure.

  19. The association between chronic disease and smoking beliefs and behaviors in African American young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilla, Cassandra; Cheney, Marshall K

    2014-01-01

    African American young adults have higher rates of smoking and chronic disease than Whites. Understanding the association between chronic disease and smoking beliefs and behaviors could improve cessation strategies for young adult smokers. African American young adult smokers aged 18-29 years (n = 243) were administered surveys assessing smoking beliefs and behaviors. Participants indicated if they had physician-diagnosed asthma, diabetes, and/or hypertension. Responses were analyzed using logistic regression, comparing responses of those diagnosed with a chronic disease to those without that disease. Smokers with asthma were 2.20 times more likely to acknowledge smoking negatively affected their health yet were no more likely to make a quit attempt than those without asthma. Diabetic smokers were 4.10 times more likely than those without to have made a quit attempt, yet were 3.24 times more likely to disagree that they were in control of their smoking. Hypertensive smokers were more likely to be heavier smokers and were 3.12 times more likely to disagree that they would stop smoking if they knew it affected the health of others than those without hypertension. Smokers with chronic disease were less likely to be influenced to quit by their physician than smokers without. African American young adult smokers with a chronic disease often diverge from smokers without that chronic disease in smoking beliefs and behaviors. These may influence how young adults respond to cessation messages and programs.

  20. Socioeconomic status and smoking among thai adults: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2011-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.

  1. Secular Trends in Age at Menarche, Smoking, and Oral Contraceptive Use Among Israeli Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Chodick, Gabriel; Rademaker, Alfred; Huerta, Michael; Balicer, Ran D; Davidovitch, Nadav; Grotto, Itamar

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The improved nutrition and socioeconomic status of the population in industrialized countries has resulted in a decrease in the mean age at menarche. This trend raises the question of whether cigarette smoking and the use of oral contraceptives, health behaviors often adopted during adolescence, may also be starting at a younger age. Cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives are a public health concern because they pose an increased risk for development of chronic diseases...

  2. Secular Trends in Age at Menarche, Smoking, and Oral Contraceptive Use Among Israeli Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Ran D. Balicer, MD; Nadav Davidovitch, MD, MPH; Itamar Grotto, MD, MPH; Michael Huerta, MD, MPH; Gabriel Chodick, PhD, MHA

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The improved nutrition and socioeconomic status of the population in industrialized countries has resulted in a decrease in the mean age at menarche. This trend raises the question of whether cigarette smoking and the use of oral contraceptives, health behaviors often adopted during adolescence, may also be starting at a younger age. Cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives are a public health concern because they pose an increased risk for development of chronic disease...

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of young adult smokers in the U.S. in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mary E; Sabado, Melanie; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-09-01

    The precontemplation stage of smoking cessation refers to having no intention to quit smoking in the next six months. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation among U.S. young adult smokers to inform the development of targeted interventions. We analyzed data in 2017 from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey. Young adult (18-29 years old) daily and non-daily smokers were included (n = 1809). We applied weighted multiple logistic regression models to examine the associations between demographics, tobacco use behaviors, exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco messages, and the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. 59.0% of U.S. young adult smokers are in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Unemployment was positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 1.42 95% CI = 1.05, 1.91). Smoking every day (vs. some days), more cigarettes smoked per day, using roll-your-own cigarettes (vs. manufactured cigarettes only), currently smoking cigars, and signing up for promotional offers were positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (p Non-Hispanic Black was negatively associated with precontemplation stage (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.59). Not smoking after viewing a health warning on a cigarette pack was negatively associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.51). Many U.S. young adult smokers classify as being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Interventions to motivate these smokers to quit smoking with considerations of their specific characteristics (e.g., being unemployed) are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring young adult sexual minority women’s perspectives on LGBTQ smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike, a mechanism to relieve sexuality-related stressors, and an ingrained part of LGBTQ culture. Results suggest unique stressors influence LGBTQ smokers. Implications for smoking cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth are discussed. PMID:26508993

  5. Five year trends in maternal smoking behaviour reported at the first prenatal appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C M E; Egan, B; McKeating, A; Daly, N; Sheehan, S R; Turner, M J

    2017-11-01

    Maternal smoking is a key modifiable risk factor in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth and stillbirth. This observational study examined annual trends of maternal smoking reported at the first prenatal visit in women who delivered in a large university maternity hospital for the 5 years 2011-2015. We examined clinical and sociodemographic data computerised routinely for women who presented for prenatal care at the hospital between 2011 and 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the maternal characteristics, health behaviours and psychiatric history associated with smoking behaviours. Of the 42,509 women the mean age was 31.4 ± 5.5 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 25.6 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , and 39.5% were nulliparas. Overall, 52.6% reported they had never smoked, 34.9% were ex-smokers, 10.5% smoked ≤10 cigarettes per day, 1.9% smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day and 0.1% smoked e-cigarettes. Between 2011 and 2015 the prevalence of maternal cigarette smoking decreased from 14.3 to 10.9% (P Smoking during pregnancy was most strongly associated with younger age, multiparity, unemployment, unplanned pregnancy, a history of psychiatric problems, alcohol intake and illicit drug usage. The number of women who reported smoking at the first prenatal visit decreased annually. Amongst women who continue to smoke during pregnancy, there is a clustering of adverse lifestyle behaviour and psychological problems that may need to be addressed if smoking cessation interventions are going to succeed in improving fetal programming.

  6. Trends in nicotine yield in smoke and its relationship with design characteristics among popular US cigarette brands, 1997–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory N; Alpert, Hillel R; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Koh, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nicotine yields in the smoke of cigarettes would show an overall increase over time or an increasing trend limited to any particular market category (eg, full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight; mentholated vs non‐mentholated), manufacturer, or brand family or brand style, and whether nicotine yields in smoke would be associated with measurable trends in cigarette design. Methods Machine‐based measures of nicotine yield in smoke and measures of cigarette design features related to nicotine delivery (ventilation, nicotine content in the tobacco rod and number of puffs), as well as market category descriptors, were obtained from annual reports filed with the Massachusetts Department of Public by tobacco manufacturers for 1997–2005. Trends in nicotine yield and its relationship with design features and market parameters were analysed with multilevel mixed‐effects regression modelling procedures. Results A statistically significant trend was confirmed in increased nicotine yield, of 0.019 (1.1%) mg/cig/year over the period 1997–2005 and 0.029 (1.6%) mg/cig/year over the period 1998–2005. The increasing trend was observed in all major market categories (mentholated vs non‐mentholated, and full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight). Nicotine yield in smoke was positively associated with nicotine concentration in the tobacco and number of puffs per cigarette, both of which showed increasing trends during the study period. Conclusions This study confirms increased machine‐measured levels of nicotine, the addictive agent in cigarettes, in smoke, to be a result of increased nicotine in the tobacco rod and other design modifications. PMID:17897974

  7. Time trend of smoking scenes in Iranian movies during the past three decades (1982-2011): a historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Lando, Harry A; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Shadmehr, Mohammad B; Fadaizadeh, Lida; Chaibakhsh, Samira

    2016-09-01

    Evidence from the USA and elsewhere has linked smoking depictions in movies with youth smoking initiation. Prior research has not focused on depictions in films produced in the Middle East, however. We reviewed the 10 most commercially successful Iranian films released each year over three decades (1982-2011) to determine trends in depictions of tobacco use over time. Each movie was reviewed in its entirety, and depictions of smoking were recorded and classified as direct (characters holding or using tobacco products) and indirect (tobacco products appearing in the frame, but not being used). Time trends in average duration of direct, indirect and total smoking depictions were analysed using linear regression and Cohen's κ coefficient. The mean duration of tobacco depictions in the most commercially successful Iranian films fluctuated yearly over the 3 decades, but with an overall significant upward trend (pfilm industry to minimise this important source of influence on tobacco initiation in young people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted increased positive affect, β = 3.08, 95% CI [1.87, 4.28] (p physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A Qualitative Examination of Smoke-Free Policies and Electronic Cigarettes Among Sheltered Homeless Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Hurst, Samantha; Pierce, John P

    2017-05-01

    To examine attitudes toward smoke-free policies and perceptions of e-cigarette use among homeless adults. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted. Study setting comprised seven transitional homeless shelters with indoor smoke-free policies in San Diego County; facilities differed in outdoor restrictions on smoking. Sixty-six current or former smokers were the study participants. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking behaviors, perceived antitobacco norms, and attitudes toward smoke-free policies, and attended a focus group interview that explored these topics. We used a directed content analysis approach to analyze the focus group transcripts. Clients in facilities with outdoor restrictions on smoking had stronger perceived antitobacco norms than those in facilities without such restrictions. We identified the following major themes: attitudes toward smoke-free policies, the use of e-cigarettes, the addictive potential of cigarettes, vulnerability to tobacco industry marketing, and interest in smoking cessation. The consensus was that smoke-free policies were important because they limited secondhand smoke exposure to nonsmokers and children. All were curious about e-cigarettes, particularly if they could be smoked in areas where smoking was prohibited and/or used as a cessation aid. In this study of homeless adults, there was strong support for indoor and outdoor smoke-free policies. However, misperceptions that e-cigarettes could be used indoors could threaten antitobacco norms, highlighting opportunities to educate about the potential risks of e-cigarette use among homeless individuals.

  10. Age patterns of smoking initiation among Kuwait university male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugathan, T N; Moody, P M; Bustan, M A; Elgerges, N S

    1998-12-01

    The present study is a detailed evaluation of age at smoking initiation among university male students in Kuwait based on a random sample of 664 students selected from all students during 1993. The Acturial Life Table analysis revealed that almost one tenth of the students initiated cigarette smoking between ages 16 and 17 with the rate of initiation increasing rapidly thereafter and reaching 30% by age 20 and almost 50% by the time they celebrate their 24th birthday. The most important environmental risk factor positively associated for smoking initiation was observed to be the history of smoking among siblings with a relative risk of 1.4. Compared to students of medicine and engineering, the students of other faculties revealed a higher risk in smoking initiation with an RR = 1.77 for sciences and commerce and 1.61 for other faculties (arts, law, education and Islamic studies). The analysis revealed a rising generation trend in cigarette smoking. There is a need for reduction of this trend among young adults in Kuwait and throughout other countries in the region.

  11. Loose Cigarette Purchasing and Nondaily Smoking Among Young Adult Bar Patrons in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-08-01

    We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18-26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City.

  12. Social norms and its correlates as a pathway to smoking among young Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Sandra E; Gundersen, Daniel A; Manderski, Michelle T B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-01-01

    Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18-34 years of age (n = 873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among

  13. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004) and after (2012) legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez, Cristina; Carabasa, Esther; López, María J; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues). In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds). The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05) and after the second law (2011-12). Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012) of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years) non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles) and salivary cotinine concentration. Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8) in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0) in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05) in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11) at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001) during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001) in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001). Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  14. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-06-01

    To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia's five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

  15. Smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Adams, Marc A; Sánchez, José de Jesús; Guzmán-Cerda, Gabriela

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in the home and workplace among residents of Tijuana, one of Mexico's largest cities. This cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, during 2003 and 2004. A population-based sample of 400 Tijuana adult residents responded to a tobacco survey, and 397 of the surveys were analyzed. About 22.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.7%-27.1%) of Tijuana adults reported current smoking, and 53.9% (95% CI: 48.8%-58.9%) reported chronic exposure to secondhand smoke. Approximately 44.4% (95% CI: 37.9%-50.9%) of Tijuana adults had a nonsmoking policy in their workplace, while 65.8% (95% CI: 61.0%-70.6%) of Tijuana households were smoke-free. The results underline the need for increased tobacco control efforts, particularly stricter enforcement of existing passive smoking regulations, in order to expand protection from secondhand smoke from private settings to public ones and to curb the tobacco epidemic in Tijuana and elsewhere in Mexico.

  16. Feasibility of a Text-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention in Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, D.; Silva, S.; Njuru, J.; Bishop, T.; Fish, L. J.; Simmons, L. A.; Choi, S. H.; Pollak, K. I.

    2018-01-01

    Text-based interventions are effective for smoking cessation, but have not been tested in rural older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a text-based Scheduled Gradual Reduction (SGR) program to a non-SGR text messaging support condition among rural older adults. Adults over…

  17. Contribution of H. pylori and smoking trends to US incidence of intestinal-type noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma: a microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jennifer M; Hur, Chin; Schrag, Deb; Kuntz, Karen M; Ezzati, Majid; Stout, Natasha; Ward, Zachary; Goldie, Sue J

    2013-01-01

    Although gastric cancer has declined dramatically in the US, the disease remains the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A better understanding of reasons for the decline can provide important insights into effective preventive strategies. We sought to estimate the contribution of risk factor trends on past and future intestinal-type noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (NCGA) incidence. We developed a population-based microsimulation model of intestinal-type NCGA and calibrated it to US epidemiologic data on precancerous lesions and cancer. The model explicitly incorporated the impact of Helicobacter pylori and smoking on disease natural history, for which birth cohort-specific trends were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Between 1978 and 2008, the model estimated that intestinal-type NCGA incidence declined 60% from 11.0 to 4.4 per 100,000 men, <3% discrepancy from national statistics. H. pylori and smoking trends combined accounted for 47% (range = 30%-58%) of the observed decline. With no tobacco control, incidence would have declined only 56%, suggesting that lower smoking initiation and higher cessation rates observed after the 1960s accelerated the relative decline in cancer incidence by 7% (range = 0%-21%). With continued risk factor trends, incidence is projected to decline an additional 47% between 2008 and 2040, the majority of which will be attributable to H. pylori and smoking (81%; range = 61%-100%). Limitations include assuming all other risk factors influenced gastric carcinogenesis as one factor and restricting the analysis to men. Trends in modifiable risk factors explain a significant proportion of the decline of intestinal-type NCGA incidence in the US, and are projected to continue. Although past tobacco control efforts have hastened the decline, full benefits will take decades to be realized, and further discouragement of smoking and reduction of

  18. Neurocognitive consequences of cigarette smoking in young adults--a comparison with pre-drug performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined effects of current and past regular cigarette smoking in young adult subjects. One hundred and twelve 17-21-year-old subjects, assessed since infancy, were evaluated using a battery of neurocognitive tests for which commensurate measures were obtained at 9-12 years of age, prior to the initiation of regular smoking. Smokers, determined by urinalysis and self-report, were categorized as heavy (>9 cigarettes per day) and light (non-smokers in a variety of cognitive areas predicated upon verbal/auditory competence including receptive and expressive vocabulary, oral arithmetic, and auditory memory. This impact of current smoking appears to behave in a dose-response and duration-related fashion. In contrast, former smokers differed from the non-smokers only in the arithmetic task. These results suggest that regular smoking during early adulthood is associated with cognitive impairments in selected domains and that these deficits may be reversed upon cessation. Together, the findings add to the body of evidence to be used in persuading adolescents and young adults against the initiation of smoking and, if currently smoking, the advantages of stopping.

  19. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  20. Parental separation in childhood and adult smoking in the 1958 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah E; Lacey, Rebecca E

    2017-08-01

    Parental separation or divorce is a known risk factor for poorer adult health. One mechanism may operate through the uptake of risky health behaviours, such as smoking. This study investigated the association between parental separation and adult smoking in a large British birth cohort and also examined potential socioeconomic, relational and psychosocial mediators. Differences by gender and timing of parental separation were also assessed. Multiply imputed data on 11 375 participants of the National Child Development Study (the 1958 British birth cohort) were used. A series of multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to investigate the association between parental separation (0-16 years) and adult smoking status (age 42), and the role of potential socioeconomic, relational and psychosocial mediators. Parental separation in childhood was associated with an increased risk of being a current (RRR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.77, 2.60) or ex-smoker (RRR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.85) at age 42. This association remained after consideration of potential socioeconomic, psychosocial and relational mediators. Relational (parent-child relationship quality, parental involvement and adult partnership status) and socioeconomic factors (overcrowding, financial hardship, housing tenure, household amenities, free school meal receipt and educational attainment) appeared to be the most important of the groups of mediators investigated. No differences by gender or the timing of parental separation were observed. Parental separation experienced in childhood was associated with increased risk of smoking. Families undergoing separation should be further supported in order to prevent the uptake of smoking and to prevent later health problems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between current asthma and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles among adults living in four US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R

    2015-07-01

    Many states have implemented laws prohibiting tobacco smoking in indoor public places. However, private settings remain a major source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for many people. We assessed the association between current asthma and SHS exposure in vehicles among adult never-smokers in Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana and Mississippi. Data came from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey of US adults aged ≥18 years. Analyses were restricted to states (n=4) that administered an optional SHS module. Prevalence of self-reported asthma and past 7-day SHS exposure in vehicles was calculated by demographics, voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in homes, public places and workplaces. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted association between asthma and SHS exposure in vehicles. Among 17 863 never-smoking adults, 7.4% reported having current asthma, whereas 12.3% reported past 7-day SHS exposure in vehicles. Among adults with asthma, SHS exposure in vehicles was lower among those with voluntary smoke-free rules compared with those without voluntary smoke-free rules (9.5% vs 56.7%, psmoke-free rules in vehicles, especially among adults with asthma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J; Sargent, James D

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012-2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary fully adjusted models, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with progression to smoking

  3. The effects of smoking and physical inactivity on advancing mortality in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Luisa N

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the rate advancement period (RAP) by which deaths for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality is advanced by smoking and physical inactivity among U.S. adults aged 18 years or more who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were followed to December 31, 2006. Mortality status was determined using the underlying cause of death. Cox regression was used to calculate the advanced time of deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among exposed adults relative to their nonexposed counterparts. Deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were advanced by 7.9 and 5.1 years among current smoker adults. For physically inactive adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were 4.0 and 2.4 years, respectively. The joint effects of current smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity resulted in early all-cause and CVD-specific deaths of 14.2 and 12.2 years. For current smokers, physically inactive, and overweight adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific deaths were 7.9 and 8.9 years, respectively. Our findings suggest that smoking and physical inactivity could significantly advance the time of death associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality by at least 2.4 years among U.S. adults. Moreover, the advancement death period for the joint effects of smoking, physical inactivity, and overweight or obesity could be at least 7.9 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of Smoking in Adolescence on Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms and the Relationship between Infant Vulnerability Factors for Anxiety and Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms: The TOPP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N.; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–19years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, panxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85,panxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence. PMID:23696803

  5. The influence of menthol, e-cigarettes and other tobacco products on young adults' self-reported changes in past year smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Villanti, Andrea C; Wackowski, Olivia A; Gundersen, Daniel A; Giovenco, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Progression to regular smoking often occurs during young adulthood. This study examines self-reported changes in past year smoking among young adults and the potential influence of tobacco products on these trajectories. Respondents to the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey who smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (n=909) described smoking behaviour at the time of the survey and 1 year prior. Cigarette smoking trajectories were categorised as: no change, quit, decreased smoking or increased smoking. Participants were also asked about current use of menthol cigarettes and other tobacco products (ie, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah) and ever use of e-cigarettes. Most young adults (73.1%) reported stable cigarette smoking behaviours, while 8.2% reported having quit, 5.8% reported that they smoke on fewer days, 5% progressed from someday to daily smoking and 8% increased from not at all to current smoking. The youngest smokers (18-20) had significantly higher odds (adjusted OR (AOR) =2.6) of increasing cigarette use over the past year compared to those aged 30-34, as did blacks versus whites (AOR=2.35). Menthol cigarette use nearly doubled (AOR=1.87) the odds of increased smoking behaviour. E-cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP) use were not associated with increasing smoking but OTP use was negatively associated with remaining quit from cigarettes. Young adulthood is a critical period for smoking interventions, particularly among those most vulnerable to increasing smoking behaviours (ie, black and younger young adults). Policy efforts to restrict menthol cigarettes may reduce young adult smoking progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  7. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Hock Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%, which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9% and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%. Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60, primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30, secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11, with tertiary education as the reference group. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28, with married as the reference group, ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91, Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91, with Indian as the reference group, age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94; 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28; 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20 ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51, with 60 year-old and above as the reference group and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22 urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population

  8. Younger smokers continue to smoke as adults: implications for raising the smoking age to 21

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    Robbins RA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A review article published in Pediatrics assesses the evidence that smoking is particularly harmful the younger a smoker begins (1. Not only do youths tend to accumulate more pack-years but they have more difficulty quitting. The recent shift in smoking trends from tobacco cigarettes to e-cigarettes may not be helpful since both contain the addictive component, nicotine. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as a smoking cessation tool, there is no strong evidence to support these claims, the authors report."I think most people realize nicotine is addictive, but I don't know if there's an understanding of just how addictive it is – particularly for youths," said Lorena M. Siqueira, MD, MSPH, lead author of the report (2. Evidence shows that the earlier in life a person is exposed to nicotine, the more likely they will consume greater quantities and the less likely they will be able to quit (1,2. The vast majority …

  9. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E; Connell, Christian M; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults' perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students' beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, "healthier" alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions

  10. Neonatal tobacco smoke reduces thermogenesis capacity in brown adipose tissue in adult rats

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    T.C. Peixoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking is a risk factor for progeny obesity. We have previously shown, in a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure, a mild increase in food intake and a considerable increase in visceral adiposity in the adult offspring. Males also had secondary hyperthyroidism, while females had only higher T4. Since brown adipose tissue (BAT hypofunction is related to obesity, here we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of thyroid hormones are not functional in BAT, suggesting a lower metabolic rate. We evaluated autonomic nerve activity in BAT and its function in adult rats that were exposed to tobacco smoke during lactation. At birth, litters were adjusted to 3 male and 3 female pups/litter. From postnatal day (PND 3 to 21, Wistar lactating rats and their pups were divided into SE group, smoke-exposed in a cigarette smoking machine (4 times/day and C group, exposed to filtered air. Offspring were sacrificed at PND180. Adult SE rats of both genders had lower interscapular BAT autonomic nervous system activity, with higher BAT mass but no change in morphology. BAT UCP1 and CPT1a protein levels were decreased in the SE groups of both genders. Male SE rats had lower β3-AR, TRα1, and TRβ1 expression while females showed lower PGC1α expression. BAT Dio2 mRNA and hypothalamic POMC and MC4R levels were similar between groups. Hypothalamic pAMPK level was higher in SE males and lower in SE females. Thus, neonatal cigarette smoke exposure induces lower BAT thermogenic capacity, which can be obesogenic at adulthood.

  11. Neonatal tobacco smoke reduces thermogenesis capacity in brown adipose tissue in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, T C; Moura, E G; Oliveira, E; Younes-Rapozo, V; Soares, P N; Rodrigues, V S T; Santos, T R; Peixoto-Silva, N; Carvalho, J C; Calvino, C; Conceição, E P S; Guarda, D S; Claudio-Neto, S; Manhães, A C; Lisboa, P C

    2018-01-01

    Maternal smoking is a risk factor for progeny obesity. We have previously shown, in a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure, a mild increase in food intake and a considerable increase in visceral adiposity in the adult offspring. Males also had secondary hyperthyroidism, while females had only higher T4. Since brown adipose tissue (BAT) hypofunction is related to obesity, here we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of thyroid hormones are not functional in BAT, suggesting a lower metabolic rate. We evaluated autonomic nerve activity in BAT and its function in adult rats that were exposed to tobacco smoke during lactation. At birth, litters were adjusted to 3 male and 3 female pups/litter. From postnatal day (PND) 3 to 21, Wistar lactating rats and their pups were divided into SE group, smoke-exposed in a cigarette smoking machine (4 times/day) and C group, exposed to filtered air. Offspring were sacrificed at PND180. Adult SE rats of both genders had lower interscapular BAT autonomic nervous system activity, with higher BAT mass but no change in morphology. BAT UCP1 and CPT1a protein levels were decreased in the SE groups of both genders. Male SE rats had lower β3-AR, TRα1, and TRβ1 expression while females showed lower PGC1α expression. BAT Dio2 mRNA and hypothalamic POMC and MC4R levels were similar between groups. Hypothalamic pAMPK level was higher in SE males and lower in SE females. Thus, neonatal cigarette smoke exposure induces lower BAT thermogenic capacity, which can be obesogenic at adulthood.

  12. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004 and after (2012 legislation.

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    Xisca Sureda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues. In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds. The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05 and after the second law (2011-12. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012 of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles and salivary cotinine concentration. RESULTS: Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8 in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0 in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05 in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11 at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001 during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001 in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  13. An Adult Communication Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, John K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted communication skills workshops to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents by teaching adults how to help young people make responsible decisions and resist peer influences. One year later, 66% reported use of skills five or more times in the previous month, and significantly fewer adolescents in the high workshop intensity area…

  14. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

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    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  15. Racial and ethnic differences in smoking changes after chronic disease diagnosis among middle-aged and older adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Ana R; Nagel, Corey L; Newsom, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Sheridan, Paige; Thielke, Stephen M

    2017-02-08

    Middle-aged and older Americans from underrepresented racial and ethnic backgrounds are at risk for greater chronic disease morbidity than their white counterparts. Cigarette smoking increases the severity of chronic illness, worsens physical functioning, and impairs the successful management of symptoms. As a result, it is important to understand whether smoking behaviors change after the onset of a chronic condition. We assessed the racial/ethnic differences in smoking behavior change after onset of chronic diseases among middle-aged and older adults in the US. We use longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS 1992-2010) to examine changes in smoking status and quantity of cigarettes smoked after a new heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, or lung disease diagnosis among smokers. The percentage of middle-aged and older smokers who quit after a new diagnosis varied by racial/ethnic group and disease: for white smokers, the percentage ranged from 14% after diabetes diagnosis to 32% after cancer diagnosis; for black smokers, the percentage ranged from 15% after lung disease diagnosis to 40% after heart disease diagnosis; the percentage of Latino smokers who quit was only statistically significant after stoke, where 38% quit. In logistic models, black (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99) and Latino (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.65) older adults were less likely to continue smoking relative to white older adults after a stroke, and Latinos were more likely to continue smoking relative to black older adults after heart disease onset (OR = 2.69, 95% CI [1.05-6.95]). In models evaluating changes in the number of cigarettes smoked after a new diagnosis, black older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes than whites after a new diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, stroke or cancer, and Latino older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes compared to white older adults after newly diagnosed diabetes and heart disease. Relative to black

  16. Effects of Tobacco-Related Media Campaigns on Young Adult Smoking: Longitudinal Data from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Emery, Sherry; Wakefield, Melanie A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Young adults in the U.S. have one of the highest smoking prevalence rates of any age group, and young adulthood is a critical time period of targeting by the tobacco industry. We examined relationships between potential exposure to tobacco-related media campaigns from a variety of sponsors and 2-year smoking change measures among a longitudinal sample of U.S. adults aged 20-30 from 2001-2008. Methods Self-report data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 13,076 U.S. young adults from age 20-30. These data were merged with tobacco-related advertising exposure data from Nielsen Media Research. Two-year measures of change in smoking were regressed on advertising exposures. Results Two-year smoking uptake was unrelated to advertising exposure. The odds of quitting among all smokers and reduction among daily smokers in the two years between the prior and current survey were positively related to anti-tobacco advertising, especially potential exposure levels of 104-155 ads over the past 24 months. Tobacco company advertising (including corporate image and anti-smoking) and pharmaceutical industry advertising were unrelated to quitting or reduction. Conclusions Continued support for sustained, public health-based, well-funded anti-tobacco media campaigns may help reduce tobacco use among young adults. PMID:21972061

  17. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure: a lingering hazard for young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Louisa M; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-03-01

    To examine occupational differences in workplace exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among young adults in California. Data are taken from the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multimode cross-sectional household survey of young adults, aged 18-26, in Alameda and San Francisco Counties. Respondents were asked whether they had been exposed to SHS 'indoors' or 'outdoors' at their workplace in the previous 7 days and also reported their current employment status, industry and occupation. Sociodemographic characteristics and measures of health perception and behaviour were included in the final model. Young adults employed in service (pyoung adults in the San Francisco Bay Area still reported workplace SHS exposure in the past week, with those in lower income occupations and working in non-office environments experiencing the greatest exposure. Closing the gaps that exempt certain types of workplaces from the Smoke-Free Workplace Act may be especially beneficial for young adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. Results We found that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention to individual users. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping method, with a clear link between behavioral goals, theoretical methods, and practical strategies and materials, proved useful for systematic development of a digital smoking cessation intervention for adults. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

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    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  20. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-b...

  1. Contribution of H. pylori and smoking trends to US incidence of intestinal-type noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma: a microsimulation model.

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    Jennifer M Yeh

    Full Text Available Although gastric cancer has declined dramatically in the US, the disease remains the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A better understanding of reasons for the decline can provide important insights into effective preventive strategies. We sought to estimate the contribution of risk factor trends on past and future intestinal-type noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (NCGA incidence.We developed a population-based microsimulation model of intestinal-type NCGA and calibrated it to US epidemiologic data on precancerous lesions and cancer. The model explicitly incorporated the impact of Helicobacter pylori and smoking on disease natural history, for which birth cohort-specific trends were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS. Between 1978 and 2008, the model estimated that intestinal-type NCGA incidence declined 60% from 11.0 to 4.4 per 100,000 men, <3% discrepancy from national statistics. H. pylori and smoking trends combined accounted for 47% (range = 30%-58% of the observed decline. With no tobacco control, incidence would have declined only 56%, suggesting that lower smoking initiation and higher cessation rates observed after the 1960s accelerated the relative decline in cancer incidence by 7% (range = 0%-21%. With continued risk factor trends, incidence is projected to decline an additional 47% between 2008 and 2040, the majority of which will be attributable to H. pylori and smoking (81%; range = 61%-100%. Limitations include assuming all other risk factors influenced gastric carcinogenesis as one factor and restricting the analysis to men.Trends in modifiable risk factors explain a significant proportion of the decline of intestinal-type NCGA incidence in the US, and are projected to continue. Although past tobacco control efforts have hastened the decline, full benefits will take decades to be realized, and further discouragement of smoking and

  2. Determinants of heavy smoking: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Fronczak, Adam

    2012-03-01

    The aim of current analysis was to identify socio-demographic correlates of heavy smoking. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household study was implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. We used data on representative sample of 1915 adults, age 25 years and older. The Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for heavy smoking to the broad number of variables including age, age at smoking onset, education, occupational classification, living conditions, place of residence, place of residence at age about 14 years, awareness of smoking health consequences were tested in logistic regression model. Among daily smokers the rate of heavy smokers was 63% in males and 45% in females (p things, educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse tobacco health effects should be widely implemented.

  3. The changing trends in tobacco smoking for young Arab women; narghile, an old habit with a liberal attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Hammad Osama A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narghile smoking by young females is becoming more acceptable than cigarettes in the conservative societies of Arab countries. Lack of social constraints on narghile smoking has resulted in an increased prevalence of narghile smoking among young Arab females and an earlier age of onset of this habit when compared to cigarette smoking. Documented health hazards of narghile smoking including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neoplastic ailments are consequently expected to affect this vulnerable sector of the population together with their offspring. In this commentary, we shed some light on the changing trend of tobacco use among young Arabic women as shown by an increasing number of studies investigating habits of tobacco use in young people.

  4. Parental Smoking and Adult Offspring's Smoking Behaviors in Ethnic Minority Groups: An Intergenerational Analysis in the HELIUS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Derks, Eske M; Peters, Ron J G; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien

    2017-06-21

    To understand smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups, studies have largely focused on societal factors, with little attention to family influences. Yet studies among majority groups have identified parental smoking as an important risk factor. It is unknown whether this applies to ethnic minority groups. We investigated the association between parental smoking and adult offspring's smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups with an immigrant background. We used data from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study from Amsterdam (the Netherlands) from January 2011 to December 2015. The sample consisted of 2184 parent-offspring pairs from South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, and Ghanaian origin. We collected self-reported smoking data: current status, duration of exposure to parental smoking, number of daily cigarettes, heavy smoking ( > 10 cigarettes/day), and nicotine dependency (using the Fagerström Test). Analyses were stratified by offspring's age, cohabitation with parent, education (parent/offspring), offspring's cultural orientation, and gender concordance within pairs. Logistic regression was used. Overall, parental smoking was associated with offspring's smoking behaviors (eg, current smoking: odds ratio 2.33; 95% confidence interval 1.79-3.03), with little ethnic variation. We found dose-response associations between exposure to parental smoking and offspring's smoking. The associations were similar across different strata but stronger in gender-concordant pairs (3.16; 2.12-4.51 vs. 1.73; 1.15-2.59 in gender-discordant pairs; p-value for interaction .017). Parental smoking is associated with offspring's smoking behaviors in ethnic minority groups across different strata but particularly in gender-concordant pairs. Similar to majority groups, family influences matter to smoking behaviors in ethnic minority groups. Our findings have deepened our understanding of smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups. Future

  5. Smoking-Cessation Efforts by US Adult Smokers with Medical Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Kruse, Gina R; Chang, Yuchiao; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2018-03-01

    Continued cigarette smoking by individuals with chronic medical diseases can adversely affect their symptoms, disease progression, and mortality. We assessed the association between medical comorbidities and smoking-cessation efforts among US adult smokers. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 12,494 past-year cigarette smokers aged ≥18 years from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study. We assessed the association between self-reported medical comorbidities and past-year quit attempts, use of evidence-based smoking-cessation treatment or electronic cigarettes, and successful smoking cessation using logistic regression, adjusting for sociodemographics, insurance status, geographic region, and having a past-year doctor visit. In the study sample, 39% were aged 18 to 34 years, 45% were female, 70% were non-Hispanic white, and 48% reported ≥1 comorbidity. Smokers with any comorbidity, compared with those without comorbidities, had higher odds of trying to quit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.30), but no higher likelihood of quitting success. Having more medical comorbidities was associated with increased odds of trying to quit. Smokers with a comorbidity used evidence-based treatment more often than smokers without comorbidities (43% vs 26%); use of e-cigarettes to quit was similar between smokers with and without comorbidities (27% vs 28%). Adult smokers with chronic medical diseases try to quit and use evidence-based tobacco-cessation treatment more often than smokers without comorbidities, but they are no more likely to quit, suggesting that their quit attempts are less likely to succeed. Smokers with medical comorbidities may require more intensive, prolonged, and repeated treatment to stop smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoking and nasopharyngeal carcinoma mortality: a cohort study of 101,823 adults in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jia-Huang; Jiang, Chao-Qiang; Ho, Sai-Yin; Zhang, Wei-Sen; Mai, Zhi-Ming; Xu, Lin; Lo, Ching-Man; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), also known as Cantonese cancer, is rare worldwide, but has particularly high incidence in North Africa and Southeast Asia, especially in Guangdong, China, such as Guangzhou. Tobacco causes head and neck cancers, but nasopharyngeal carcinoma is not included as causally related to smoking in the 2014 United States Surgeon General’s report. Prospective evidence remains limited. We used Guangzhou Occupational Cohort data to conduct the first and robust prospective study on smoking and NPC mortality in an NPC high-risk region. Information on demographic characteristics and smoking status was collected through occupational health examinations in factories and driver examination stations from March 1988 to December 1992. Vital status and causes of deaths were retrieved until the end of 1999. Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the association of smoking with NPC mortality. Of 101,823 subjects included for the present analysis, 34 NPC deaths occurred during the average 7.3 years of follow up. The mean age (standard deviation) of the subjects was 41 (5.7) years. Compared with never smokers, the hazard ratio (HR) of NPC mortality was 2.95 (95 % confidence interval 1.01–8.68; p = 0.048) for daily smokers and 4.03 (1.29–12.58; p = 0.016) for smokers with more than 10 pack-years of cumulative consumption, after adjusting for age, sex, education, drinking status, occupation and cohort status and accounting for smoking-drinking interaction. The risk of NPC mortality increased significantly with cigarettes per day (p for trend = 0.01) and number of pack-years (p for trend = 0.02). In this first and largest cohort in a high NPC risk region, smoking was associated with higher NPC mortality. The findings have shown statistically significant dose–response trend between smoking amount and smoking cumulative consumption and the risk of NPC mortality, but due to the small event number, further studies with larger sample size are needed

  7. Effect of a Digital Social Media Campaign on Young Adult Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Neill Bruce; Azagba, Sunday; Norman, Cameron; McKeown, Kyle; Brown, K Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Social media (SM) may extend the reach and impact for smoking cessation among young adult smokers. To-date, little research targeting young adults has been done on the use of SM to promote quitting smoking. We assessed the effect of an innovative multicomponent web-based and SM approach known as Break-it-Off (BIO) on young adult smoking cessation. The study employed a quasi-experimental design with baseline and 3-month follow-up data from 19 to 29-year old smokers exposed to BIO (n = 102 at follow-up) and a comparison group of Smokers' Helpline (SHL) users (n = 136 at follow-up). Logistic regression analysis assessed differences between groups on self-reported 7-day and 30-day point prevalence cessation rates, adjusting for ethnicity, education level, and cigarette use (daily or occasional) at baseline. The campaign reached 37 325 unique visitors with a total of 44 172 visits. BIO users had significantly higher 7-day and 30-day quit rates compared with users of SHL. At 3-month follow-up, BIO participants (32.4%) were more likely than SHL participants (14%) to have quit smoking for 30 days (odds ratio = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.56 to 5.57, P < .001) and BIO participants (91%) were more likely than SHL participants (79%) to have made a quit attempt (odds ratio = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.03 to 6.99, P = .04). The reach of the campaign and findings on quitting success indicate that a digital/SM platform can complement the traditional SHL cessation service for young adult smokers seeking help to quit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Trends in substance use admissions among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Cook, Ratna; Mallik, Eshita; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2017-08-22

    Substance abuse is a growing, but mostly silent, epidemic among older adults. We sought to analyze the trends in admissions for substance abuse treatment among older adults (aged 55 and older). Treatment Episode Data Set - Admissions (TEDS-A) for period between 2000 and 2012 was used. The trends in admission for primary substances, demographic attributes, characteristics of substance abused and type of admission were analyzed. While total number of substance abuse treatment admissions between 2000 and 2012 changed slightly, proportion attributable to older adults increased from 3.4% to 7.0%. Substantial changes in the demographic, substance use pattern, and treatment characteristics for the older adult admissions were noted. Majority of the admissions were for alcohol as the primary substance. However there was a decreasing trend in this proportion (77% to 64%). The proportion of admissions for following primary substances showed increase: cocaine/crack, marijuana/hashish, heroin, non-prescription methadone, and other opiates and synthetics. Also, admissions for older adults increased between 2000 and 2012 for African Americans (21% to 28%), females (20% to 24%), high school graduates (63% to 75%), homeless (15% to 19%), unemployed (77% to 84%), and those with psychiatric problems (17% to 32%).The proportion of admissions with prior history of substance abuse treatment increased from 39% to 46% and there was an increase in the admissions where more than one problem substance was reported. Ambulatory setting continued to be the most frequent treatment setting, and individual (including self-referral) was the most common referral source. The use of medication assisted therapy remained low over the years (7% - 9%). The changing demographic and substance use pattern of older adults implies that a wide array of psychological, social, and physiological needs will arise. Integrated, multidisciplinary and tailored policies for prevention and treatment are necessary to

  9. Smoking and diet in healthy adults: a cross-sectional study in tehran, iran, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Heidari, Farrokh; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-04-01

    Smoking and unhealthy diet are two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between these two risk factors amongst healthy adults 30-60 years old in Tehran, Iran. Overall, 2602 healthy adults 30 to 60 years old in Tehran were studied. The demographic characteristics, anthropometric and smoking status of the participants were questioned. The frequency of consumption of red meat, white meat, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, bread and cereals and fast food were questioned to be daily, weekly, monthly, once every 6 months or yearly and categorized as "healthy" or "unhealthy". Of the 2602 participants, 974 (37.4%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their life time and continued daily or smoked occasionally. Smokers significantly consumed more fast food and white meat but less fruit and vegetables and dairy product (Pdiet. A positive association between cigarette smoking and unhealthy diet (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.40-2.03) were found. After adjusting the analysis for the effect of age, education and gender, the odds ratio of consuming unhealthy diet for the smoker increased to 1.83 (1.50, 2.25) compared with non-smoker. Our study found a noticeable association between cigarette smoking and unhealthy diet. Smoking cessation and changing diet program for smokers is recommended.

  10. Exposure to tobacco secondhand smoke and its associated factors among non-smoking adults in smoking-restricted and non-restricted areas: findings from a nationwide study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Teh, Chien Huey; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Pan, Sayan; Ling, Miaw Yn; Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Hassan, Noraryana; Baharom, Nizam; Dawam, Netty Darwina; Ismail, Norliana; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Cheong, Kee Chee; Chong, Kar Hon; Lim, Hui Li

    2018-01-08

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aims of the paper are to assess SHS exposure among non-smoking adults in Malaysia attending various smoking-restricted and non-restricted public areas according to the Control of Tobacco Product Regulations (CTPR) as well as its relationship with various sociodemographic variables. Data were extracted from a cross-sectional study, the Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2011 which involved 3269 non-smokers in Malaysia. Data was obtained through face-to-face interviews using a validated pre-tested questionnaire. Factors associated with exposure to SHS were identified via multivariable analysis. The study revealed that almost two-thirds of respondents were exposed to SHS in at least one public area in the past 1 month, with a significantly higher exposure among males (70.6%), those with higher educational attainment (81.4%) and higher income (quintile 1%-73.9%). Besides, the exposure to SHS was almost four times higher in non-restricted areas compared with restricted areas under the CTPR (81.9% vs 22.9). Multivariable analysis revealed that males and younger adults at non-restricted areas were more likely to be exposed to SHS while no significant associated factors of SHS exposure was observed in restricted areas. The study revealed the prevalence of SHS exposure was higher among Malaysian adults. Although smoke-free laws offer protection to non-smokers from exposure to SHS, enforcement activities in restricted areas should be enhanced to ensure strict public abidance. In addition, legislation of restricted areas should also be extended to greatly reduce the SHS exposure among non-smokers in Malaysia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults-Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Anh, Le Vu; Cook, Margaret; Capra, Mike

    2016-01-01

    It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011-2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group) involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children's exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children's reported their father's in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention ( p Viet Nam to increase children's awareness on the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke and to help them to be able to avoid their exposure to secondhand smoke at their home environment.

  12. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  13. Impact of the 2005 smoke-free policy in Italy on prevalence, cessation and intensity of smoking in the overall population and by educational group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Bruno; Mackenbach, Johan P; Eikemo, Terje A; Kunst, Anton E

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2005 smoke-free law on smoking prevalence, cessation and intensity both in the overall population and separately by educational level. Interrupted time-series analyses of 11 cross-sectional nationally representative surveys. Italy, 1999-2010. Adults aged 20-64 years. For each year we computed the prevalence of current smoking, the quit ratio and the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day. All measures were standardized by age. Segmented linear regression analyses were performed for each smoking variable separately by sex. Among males, smoking prevalence decreased by 2.6% (P = 0.002) and smoking cessation increased by 3.3% (P = 0.006) shortly after the ban, but both measures tended to return to pre-ban values in the following years. This occurred among both highly and low-educated males. Among low-educated females, the ban was followed by a 1.6% decrease (P = 0.120) in smoking prevalence and a 4.5% increase in quit ratios (P educated females, trends in smoking prevalence and cessation were not altered by the ban. Among both males and females, long-term trends in the daily number of cigarettes, which were already declining well before the implementation of the policy, changed to a minor extent. The impact of the Italian smoke-free policy on smoking and inequalities in smoking was short-term. Smoke-free policies may not achieve the secondary effect of reducing smoking prevalence in the long term, and they may have limited effects on inequalities in smoking. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. [Smoking: knowledge, attitudes, habits and degree of dependence of young adults in Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Aline Farias; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2006-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of smoking dependence and to characterize social demographic data, habits and attitudes of young smokers. Answered the questionnairel02 students from Salvador, State of Bahia, of which 11 were smokers. Their mean age and the age in which they first smoked were 18.2 and 13.4 years respectively. Most of them were male, in the first year of senior high school, of brown skin color and had close relatives who smoke. The majority of those young smokers had been advised about the risks of smoking at home and in school, but few had knowledge about the benefits of quitting. Almost half of them had been smoking for more than three years and had started to smoke out of curiosity. More than half of them smoked one cigarette per day, with low levels of nicotine, bought the cigarettes in shops, and wanted and tried to quit smoking, but never succeeded. The degree of dependence was low for most of them. This study offers hints for nurses to act against smoking with young adults.

  15. Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8).

  16. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Mangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithambigai, G; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, G; Ramya, Shenoy; Pai, B H Mithun

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is a heralding health menace, particularly among college students. Tobacco usage among young can have an especially devastating effect as they can be exposed for longer periods. Data to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in young adults will be a valuable addition to the existing resources. An analytical cross-sectional study was therefore carried out in Mangalore city using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with a representative sample of 720 students aged 18-20 years selected from degree colleges by multi-stage random sampling. Prevalence of 'ever users' and 'current users' of smoking were 20.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The mean age at initiation of cigarette smoking was 16 years and the majority (31 %) smoked in public places. Interestingly, 84% of them knew about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. About one half of smokers had some or most of their friends smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed gender (OR=8.585: CI-3.26-22.5), pocket money (OR=4.165; CI=1.76-9.82) and peer's smoking habit (OR= 5.15; CI-2.21-11.9) have higher odds as correlates of tobacco usage among college students. It is of prime importance to highlight the role of prevention of smoking initiation rather than subsequently trying to stop the habit. Comprehensive interventions embracing family, friends and social milieu are needed to reduce tobacco use among students in India.

  17. Identifying "social smoking" U.S. young adults using an empirically-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2017-07-01

    The phenomenon of "social smoking" emerged in the past decade as an important area of research, largely due to its high prevalence in young adults. The purpose of this study was to identify classes of young adult ever smokers based on measures of social and contextual influences on tobacco use. Latent class models were developed using social smoking measures, and not the frequency or quantity of tobacco use. Data come from a national sample of young adult ever smokers aged 18-24 (Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, N=1564). The optimal models identified three latent classes: Class 1 - nonsmokers (52%); Class 2 - social smokers (18%); and Class 3 - smokers (30%). Nearly 60% of the "social smoker" class self-identified as a social smoker, 30% as an ex-smoker/tried smoking, and 12% as a non-smoker. The "social smoker" class was most likely to report using tobacco mainly or only with others. Past 30-day cigarette use was highest in the "smoker" class. Hookah use was highest in the "social smoker" class. Other tobacco and e-cigarette use was similar in the "social smoker" and "smoker" classes. Past 30-day tobacco and e-cigarette use was present for all products in the "non-smoker" class. Young adult social smokers emerge empirically as a sizable, distinct class from other smokers, even without accounting for tobacco use frequency or intensity. The prevalence of hookah use in "social smokers" indicates a group for which the social aspect of tobacco use could drive experimentation and progression to regular use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Association between active and passive smoking and latent tuberculosis infection in adults and children in the united states: results from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Lindsay

    Full Text Available Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children.We used the 1999-2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598 and children 3-19 years (n = 2943 and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI.LTBI prevalence in 1999-2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999-2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born, household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17-4.55. Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87-4.60. Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20-5.45 and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09-4.72 were significantly associated with LTBI.Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI. Targeted smoking prevention and cessation

  19. Correlates of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home among non-smoking adults in Bangladesh: findings from the ITC Bangladesh survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Driezen, Pete; Sansone, Genevieve; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, Ghulam Akm; Quah, Anne Ck; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-07-16

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a serious global public health problem. Understanding the correlates of SHS exposure could guide the development of evidence based SHS exposure reduction interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe the pattern of and factors associated with SHS exposure among non-smoking adults in Bangladesh. Data come from adult non-smokers who participated in the second wave (2010) of the International Tobacco Control Policy (ITC) Evaluation Bangladesh Survey conducted in all six administrative divisions of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire gathered information on participants' demographic characteristics, pattern of SHS exposure, SHS knowledge, and attitudes towards tobacco control. Exposure to SHS at home was defined as non-smokers who lived with at least one smoker in their household and who reported having no home smoking ban. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression procedures. The SHS exposure rate at home among the participants (N=2813) was 43%. Several sociodemographic and attitudinal factors were associated with SHS exposure. Logistic regression analyses identified eight predictors of SHS exposure: being female (OR=2.35), being aged 15-24 (OR=2.17), being recruited from Dhaka slums (OR=5.19) or non-tribal/non-border areas outside Dhaka (OR=2.19) or tribal/border area (OR=4.36), having lower education (1-8 years: OR=2.45; illiterate: OR=3.00, having higher monthly household income (5000 to non-smoking Bangladeshi adults are exposed to SHS at home. The findings suggest the need for comprehensive tobacco control measures that would improve public understanding about health hazards of SHS exposure at home and encourage educational initiatives to promote smoke-free homes. Interventions should deliver targeted messages to reach those in the low socioeconomic status group.

  20. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits are still increasing in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Accordini, Simone; Nguyen, Giang; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marcello; Antonicelli, Leonardo; Attena, Francesco; Bellisario, Valeria; Bono, Roberto; Briziarelli, Lamberto; Casali, Lucio; Corsico, Angelo Guido; Fois, Alessandro; Panico, MariaGrazia; Piccioni, Pavilio; Pirina, Pietro; Villani, Simona; Nicolini, Gabriele; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-08-27

    Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits have stabilized in many Western countries. This study aimed at evaluating whether socioeconomic disparities in smoking habits are still enlarging in Italy and at comparing the impact of education and occupation. In the frame of the GEIRD study (Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases) 10,494 subjects, randomly selected from the general population aged 20-44 years in seven Italian centres, answered a screening questionnaire between 2007 and 2010 (response percentage = 57.2%). In four centres a repeated cross-sectional survey was performed: smoking prevalence recorded in GEIRD was compared with prevalence recorded between 1998 and 2000 in the Italian Study of Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Current smoking was twice as prevalent in people with a primary/secondary school certificate (40-43%) compared with people with an academic degree (20%), and among unemployed and workmen (39%) compared with managers and clerks (20-22%). In multivariable analysis smoking habits were more affected by education level than by occupation. From the first to the second survey the prevalence of ever smokers markedly decreased among housewives, managers, businessmen and free-lancers, while ever smoking became even more common among unemployed (time-occupation interaction: p = 0.047). At variance, the increasing trend in smoking cessation was not modified by occupation. Smoking prevalence has declined in Italy during the last decade among the higher socioeconomic classes, but not among the lower. This enlarging socioeconomic inequality mainly reflects a different trend in smoking initiation.

  2. The Effect of Rap/Hip-Hop Music on Young Adult Smoking: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Bogt, Tom F M Ter

    2018-02-16

    Music may influence young people's behavior through its lyrics. Substance use references occur more frequently in rap/hip-hop than in other music genres. The aim was to examine whether the exposure to rap/hip-hop lyrics referring to substance use affected cigarette smoking. An experiment with a 3-group between subject design was conducted among 74 daily-smoking young adults ranging in age from 17 to 25 years old. Three conditions were tested in a mobile lab (camper vehicle) from May to December 2011, i.e., regular chart pop music (N = 28), rap/hip-hop with non-frequent references to substance use (N = 24), and rap/hip-hop with frequent references to substance use (N = 22). One-way ANOVA showed that participants listening to substance use infused rap/hip-hop songs felt significantly less pleasant, liked the songs less, and comprehended the songs less compared to participants listening to pop songs. Poisson loglinear analyses revealed that compared to the pop music condition, none of the two rap/hip-hop music conditions had a significant effect on acute smoking. Thus, contrary to expectations, the two different rap/hip-hop conditions did not have a significantly different effect on acute smoking. Listening to rap/hip-hop, even rap hip/hop with frequent referrals to substance use (primarily alcohol and drug use, and general smoking referrals), does not seem to encourage cigarette smoking among Dutch daily-smoking young adults, at least short term.

  3. Children Deserve Smoke Free World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesh Kumar, R; Jayakumar, P R; Krishna Mohan, R

    2018-04-01

    Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. Evidences are in favour of causal relationship with intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, decreased pulmonary function, increased risk for respiratory tract infection, otitis media, wheeze, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, cleft palate and triggering pathogenesis of fetal and childhood onset of adult diseases, especially pulmonary and cardio vascular diseases. All these facts stress the importance of behavioral changes in the population as well as stringent public health measures and legislation for ensuring smoke free work places, public places and households for children. M POWER- Package by WHO is a novel global initiative taking us closer to the target of achieving tobacco free environment for children in the near future.

  4. The longitudinal relation between smoking and muscle strength in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maarten O; Hoekstra, T.; Twisk, Jos W R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess longitudinally whether smoking tobacco is related to muscle strength in healthy adults and to assess the influence of lifestyle covariates on this relation. METHODS: Data were obtained from the observational Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, with four repeated

  5. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Takao [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO{sub 2} inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO{sub 2} inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO{sub 2}, CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO{sub 2} and PaCO{sub 2} during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  6. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Takao

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO 2 inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO 2 inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO 2 , CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO 2 and PaCO 2 during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  7. Correlates of smoking among young adults: the role of lifestyle, attitudes/beliefs, demographics, and exposure to anti-tobacco media messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Noella A; Sly, David F; Lee, David J; Arheart, Kristopher L; McClure, Laura A

    2013-06-01

    Young adults (18-24 years) have the highest smoking rate of any age group. Unlike youth/adult populations where there is one primary message targeting behavior, anti-tobacco campaigns targeting young adults should contain messages of prevention and cessation. The objective was to identify factors influencing young adult cigarette use, employing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention logic model, with an emphasis on the role of lifestyle, tobacco use tolerance, and attitudes/beliefs. Cross-sectional data were collected from 4401 young adults using telephone interviews in 2010 as part of the evaluation for the Tobacco Free Florida Campaign. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current smoking status and lifestyles, tolerance of tobacco use, and attitude/belief variables. The young adult cigarette prevalence rate is 20.3%, with males more likely to be smokers (25.1%) than females (15.6%) and non-Hispanic Whites more likely to be smokers than other racial/ethnic groups (23.8%). Significant associations were found between lifestyle variables (frequent bar/club, drinks per month, and number of friends who smoke), tolerance of tobacco use (allow smoke in house/car and moderate tobacco use), and four attitude/belief indices and current smoking behavior. Results suggest lifestyles and attitudes/beliefs should be key behavioral targets of prevention programs aimed at young adults. Data strongly suggest that as young adults reject negative labels attached to smokers, they are more likely to smoke. Prevention (and cessation) programs may need to reduce barriers that result in segregating nonsmokers/smokers so smokers can have an increased chance of adopting attitudes/beliefs of nonsmokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoking habits and leukocyte telomere length dynamics among older adults: Results from the ESTHER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Butterbach, Katja; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schick, Matthias; Stammer, Hermann; Boukamp, Petra; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age and short LTL has been associated with increased mortality and increased risk for some age-related outcomes. This study aims to analyse the associations of smoking habits with LTL and rate of LTL change per year in older adults. LTL was measured by quantitative PCR at baseline in 3600 older adults, who were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Germany. For longitudinal analyses, measurements were repeated in blood samples obtained at 8-year follow-up from 1000 participants. Terminal Restriction Fragment analysis was additionally performed in a sub-sample to obtain absolute LTL in base pairs. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate associations of smoking habits with baseline LTL and changes in LTL over time. LTL was inversely associated with age (r=-0.090, pSmoking was inversely associated with LTL. On average, current smokers had 73 base pairs (BP) shorter LTL compared to never smokers. Smoking intensity and pack-years of smoking were also inversely associated with LTL, and a positive association was observed with years since smoking cessation. Slower LTL attrition rates were observed in ever smokers over 8years of follow-up. Our cross-sectional analysis supports suggestions that smoking might contribute to shortening of LTL but this relationship could not be shown longitudinally. The overall rather small effect sizes observed for smoking-related variables suggest that LTL reflects smoking-related health hazards only to a very limited extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying the contribution of changes in healthcare expenditures and smoking to the reversal of the trend in life expectancy in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frederik; Nusselder, Wilma J; Reibling, Nadine; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-10-06

    Since 2001 the Netherlands has shown a sharp upturn in life expectancy (LE) after a longer period of slower improvement. This study assessed whether changes in healthcare expenditure (HCE) explain this reversal in trends in LE. As an alternative explanation, the impact of changes in smoking behavior was also evaluated. To quantify the contribution of changes in HCE to changes in LE, we estimated a health-production function using a dynamic panel regression approach with data on 19 OECD countries (1980-2009), accounting for temporal and spatial correlation. Smoking-attributable mortality was estimated using the indirect Peto-Lopez method. As compared to 1990-1999, during 2000-2009 LE in the Netherlands increased by 1.8 years in females and by 1.5 years in males. Whereas changes in the impact of smoking between the two periods made almost no contribution to the acceleration of the increase in LE, changes in the trend of HCE added 0.9 years to the LE increase between 2000 and 2009. The exceptional reversal in the trend of LE and HCE was not found among the other OECD countries. This study suggests that changes in Dutch HCE, and not in smoking, made an important contribution to the reversal of the trend in LE; these findings support the view that investments in healthcare are increasingly important for further progress in life expectancy.

  11. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands: A Google Trends Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; de Boer, Michiel R; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, using Google Trends search query data. An interrupted time series analysis was used to examine the effect of two types of policies (smoke-free legislation and reimbursement of smoking cessation support (SCS)) on Google searches for 'quit smoking'. Google Trends data were seasonally adjusted and analysed using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. Multiple effect periods were modelled as dummy variables and analysed simultaneously to examine the magnitude and duration of the effect of each intervention. The same analysis was repeated with Belgian search query data as a control group, since Belgium is the country most comparable to the Netherlands in terms of geography, language, history and culture. A significant increase in relative search volume (RSV) was found from one to four weeks (21-41%) after the introduction of the smoking ban in restaurants and bars in the Netherlands in 2008. The introduction of SCS reimbursement in 2011 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (16-22%) in the Netherlands after 3 to 52 weeks. The reintroduction of SCS in 2013 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (9-21%) in the Netherlands from 3 to 32 weeks after the intervention. No effects were found in the Belgian control group for the smoking ban and the reintroduction of SCS in 2013, but there was a significant increase in RSV shortly before and after the introduction of SCS in 2011. These findings suggest that these tobacco control policies have short-term or medium-term effects on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, and therefore potentially on smoking cessation rates.

  12. Work and Non-Work Physical Activity Predict Real-Time Smoking Level and Urges in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Hedeker, Donald; Marquez, David X

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) and smoking are inversely related. However, evidence suggests that some types of PA, namely work-related PA, may show an opposite effect. Despite growing knowledge, there remains a paucity of studies examining the context of these behaviors in naturalistic settings or in young adults, a high-risk group for escalation. Participants were 188 young adults (mean age = 21.32; 53.2% female; 91% current smokers) who participated in an electronic diary week to assess daily smoking and urges and a PA recall to examine daily PA. PA was coded into non-work-related and work-related activity to examine differential effects. We considered both participants' weekly average PA and their daily deviations from their average. Mixed-effects regression models revealed that higher weekly average non-work PA was associated with lower smoking level and urges. Daily deviations in non-work PA did not predict urges; however, increased daily non-work PA relative to participants' weekly average was associated with lower smoking for females but higher levels for males. Regarding work PA, only higher weekly average work PA was associated with higher smoking level for both genders; work PA did not predict urges. Results extend previous literature by documenting differential associations between non-work and work PA and young adult smoking and suggest that young adults engaged in work PA should be considered a high-risk group for escalation. Findings provide theoretical and clinical implications for the use of PA in intervention and highlight the necessity of considering PA as a multidimensional construct when examining its links to health behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Social Network Characteristics and Daily Smoking among Young Adults in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Rostila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have shown that friends’ smoking behavior is strongly associated with an individual’s own risk for smoking. However, few studies have examined whether other features of social networks, independently or conjointly with friends’ smoking behavior, may influence the risk for smoking. Because it is characterized by the growing importance of friendship networks, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may constitute a particularly relevant period on which to focus our investigation of network influences on smoking behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the consequences of peer smoking as well as other network characteristics (friends’ other health behaviors, relationship content, and structural aspects of the network on the risk for smoking among young adults. The data was based on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish 19-year-olds carried out in 2009 (n = 5,695 with a response rate of 51.6%. Logistic regression was the primary method of analysis. The results show that having a large percentage of smokers in one’s network was by far the most important risk factor for daily smoking. The risk of daily smoking was 21.20 (CI 14.24. 31.54 if 76%–100% of the network members smoked. Having a high percentage of physically active friends was inversely associated with daily smoking. The risk of smoking was 0.65 (CI 0.42. 1.00 if 76%–100% of the network members were physically active. No main associations between the other network characteristics (relationship content and structural aspects of the network and smoking were found. However, there was an interaction between the percentage of smokers in the network and relationship content (i.e., trust, relationship quality and propensity to discuss problems: positive relationship content in combination with peer smoking may increase the risk of smoking. Women with a high percentage of smokers in their networks were also at higher risk of daily

  14. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  15. "My First Thought was Croutons": Perceptions of Cigarettes and Cigarette Smoke Constituents Among Adult Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, Kathryn E; Morgan, Jennifer C; Mendel, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Noar, Seth M; Ribisl, Kurt M; Hall, Marissa G; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-07-01

    Understanding what people think about harmful and potentially harmful constituents in cigarettes and cigarette smoke has new urgency given legislation requiring US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to disclose constituent information. Our study sought to obtain qualitative information on what people think about these constituents and the language they use to talk about them. We conducted six focus groups in 2014 with 40 adults in North Carolina. Open-ended questions focused on cigarette and cigarette smoke constituents in general and on the 18 constituents on the FDA's abbreviated list. We coded the transcripts for emergent themes, and all four coders discussed themes until we reached consensus. Participants knew that cigarette smoke contains chemicals but did not know how many chemicals nor what those chemicals are, beyond tar and nicotine. Dangers of constituents mentioned included "chemicals," physical disease, and addiction. Participants incorrectly believed harmful constituents came primarily from tobacco companies' additives. For unfamiliar constituents, people tried to make associations based on similar-sounding words. Recognizable constituents that participants associated with health harms most discouraged them from wanting to smoke. Most participants wanted to know health harms associated with constituents and what else the chemicals were in. Participants showed enthusiasm for learning more information about constituents, and also showed substantial misunderstandings about the source of harmful constituents. Our findings contribute to the limited body of research on adults' knowledge and perceptions of cigarette smoke constituents and can aid the FDA as it plans to disclose constituent information to the public. Our study provides information about adults' understanding of cigarette smoke constituents and what adults would like to know about these constituents. This information can help communication campaigns describe cigarette smoke constituents in a

  16. An early-stage epidemic: a systematic review of correlates of smoking among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Gebel, Klaus; Oldenburg, Brian F; Wan, Xia; Zhong, Xuefeng; Novotny, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    Despite the historically low smoking prevalence among Chinese women, there is a trend of future increase. We systematically reviewed the correlates of smoking among Chinese girls and women. We conducted a systematic review of literature on correlates of smoking among Chinese women using Medline and China Academic Journals databases. Following the PRISMA statement, two investigators independently searched for literature, identified and reviewed papers, assessed the quality of the papers, and extracted information. The characteristics of studies and correlates of smoking were synthesized separately for youth and adults. A total of 15 articles (11 on adults, 4 on youth) met the inclusion criteria. Based on these studies, peer smoking was the most consistent correlate of smoking among Chinese girls. Among Chinese women, partner smoking, job-related stress, and exposure to cigarettes made for women were consistent correlates of smoking. Knowledge of harms and negative attitudes towards smoking were found to be negatively associated with smoking. Overall, the evidence base for smoking among Chinese women is limited. Although smoking among Chinese women is still at an early stage, it is becoming more prevalent among specific population subgroups, such as rural-to-urban migrant workers. Although further research is needed, findings from the current study provide a roadmap for research and policy on prevention of smoking among Chinese girls and women.

  17. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Young Adult Sexual Minority Bar and Nightclub Patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes toward smoke-free bar and nightclub policies among patrons of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and non-LGBT bars and nightclubs. Methods. We conducted randomized time–location sampling surveys of young adults (aged 21–30 years) in 7 LGBT (n = 1113 patrons) and 12 non-LGBT (n = 1068 patrons) venues in Las Vegas, Nevada, in 2011, as part of a cross-sectional study of a social branding intervention to promote a tobacco-free lifestyle and environment in bars and nightclubs. Results. Compared with non-LGBT bars and nightclubs, patrons of LGBT venues had 38% higher adjusted odds of having been exposed to SHS in a bar or nightclub in the past 7 days but were no less likely to support smoke-free policies and intended to go out at least as frequently if a smoke-free bar and nightclub law was passed. Conclusions. The policy environment in LGBT bars and nightclubs appears favorable for the enactment of smoke-free policies, which would protect patrons from SHS and promote a smoke-free social norm. PMID:24328626

  18. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  19. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  20. Smoking Habits and Body Weight Over the Adult Lifespan in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Allison, Matthew; Johnson, Karen C; Ho, Gloria Y F; Tindle, Hilary A; Asao, Keiko; LaMonte, Michael J; Giovino, Gary A; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between smoking habits and weight gain are complex. However, few studies have examined the association of smoking habits with weight gain over the life course. Major smoking parameters and weight gain over time were examined in a large cohort of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at enrollment between 1993 and 1998 (N=161,808) and followed through 2014 (analyses conducted in 2016). Cross-sectional analyses were used to assess the association of smoking and body weight at baseline. Retrospective data were used to correlate smoking status with body weight over a 45-year period prior to enrollment. In addition, the association of smoking with weight gain over 6 years of follow-up was examined. At baseline, women who had quit smoking prior to enrollment weighed 4.7 kg more than current smokers and 2.6 kg more than never smokers. Former, never, and current smokers all gained weight over the 45-year period from age 18 years to time of enrollment (average age, 63 years): 16.8, 16.4, and 14.6 kg, respectively. In prospective analyses, women who were current smokers at baseline but who quit smoking during follow-up gained more than 5 kg by Year 6 compared with current smokers at baseline who continued to smoke. Among long-term quitters, greater intensity of smoking and more recent quitting were associated with greater weight gain. These results suggest that excess weight gain associated with smoking cessation occurs soon after quitting and is modest relative to weight gain in never smokers over the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  2. Adolescent smoking and parenting : Associations between smoking related parental behaviors and adoslescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is to address the link between parenting and adolescent smoking. We address this question since the role of parents has been traditionally neglected in smoking research as well as prevention programs. Recent research has shown that the prevention of adult smoking in

  3. Predictors of smoking cessation behavior among Bangladeshi adults: findings from ITC Bangladesh survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Driezen, Pete; Quah, Anne C K; Nargis, Nigar; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Research findings on the predictors of smoking cessation behavior identified in Western countries may not be generalizable to smokers in the Southeast Asian countries (i.e., Bangladesh). This study examined the factors associated with smoking cessation behavior (quit attempts and smoking cessation) among a representative sample of Bangladeshi adults. Data from Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Survey in Bangladesh, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers, were analysed. Households were sampled using a stratified multistage design and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Respondents included in the study are 1,861 adult daily smokers (cigarette only or dual use of cigarette and bidi) in the Wave 1 survey who completed the Wave 2 follow up. Of the smokers (N = 1,861), 98 % were male, 18 % illiterate, 78 % married and 42 % were aged 40 or above; 89 % were cigarette smokers and 11 % were dual users (cigarette & bidi). Overall, 21.8 % of the baseline smokers made quit attempts (that is, making at least one quit attempt that lasted for at least 24 hours) during the 11- to 12-month interval between Waves 1 and 2 with only 4.1 % quitting successfully (that is, smokers who had stopped smoking for at least 6 months at the time of the Wave 2 survey). Significant predictors of attempts to quit included: residing areas outside Dhaka (OR = 3.41), being aged 40 or older (OR = 1.53), having a monthly income of above BDT10,000 (US$126) versus below BDT 5,000 (US$63) (OR = 1.57), intending to quit sometime in the future (OR = 1.73). Respondents not working indoors/outside the home were less likely to have made a quit attempt than those with no workplace restrictions on smoking (OR = 0.62). Predictors of successful smoking cessation included: being aged 40 or older (OR = 3.11), perceiving self-rated health as good or excellent (OR = 2.40), and an increased level of self-efficacy (OR = 1

  4. Effects of tobacco-related media campaigns on smoking among 20-30-year-old adults: longitudinal data from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Emery, Sherry; Wakefield, Melanie A; O'Malley, Patrick M; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-01-01

    Young adults in the USA have one of the highest smoking prevalence rates of any age group, and young adulthood is a critical time period of targeting by the tobacco industry. The authors examined relationships between potential exposure to tobacco-related media campaigns from a variety of sponsors and 2-year smoking change measures among a longitudinal sample of US adults aged 20-30 years from 2001 to 2008. Self-report data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 12,931 US young adults from age 20 to 30. These data were merged with tobacco-related advertising exposure data from Nielsen Media Research. Two-year measures of change in smoking were regressed on advertising exposures. Two-year smoking uptake was unrelated to advertising exposure. The odds of quitting among all smokers and reduction among daily smokers in the 2 years between the prior and current survey were positively related to anti-tobacco advertising, especially potential exposure levels of 104-155 ads over the past 24 months. Tobacco company advertising (including corporate image and anti-smoking) and pharmaceutical industry advertising were unrelated to quitting or reduction. Continued support for sustained, public health-based well-funded anti-tobacco media campaigns may help reduce tobacco use among young adults.

  5. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tabuchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.

  6. CYP2A6 metabolism in the development of smoking behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Emily; Bloom, Joseph; Bertelsen, Sarah; Budde, John P; Breslau, Naomi; Brooks, Andrew; Culverhouse, Robert; Chan, Grace; Chen, Li-Shiun; Chorlian, David; Dick, Danielle M; Edenberg, Howard J; Hartz, Sarah; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Johnson, Eric O; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Nurnberger, John; Porjesz, Bernice; Saccone, Nancy L; Schuckit, Marc A; Stitzel, Jerry; Tischfield, Jay A; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura J

    2018-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) encodes the enzyme responsible for the majority of nicotine metabolism. Previous studies support that slow metabolizers smoke fewer cigarettes once nicotine dependent but provide conflicting results on the role of CYP2A6 in the development of dependence. By focusing on the critical period of young adulthood, this study examines the relationship of CYP2A6 variation and smoking milestones. A total of 1209 European American young adults enrolled in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism were genotyped for CYP2A6 variants to calculate a previously well-validated metric that estimates nicotine metabolism. This metric was not associated with the transition from never smoking to smoking initiation nor with the transition from initiation to daily smoking (P > 0.4). But among young adults who had become daily smokers (n = 506), decreased metabolism was associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence (P = 0.03) (defined as Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score ≥4). This finding was replicated in the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence with 335 young adult daily smokers (P = 0.02). Secondary meta-analysis indicated that slow metabolizers had a 53 percent increased odds (OR = 1.53, 95 percent CI 1.11-2.11, P = 0.009) of developing nicotine dependence compared with normal metabolizers. Furthermore, secondary analyses examining four-level response of time to first cigarette after waking (>60, 31-60, 6-30, ≤5 minutes) demonstrated a robust effect of the metabolism metric in Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (P = 0.03) and Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (P = 0.004), illustrating the important role of this measure of dependence. These findings highlight the complex role of CYP2A6 variation across different developmental stages of smoking behaviors. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Tobacco smoking strengthens the association of elevated blood pressure with arterial stiffness: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Miaoying; Li, Shengxu; Sun, Dianjianyi; Ge, Shaoqing; Lai, Chin-Chih; Fernandez, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2015-02-01

    The study assessed the hypothesis that smoking strengthens the association of adult arterial stiffness with long-term cumulative burden of blood pressure (BP) from childhood to adulthood. Tobacco smoking and elevated BPs are important risk factors of vascular stiffness. However, the synergistic effect of these two risk factors is not well established, especially for the long-term burden of elevated BP since childhood. The study cohort consisted of 945 adults (661 whites and 284 blacks, aged 24-43 years) who have BP measured 4-15 times since childhood (aged 4-17 years) in Bogalusa, Louisiana. The adult arterial stiffness was measured as aorta-femoral pulse wave velocity (afPWV); the total area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC were used as a measure of long-term burden and trends of BP, respectively. Increased adult afPWV was significantly associated with higher adulthood (P AUC (P AUC (P AUC (P = 0.007) were significantly greater among the current smokers than among the nonsmokers. DBP showed a similar pattern regarding the smoking-BP interaction on afPWV. These results, by showing the synergistic effect of tobacco smoking and long-term BP measures from childhood to adulthood on arterial stiffening process, underscore the importance of undertaking preventive strategies early in life and smoking behavior control.

  8. Support for smoke-free cars when children are present: a secondary analysis of 164,819 U.S. adults in 2010/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Olufajo, Olubode; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2014-11-01

    Comprehensive smoke-free legislations prohibiting smoking in indoor areas of workplaces, bars, and restaurants have been adopted in most of the USA; however, limited efforts have focused on regulating secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the family car. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants and national/state-specific population support for smoke-free cars, in the presence of any occupant in general, but particularly when children are present. National data of US adults aged ≥18 years (n = 164,819) were obtained from the 2010/2011 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey. Among all US adults, a significantly greater proportion supported smoke-free cars when it was specified that the occupant was a child compared to when not specified (93.4 vs. 73.7 %, p race/ethnicity, gender, current tobacco use, marital status, and the existence of household smoke-free regulations all mediated population support for smoke-free cars. While differences within the US population were noted, this study however showed overwhelming support for smoke-free car policies, particularly when children are present. Policies which prohibit smoking in indoor or confined areas such as cars may benefit public health by protecting nonsmoking children and adults from involuntary SHS exposure.

  9. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin

    2015-09-01

    To examine changes in children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in England since 1998. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. The Health Survey for England. A total of 37 038 children participating in surveys from 1998 to 2012, 13 327 of whom were aged 4-15 years, had available cotinine and were confirmed non-smokers. The proportion of children with smoking parents; the proportion of children living in homes reported to be smoke-free; the proportion of children with undetectable concentrations of cotinine; linear and quadratic trend estimates of geometric mean cotinine across years. By 2012, 87.3% of children lived in a home that was smoke-free {97.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 95.9-98.1] when parents were non-smokers, 61.3% (95% CI = 55.5-66.8) when one or both parents smoked}. A total of 68.6% (95% CI = 64.3-72.6%) of children had undetectable cotinine in 2012, up from 14.3% (95% CI = 12.7-16.0%) in 1998. There was a highly significant linear trend across years (with a small but significant quadratic term) to declining geometric mean cotinine in all children from 0.52 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.48-0.57) in 1998 to 0.11 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.10-0.12) in 2012. Children from routine/manual backgrounds were more exposed, but experienced similar gains across years to those from non-manual backgrounds. In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by 79% since 1998, with continuing progress since smoke-free legislation in 2007. An emerging social norm in England has led to the adoption of smoke-free homes not only when parents are non-smokers, but also when they smoke. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Smoker identity and its potential role in young adults' smoking behavior: A meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombor, Ildiko; Shahab, Lion; Herbec, Aleksandra; Neale, Joanne; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Identity is an important influence on behavior. To identify potential targets for smoking cessation interventions in young adults, we synthesized findings from qualitative studies on smoker identity and potential influences on smoking and smoking cessation. A systematic search of 4 electronic databases up to September 19, 2013, was conducted to identify qualitative studies on smoker identity in smokers and ex-smokers aged 16-34. Key concepts were extracted from individual studies and synthesized into higher-order interpretations by following the principles of meta-ethnography. Seventeen relevant papers were identified. At the highest level of interpretation, we identified 4 types of findings: (a) contributory factors to identity, (b) identity in relation to smoking, (c) contextual and temporal patterning, and (d) behavior in relation to smoking. Contributory factors included the desire to establish aspirational individual and social identities, enact a smoker identity appropriate to the momentary social context, and alter personal nonsmoking rules when consuming alcohol. Smoker identity was multifaceted and incorporated individuals' defensive rationalizations, and both positive and negative feelings attached to it. Smoker identities took time to develop, were subject to change, and were context dependent. Identity was found to play a role in quit attempts. Qualitative research into the identity of young adult smokers has established it as a multifaceted phenomenon serving important functions but also involving conflict and defensive rationalizations. It develops over time and contextual factors influence its expression. The nature of a smoker's identity can play an important role in smoking cessation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The effects of smoking on birthweight-for-gestational-age curves in teenage and adult primigravidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewan, N.; Brabin, B.; Wood, L.; Dramond, S.; Cooper, C.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effect of smoking on the birthweight-for-gestational-age curves of teenage and adult primigravidae. Methods. A retrospective analysis of the perinatal. database at the Liverpool Women's Hospital for the years 1997-1999 for teenage and adult primigravidae. Results. Records

  13. Update on Performance in Tobacco Control: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policy and the US Adult Smoking Rate, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M; Lapin, Brittany; Cameron, Brianna J; Carr, Thomas A; Morley, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. States and municipalities have instituted a variety of tobacco control measures (TCMs) to address the significant impact tobacco use has on population health. The American Lung Association annually grades state performance of tobacco control using the State of Tobacco Control grading framework. To gain an updated understanding of how recent efforts in tobacco control have impacted tobacco use across the United States, using yearly State of Tobacco Control TCM assessments. The independent TCM variables of smoke-free air score, cessation score, excise tax, and percentage of recommended funding were selected from the American Lung Association State of Tobacco Control reports. Predictors of adult smoking rates were determined by a mixed-effects model. The 50 US states and District of Columbia. Adult smoking rate in each state from 2011 to 2013. The average adult smoking rate decreased significantly from 2011 to 2013 (21.3% [SD: 3.5] to 19.3% [SD: 3.5], P = .016). All forms of TCMs varied widely in implementation levels across states. Excise taxes (β = -.812, P = .006) and smoke-free air regulations (β = -.057, P = .008) were significant, negative predictors of adult smoking. Cessation services (β = .015, P = .46) did not have a measurable effect on adult smoking. Tobacco control measures with the strongest influence on adult smoking include the state excise tax and state smoke-free air regulations. The lack of robust funding for tobacco cessation services across the majority of US states highlights an important shortfall in current tobacco control policy.

  14. Physical fitness, weight, smoking, and exercise patterns in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander; Moedl, Anne; Blettner, Maria; Hackfort, Dieter; Löllgen, Herbert

    2012-11-01

    The health and physical fitness of adolescents and young adults are important not just to the individuals concerned, but also to society as a whole. Many studies from many different countries have dealt with the prevalence of overweight, the risk factors for it, and the morbidity it causes, but no more than a few have addressed the effects of unhealthy lifestyles on physical fitness. In this study, we show that young adults' physical performance depends on the number of risk factors they possess. We also compare the young adults' physical performance with that of adolescents aged 10 to 17. We obtained cross-sectional data on the weight, smoking status, athletic activity, time to run 1 km, and ability to perform a chin-up on a horizontal bar of 8048 subjects aged 10 to 25. The young adults were divided into groups depending on the number of risk factors they possessed from the following list: overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. 28.4% of the men and 35.4% of the women aged 18 to 25 had none of these risk factors and exhibited the best physical performance. The more risk factors were present, the worse physical performance became. The 24- and 25-year-olds performed at the same level as the 14- and 15-year-olds. Unhealthy lifestyles can impair physical fitness even before any chronic disease arises. Possession of even a single risk factor is associated with significantly worse performance. Unless comprehensive and effective interventions are introduced in school and at work, the further cementation and worsening of unhealthy lifestyles will be hard to stop.

  15. Exploring the relationship between cigarette prices and smoking among adults: a cross-country study of low- and middle-income nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Tesche, Jean; Perucic, Anne-Marie; Yurekli, Ayda; Asma, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between cigarette prices and adult smoking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is relatively limited. This study offers new descriptive evidence on this relationship using data from a set of 13 LMICs. We use Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) cross-country data from approximately 200,000 participants aged 15 and older. Estimates on the relationship between prices and adult smoking were obtained from logit models of smoking participation and ordinary least squares models of conditional cigarette demand. Higher prices were associated with lower demand across countries, in terms of both smoking prevalence and daily number of cigarettes smoked among smokers. Our estimates suggest that the total price elasticity of cigarette demand in LMICs is approximately -0.53. We find that higher socioeconomic status (SES), represented through wealth and education effects is associated with lower chance of smoking overall, but among existing smokers, it may be associated with a larger number of cigarettes smoked. After controlling for a set of individual demographic and country characteristics, cigarette prices retain a significant role in shaping cigarette demand across LMICs. Because higher SES is associated with a reduced chance of smoking overall but also with increased daily consumption among current smokers, optimal tobacco tax policies in LMICs may face an added need to accommodate to shifting SES structures within the populations of these countries.

  16. Neonatal tobacco smoke reduces thermogenesis capacity in brown adipose tissue in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, T.C.; Moura, E.G.; Oliveira, E.; Younes-Rapozo, V.; Soares, P.N.; Rodrigues, V.S.T.; Santos, T.R.; Peixoto-Silva, N.; Carvalho, J.C.; Calvino, C.; Conceição, E.P.S.; Guarda, D.S.; Claudio-Neto, S.; Manhães, A.C.; Lisboa, P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Maternal smoking is a risk factor for progeny obesity. We have previously shown, in a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure, a mild increase in food intake and a considerable increase in visceral adiposity in the adult offspring. Males also had secondary hyperthyroidism, while females had only higher T4. Since brown adipose tissue (BAT) hypofunction is related to obesity, here we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of thyroid hormones are not functional in BAT, suggesting a lower ...

  17. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Rachel Ann; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-10-01

    Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.

  19. Hookah smoking behavior initiation in the context of Millennials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, G; Barnett, T E; Soule, E K; Young, M E

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine current hookah users' perceptions, attitudes, and normative beliefs regarding hookah smoking to further elucidate the rise in hookah smoking prevalence among young adults (aged 18-24 years) and reveal why hookah smoking is perceived as less harmful than other forms of tobacco consumption. Qualitative. Data from six focus group interviews with hookah smokers aged between 18 and 24 years were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Focus groups were evenly split between frequent and infrequent hookah users, and were predominantly composed of college students, with two groups of hookah users consisting of 18-24 year olds of non-student status. Hookah users shared a much larger set of positive hookah smoking behavioral beliefs as opposed to negative behavioral beliefs. Generational traits served as the overarching commonality among the behavior performance initiation determinants observed. The most notable generational trends observed were within the cultural category, which included the following millennial characteristics: autonomy, personalization, novelty appeal, convenience, globally oriented, entertainment, collaboration, health conscious, and valuing their social network. Millennial hookah users revealed mindfulness regarding both potential negative and positive reasons stemming from continued hookah use; however, behavioral beliefs were primarily fixated on the perception that hookah smoking was a healthier alternative to cigarette smoking. Future implications for this study's findings include generating more positive ways to express these traits for young adults; policy implications include raising hookah bar age limits, implementing indoor smoking restrictions, and limiting the ease of accessibility for purchasing hookah supplies. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Young Adults in Lima, Peru: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitchtein-Winicki, Dora; Zevallos, Karine; Samolski, M Reuven; Requena, David; Velarde, Chaska; Briceño, Patricia; Piazza, Marina; Ybarra, Michele L

    2017-08-04

    In Peru's urban communities, tobacco smoking generally starts during adolescence and smoking prevalence is highest among young adults. Each year, many attempt to quit, but access to smoking cessation programs is limited. Evidence-based text messaging smoking cessation programs are an alternative that has been successfully implemented in high-income countries, but not yet in middle- and low-income countries with limited tobacco control policies. The objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an short message service (SMS) text message-based cognitive behavioral smoking cessation program for young adults in Lima, Peru. Recruitment included using flyers and social media ads to direct young adults interested in quitting smoking to a website where interested participants completed a Google Drive survey. Inclusion criteria were being between ages 18 and 25 years, smoking at least four cigarettes per day at least 6 days per week, willing to quit in the next 30 days, owning a mobile phone, using SMS text messaging at least once in past year, and residing in Lima. Participants joined one of three phases: (1) focus groups and in-depth interviews whose feedback was used to develop the SMS text messages, (2) validating the SMS text messages, and (3) a pilot of the SMS text message-based smoking cessation program to test its feasibility and acceptability among young adults in Lima. The outcome measures included adherence to the SMS text message-based program, acceptability of content, and smoking abstinence self-report on days 2, 7, and 30 after quitting. Of 639 participants who completed initial online surveys, 42 met the inclusion criteria and 35 agreed to participate (focus groups and interviews: n=12; validate SMS text messages: n=8; program pilot: n=15). Common quit practices and beliefs emerged from participants in the focus groups and interviews informed the content, tone, and delivery schedule of the messages used in the SMS text message smoking

  1. Smoking and smoking cessation in relation to risk of diabetes in Chinese men and women: a 9-year prospective study of 0·5 million people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: In developed countries, smoking is associated with increased risk of diabetes. Little is known about the association in China, where cigarette consumption has increased (first in urban, then in rural areas relatively recently. Moreover, uncertainty remains about the effect of smoking cessation on diabetes in China and elsewhere. We aimed to assess the associations of smoking and smoking cessation with risk of incident diabetes among Chinese adults. Methods: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 891 adults (59% women aged 30–79 years during 2004–08 from ten diverse areas (five urban and five rural across China. Participants were interviewed at study assessment clinics, underwent physical measurements, and had a non-fasting blood sample taken. Participants were separated into four categories according to smoking history: never-smokers, ever-regular smokers, ex-smokers, and occasional smokers. Incident diabetes cases were identified through linkage with diabetes surveillance systems, the national health insurance system, and death registries. All analyses were done separately in men and women and Cox regression was used to yield adjusted hazards ratios (HRs for diabetes associated with smoking. Findings: 68% (n=134 975 of men ever smoked regularly compared with 3% (n=7811 of women. During 9 years' follow-up, 13 652 new-onset diabetes cases were recorded among 482 589 participants without previous diabetes. Among urban men, smokers had an adjusted HR of 1·18 (95% CI 1·12–1·25 for diabetes. HRs increased with younger age at first smoking regularly (1·12, 1·20, and 1·27 at ≥25 years, 20–24 years, and <20 years, respectively; p for trend=0·00073 and with greater amount smoked (1·11, 1·15, 1·42, and 1·63 for <20, 20–29, 30–39 and ≥40 cigarettes per day; p for trend<0·0001. Among rural men, similar, albeit more modest, associations were seen. Overall, HRs were more extreme at higher

  2. Current manufactured cigarette smoking and roll-your-own cigarette smoking in Thailand: findings from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Sarunya; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Hsia, Jason; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Puckcharern, Hataichanok; Touchchai, Chitrlada; Lohtongmongkol, Areerat; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2013-03-27

    Current smoking prevalence in Thailand decreased from 1991 to 2004 and since that time the prevalence has remained flat. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that the prevalence of current smoking in Thailand has stopped decreasing is due to the use of RYO cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of users of manufactured and RYO cigarettes and dual users in Thailand, in order to determine whether there are differences in the characteristics of users of the different products. The 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS Thailand) provides detailed information on current smoking patterns. GATS Thailand used a nationally and regionally representative probability sample of 20,566 adults (ages 15 years and above) who were chosen through stratified three-stage cluster sampling and then interviewed face-to-face. The prevalence of current smoking among Thai adults was 45.6% for men and 3.1% for women. In all, 18.4% of men and 1.0% of women were current users of manufactured cigarettes only, while 15.8% of men and 1.7% of women were current users of RYO cigarettes only. 11.2% of men and 0.1% of women used both RYO and manufactured cigarettes. Users of manufactured cigarettes were younger and users of RYO were older. RYO smokers were more likely to live in rural areas. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes appeared to be more knowledgeable about the health risks of tobacco use. However, the difference was confounded with age and education; when demographic variables were controlled, the knowledge differences no longer remained. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes were more likely than dual users and those who used only RYO to report that they were planning on quitting in the next month. Users of RYO only appeared to be more addicted than the other two groups as measured by time to first cigarette. There appears to be a need for product targeted cessation and prevention efforts that are directed toward specific population subgroups in Thailand and

  3. Exposure to smoking in soap operas and movies: smoking cessation and attempts to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, Zachary J; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Harbertson, Judith; Pérez, Ramona L; Novotny, Thomas

    2017-09-21

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate whether there was an association between seeing an actor smoke in telenovelas, Brazilian films, or international films, and trying to quit and quitting among adult Brazilian smokers. Data from 39,425 participants in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were used. Quit ratio (former smoker/former smoker + ever smoker) and proportions of current, former, and never smokers were calculated. Multivariable weighted regression was used to determine significant associations between quitting smoking and exposure to telenovelas and films. For current smokers, the odds of trying to quit were significantly higher among those who saw an actor smoking in a Brazilian film. Those who believed smoking caused serious illness and had rules in the home prohibiting smoking were significantly more likely to have tried to quit or had quit smoking. Exposure to smoking in the media may be different in adults than adolescents. Influential factors for trying to quit and quitting are rules prohibiting smoking at home, belief that smoking causes serious illness, and hearing about dangers of smoking in media.

  4. Modeling flight attendants' exposure to secondhand smoke in commercial aircraft: historical trends from 1955 to 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Dix-Cooper, Linda; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Flight attendants were exposed to elevated levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) in commercial aircraft when smoking was allowed on planes. During flight attendants' working years, their occupational SHS exposure was influenced by various factors, including the prevalence of active smokers on planes, fliers' smoking behaviors, airplane flight load factors, and ventilation systems. These factors have likely changed over the past six decades and would affect SHS concentrations in commercial aircraft. However, changes in flight attendants' exposure to SHS have not been examined in the literature. This study estimates the magnitude of the changes and the historic trends of flight attendants' SHS exposure in U.S. domestic commercial aircraft by integrating historical changes of contributing factors. Mass balance models were developed and evaluated to estimate flight attendants' exposure to SHS in passenger cabins, as indicated by two commonly used tracers (airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM)). Monte Carlo simulations integrating historical trends and distributions of influence factors were used to simulate 10,000 flight attendants' exposure to SHS on commercial flights from 1955 to 1989. These models indicate that annual mean SHS PM concentrations to which flight attendants were exposed in passenger cabins steadily decreased from approximately 265 μg/m(3) in 1955 and 1960 to 93 μg/m(3) by 1989, and airborne nicotine exposure among flight attendants also decreased from 11.1 μg/m(3) in 1955 to 6.5 μg/m(3) in 1989. Using duration of employment as an indicator of flight attendants' cumulative occupational exposure to SHS in epidemiological studies would inaccurately assess their lifetime exposures and thus bias the relationship between the exposure and health effects. This historical trend should be considered in future epidemiological studies.

  5. Tobacco Retail Environments and Social Inequalities in Individual-Level Smoking and Cessation Among Scottish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jamie; Rind, Esther; Shortt, Niamh; Tisch, Catherine; Mitchell, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Many neighborhood characteristics may constrain or enable smoking. This study investigated whether the neighborhood tobacco retail environment was associated with individual-level smoking and cessation in Scottish adults, and whether inequalities in smoking status were related to tobacco retailing. Tobacco outlet density measures were developed for neighborhoods across Scotland using the September 2012 Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register. The outlet data were cleaned and geocoded (n = 10,161) using a Geographic Information System. Kernel density estimation was used to calculate an outlet density measure for each postcode. The kernel density estimation measures were then appended to data on individuals included in the 2008-2011 Scottish Health Surveys (n = 28,751 adults aged ≥16), via their postcode. Two-level logistic regression models examined whether neighborhood density of tobacco retailing was associated with current smoking status and smoking cessation and whether there were differences in the relationship between household income and smoking status, by tobacco outlet density. After adjustment for individual- and area-level confounders, compared to residents of areas with the lowest outlet densities, those living in areas with the highest outlet densities had a 6% higher chance of being a current smoker, and a 5% lower chance of being an ex-smoker. There was little evidence to suggest that inequalities in either current smoking or cessation were narrower in areas with lower availability of tobacco retailing. The findings suggest that residents of environments with a greater availability of tobacco outlets are more likely to start and/or sustain smoking, and less likely to quit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Spanish-English Speech Perception in Children and Adults: Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Gorman, Brenda K.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trends and phonetic category formation in bilingual children and adults. Participants included 30 fluent Spanish-English bilingual children, aged 8-11, and bilingual adults, aged 18-40. All completed gating tasks that incorporated code-mixed Spanish-English stimuli. There were significant differences in…

  7. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults. The report finds a causal relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and declares ... Learn more about asthma at the CDC site . Exposure to secondhand smoke may cause new cases of asthma in children ...

  8. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p 1 and α 2 globulin were significantly higher (p 1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α 1 and α 2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  9. [Economic factors and gender differences in the prevalence of smoking among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Nelson Leitão

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study that seeks to identify the relevant economic variables in the prevalence of smoking in a group of 37 countries. The chosen methodology was to estimate multiple linear regression using the least square approach. The econometric exercise is performed by gender, seeking to examine whether there are different motivations for cigarette smoking among the adult population of men and women. The results show that although taxation is a common element in the decision of both sexes, the decision to smoke among women is also sensitive to price and other social and cultural factors. These factors were based on the fact that women who live in countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveal a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette consumption. The evidence presented in this study, therefore, reinforces the perception that taxation is in fact a crucial tool in the control of smoking, but in the specific case of women, higher prices and the promotion of greater equality with men, are also important.

  10. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  11. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  12. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fetterman

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3 total suspended particulate of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal. Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  13. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3) total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  14. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Smoking and adult glioma: a population-based case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Jiang, Jingmei; Liu, Boqi; Han, Wei; Wu, Yanping; Zou, Xiaonong; Nasca, Philip C; Xue, Fang; Chen, Yuanli; Zhang, Biao; Pang, Haiyu; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Zixing; Li, Junyao

    2016-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of numerous cancers; however, an association of smoking with adult gliomas has not been found in a population. This case-control study included 4556 glioma cases (ICD-9 code 191.0-191.9) aged ≥ 30 years and 9112 controls from a national survey of smoking and mortality in China in 1989-1991. Controls from 325 255 surviving spouses of all-cause deaths were randomly assigned to cases in each of 103 areas according to sex and age groups at a ratio of 2:1. Smoking information was ascertained retrospectively by interviewing surviving spouses. After adjustment for confounders, smoking increased the risk of glioma deaths by 11% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.21). Compared with non-smokers; the increased risk was 9% (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.99-1.20) in men and 16% (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.36) in women. The risk increased with age and doses. For individuals aged ≥ 50 years, smoking was associated with higher risk of glioma death by 25% (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.15-1.38); this increased risk for smokers who smoked ≥ 20 cigarettes daily for ≥ 30 years was 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.34-1.74). There were similar findings in both men and women and with either pathology-based or non-pathology-based comparisons. This study indicates that smoking is associated with glioma deaths in the Chinese population. Long-term heavy smoking could be a factor for risk stratification in individuals attending brain tumor clinics. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Mediating Effect of Body Mass Index on the Relationship between Cigarette Smoking and Atopic Sensitization in Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is unclear whether the relationship between cigarette smoking and atopy is mediated by body fat mass, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI. We assessed the mediating role of BMI on the relationship between smoking and atopy in Chinese adults. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study of 786 atopic cases and 2771 controls was conducted in adults aged 18 years or older from March 2010 to September 2014 in Harbin, China. Mediation models were used to estimate the indirect effects of smoking on atopic sensitization through BMI. Results: Compared to non-smokers, light smokers and moderate smokers had a lower risk of inhalant allergen sensitization. The indirect effect of smoking and sensitization to aeroallergens were only observed in light smokers (point estimate, −0.026; 95% CI, −0.062 to −0.004. The mediating roles of BMI on the relationships between smoking and other types of allergic sensitization were not statistically significant. Conclusion: BMI appeared to partially mediate the effect of light smoking on sensitization to aeroallergens. However, considering the other harmful health effects of cigarette smoking, the effective method to lower the incidence of atopy would be to decrease body fat mass by physical exercise and employing other more healthy ways of living rather than smoking.

  17. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese Adults: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Akter

    Full Text Available To examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D using a large database.The present study included 53,930 Japanese employees, aged 15 to 83 years, who received health check-up and did not have diabetes at baseline. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl, HbA1c ≥6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol, or receiving medication for diabetes. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of diabetes.During 3.9 years of median follow-up, 2,441 (4.5% individuals developed T2D. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI for diabetes were 1 (reference, 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30 and 1.34 (1.22 to 1.48 for never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers, respectively. Diabetes risk increased with increasing numbers of cigarette consumption among current smokers (P for trend <0.001. Although the relative risk of diabetes was greater among subjects with lower BMIs (< 23 kg/m2, attributable risk was greater in subjects with higher BMIs (≥ 23 kg/m2. Compared with individuals who had never smoked, former smokers who quit less than 5 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 years or more exhibited hazards ratios for diabetes of 1.36 (1.14 to 1.62, 1.23 (1.01 to 1.51, and 1.02 (0.85 to 1.23, respectively.Results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of T2D, which may decrease to the level of a never smoker after 10 years of smoking cessation.

  18. Smoking uptake, transitions and inequalities in Scottish young adults - a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Macgregor

    2018-03-01

    in smoking in Scottish young adults, which has implications for smoking prevention and cessation strategies.

  19. Risk Perceptions of Little Cigar and Cigarillo Smoking Among Adult Current Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Majeed, Ban A; Nyman, Amy; Eriksen, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have examined the perceptions of risk of little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smoking among cigarette smokers, which is important for expanding regulatory policies and developing prevention programs. We examined current cigarette smokers' perceived harm of LCC smoking, and determined whether these perceptions were associated with susceptibility and intention to continue smoking LCCs. Data were from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a probability sample of 5717 US adults. Data were analyzed for a subsample of 1191 current cigarette smokers who were stratified into three groups: (1) dual current cigarette smokers who had ever used LCCs, (2) current smokers susceptible to LCC smoking, and (3) current smokers who were not susceptible to LCC smoking. Overall, 47.2% of participants were dual smokers, 12.7% were susceptible to LCC smoking, and 40.1% were not susceptible. Perceptions of risk of LCCs varied across the groups. Dual smokers were more likely to perceive that daily LCC smoking is "very risky" (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.08, 2.41) while occasional LCC smoking is only "somewhat risky" (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.87). Of the dual smokers, 20.7% intended to continue smoking LCCs in the future. Perceptions of addiction and risk of daily LCC smoking significantly predicted intention to continue LCC smoking. Addiction perceptions also significantly predicted susceptibility to initiate LCC smoking. Perceptions about harms from and addiction to LCCs could predict future LCC smoking. Health communication campaigns need to address the harms of LCCs. Our data suggest that perceptions of risk about the addictiveness of LCCs and frequency of use are important determinants of the LCC smoking susceptibility among some cigarette smokers and intended continued use among cigarette smokers with a history of LCC use. Health communication campaigns should address misperceptions related to LCCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  20. Effect of military deployment in operational area on the trend of smoking among troops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, S.; Mubarik, H.

    2015-01-01

    To identify effect of military deployment in operational area on trend of smoking cigarettes among troops. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was carried out in an Army Brigade deployed in Operation Al-Mizan, Swat, from Jan to March 2014. Material and Methods: Whole troops of an army brigade deployed in operation Al-Mizan, Swat were the part of present study. Total strength of brigade comprised of 1850 troops. Out of these 1850, officers constituted 53 (2.86%) and rest 1797 (97.14%) were Junior Commissioned officers (JCOs), noncommissioned officers (NCOs) and soldiers. All ranks other than officers were collectively termed as soldiers. All the individuals were given structured questionnaire to fill. The information was gathered on variables like age, rank, unit, education, duration of deployment in operational area, habit of smoking, intensity of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked daily) and change in the habit and intensity of smoking after being deployed in the operational area. Information was also gathered from the individuals about the reasons for change in the habit (starting or stopping smoking) and intensity of smoking after deployment in operational area. Forty nine individuals with less than 6 months duration in operational area were excluded. All the other officers and soldiers (1801) having served more than 6 months in the operational area were included in the study. Results: There were total 1801 individuals included in the study. Officers constituted 52 (2.88%) of the total and rest 1749 (97.12%) were soldiers. The mean age of officers was 26.34 ± 4.6 years and mean age of soldiers was 27.92 ± 4.5 years. The overall frequency of smoking in officers and soldiers in the operational area came out to be 29.6%, however the overall frequency of smoking in these individuals before coming to operational area was 26.8%. There were 3 officers and 47 soldiers who started smoking in the operational area

  1. Flavored E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Reduction and Cessation-A Large National Study among Young Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Julia Cen

    2018-04-06

    E-cigarette use prevalence has increased drastically among young adult cigarette smokers in recent years. This study seeks to understand which e-cigarette flavors-sweet and fruity or tobacco and menthol/mint-are more likely to be associated with smoking reduction and cessation among young adults. Longitudinal data (waves 1 and 2) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study from young adult (aged 18-34) cigarette smokers (n = 4,645) at wave 1 and current e-cigarette users (n = 844) at wave 2 were used. Univariate and multivariate regressions were conducted to examine the associations between past-year smoking reduction and cessation and current e-cigarette flavor use at wave 2. At wave 2, 25.9% of respondents either reduced or quit smoking, and 6.7%, 5.2%, and 6.3% of them reported currently using e-cigarettes with tobacco/menthol (TM) flavors, one non-tobacco/non-menthol (NTM) flavor, and multiple NTM flavors, respectively. E-cigarette users with one (AOR = 2.5, p e-cigarette users. NTM flavor use was positively associated with e-cigarette use of a higher frequency and larger amount. The positive association between past-year smoking reduction and cessation and current NTM flavored e-cigarette use may be explained by young adults' escalated e-cigarette use with NTM flavors. Public health professionals should prevent and reduce multiple tobacco use through enhanced education about the harm of vaping NTM flavors and by advising young adult smokers to quit tobacco altogether using evidence-based methods.

  2. Smoking cessation and attempted cessation among adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goren

    Full Text Available With growing recognition of stagnant rates of attempted cigarette smoking cessation, the current study examined demographic and psychometric characteristics associated with successful and attempted smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample. This additional understanding may help target tobacco cessation treatments toward sub-groups of smokers in order to increase attempts to quit smoking.Data were used from the 2011 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey (n = 50,000.Current smoking status and demographics, health characteristics, comorbidities, and health behaviors.In 2011, 18%, 29%, and 52% of U.S. adults were current, former, or never smokers, respectively. Over one quarter (27% of current smokers were attempting to quit. Current smokers (vs. others were significantly more likely to be poorer, non-Hispanic White, less educated, ages 45-64, and uninsured, and they had fewer health-conscious behaviors (e.g., influenza vaccination, exercise. Attempting quitters vs. current smokers were significantly less likely to be non-Hispanic White and more likely to be younger, educated, insured, non-obese, with family history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and they had more health-conscious behaviors.Smokers, attempting quitters, and successful quitters differ on characteristics that may be useful for targeting and personalizing interventions aiming to increase cessation attempts, likelihood, and sustainability.

  3. Trends in dietary patterns, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer in Polish population in 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.

  4. Future healthy life expectancy among older adults in the US: a forecast based on cohort smoking and obesity history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bochen

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, the elderly population in the United States experienced increase in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (LE(ND)), but decrease in life expectancy with disability (LE(D)). Smoking and obesity are two major risk factors that had negative impacts on these trends. While smoking prevalence continues to decline in recent decades, obesity prevalence has been growing and is currently at a high level. This study aims to forecast the healthy life expectancy for older adults aged 55 to 85 in the US from 2011 to 2040, in relation to their smoking and obesity history. First, population-level mortality data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD) and individual-level disability data from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate the transition rates between different health states from 1982 to 2010, using a multi-state life table (MSLT) model. Second, the estimated transition rates were fitted and projected up to 2040, using a modified Lee-Carter model that incorporates cohort smoking and obesity history from NHIS. Mortality and morbidity for both sexes will continue to decline in the next decades. Relative to 2010, men are expected to have 3.2 years gain in LE(ND) and 0.8 years loss in LE(D). For women, there will be 1.8 years gain in LE(ND) and 0.8 years loss in LE(D). By 2040, men and women are expected to spend respectively 80 % and 75 % of their remaining life expectancy between 55 and 85 disability-free. Smoking and obesity have independent negative impacts on both the survival and disability of the US older population in the coming decades, and are responsible for the present and future gender disparity in mortality and morbidity. Overall, the US older population is expected to enjoy sustained health improvements and compression of disability, largely due to decline in smoking.

  5. A mixed-methods study of young adults' receptivity to using Facebook for smoking cessation: if you build it, will they come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether young adults are interested in a Facebook intervention for smoking cessation and to inform the design of such an intervention. Mixed-methods. Participants throughout the United States were recruited through Facebook. Young adults aged 18 to 25 years who had smoked at least once in the past month. Participants (N = 570) completed an online survey of tobacco and social media use. A subset of 30 survey completers, stratified by motivation to quit smoking, agreed to participate in a structured interview over online chat. Themes were identified by using grounded theory. Approximately a third of the full sample (31%) reported they would want to get help to quit smoking by using Facebook. Interest in using Facebook to quit was greater among those who were more motivated to quit (χ(2) = 75.2, p Facebook intervention, while privacy was the main issue of concern. Nearly one in three young adult smokers on Facebook expressed interest in using Facebook for quitting smoking. Social media approaches that respect privacy and tailor to readiness to quit are likely to maximize participation.

  6. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Haug, Severin; Schaub, Michael P

    2013-12-23

    Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675.

  7. [An investigation on the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Chen, Feng-lei; Shi, Xiang-yu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Dan; Tan, Hong-zhuan

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha. Stratified sampling method was adopted and 3600 undergraduate students from grade 1 to 3 in Changsha city were investigated through a self-administered questionnaire. All the experimental smokers during the last month were selected and divided into two groups based on the present smoking status. χ(2) test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare the differences of cigarette smoking among subpopulations and to explore the determinants. Among the 1550 experimental smokers of undergraduate students, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was 30.8% (95%CI: 28.5 - 33.1). Students from the second-class (OR = 2.367) or the third-class universities (OR = 2.562) were more likely to adopt smoking behavior than those from top universities. Students majored in sports or arts (OR = 2.456) were significantly more inclined to smoke than the liberal arts students. Students whose father were cadres (OR = 1.602) were more likely to become smokers than those whose fathers were workers. Students being males (OR = 7.386), having high monthly expenses (OR = 1.139), with positive attitude to smoking benefits (OR = 1.140) were risk factors for smoking. Number of smoking members in the family (OR = 1.801) was significantly associated with the prevalence of cigarette smoking. Knowledge on diseases caused by smoking (OR = 0.806) was protecting factor to smoking among the experimental smokers. Those experimental smokers among undergraduate students might become smokers and the determinants of cigarette smoking behavior would include: ranking of universities, students' major, gender, father's occupation, amount of pocket money, number of smoking members in the family, knowledge about smoking, the attitude to the benefit of smoking.

  8. 'Smoking': use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts among Southeast Asian American youth and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J P; Battle, R S; Lipton, R; Soller, B

    2010-02-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban population. We conducted in-person interviews with 164 Southeast Asians, smokers and non-smokers, in two low-income urban communities in Northern California, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. Analysis of the quantitative data indicated distinct use patterns for blunts, cigars and other forms of marijuana in terms of associations with generation in the United States. The use of these items was also found to be related: ever having smoked cigarettes or blunts increased the risk of ever having smoked the other three items. Qualitative data found indications of all three hypothesized relationships between tobacco and marijuana for youths but not for older adults. For youths in the study, 'smoking' was found to constitute a social construct within which use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts were somewhat interchangeable. Youths in similar settings may initiate into and progress through smoking as an activity domain rather than any one of these items.

  9. Association between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhijun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-07-29

    Many studies have suggested exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a risk factor for various somatic diseases, but only few studies based on small sample size or specific groups have explored the association between passive smoking and mental distress. We performed this study to examine the relationship between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers of north-east China. Multistage, stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study in 2012. A total of 12 978 never-smokers from Jilin, north-east China, were included. Data on passive smoking and baseline characteristics were collected by face-to-face interviews. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental health status. Rao-Scott χ(2) tests were used to compare the prevalence between different groups; multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between passive smoking and mental distress, and Spearman rank analysis was employed to assess the correlation between passive smoking and GHQ-12 scores. The estimated prevalence of mental distress among never-smokers in Jilin province is 24.5%, and the estimated prevalence of passive smoking among the mental distressing group is 65.0%. After adjusting for gender, age, region, body mass index (BMI), occupation, marriage, education, drinking status and family monthly income per capita, passive smoking conferred a risk for mental distress (adjusted OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40). A high proportion of adults, especially women, were passive smokers at home, but for men, passive smoking was more common at workplace. The more frequently participants exposed to SHS, the higher GHQ-12 scores they got. Passive smoking is an important risk factor for mental distress in never-smokers of Jilin province, which reminds Chinese government of increasing the awareness of public health and take measure to prevent SHS, especially with regard to SHS exposure at home and workplace

  10. Social Branding to Decrease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young Adult Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. Results: LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about “partying fresh and smokefree.” Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%–48% lower odds for current smoking. Conclusions: While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. PMID:26180223

  11. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  12. Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Dennis, Michelle F; English, Joseph S; Dennis, Paul A; Brightwood, Amy; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2014-09-01

    The current study assessed antecedents and consequences of ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Adult smokers with ADHD (n = 17) completed 870 smoking and 622 nonsmoking electronic diary entries over a 7-day observation period of their naturalistic smoking behavior. Data collection occurred from 2011 to 2012. Generalized estimating equations indicated that ADHD smokers were more likely to smoke when urge to smoke, negative affect, boredom, stress, worry, and restlessness were elevated. In addition, participants were more likely to smoke in situations that elicited higher levels of nervousness and frustration. ADHD symptoms, in general, did not differ between smoking and nonsmoking contexts, though hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were elevated prior to smoking in frustrating situations. Additional situational antecedent variables were associated with smoking, including being in the presence of others smoking, being in a bar or restaurant, while outside, and while consuming caffeinated or alcoholic beverages. Participants also reported a significant improvement in urge to smoke, negative affect, stress, hunger, and ADHD symptoms after smoking a cigarette. Findings suggest certain contextual factors that may maintain ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers with ADHD and identify potential treatment targets in smoking cessation interventions for this at-risk group. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  13. Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: a time-series analysis of population trends in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    This paper estimates how far monthly changes in prevalence of cigarette smoking, motivation to quit and attempts to stop smoking have been associated with changes in prevalence of high-risk drinking, and motivation and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption in England. Data were used from the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies between April 2014 and June 2016. These involve monthly household face-to-face surveys of representative samples of ~1700 adults in England. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogeneous Input (ARIMAX) modelling was used to assess the association over time between monthly prevalence of (a) smoking and high-risk drinking; (b) high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption; and (c) attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. Mean smoking prevalence over the study period was 18.6% and high-risk drinking prevalence was 13.0%. A decrease of 1% of the series mean smoking prevalence was associated with a reduction of 0.185% of the mean prevalence of high-risk drinking 2 months later [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.033 to 0.337, P = 0.017]. A statistically significant association was not found between prevalence of high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (β = 0.324, 95% CI = -0.371 to 1.019, P = 0.360) or prevalence of attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption (β = -0.026, 95% CI = -1.348 to 1.296, P = 0.969). Between 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were associated positively with prevalence of high-risk drinking. There was no significant association between motivation to stop and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption, or attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Routy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8 vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented.

  15. Acute post cessation smoking. A strong predictive factor for metabolic syndrome among adult Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlDaghri, Nasser M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the influence of tobacco exposure in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in the adult Saudi population. Six hundred and sixty-four adults (305 males and 359 females) aged 25-70 years were included in this cross-sectional study conducted at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, between June 2006 and May 2007. We classified the participants into non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers (defined as complete cessation for 1-2 years). All subjects were screened for the presence of MS using the modified American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and World Health Organization (WHO) definitions. Metabolic syndrome was highest among ex-smokers regardless of definition used. Relative risk for ex-smokers (95% CI: 2.23, 1.06-4.73) was more than twice in harboring MS as compared to non-smokers (95% CI: 2.78, 1.57-4.92) (p=0.009). Acute post-cessation smoking is a strong predictor for MS among male and female Arabs. Smoking cessation programs should include a disciplined lifestyle and dietary intervention to counteract the MS-augmenting side-effect of smoking cessation. (author)

  16. The added value of accounting for activity space when examining the association between tobacco retailer availability and smoking among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Vallée, Julie; Datta, Geetanjali; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    Despite a declining prevalence in many countries, smoking rates remain consistently high among young adults. Targeting contextual influences on smoking, such as the availability of tobacco retailers, is one promising avenue of intervention. Most studies have focused on residential or school neighbourhoods, without accounting for other settings where individuals spend time, that is, their activity space. We investigated the association between tobacco retailer availability in the residential neighbourhood and in the activity space, and smoking status. Cross-sectional baseline data from 1994 young adults (aged 18-25) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (Montreal, Canada, 2011-2012) were analysed. Residential and activity locations served to derive two measures of tobacco retailer availability: counts within 500 m buffers and proximity to the nearest retailer. Prevalence ratios for the association between each tobacco retailer measure and smoking status were estimated using log-binomial regression. Participants encountering high numbers of tobacco retailers in their residential neighbourhood, and both medium and high retailer counts in their activity space, were more likely to smoke compared to those exposed to fewer retailers. While residential proximity was not associated with smoking, we found 36% and 42% higher smoking prevalence among participants conducting activities within medium and high proximity to tobacco retailers compared to those conducting activities further from such outlets. This study adds to the sparse literature on contextual correlates of smoking among young adults, and illustrates the added value of considering individuals' activity space in contextual studies of smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. National Trends in the Prevalence and Treatment of Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark; Han, Beth

    2016-12-01

    This study examined national trends in 12-month prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDEs) in adolescents and young adults overall and in different sociodemographic groups, as well as trends in depression treatment between 2005 and 2014. Data were drawn from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health for 2005 to 2014, which are annual cross-sectional surveys of the US general population. Participants included 172 495 adolescents aged 12 to 17 and 178 755 adults aged 18 to 25. Time trends in 12-month prevalence of MDEs were examined overall and in different subgroups, as were time trends in the use of treatment services. The 12-month prevalence of MDEs increased from 8.7% in 2005 to 11.3% in 2014 in adolescents and from 8.8% to 9.6% in young adults (both P age range of 12 to 20 years. The trends remained significant after adjustment for substance use disorders and sociodemographic factors. Mental health care contacts overall did not change over time; however, the use of specialty mental health providers increased in adolescents and young adults, and the use of prescription medications and inpatient hospitalizations increased in adolescents. The prevalence of depression in adolescents and young adults has increased in recent years. In the context of little change in mental health treatments, trends in prevalence translate into a growing number of young people with untreated depression. The findings call for renewed efforts to expand service capacity to best meet the mental health care needs of this age group. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Do social characteristics influence smoking uptake and cessation during young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Gagné, Thierry; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Frohlich, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    This study uses a Bourdieusian approach to assess young adults' resources and examines their association with smoking initiation and cessation. Data were drawn from 1450 young adults participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, a cohort study in Montreal, Canada. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between young adults' income, education, and peer smoking at baseline and smoking onset and cessation. Young adults where most or all of their friends smoked had greater odds of smoking onset. Young adults that had completed pre-university postsecondary education also had higher odds of smoking onset after controlling for social support, employment status, and lacking money to pay for expenses. Income and the sociodemographic variables age and sex were not associated with smoking onset. Young adults where half of their friends smoked or where most to all of their friends smoked had lowers odds of smoking cessation. Men were more likely to cease smoking than women. Education, income and age were not associated with cessation. Interventions focusing on peer smoking may present promising avenues for tobacco prevention in young adults.

  19. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274

  20. The nicotine addiction and the assessment of the effectiveness of smoking cessation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szpringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is currently one of the most significant health and social issues. The consequences of smoking affect both individuals as well as entire society. Addiction to nicotine has been recognised as a major environmental factor fostering numerous diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of and motives for quitting smoking among the adult inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The authors were also interested in the level of nicotine addiction. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 209 inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski who were former or ongoing smokers. The study employed a survey technique, with the authors’ own questionnaire as a study tool. The Fagerström test determining addiction to nicotine (nicotine dependence was used too. Results and conclusions: The study revealed that smoking is a serious social issue. The majority of respondents had quit smoking (63.1%, 19.1% had never made any attempt to quit, whereas in 17.7% of respondents the cessation was unsuccessful and they returned to smoking. All respondents were aware of health-affecting consequences of smoking, but were unable to list more than four smoking-related diseases (lung and tongue cancers, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Attempts to cease smoking were made by 81,0% of the survey participants, mostly for health and financial reasons (42.0% and 21.3% respectively. Cessation of smoking resulted in numerous side effects, such as irritability (36.4%, outbursts of anger (20.7%, gaining weight (20.4% or binge eating of sweets (11.7%. The factor preventing respondents from quitting smoking was stress (29,0%.

  1. Adult onset asthma and interaction between genes and active tobacco smoking: The GABRIEL consortium.

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    J M Vonk

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified novel genetic associations for asthma, but without taking into account the role of active tobacco smoking. This study aimed to identify novel genes that interact with ever active tobacco smoking in adult onset asthma.We performed a genome-wide interaction analysis in six studies participating in the GABRIEL consortium following two meta-analyses approaches based on 1 the overall interaction effect and 2 the genetic effect in subjects with and without smoking exposure. We performed a discovery meta-analysis including 4,057 subjects of European descent and replicated our findings in an independent cohort (LifeLines Cohort Study, including 12,475 subjects.First approach: 50 SNPs were selected based on an overall interaction effect at p<10-4. The most pronounced interaction effect was observed for rs9969775 on chromosome 9 (discovery meta-analysis: ORint = 0.50, p = 7.63*10-5, replication: ORint = 0.65, p = 0.02. Second approach: 35 SNPs were selected based on the overall genetic effect in exposed subjects (p <10-4. The most pronounced genetic effect was observed for rs5011804 on chromosome 12 (discovery meta-analysis ORint = 1.50, p = 1.21*10-4; replication: ORint = 1.40, p = 0.03.Using two genome-wide interaction approaches, we identified novel polymorphisms in non-annotated intergenic regions on chromosomes 9 and 12, that showed suggestive evidence for interaction with active tobacco smoking in the onset of adult asthma.

  2. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  3. Tabagismo em estudantes de Medicina: tendências temporais e fatores associados Smoking among medical students: temporal trends and related variables

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    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Após o declínio observado na prevalência de tabagismo entre estudantes de Medicina entre as décadas de 1960 e 1980, parece estar ocorrendo, atualmente, uma estabilização nessa prevalência. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as tendências temporais de tabagismo entre estudantes de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (RS nos últimos dezessete anos, e alguns dos fatores associados ao hábito de fumar desses estudantes. MÉTODO: Estudos transversais com metodologias comparáveis foram conduzidos em 1986, 1991, 1996 e 2002. Questionários auto-aplicáveis foram utilizados. Definiu-se como fumante o indivíduo que fumava mais de um cigarro por dia há mais de um mês. Foram realizadas análises descritivas iniciais, análises brutas com utilização dos testes de qui-quadrado para heterogeneidade e tendência linear, e regressão de Poisson para avaliar o efeito do ano cursado sobre a freqüência de tabagismo, com controle para a idade do estudante. RESULTADOS: A prevalência atual de tabagismo entre os estudantes foi de 10,1%, valor estatisticamente similar ao dos levantamentos de 1991 e 1996. Não foram encontradas diferenças na prevalência de tabagismo por sexo, idade, tabagismo materno ou paterno. A freqüência de tabagismo aumentou durante a faculdade. CONCLUSÕES: A tendência de declínio na prevalência de tabagismo em estudantes de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Pelotas parece estar sendo substituída por uma estabilização em torno de 10% a 15%. O combate ao fumo ainda parece indispensável em ambientes universitários, especialmente nas escolas de Medicina.BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of smoking among medical students declined steadily between the 1960s and 1980s, it seems to have stabilized in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends, over the last 17 years, in the smoking habits of medical students at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to identify

  4. Prevalence of video game use, cigarette smoking, and acceptability of a video game-based smoking cessation intervention among online adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R; Jarvis, Brantley P; Rapoza, Darion

    2012-12-01

    Video games may serve as an ideal platform for developing and implementing technology-based contingency management (CM) interventions for smoking cessation as they can be used to address a number of barriers to the utilization of CM (e.g., replacing monetary rewards with virtual game-based rewards). However, little is known about the relationship between video game playing and cigarette smoking. The current study determined the prevalence of video game use, video game practices, and the acceptability of a video game-based CM intervention for smoking cessation among adult smokers and nonsmokers, including health care professionals. In an online survey, participants (N = 499) answered questions regarding their cigarette smoking and video game playing practices. Participants also reported if they believed a video game-based CM intervention could motivate smokers to quit and if they would recommend such an intervention. Nearly half of the participants surveyed reported smoking cigarettes, and among smokers, 74.5% reported playing video games. Video game playing was more prevalent in smokers than nonsmokers, and smokers reported playing more recently, for longer durations each week, and were more likely to play social games than nonsmokers. Most participants (63.7%), including those who worked as health care professionals, believed that a video game-based CM intervention would motivate smokers to quit and would recommend such an intervention to someone trying to quit (67.9%). Our findings suggest that delivering technology-based smoking cessation interventions via video games has the potential to reach substantial numbers of smokers and that most smokers, nonsmokers, and health care professionals endorsed this approach.

  5. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  6. Smoking trends amongst young doctors of a tertiary care hospital - Mayo Hospital, Lahore - Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudhary, M.K.; Younis, M.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization cites tobacco use as one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. Tobacco is the number one preventable cause of disability and death. Tobacco has many negative health effects which many of the smokers know them well. In Pakistan tobacco use is common in general public and the health professionals don't lack behind this habit. To study the smoking trends amongst young doctors of Mayo Hospital. Questionnaire based descriptive study. This study was conducted at the Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital - A tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Out of 250 doctors, 180 (72%) were males and 70 (28%) were female. Amongst 180 male doctors 97 (53.88%) were smokers and 83 (46.21%) were non smokers. Amongst 70 female doctors 8 (11.43%) were smokers and 62 (88.57%) were non smokers. Smoking is common among male young doctors but it is less common in female doctors. (author)

  7. Social Branding to Decrease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young Adult Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about "partying fresh and smokefree." Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%-48% lower odds for current smoking. While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Smoke-free signage in public parks: impacts on smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platter, Heather N; Pokorny, Steven B

    2018-07-01

    Behavioural interventions, such as smoke-free signage, are used to support air quality in public outdoor spaces that are not protected by a smoke-free policy, such as states with preemptive clause legislation. However, there is little evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions. This paper is an evaluation of whether smoke-free signage posted in public parks altered smoking behaviours of park patrons. A time-series quasi-experimental design was used. Cigarette butts were collected at the same day and time every week in ten amenities within four parks in 2011. Each park completed a baseline period until a stable trend emerged at six weeks, then received smoke-free signage for the six week intervention period. There were 1684 cigarette butts collected during baseline and 1008 collected during the intervention phase. Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that smoking at seven out of ten amenities decreased and the overall decrease was significant at p=0.028. Individual parks and amenities grouped by type did not experience a statistically significant change. A neighbourhood median income trend was visually discovered, revealing that as income increased, there was a greater decrease in cigarette butts. This study provides evidence on the impact of smoke-free signage not supported by local ordinance in public parks using a reproducible measure. States, especially those with a preemptive clause legislation, may benefit from incorporating smoke-free signage in public areas to protect community members from exposure to tobacco smoke, reduce littering, and denormalise smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives.

  10. Diet quality, physical activity, smoking status, and weight fluctuation are associated with weight change in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Pencina, Michael J; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged > or =30 y with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P smoking (P smoking status (P smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.

  11. Promoting smoking cessation in Bangladeshi and Pakistani male adults: design of a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of trained community smoking cessation workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Paramjit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of smoking is higher among Pakistani and Bangladeshi males than among the general population. Smokers who receive behavioural support and medication quadruple their chances of stopping smoking, but evidence suggests that these populations do not use National Health Service run stop smoking clinics as frequently as would be expected given their high prevalence of smoking. This study aims to tackle some of the main barriers to use of stop smoking services and adherence to treatment programmes by redesigning service delivery to be more acceptable to these adult male populations. The study compares the effectiveness of trained Pakistani and Bangladeshi smoking cessation workers operating in an outreach capacity ('clinic + outreach' with standard care ('clinic only' to improve access to and success of National Health Service smoking cessation services. Methods/design This is a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial based in Birmingham, UK. Super output areas of Birmingham will be identified in which more than 10% of the population are of Pakistani and/or Bangladeshi origin. From these areas, 'natural geographical communities' will be identified. Sixteen aggregated agglomerations of super output areas will be identified, separating areas from each other using buffer regions in order to reduce potential contamination. These natural communities will be randomised to 'clinic + outreach' (intervention or 'clinic only' (control arms. The use of stop smoking services and the numbers of people quitting smoking (defined as prolonged self-reported abstinence at four weeks, three months and six months will be assessed in each area. In addition, we will assess the impact of the intervention on adherence to smoking cessation treatments and patient satisfaction. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 82127540.

  12. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults-Disparities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Amanda B; Roche, Lisa M; Johnson, Linda M; Pawlish, Karen S; Paddock, Lisa E; Stroup, Antoinette M

    2018-06-22

    Millennials (ages 18-35) are now the largest living generation in the US, making it important to understand and characterize the rising trend of colorectal cancer incidence in this population, as well as other younger generations of Americans. Data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (n = 181 909) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (n = 448 714) were used to analyze invasive CRC incidence trends from 1979 to 2014. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, subsite, and stage differences between younger adults (20-49) and screening age adults (≥50) in New Jersey (NJ) were examined using chi-square; and, we compared secular trends in NJ to the United States (US). Whites, men, and the youngest adults (ages 20-39) are experiencing greater APCs in rectal cancer incidence. Rates among younger black adults, overall, were consistently higher in both NJ and the US over time. When compared to older adults, younger adults with CRC in NJ were more likely to be: diagnosed at the late stage, diagnosed with rectal cancer, male, non-white, and Hispanic. Invasive CRC incidence trends among younger adults were found to vary by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite. Large, case-level, studies are needed to understand the role of genetics, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cultural and behavioral factors in the rise of CRC among younger adults. Provider and public education about CRC risk factors will also be important for preventing and reversing the increasing CRC trend in younger adults. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  14. Developmental Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Increases Adult Atherogenesis and Alters Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Deletions in apoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G.; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m3 total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1–19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12–14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis. PMID:23825571

  15. Nursing research in community-based approaches to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Ashford, Kristin B; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Ridner, S Lee; York, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States and a major source of indoor air pollution, accounting for an estimated 53,000 deaths per year among nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke exposure varies by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The most effective public health intervention to reduce SHS exposure is to implement and enforce smoke-free workplace policies that protect entire populations including all workers regardless of occupation, race/ethnicity, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. This chapter summarizes community and population-based nursing research to reduce SHS exposure. Most of the nursing research in this area has been policy outcome studies, documenting improvement in indoor air quality, worker's health, public opinion, and reduction in Emergency Department visits for asthma, acute myocardial infarction among women, and adult smoking prevalence. These findings suggest a differential health effect by strength of law. Further, smoke-free laws do not harm business or employee turnover, nor are revenues from charitable gaming affected. Additionally, smoke-free laws may eventually have a positive effect on cessation among adults. There is emerging nursing science exploring the link between SHS exposure to nicotine and tobacco dependence, suggesting one reason that SHS reduction is a quit smoking strategy. Other nursing research studies address community readiness for smoke-free policy, and examine factors that build capacity for smoke-free policy. Emerging trends in the field include tobacco free health care and college campuses. A growing body of nursing research provides an excellent opportunity to conduct and participate in community and population-based research to reduce SHS exposure for both vulnerable populations and society at large.

  16. New Zealand policy experts’ appraisal of interventions to reduce smoking in young adults: a qualitative investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Tautolo, El Shadan; Gifford, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18–24 year olds. Design We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. Participants We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates. Participant selection was based on seniority and expertise and ensuring diverse perspectives were represented. Interventions We examined nine interventions that could either promote greater mindfulness or introduce barriers impeding smoking uptake: smoke-free outdoor dining and bars; no tobacco sales where alcohol is sold; social marketing campaigns; real life stories (testimonials); life skills training; raise purchase age to 21; tobacco-free generation; smokers’ licence; make tobacco retail premises R18. Results The policies perceived as more effective denormalised tobacco; made it less convenient to access and use; highlighted immediate disadvantages (eg, impact on fitness); aligned with young people’s values; and addressed the underlying causes of smoking (eg, stress). Participants highlighted some political barriers and noted concerns that some interventions might widen ethnic disparities. Exceptions were social marketing campaigns and extending smoke-free regulations to include outdoor areas of cafes and bars, which participants saw as politically feasible and likely to be effective. Conclusions Our findings suggest the merit of an approach that combines social marketing with regulation that makes accessing and using tobacco less convenient for young adults; however, political barriers may limit the regulatory options available in the short term. Strategies to support self-determination and

  17. Is the smoking decision an 'informed choice'? Effect of smoking risk factors on smoking beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, H; Glynn, K; Fleming, R

    1987-06-26

    The argument that people freely choose to smoke assumes that individuals at the point of initiation of smoking (often in adolescence) hold accurate beliefs about smoking. Smoking beliefs and the presence of known smoking risk factors were assessed in interviews with a sample of 895 urban young people. The respondents greatly overestimated the prevalence of adult and peer smoking, negative attitudes of their peers were greatly underestimated, a large proportion believed that they would be less likely than other people to contract a smoking-related illness if they became smokers, and there was a general lack of understanding of the adverse consequences experienced upon smoking cessation. These misperceptions were more common among youngsters who were smokers, who intended to smoke, or who had friends or family members who smoked. Because misinformation among young people is widespread and those at greatest risk for smoking are the most misinformed, the tobacco industry's argument that the decision to smoke reflects an "informed choice" is without merit.

  18. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.

  19. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls. The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1 "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2 "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3 "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.

  20. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Emmelin, Maria

    2010-12-21

    To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls). The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1) "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2) "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3) "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.

  1. Trends in utilization of smoking cessation agents before and after the passage of FDA boxed warning in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Drishti; Shah, Anuj; Tan, Xi; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, the FDA required a black box warning (BBW) on bupropion and varenicline, the two commonly prescribed smoking cessation agents due to reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events. We investigated if there was a decline in use of bupropion and varenicline after the BBW by comparing the percent using these medications before and after BBW. We conducted a retrospective observational study using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2007 to 2014. The study sample consisted of adult smokers, who were advised by their physicians to quit smoking. We divided the time period into "pre-warning", "post-warning: immediate", and "post-warning: late." Unadjusted analysis using chi-square tests and adjusted analyses using logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the change in bupropion and varenicline use before and after the BBW. Secondary analyses using piecewise regression were also conducted. On an average, 49.04% of smokers were advised by their physicians to quit smoking. We observed a statistically significant decline in varenicline use from 22.1% in year 2007 to 9.23% in 2014 (p valuesmoking by their physicians were less likely to use varenicline in the immediate post-BBW period as compared to pre-BBW period. While the use of varenicline continued to be significantly low in the late post-BBW period (AOR=0.45, 95% CI=0.31-0.64) as compared to the pre-BBW period, the trend in use as seen in piecewise regression remained stable (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.75-1.06). We did not observe significant differences in bupropion use between the pre- and post-BBW periods. The passage of the FDA boxed warning was associated with a significant decline in the use of varenicline, but not in the use of bupropion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of Smoking, Physical Inactivity, Heavy Drinking, and Obesity with Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy among US Adults with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Zack, Matthew M; Gottesman, Irving I; Thompson, William W

    2018-03-01

    To examine associations between four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity) and three health indices (health-related quality of life, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE)) among US adults with depression. Data were obtained from the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) health preference scores were estimated on the basis of extrapolations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's healthy days measures. Depression scores were estimated using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Life expectancy estimates were obtained from US life tables, and QALE was estimated from a weighted combination of the EQ-5D scores and the life expectancy estimates. Outcomes were summarized by depression status for the four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity). For depressed adults, current smokers and the physically inactive had significantly lower EQ-5D scores (0.040 and 0.171, respectively), shorter life expectancy (12.9 and 10.8 years, respectively), and substantially less QALE (8.6 and 10.9 years, respectively). For nondepressed adults, estimated effects were similar but smaller. Heavy alcohol drinking among depressed adults, paradoxically, was associated with higher EQ-5D scores but shorter life expectancy. Obesity was strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores but only weakly associated with shorter life expectancy. Among depressed adults, physical inactivity and smoking were strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, life expectancy, and QALE, whereas obesity and heavy drinking were only weakly associated with these indices. These results suggest that reducing physical inactivity and smoking would improve health more among depressed adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Population attributable risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes related to smoking in adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, A.; Kelly, Y.; Rizwan, S.; Attia, E.; Drammond, S.; Brabin, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how population-attributable risks (PAR) for adverse birth outcomes due to smoking differ in adolescent and adult pregnancies. METHODS: An analysis of community and hospital-based cross-sectional studies in Liverpool was undertaken to estimate the PAR values of low

  4. E-cigarettes: Comparing the Possible Risks of Increasing Smoking Initiation with the Potential Benefits of Increasing Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E; Mendez, David

    2018-03-29

    The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070. The base case assumes that vaping annually increases smoking initiation by 2% and smoking cessation by 10%. Sensitivity analyses raise the initiation rate increase to 6% while decreasing the cessation rate increase to 5%. Sensitivity analyses also test vaping's reducing the health benefits of quitting smoking by 10%. With base-case assumptions, the population gains almost 3.3 million life-years by 2070. If all people who quit smoking by vaping lose 10% of the benefit of quitting smoking, the net life-year gain falls to 2.4 million. Under worst-case assumptions, in which vaping increases smoking initiation by 6% and cessation by 5%, and vaping-induced quitters lose 10% of the health benefits, the population gains over 580,000 life-years. Potential life-years gained as a result of vaping-induced smoking cessation are projected to exceed potential life-years lost due to vaping-induced smoking initiation. These results hold over a wide range of plausible parameters. Our analysis strongly suggests that the upside health benefit associated with e-cigarettes, in terms of their potential to increase adult smoking cessation, exceeds their downside risk to health as a result of their possibly increasing the number of youthful smoking initiators. Public messaging and policy should continue to strive to reduce young people's exposure to all nicotine and

  5. Secular trends of allergic asthma in Danish adults. The Copenhagen Allergy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported increases in asthma prevalence among children world-wide. Less is known about similar trends in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of allergic asthma symptoms had increased in an adult general population. Two cross-sectional surveys using identical......, the prevalence of allergic asthma symptoms increased significantly in this adult general population over a 9-year period....

  6. Cultural capital and smoking in young adults: applying new indicators to explore social inequalities in health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Thierry; Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Associations between social status and health behaviours are well documented, but the mechanisms involved are less understood. Cultural capital theory may contribute to a better understanding by expanding the scope of inequality indicators to include individuals' knowledge, skills, beliefs and material goods to examine how these indicators impact individuals' health lifestyles. We explore the structure and applicability of a set of cultural capital indicators in the empirical exploration of smoking behaviour among young male adults. We analysed data from the Swiss Federal Survey of Adolescents (CH-X) 2010-11 panel of young Swiss males (n = 10 736). A set of nine theoretically relevant variables (including incorporated, institutionalized and objectified cultural capital) were investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Regression models were run to observe the association between factor scores and smoking outcomes. Outcome measures consisted of daily smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked by daily smokers. Cultural capital indicators aggregated in a three-factor solution representing 'health values', 'education and knowledge' and 'family resources'. Each factor score predicted the smoking outcomes. In young males, scoring low on health values, education and knowledge and family resources was associated with a higher risk of being a daily smoker and of smoking more cigarettes daily. Cultural capital measures that include, but go beyond, educational attainment can improve prediction models of smoking in young male adults. New measures of cultural capital may thus contribute to our understanding of the social status-based resources that individuals can use towards health behaviours. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction between smoking and depressive symptoms with subclinical heart disease in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Allison J; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R; Colangelo, Laura A; Stewart, Jesse C; Carr, J Jeffrey; Widome, Rachel; Auer, Reto; Hitsman, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Evaluate whether smoking exposure and depressive symptoms accumulated over 25 years are synergistically associated with subclinical heart disease, measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC). Participants (baseline: 54.5% women; 51.5% Black; age range = 18-30 years) were followed prospectively from 1985 to 2010 in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Smoking status was queried yearly from Year 0 to Year 25 to compute packyears of smoking exposure. Depressive symptoms were measured on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale every 5 years to compute cumulative scores from Year 5 to Year 25. A three-level multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between cumulative smoking, cumulative depressive symptoms, and their interaction with moderate-risk CAC (score 1-99) and higher-risk CAC (score ≥100) compared with no CAC (score = 0) at Year 25. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral covariates. Among 3,189 adults, the cumulative Smoking × Depressive Symptoms interaction was not significant for moderate-risk CAC (p = .057), but was significant for higher-risk CAC (p = .001). For adults with a 30-packyear smoking history, average CES-D scores 2, 10, and 16 were, respectively, associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) 3.40 (2.36-4.90), 4.82 (3.03-7.66), and 6.25 (3.31-11.83) for higher-risk CAC (all ps < .05). Cumulative smoking exposure and cumulative depressive symptoms have a synergistic association with subclinical heart disease, where higher lifetime smoking exposure and depressive symptoms are associated with greater odds of CAC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Perceived smoking norms, socioenvironmental factors, personal attitudes and adolescent smoking in China: a mediation analysis with longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Jintao; Liu, Hongjie; Yang, Hongmei

    2006-04-01

    To gather information on inter-relationships among risk factors affecting adolescent smoking for tobacco control in China, the world's largest tobacco producer and consumer. Longitudinal data were collected six months apart in 2003 from 813 students in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 from two schools in Beijing, China. Linear regression was used to assess both the direct effect from predictor variables (smoking among influential others, pro-tobacco media, and attitudes toward smoking) on cigarette use and the indirect effect mediated through the perceived smoking norms (percentage of smokers among peers). Among the 803 subjects (mean age of 15.5 years, SD = 1.7; 52.1% female), 18.3% of males and 1.7% of females smoked in the past 30 days. Smoking among influential others (best friends, father, mother, male teachers, female teachers, and adults in general) and perceived positive psychological and social rewards from smoking at baseline were associated with number of cigarettes smoked at follow-up, whereas exposure to pro-tobacco media was not significantly associated with smoking. The mediated effect was greater for adult smoking (70% to 90%) than for best friend smoking (11% to 16%). Smoking among influential others and attitudes toward smoking influence adolescent smoking both directly and indirectly. The finding of the indirect effect mediated through perceived smoking norms expands our knowledge on smoking etiology. Effective adolescent smoking intervention programs in China need to include a component targeting adult smoking to reduce perceived smoking norms.

  9. Global and Regional Patterns of Tobacco Smoking and Tobacco Control Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality from various diseases, including urologic diseases. We reviewed, at global and regional levels, the prevalence and trends of tobacco smoking and legislative and regulatory efforts around tobacco control. We also provided information about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. We used several sources to present the most up-to-date information from national surveys, including the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, the Global Tobacco Control Report, and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Smoking prevalence has been decreasing globally, although trends in smoking vary substantially across countries and by gender. Among men, smoking prevalence in most high-income countries started to decrease in the mid-1990s, followed after a few decades by generally smaller decreases in some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there has been no change, or there has even been an increase, in smoking prevalence in many other LMICs. Countries with the highest male smoking prevalence are located in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe. Similar to men, smoking prevalence for women has been decreasing in most high-income countries and some LMICs, although the decrease began later and was slower than that for men. Except in a few countries, smoking is much less common for women than for men. Most countries with the highest smoking prevalence in women are in Europe. Countries that have implemented the best practices for tobacco control, including monitoring, smoke-free policies, cessation programs, health warnings, advertising bans, and taxation, have been able to reduce smoking rates and related harms. E-cigarette use has rapidly increased since its introduction to the market. Health care providers should advise smoking patients about quitting smoking. Countries must improve the implementation and enforcement of tobacco control policies. Particular attention should be paid to preventing an increase in

  10. German EstSmoke: estimating adult smoking-related costs and consequences of smoking cessation for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Diana; Gilbody, Simon; Winkler, Volker; Ali, Shehzad

    2018-01-01

    We compared predicted life-time health-care costs for current, never and ex-smokers in Germany under the current set of tobacco control polices. We compared these economic consequences of the current situation with an alternative in which Germany were to implement more comprehensive tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) guidelines. German EstSmoke, an adapted version of the UK EstSmoke simulation model, applies the Markov modelling approach. Transition probabilities for (re-)currence of smoking-related diseases were calculated from large German disease-specific registries and the German Health Update (GEDA 2010). Estimations of both health-care costs and effect sizes of smoking cessation policies were taken from recent German studies and discounted at 3.5%/year. Germany. German population of prevalent current, never and ex-smokers in 2009. Life-time cost and outcomes in current, never and ex-smokers. If tobacco control policies are not strengthened, the German smoking population will incur €41.56 billion life-time excess costs compared with never smokers. Implementing tobacco control policies consistent with WHO FCTC guidelines would reduce the difference of life-time costs between current smokers and ex-smokers by at least €1.7 billion. Modelling suggests that the life-time healthcare costs of people in Germany who smoke are substantially greater than those of people who have never smoked. However, more comprehensive tobacco control policies could reduce health-care expenditures for current smokers by at least 4%. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults...... in all countries. METHODS: We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI...... probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue. FINDINGS: We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates...

  12. Tobacco smoking trends in Samoa over four decades: can continued globalization rectify that which it has wrought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Christine; Naseri, Take; Lin, Sophia; Taylor, Richard; Morrell, Stephen; McGarvey, Stephen T; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul

    2017-06-12

    The island country of Samoa (population 188,000 in 2011) forms part of Polynesia in the South Pacific. Over the past several decades Samoa has experienced exceptional modernization and globalization of many sectors of society, with noncommunicable diseases (NCD) now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The evolution of risk factor prevalence underpinning the increase in NCDs, however, has not been well described, including tobacco smoking which is related to cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present study examines tobacco smoking in relation to different forms and effects of globalization in Samoa using 7 population-based surveys (n = 9223) over 1978-2013. The prevalence of daily tobacco smoking steadily decreased over 1978-2013 from 76% to 36% in men, and from 27% to 15% in women (p globalization facilitated the introduction and prolific spread of tobacco trade and consumption in the Pacific Islands from the sixteenth century, with many populations inexorably pulled into trade relations and links to the global economy. It has also been a different globalization which may have led to the decline in smoking prevalence in Samoa in recent decades, through global dissemination since the 1950s of information on the harmful effects of tobacco smoking derived from research studies in the USA and Europe. Over the past 35 years tobacco smoking has steadily declined among Samoan adults; the only NCD risk factor to demonstrate marked declines during this period. By 2013 tobacco smoking in women had decreased to levels similar to Australia and New Zealand (ANZ), however in men smoking prevalence remained more than three times higher than ANZ. The impact on smoking prevalence of the variety of tobacco control interventions that have been implemented so far in Samoa need to be evaluated in order to determine the most effective initiatives that should be prioritized and strengthened.

  13. Has Childhood Smoking Reduced Following Smoke-Free Public Places Legislation? A Segmented Regression Analysis of Cross-Sectional UK School-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Der, Geoff; Roberts, Chris; Haw, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Prevalence estimates for regular smoking were obtained from representative school-based surveys for the four countries of the United Kingdom. Post-intervention status was represented using a dummy variable and to allow for a change in trend, the number of years since implementation was included. To estimate the association between smoke-free legislation and adolescent smoking, the percentage of regular smokers was modeled using linear regression adjusted for trends over time and country. All models were stratified by age (13 and 15 years) and sex. For 15-year-old girls, the implementation of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom was associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of regular smoking (P = .029). In addition, regular smoking fell by an additional 1.5% per annum post-legislation in this group (P = .005). Among 13-year-old girls, there was a reduction of 2.8% in regular smoking (P = .051), with no evidence of a change in trend post-legislation. Smaller and nonsignificant reductions in regular smoking were observed for 15- and 13-year-old boys (P = .175 and P = .113, respectively). Smoke-free legislation may help reduce smoking uptake amongst teenagers, with stronger evidence for an association seen in females. Further research that analyses longitudinal data across more countries is required. Previous research has established that smoke-free legislation has led to many improvements in population health, including reductions in heart attack, stroke, and asthma. However, the impacts of smoke-free legislation on the rates of smoking amongst children have been less investigated. Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys across the four countries of the United Kingdom

  14. Financial strain and cognitive-based smoking processes: The explanatory role of depressive symptoms among adult daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Zuzuky; Anjum, Sahar; Garey, Lorra; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Langdon, Kirsten J; Neighbors, Clayton; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Little work has focused on the underlying mechanisms that may link financial strain and smoking processes. The current study tested the hypothesis that financial strain would exert an indirect effect on cognitive-based smoking processes via depressive symptoms. Three clinically significant dependent variables linked to the maintenance of smoking were evaluated: negative affect reduction motives, negative mood abstinence expectancies, and perceived barriers for quitting. Participants included 102 adult daily smokers (M age =33.0years, SD=13.60; 35.3% female) recruited from the community to participate in a self-guided (unaided; no psychological or pharmacological intervention) smoking cessation study. Results indicated that depressive symptoms explain, in part, the relation between financial strain and smoking motives for negative affect reduction, negative mood abstinence expectancies, and perceived barriers for quitting. Results indicate that smoking interventions for individuals with high levels of financial strain may potentially benefit from the addition of therapeutic tactics aimed at reducing depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yutaka, E-mail: yaoki@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Yee, Jennifer [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Epidemiology Elective Program, MS E-92, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, 4000 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington D.C 20057 (United States); Mortensen, Mary E. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, MS F-20, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  16. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yee, Jennifer; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  17. Forecasting the Effects of Obesity and Smoking on U.S. Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan T.; Cutler, David M.; Rosen, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although increases in obesity over the past 30 years have adversely affected the health of the U.S. population, there have been concomitant improvements in health because of reductions in smoking. Having a better understanding of the joint effects of these trends on longevity and quality of life will facilitate more efficient targeting of health care resources. Methods For each year from 2005 through 2020, we forecasted life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy for a representative 18-year-old, assuming a continuation of past trends in smoking (based on data from the National Health Interview Survey for 1978 through 1979, 1990 through 1991, 1999 through 2001, and 2004 through 2006) and past trends in body-mass index (BMI) (based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1971 through 1975, 1988 through 1994, 1999 through 2002, and 2003 through 2006). The 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was used to examine the effects of smoking and BMI on health-related quality of life. Results The negative effects of increasing BMI overwhelmed the positive effects of declines in smoking in multiple scenarios. In the base case, increases in the remaining life expectancy of a typical 18-year-old are held back by 0.71 years or 0.91 quality-adjusted years between 2005 and 2020. If all U.S. adults became nonsmokers of normal weight by 2020, we forecast that the life expectancy of an 18-year-old would increase by 3.76 life-years or 5.16 quality-adjusted years. Conclusions If past obesity trends continue unchecked, the negative effects on the health of the U.S. population will increasingly outweigh the positive effects gained from declining smoking rates. Failure to address continued increases in obesity could result in an erosion of the pattern of steady gains in health observed since early in the 20th century. PMID:19955525

  18. State smoking restrictions for private-sector worksites, restaurants, and bars--United States, 2004 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-23

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) contains more than 50 carcinogens and causes heart disease and lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. Eliminating smoking in indoor spaces is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure. Smoking restrictions limit smoking to certain areas within a venue; smoke-free policies prohibit smoking within the entire venue. A Healthy People 2010 objective (27-13) calls for establishing laws in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) that make indoor public places and worksites completely smoke-free. To assess progress toward meeting this objective, CDC reviewed the status of state laws restricting smoking in effect as of December 31, 2007, updating a 2005 study that reported on such laws as of December 31, 2004. This report summarizes the changes in state smoking restrictions for private-sector worksites, restaurants, and bars that occurred from 2004 to 2007. The findings indicated a substantial increase in the number and restrictiveness of state laws regulating smoking in these three settings, providing nonsmokers with increased protection from the health risks posed by SHS. If current trends continue, achieving the national health objective by 2010 might be possible.

  19. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than

  20. Behavioral and neural markers of cigarette-craving regulation in young-adult smokers during abstinence and after smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Dara G; Faulkner, Paul; M Cox, Chelsea; London, Edythe D

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette craving contributes substantially to the maintenance of tobacco use disorder. Behavioral strategies to regulate craving may facilitate smoking cessation but remain underexplored. We adapted an emotion-regulation strategy, using proximal/distal self-positioning, to the context of cigarette craving to examine craving regulation in 42, daily smokers (18-25 years old). After overnight abstinence from smoking, before and after smoking their first cigarette of the day, participants viewed videos of natural scenes presenting young adults who were either smoking cigarettes ("smoke") or not ("non-smoke"). Before each video, participants were instructed to imagine themselves either immersed in the scene ("close") or distanced from it ("far"). They rated their craving after each video. Task-based fMRI data are presented for a subsample of participants (N = 21). We found main effects of smoking, instruction, and video type on craving-lower ratings after smoking than before, following the "far" vs. "close" instructions, and when viewing non-smoke vs. smoke videos. Before smoking, "smoke" vs. "non-smoke" videos elicited activation in, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, mid-occipital cortex, ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, and midbrain. Smoking reduced activation in anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral temporal poles. Activation was reduced in the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex after the "far" vs. the "close" instruction, suggesting less engagement with the stimuli during distancing. The results indicate that proximal/distal regulation strategies impact cue-elicited craving, potentially via downregulation of the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, and that smoking during abstinence may increase cognitive control capacity during craving regulation.

  1. Frequency and characteristics associated with exposure to tobacco direct mail marketing and its prospective effect on smoking behaviors among young adults from the US Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L

    2014-11-01

    We examined the exposure to tobacco direct mail marketing and its effect on subsequent smoking behaviors in a US Midwest regional cohort of young adults. Data were collected from 2622 young adults (mean age = 24 years) in 2010 to 2011 (baseline) and 2011 to 2012 (follow-up). We collected information on demographics, tobacco use, and exposure to tobacco direct mail materials in the previous 6 months at baseline. Smoking behaviors were reassessed at follow-up. We investigated the characteristics associated with receiving these materials at baseline, and the associations between receiving cigarette coupons in the mail at baseline and smoking behaviors at follow-up. Thirteen percent of participants reported receiving tobacco direct mail materials in the previous 6 months. Receipt of these materials was associated with age, education, and tobacco use (P marketing promoted and sustained smoking behaviors among US Midwest young adults. Regulating this marketing strategy might reduce the prevalence of smoking in this population.

  2. Trends in Heart Disease Mortality among Mississippi Adults over Three Decades, 1980-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L Mendy

    Full Text Available Heart disease (HD remains the leading cause of death among Mississippians; however, despite the importance of the condition, trends in HD mortality in Mississippi have not been adequately explored. This study examined trends in HD mortality among adults in Mississippi from 1980 through 2013 and further examined these trends by race and sex. We used data from Mississippi Vital Statistics (1980-2013 to calculate age-adjusted HD mortality rates for Mississippians age 25 or older. Cases were identified using underlying cause of death codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9: 390-398, 402, 404-429 and Tenth Revision (ICD-10, including I00-I09, I11, I13, and I20-I51. Joinpoint software was used to calculate the average annual percent change in HD mortality rates for the overall population and by race and sex. Overall, the age-adjusted HD mortality rate among Mississippi adults decreased by 36.5% between 1980 and 2013, with an average annual percent change of -1.60% (95% CI -2.00 to -1.30. This trend varied across subgroups: HD mortality rates experienced an average annual change of -1.34% (95% CI -1.98 to -0.69 for black adults; -1.60% (95% CI -1.74 to -1.46 for white adults; -1.30% (95% CI -1.50 to -1.10 for all women, and -1.90% (95% -2.20 to -1.50 for all men. From 1980 to 2013, there was a continuous decrease in HD mortality among adult Mississippians. However, the magnitude of this reduction differed by race and sex.

  3. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was estimated using multiple linear regression adjusted for time and the presence of smoke-free legislation. The immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2006 smoke-free law on quit-ratio was estimated using segmented linear regression analysis. The analyses were performed separately in men and women with high and low education, respectively. No relationship was observed between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio, except in women having a low educational level, among whom a rise in price was associated with a decrease in quit-ratio. The smoke-free law altered the smoking quit-ratio in the short term and altered also pre-existing trends. Smoking quit-ratio increased immediately after the ban - though this increase was significant only among women with a low educational level - and then decreased in subsequent years except among men with a high educational level. A clear relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was not observed in a recent period. After the implementation of smoke-free legislation the trend in the quit ratio in most of the socio-economic groups was different from the trend observed before implementation, so existing inequalities in smoking quit-ratio were not widened or narrowed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New Zealand policy experts' appraisal of interventions to reduce smoking in young adults: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jude; Hoek, Janet; Tautolo, El Shadan; Gifford, Heather

    2017-12-10

    Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates. Participant selection was based on seniority and expertise and ensuring diverse perspectives were represented. We examined nine interventions that could either promote greater mindfulness or introduce barriers impeding smoking uptake: smoke-free outdoor dining and bars; no tobacco sales where alcohol is sold; social marketing campaigns; real life stories (testimonials); life skills training; raise purchase age to 21; tobacco-free generation; smokers' licence; make tobacco retail premises R18. The policies perceived as more effective denormalised tobacco; made it less convenient to access and use; highlighted immediate disadvantages (eg, impact on fitness); aligned with young people's values; and addressed the underlying causes of smoking (eg, stress). Participants highlighted some political barriers and noted concerns that some interventions might widen ethnic disparities. Exceptions were social marketing campaigns and extending smoke-free regulations to include outdoor areas of cafes and bars, which participants saw as politically feasible and likely to be effective. Our findings suggest the merit of an approach that combines social marketing with regulation that makes accessing and using tobacco less convenient for young adults; however, political barriers may limit the regulatory options available in the short term. Strategies to support self-determination and address the underlying causes of smoking in young people warrant further

  5. Association between Smoking and Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010 and 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ah-Young; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Shin, Jin-Young; Lee, Hae-Young

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease in Korean adults. The data were collected from 8,336 participants, aged between 20 and 64 years, who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (2010 and 2012). Smoking status was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Periodontal disease was defined as a community periodontal index ≥3 points. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, sex, education, monthly income, diabetes, obesity, alcohol intake, and frequency of tooth brushing. The risk of periodontal disease was higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.83) than never smokers. Among current smokers, the risk of periodontal disease was increased in smokers of ≥10 cigarettes/d, ≥20 years duration, and >10 pack-years compared with never smokers (Pperiodontal disease after 10 years since cessation declined to 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with current smokers and was indistinguishable statistically from never smokers. Periodontal disease is significantly associated with smoking status in Korean adults.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles© 2008 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy.

  7. Salivary calcium concentration and periodontal health of young adults in relation to tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutej, Ivana; Peros, Kristina; Benutic, Anica; Capak, Krunoslav; Basic, Kresimir; Rosin-Grget, Kata

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking and salivary calcium on the periodontal status of young adults. Plaque index, gingival bleeding on probing, supragingival calculus, DMFT index, salivary flow, pH and salivary calcium in unstimulated salivary samples were recorded in smokers and nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers with respect to salivary flow (P = 0.08) and calcium level (P = 0.09). Significant correlations (P smoking of tobacco cigarettes in young healthy subjects may not have a significant impact on salivary flow or calcium concentrations in unstimulated saliva, but an association exists between an increased level of salivary calcium and development of periodontal disease.

  8. Wreaking “Havoc” on Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Hong, Juliette S.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 25% of young adult Oklahomans smoked cigarettes in 2012. Tobacco marketing campaigns target young adults in social environments like bars/nightclubs. Social Branding interventions are designed to compete directly with this marketing. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to reduce smoking among young adult “Partiers” in Oklahoma. The Partier social subculture was described as follows: attendance at large nightclubs, fashion consciousness, valuing physical attractiveness, and achieving social status by exuding an image of confidence and financial success. Design Repeated cross-sectional study with three time points. Setting/Participants Randomized time location survey samples of young adult Partier bar and club patrons in Oklahoma City (Time 1 [2010], n=1,383; Time 2 [2011], 1,292; and Time 3 [2012], 1,198). Data were analyzed in 2013. Intervention The “HAVOC” Social Branding intervention was designed to associate a smoke-free lifestyle with Partiers’ values, and included events at popular clubs, brand ambassador peer leaders who transmit the anti-tobacco message, social media, and tailored anti-tobacco messaging. Main outcome measures Daily and nondaily smoking rates, and binge drinking rates (secondary). Results Overall, smoking rates did not change (44.1% at Time 1, 45.0% at Time 2, and 47.4% at Time 3 (p=0.17), but there was a significant interaction between intervention duration and brand recall. Partiers reporting intervention recall had lower odds of daily smoking (OR=0.30 [0.10, 0.95]) and no difference in nondaily smoking, whereas among Partiers without intervention recall had increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.74 [1.04, 2.89], nondaily AOR=1.97 [1.35, 2.87]). Among non-Partiers, those who recalled HAVOC reported no difference in smoking, and those who did not recall HAVOC reported significantly increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.53 [1.02, 2.31], nondaily AOR=1.72 [1.26, 2.36]). Binge drinking rates were significantly

  9. Adolescents and Young Adults' Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes as a Gateway to Smoking: A Qualitative Study in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) acting as a gateway to smoking traditional cigarettes (TCs) is a growing public health concern of EC use among youths. To gather the opinions and perceptions of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) on whether and how EC can act as a gateway to smoking TC among youths. A qualitative method included 42 AYAs. Participants…

  10. Declines and Plateaux in Smoking Prevalence Over Three Decades in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Christine; Tukana, Isimeli; Lin, Sophia; Taylor, Richard; Morrell, Stephen; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul

    2017-11-01

    To examine trends from 1980 to 2011 in daily tobacco smoking by sex, ethnicity, age, and urban/rural in Fiji Melanesian (i-Taukei) and Indian adults aged 25-64 years. Unit record data from five population-based surveys (n = 14 528) allowed classification of participants as: (1) never-smoker, ex-smoker, or non-daily smoker; or (2) daily smoker, reporting smoking Fiji in both sexes and ethnicities during the past 30 years, which is consistent with declines in tobacco apparent consumption and household expenditure. However, prevalence remains high in men at around 27% in 2011, with plateau at this level in i-Taukei. This is the first study to show nationally representative population trends in tobacco smoking in a developing country over such a long period (>30 years) based on empirical unit record data (n = 14 528). Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality throughout the Pacific Island region. This is the first study to show evidence of substantial declines over several decades in a cardiovascular disease risk factor in a Pacific Island country, and provides important evidence for further research into the interventions and events which may have facilitated this decline. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  11. Equity impact of population-level interventions and policies to reduce smoking in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    There is strong evidence about which tobacco control policies reduce smoking. However, their equity impact is uncertain. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of population-level interventions/policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adult smoking. Systematic review of studies of population-level interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in adults of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed. Results are presented in a narrative synthesis. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequality), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequality), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear. 117 studies of 130 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (44); price/tax (27); mass media campaigns (30); advertising controls (9); cessation support (9); settings-based interventions (7); multiple policies (4). The distribution of equity effects was: 33 positive, 36 neutral, 38 negative, 6 mixed, 17 unclear. Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Fourteen price/tax studies were equity positive. Voluntary, regional and partial smokefree policies were more likely to be equity negative than national, comprehensive smokefree policies. Mass media campaigns had inconsistent equity effects. Cigarette marketing controls were equity positive or neutral. Targeted national smoking cessation services can be equity positive by achieving higher reach among low SES, compensating for lower quit rates. Few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control policy/interventions. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for reducing smoking inequalities and to develop effective equity-orientated tobacco control strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Smoking cessation among European older adults: the contributions of marital and employment transitions by gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trias Llimós, Sergi; Muszynska, Magdalena M.; Cámara, Antonio D.; Janssen, Fanny

    Knowledge about the potential effects of stressful events on smoking cessation is helpful for the design of health interventions. Previous studies on this topic tended to group together adults of all ages and of both genders. We investigate the contribution of marital and employment losses on

  13. Smoking cessation among European older adults: the contributions of marital and employment transitions by gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trias Llimós, S.; Muszyńska, M.; Cámara, A.D.; Janssen, F.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the potential effects of stressful events on smoking cessation is helpful for the design of health interventions. Previous studies on this topic tended to group together adults of all ages and of both genders. We investigate the contribution of marital and employment losses on

  14. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Body Shape Concerns and Bulimia Symptoms Among Young Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Adams, Claire E.; Stewart, Diana W.; Baillie, Lauren E.; Copeland, and Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n = 184) and non-smokers (n = 56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p = .03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p = .006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored ≥ 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p = .05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females. PMID:19171320

  15. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  16. When You Smoke, They Smoke: Children's Rights and Opinions about Vehicular Smoking Bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Morgan Anne

    International law guarantees every person the highest attainable standard of health, and this should include protection from the health risks of environmental tobacco smoke. As knowledge of these risks has increased, there has been an incremental expansion of smoking bans in public space. Since 2007, they have extended to the private space of the motor vehicle in an attempt to protect child passengers. This thesis aimed to understand the views and interests of children and youth on vehicular smoking bans, and the extent to which these have been sought after and considered in previous discussions of this policy initiative in Canada. A print media analysis found a lack of concern for children's perspectives. Rights, when considered, were generally those of adults. In focus groups, children discussed the unfairness of exposure to smoke in any space, but especially within the motor vehicle, and articulated a desire for increased participation in decision-making. Keywords: Smoking, smoking bans, rights, children's opinions, vehicles, Canada.

  17. Nicotine dependence matters: examining longitudinal association between smoking and physical activity among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-11-01

    A number of studies point to the inverse relationship between physical activity and smoking; however, none has examined the role of nicotine dependence in physical activity participation among smokers. This study examined whether levels of nicotine dependence modify the association between leisure time physical activity and smoking status. The study used longitudinal data on 6795 adults from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (2004-2010). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between physical activity, smoking, and nicotine dependence. We found that nicotine dependent smokers were significantly less likely to be physically active compared to non-smokers. Specifically, using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine dependent smokers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.76) were less likely to be physically active while no significant difference was found for non-dependent smokers (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-1.02) compared to non-smokers. Nicotine dependence matters in shaping engagement in physical activity among daily smokers. Efforts directed at promoting smoking cessation through nicotine dependence treatment intervention may provide additional benefits to health and well-being through an increased participation in physical activity. © 2013.

  18. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with high anxiety sensitivity: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Powers, M.B.; Frierson, G.M.; Otto, M.W.; Hopkins, L.B.; Brown, R.A.; Baird, S.O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: High anxiety sensitivity predicts poor smoking cessation outcomes. Aerobic exercise reduces anxiety sensitivity and aspects of the risk conferred by anxiety sensitivity. In the current study, we examined whether exercise can aid smoking cessation in adults with high anxiety sensitivity.

  19. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  1. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (P<.001), employed (P=.002), never married (P=.002), and had higher education (P=.002) and income (P<.001) had the highest rates of ownership. Smartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors

  2. Effect of smoking scenes in films on immediate smoking: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. 100 cigarette smokers aged 18-25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a 10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR=3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR=6.73, 95% CI=1.00, 45.25, comparing the top to bottom 5th percentiles of exposure). Level of nicotine dependence (OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.27, 2.32 per point on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scale); contemplation (OR=9.07, 95% CI=1.71, 47.99) and precontemplation (OR=7.30, 95% CI=1.39, 38.36) stages of change; and impulsivity (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03, 1.43) were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... population of two Nigerian cities: Enugu and Ilorin. ... Keywords: Environmental tobacco smoke, Nigeria, secondhand smoke, smoking ban, tobacco control. Résumé ..... China,[20] 68% in Seoul city of South Korea[21] and.

  5. Post-quit stress mediates the relation between social support and smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Atem, Folefac; Ma, Ping; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E

    2016-06-01

    Social support interventions have demonstrated limited effectiveness for preventing smoking relapse. The stress-buffering hypothesis may be a useful framework by which to understand social support in smoking cessation interventions. The current study evaluated the interrelations among social support, stress, and smoking cessation in both moderation and mediation models. Participants (N=139) were enrolled in a smoking cessation study at the safety-net hospital in Dallas, Texas. During the week prior to a scheduled quit attempt, general social support was measured using the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) questionnaire and smoking-specific social support was measured via repeated smartphone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA). Post-quit stress was repeatedly assessed via smartphone. Logistic regression analyses evaluated potential interaction effects of pre-quit social support and post-quit stress on the likelihood of achieving biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 4 weeks post-quit. Mediation models were evaluated to determine if post-quit stress mediated the association between pre-quit social support and smoking cessation. Participants were predominantly Black (63.3%) and female (57.6%); and 55% reported an annual household income of social support did not significantly interact with post-quit stress to influence smoking cessation. However, post-quit stress did mediate associations between social support variables and smoking cessation. Findings indicated that social support impacts smoking cessation through its influence on post-quit stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults participating in cessation treatment. Increasing social support for the specific purpose of reducing stress during a quit attempt may improve smoking cessation rates in disadvantaged populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of brief smoking cessation education with expiratory carbon monoxide measurement on level of motivation to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Young; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Lee, Ok-Gyu

    2013-05-01

    Smoking rates among Korean adult males is still high despite multifaceted efforts to reduce it. In Korea, there have been several studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education for inpatients, health check-ups, and smoking cessation clinics. However, there haven't been any studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education conducted outside the hospital. This study investigated effectiveness of brief education on smoking cessation with an expiratory carbon monoxide (CO) measurement outside the hospital among adult male office-workers in Korea. From April 1st to May 10th, 2012, we conducted a controlled trial among 95 adult male office workers over the age of 19 who smoke outside, in a public place in Seoul by cluster sampling. For the education group, we provided smoking cessation education for about 5 to 10 minutes, measured the expiratory CO level, and made the subjects complete questionnaires, while only self-help materials on quitting smoking were given to the control group. After 4 weeks, we evaluated the change in the level of motivation or success to quit smoking in both groups via e-mail or mobile phone. In the education group, the level of motivation to quit smoking was improved significantly. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of improved motivation to quit smoking in the education group was 28.10 times higher than that of the control group. Brief education on smoking cessation with expiratory CO measurement conducted outside the hospital could enhance the level of motivation to quit smoking.

  7. Disparities and trends in indoor exposure to secondhand smoke among U.S. adolescents: 2000-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel T Agaku

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke (SHS exposure causes disease and death among nonsmokers. With a plethora of smoke-free legislation implemented and a steady decrease in cigarette consumption noted over the past decade in the U.S., this study assessed trends in indoor SHS exposure among U.S. adolescents in grades 6-12 during 2000-2009. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2000-2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey - a national survey of U.S. middle and high school students. SHS exposure within an indoor area within the past seven days was self-reported. Trends in indoor SHS exposure during 2000-2009 were assessed overall and by socio-demographic characteristics, using the Wald's test in a binary logistic regression. Within-group comparisons were performed using chi-squared statistics (p<0.05. RESULTS: The proportion of U.S. middle and high school students who were exposed to indoor SHS declined from 65.5% in 2000 to 40.5% in 2009 (p<0.05 for linear trend. Significant declines were also observed across all population subgroups. Between 2000 and 2009, prevalence of indoor SHS exposure declined significantly among both middle (58.5% to 34.3% and high school (71.5% to 45.4% students. Prevalence of indoor SHS exposure was significantly higher among girls (44.0% in 2009 compared to boys (37.2% in 2009 during each survey year. Similarly, prevalence of indoor SHS exposure during 2000-2009 was highest among non-Hispanic whites (44.2% in 2009 and lowest among non-Hispanic Asians (30.2% in 2009. During each survey year, prevalence was highest among the oldest age group (≥18 years and lowest among the youngest (9-11 years. Also, prevalence was significantly higher among current cigarette smokers (83.8% in 2009 compared to nonsmokers (34.0% in 2009. CONCLUSION: Significant declines in indoor SHS exposure among U.S. middle and high school students occurred during 2000-2009. While the results are encouraging, additional efforts are needed to further reduce youth

  8. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, S.; Neriishi, K.; Stevens, R.G.; Hosoda, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima, Japan who participated in the 1979-1981 period of the Adult Health Study, an ongoing health follow-up program of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers, levels of total protein, beta globulin, and gamma globulin were significantly lower and levels of alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin were significantly higher, when compared with nonsmokers. For serum albumin levels a decrease was also noted, but it failed to attain statistical significance. Ex-smokers were indistinguishable from nonsmokers in terms of the serum protein levels analyzed. With an increase of the amount of daily cigarette consumption, monotonic increases of serum levels were observed only in alpha-1 globulin. Duration of smoking was related to increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level, but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect, and its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins

  9. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  10. The role of reported tobacco-specific media exposure on adult attitudes towards proposed policies to limit the portrayal of smoking in movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, K; Blendon, Robert J; Vallone, Donna

    2010-06-01

    To assess the relative, independent contribution of reported tobacco-specific media exposure (pro-tobacco advertising, anti-tobacco advertising, and news coverage of tobacco issues) to US adults' support for policy efforts that aim to regulate the portrayal of smoking in movies. Using the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey (ASHES-2), multivariable logistic regression was used to model the predicted probability that US adults support movie-specific tobacco control policies, by reported exposure to tobacco-specific media messages, controlling for smoking status, education, income, race/ethnicity, age, sex, knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco and state. Across most outcome variables under study, findings reveal that reported exposure to tobacco-specific media messages is associated with adult attitudes towards movie-specific policy measures. Most exposure to tobacco information in the media (with the exception of pro-tobacco advertising on the internet) contributes independently to the prediction of adult support for movie-specific policies. The direction of effect follows an expected pattern, with reported exposure to anti-tobacco advertising and news coverage of tobacco predicting supportive attitudes towards movie policies, and reported exposure to pro-tobacco advertising lessening support for some movie policies, though the medium of delivery makes a difference. Media campaigns to prevent tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke have had value beyond the intended impact of single-issue campaigns; exposure to anti-tobacco campaigns and public dialogue about the dangers of tobacco seem also to be associated with shaping perceptions of the social world related to norms about tobacco, and ideas about regulating the portrayal of smoking in movies.

  11. Secondhand Smoke Exposure 7 Years After an Indoor Smoke-Free Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Claire, Ann W; Amato, Michael S; Boyle, Raymond G; Rode, Peter; Kinney, Ann M

    2018-01-01

    To examine locations of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmokers, 7 years after a statewide smoke-free policy. Data collected via statewide, random digit dial telephone survey. Response rates were 64.7% for landline and 73.5% for cell phone. Minnesota, 2014. Representative sample of 7887 nonsmoking adults. Self-reported locations of SHS exposure and opinions on smoke-free restrictions. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression. A total of 35.5% of nonsmokers reported SHS exposure in the past 7 days. The greatest proportion of exposure occurred in community settings (31.7%) followed by cars (6.9%) and in the home (3.2%). Young adults were more likely to be exposed in a home or car than older adults. Nonsmokers living with a smoker were 39.6 (20.6-75.8) times more likely to be exposed to SHS in their home and 5.3 (4.1-6.8) times more likely to be exposed in a car, compared to those who did not live with a smoker. SHS exposure continues after comprehensive smoke-free policies restricted it from public places. Disparities in exposure rates exist for those who live with a smoker, are young, and have low incomes. Findings suggest the need for additional policies that will have the greatest public health benefit.

  12. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  13. The effect of exposure to biomass smoke on respiratory symptoms in adult rural and urban Nepalese populations

    OpenAIRE

    Kurmi, Om P; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham S; Gaihre, Santosh; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Sadhra, Steven; Steiner, Markus FC; Simkhada, Padam; Smith, William CS; Ayres, Jon G

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of the world’s population is exposed to household air pollution from biomass burning. This study aimed to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms and biomass smoke exposure in rural and urban Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study of adults (16+ years) in a rural population (n = 846) exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed urban population (n = 802) in Nepal. A validated questionnaire was used along with measures of indoor air quality (PM2.5 and CO) and outdoor...

  14. Disparities in current cigarette smoking prevalence by type of disability, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S

    2014-05-01

    Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. We used data from the 2009-2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18-49 years. Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, p<0.001). Among adults with disabilities, the prevalence of smoking ranged from 32.4% (self-care difficulty) to 43.8% (cognitive limitation). When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, having a disability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking among Low-Income Adults Residing in New York City Public Housing Developments-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, A; Lopez, P M; Wyka, K; Islam, N; Seidl, L; Drackett, E; Mata, A; Pinzon, J; Baker, M R; Lopez, J; Trinh-Shevrin, C; Shelley, D; Bailey, Z; Maybank, K A; Thorpe, L E

    2017-08-01

    To guide targeted cessation and prevention programming, this study assessed smoking prevalence and described sociodemographic, health, and healthcare use characteristics of adult smokers in public housing. Self-reported data were analyzed from a random sample of 1664 residents aged 35 and older in ten New York City public housing developments in East/Central Harlem. Smoking prevalence was 20.8%. Weighted log-binomial models identified to be having Medicaid, not having a personal doctor, and using health clinics for routine care were positively associated with smoking. Smokers without a personal doctor were less likely to receive provider quit advice. While most smokers in these public housing developments had health insurance, a personal doctor, and received provider cessation advice in the last year (72.4%), persistently high smoking rates suggest that such cessation advice may be insufficient. Efforts to eliminate differences in tobacco use should consider place-based smoking cessation interventions that extend cessation support beyond clinical settings.

  16. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  17. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1–5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6–29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicat...

  18. Trends in cigarette smoking in the German centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): the influence of the educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Becker, Nikolaus; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner

    2003-04-01

    Several studies in Germany and other European countries have already shown smoking prevalence to be related to education. This study was aimed to investigate time trends in smoking habits in the German cohorts Heidelberg and Potsdam of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) according to sex, birth cohort, and level of education. Within EPIC, 25,546 and 27,548 participants were recruited in Heidelberg and Potsdam, respectively. Data on smoking were collected by means of a computer-guided interview during the baseline examination between 1994 and 1998. For each birth cohort smoking prevalence and mean number of cigarettes smoked per day at different ages were calculated. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for associations between smoking prevalence and educational level were computed by using logistic regression. Smoking prevalence was higher among men than among women, with a smaller difference in younger birth cohorts. Between 1950 and 1960, smoking prevalence among women in the Heidelberg cohort rose sharply (from 12.8% to 51.8% in the least educated group). This strong increase was delayed by 10 years in the Potsdam cohort. Men and women in Heidelberg smoked more cigarettes per day than their counterparts in Potsdam, but in both study centers less educated subjects smoked more than subjects with a higher education. Smoking patterns in the Potsdam and Heidelberg cohorts are quite similar with respect to prevalence and years of lifetime smoking. Since an increasing difference between smoking prevalence of less and high educated individuals is observable, programs on smoking cessation should especially concentrate on persons of lower educational level.

  19. A prospective study of trends in consumption of cigarettes and alcohol among adults in a rural Ugandan population cohort, 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiki, Gershim; Baisley, Kathy; Kamali, Anatoli; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Seeley, Janet; Newton, Robert

    2015-04-01

    To characterise trends over time in smoking and alcohol consumption in a rural Ugandan population between 1994 and 2011. We used self-reported data from a long-standing population cohort - the General Population Cohort. From 1989 to 1999, the study population comprised about 10 000 residents of 15 adjacent villages. From 1999, 10 more villages were added, doubling the population. Among adults (≥13 years, who comprise about half of the total study population), data on smoking were collected in 1994/1995, 2008/2009 and in 2010/2011. Data on alcohol were collected in 1996/1997, 2000/2001, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The reported prevalence of smoking among men was 17% in 1994/1995, 14% in 2008/2009 and 16% in 2010/2011; equivalent figures for women were 1.5%, 1% and 2%. In the most recent time period, for both sexes combined, prevalence of smoking increased from 1.5% in those aged <29 years, to 18% in those 50+ years (P < 0.001); prevalence was 14.8% in the lowest tertile of socio-economic status, decreasing to 3.7% in the highest (P < 0.001). For alcohol consumption, current drinking was reported by 39% in 1996/1997, 35% in 2000/2001 and 28% in 2010/2011; men were more likely to drink than women (32.9% vs. 23.5% in 2010/2011) and consumption increased with age (P < 0.001); and was associated with low socio-economic status, riskier sexual behaviour and being HIV positive (P < 0.001). In this rural Ugandan population, consumption of cigarettes and alcohol is higher among men than women, increases with age and is more frequent among those with low socio-economic status. We find no evidence of increases in either exposure over time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with smoking, not with alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol use can affect the presentation and course of psoriasis. There is a paucity of data on this subject from India. Aims: To find out whether increased severity of psoriasis in adult Indian males is associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the Department of Dermatology of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Male patients above 18 years of age attending a psoriasis clinic between March 2007 and May 2009 were studied. Severity of psoriasis (measured using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI among smokers and non-smokers was compared. We also studied the correlation between severity of psoriasis and nicotine dependence (measured using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and alcohol use disorders (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test- AUDIT. Statistical Analysis: Z-test, Odd′s ratio, Chi-square test, Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 338 patients, 148 were smokers and 173 used to consume alcohol. Mean PASI score of smokers was more than that of non-smokers (Z-test, z = −2.617, P = 0.009. Those with severe psoriasis were more likely to be smokers (χ2 = 5.47, P = 0.02, OR = 1.8, Confidence Interval 1.09-2.962. There was a significant correlation between PASI scores and Fagerström score (Spearman′s correlation coefficient = 0.164, P 0.05. Conclusions: Increased severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with tobacco smoking, but not with alcohol use.

  1. Associations of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity) with type 2 diabetes among American adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Kesheng; Maisonet, Mildred; Wang, Liang; Zheng, Shimin

    2017-09-01

    Over the long term, unhealthy lifestyles can lead to many health problems, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present study was to determine associations between lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet) and T2D in American adults (aged ≥20 years) in a nationally representative sample. Data for 12 987 American adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014 were evaluated. Weighted multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the four lifestyle factors and T2D after adjusting for demographics and socioeconomic status (SES). Prevalence trends for T2D were examined using Cochran-Armitage tests. There was a significant increasing prevalence trend for T2D among American adults. Smokers and individuals consuming >12 alcoholic drinks in the past year were less likely to report having T2D than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.48) and those consuming diet were more likely to report having T2D than those eating an excellent diet (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02-1.41). All these relationships remained significant after adjustment for demographics and SES. All four lifestyle factors were significantly associated with T2D among American adults. The findings of the present study provide useful information for healthcare providers that may help them promote specific lifestyle modifications. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Smoke-Free Universities Help Students Avoid Establishing Smoking by Means of Facilitating Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to clarify whether smoke-free policies affect the initiation or the quit­ting of smoking among young adults. Methods: In this natural quasi-experiment study, three universities with different enforcement of smoke-free policies were considered in Kazan City, Russian Federation. Exposure data were collected in 2008-2009 through measurement of particulate matter concentrations in typical sets of premises in each university to distinguish smoke-free universities (SFU and those not smoke-free (NSFU. All present third year students were surveyed in class in April-June 2011. Number of valid questionnaires equaled 635. The questionnaire was adapted from the Health Professions Students Survey and con­tained questions on smoking initiation, current tobacco use, willingness to quit, quit attempts, percep­tion of smoke-free policies enforcement, and the demographic data. Results: Among students of SFU, the percentage of current smokers was smaller than in NSFU: 42% vs. 64% in men and 32% vs. 43% in women. Prevalence of daily smoking was 11-12% in SFU, 26% in NSFU overall and 42% among male students. No advantage of SFU in limiting smoking initiation was found. Percentage of former smokers in SFU was 33% vs. 10% in NSFU. Among current smokers, 57% expressed willingness to quit in SFU and only 28% in NSFU. About 60% of current smokers in SFU attempted to quit within a year and only 36% did so in NSFU with 23% vs. 3% having done three or more attempts. Conclusion: Smoke-free universities help young adults to avoid establishing regular smoking by means of facilitating quitting smoking.

  3. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  4. Psychosocial factors associated with non-smoking adolescents' intentions to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N; Bean, Melanie K; Mitchell, Karen S; Speizer, Ilene S; Fries, Elizabeth A

    2007-04-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents' smoking intentions. Participants from three high schools (n = 785) were surveyed to assess smoking-related characteristics and behaviors as part of a statewide evaluation of tobacco prevention programming. Attitudes, subjective norms (and other normative factors) and perceived behavioral control were all associated with non-smokers' intentions to smoke. Having more favorable attitudes toward remaining tobacco free and perceiving that friends would not be supportive of smoking were both associated with decreased likelihood of intending to smoke. Normative influence and peer use were significant factors, such that having more friends who smoke was associated with increased odds of intent to smoke. Lastly, perceived difficulty to quit was related to smoking intentions, with higher confidence to quit significantly associated with intentions to smoke. Findings are consistent with the TPB--attitudes, normative factors and perceived behavioral control each helped account for non-smoking adolescents' intentions to smoke. Implications for theory and intervention building are discussed.

  5. The association of current smoking behavior with the smoking behavior of parents, siblings, friends and spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association of current smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults with the smoking behavior of their parents, siblings, friends and spouses. Design: Using survey data from a large twin-family sample, the association between the smoking behavior of participants and that of

  6. Protecting workers from secondhand smoke in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Marcus; Malek, Sally Herndon; Shopland, Donald R; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to job-related secondhand smoke represents a significant, but entirely preventable occupational health risk to non-smoking workers. This article examines trends in smoke-free workplace policies in North Carolina. We also examine whether workers comply with such policies. Data from the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey were analyzed from 1992 through 2002. Trends for North Carolina workers are compared with workers nationally and trends are presented by age, race, gender, and type of worker. North Carolina ranks 35th in the proportion of its workforce reporting a smoke-free place of employment. The proportion of workers reporting such a policy doubled between 1992 and 2002. Females were more likely to reporta smoke-free work environment (72.0%, CI +/- 2.6) than males (61.2%, CI +/- 4.6%). Blue-collar (55.6%, CI +/- 5.5) and service workers (61.2%, CI +/- 8.4), especially males, were less likely to report a smoke-free worksite than white-collar workers (73.4%, CI +/- 2.6). Compliance with a smoke-free policy does not appear to be an issue, only 3.2% of workers statewide reported someone had violated their company's nonsmoking policy While some progress has been made in North Carolina to protect workers from secondhand smoke, significant disparities exist. Smoke-free policies can make a significant difference in reducing exposure to airborne toxins and their associated diseases, and these protective public health policies have not been shown to reduce business revenues. Much has been done to assure the health and safety of workers through public health policy However, opportunities to protect North Carolina workers from the health effects of secondhand smoke are limited by a preemptive state law.

  7. The effect of e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael T; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the effect of county-level e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes using United States birth record data for 7 million pregnant women living in places already comprehensively banning the indoor use of traditional cigarettes. We use both cross-sectional and panel data to estimate our difference-in-difference models. Our panel model results suggest that adoption of a comprehensive indoor vaping restriction increased prenatal smoking by 2.0 percentage points, which is double the estimate obtained from a cross-sectional model. We also document heterogeneity in effect sizes along lines of age, education, and type of insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1...... in showing that smoking is a strong independent risk factor of cardiovascular events and mortality even at older age, advancing cardiovascular mortality by more than five years, and demonstrating that smoking cessation in these age groups is still beneficial in reducing the excess risk....

  9. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  10. Tobacco direct mail marketing and smoking behaviors in a cohort of adolescents and young adults from the U.S. upper Midwest: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the characteristics of adolescents and young adults who received tobacco direct mail materials and the association of receiving these materials with subsequent smoking behaviors. Adolescents from the upper Midwest region of the United States were sampled through clustered random sampling in 2000 and surveyed every 6 months. Participants (n = 3546) were asked at baseline (October 2006-March 2007) whether they had received direct mail materials from tobacco companies during the previous 6 months. Smoking behaviors were assessed 6 months later (April-September 2007). We assessed associations between demographics and receiving tobacco direct mail materials at baseline and the association of receiving these materials with smoking behaviors at follow-up, stratified by baseline smoking status. Overall, 5.2% of nonsmokers and 23.9% of current smokers in our sample received tobacco direct mail materials during the past 6 months (2.6% and 17.1% among nonsmokers and smokers smoked more cigarettes during the previous 30 days at follow-up (p smoked during the past 30 days at follow up (p marketing. Exposure to this market strategy is associated with faster escalation of cigarette consumption among nonsmokers and lower likelihood of smoking reduction among smokers in this adolescent and young adult sample.

  11. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The data of 7,801 adults aged 19 years and over collected during the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Information on smoking habits and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was obtained by self-reports using a standardized questionnaire. Risks of environmental tobacco smoke exposure conferred by sociodemographic variables and behavioral risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression methods. Results Overall, 36.1% of nonsmokers (defined as those not currently smoking and 50.1% of current smokers were found to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke either at work or at home. Among the nonsmokers, women were more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 5.22, 95%CI, 4.08-6.67. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between education level and the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (OR = 1.73, 95%CI, 1.38-2.17 for those with a high school education; OR = 2.30, 95%CI, 1.68-3.16 for those with a middle school education; and OR = 2.58, 95%CI, 1.85-3.59 for those with less than an elementary school education vs. those with a college education or more. In addition, those with office, sales service, or manual labor jobs were found to be at significantly higher risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work than those with professional, administrative, or managerial jobs. Also, the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace was significantly higher for alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (OR = 1.23, 95%CI, 1.07-1.47. After adjusting

  12. Adolescent Psychological and Social Predictors of Young Adult Smoking Acquisition and Cessation: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Bricker, J.B.; Liu, J.M.; Comstock, B.A.; Peterson, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A 10-year follow-up study to test the extent to which theory-based adolescent psychological and social factors directly predict and moderate the prediction of young adult smoking acquisition and cessation. Design: A prospective community-based sample. A total of 2,970 adolescents

  13. Smoking behaviors and attitudes during adolescence prospectively predict support for tobacco control policies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2012-07-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. This study's findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.

  14. Problems with cigarette smoking and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W; Ma, W; Zhu, Q; Chen, H; Tang, L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China, as causes for failure to control smoking. Environmental monitoring and population survey. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements were conducted in randomly selected public places (restaurants, non-alcoholic drink shops and internet bars) and exposure-related health hazards were evaluated. University students and adult citizens were randomly selected to determine their extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitude towards the ban of smoking in public places. The collected data were used to evaluate possible causes and solutions to the smoking problem. From PM2.5 measurements, the average indoor to outdoor concentrations in non-smoking restaurants were 33.4 vs. 30.6 μg/m(3), P > 0.05; average indoor of smoking restaurants was 350.0% higher, P  0.001. From our survey of 1100 university students: 1) 17.5% and 7.5% were active male and female smokers, respectively; and 2) 57.5% of students would accept a smoke-ban policy. From 502 adult citizens: 1) 27.5% were active male smokers; 2) Approximately 40 and 60% had inadequate knowledge of health hazards from smoking and second-hand smoke exposure; and 3) >90% of them would accept a smoke-ban policy. Our data indicate that failure to ban smoking was not caused by resistance from smokers but inadequate (national and local) government effort to educate the public and to enforce existing policy. The data suggest that development of a citizen-based approach, in collaboration with willing officials, may be highly successful in the control of cigarette smoking in China. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trend differences in men and women in rural and urban U.S. settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Benito, A; Doogan, N J; Redner, R; Roberts, M E; Kurti, A N; Villanti, A C; Lopez, A A; Quisenberry, A J; Stanton, C A; Gaalema, D E; Keith, D R; Parker, M A; Higgins, S T

    2018-04-05

    Smoking prevalence is declining at a slower rate in rural than urban settings in the United States (U.S.), and known predictors of smoking do not readily account for this trend difference. Given that socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of health disparities accumulate in rural settings and that life-course disadvantages are often greater in women than men, we examined whether smoking trends are different for rural and urban men and women. We used yearly cross-sectional data (n = 303,311) from the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2007 through 2014 to compare cigarette smoking trends in men and women across rural and urban areas. Current smoking status was modelled using logistic regression controlling for confounding risk factors. Regression derived graphs predicting unadjusted prevalence estimates and 95% confidence bands revealed that whereas the smoking trends of rural men, urban men, and urban women significantly declined from 2007 to 2014, the trend for rural women was flat. Controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial predictors of smoking did not explain rural women's significantly different trend from those of the other three groups. Rural women lag behind rural men, urban men and urban women in decreasing smoking, a health disparity finding that supports the need for tobacco control and regulatory policies and interventions that are more effective in reducing smoking among rural women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Formative research on creating smoke-free homes in rural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Butler, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The home is a significant place for exposure to secondhand smoke for children and non-smoking adults. This study explored factors that would convince families to adopt household smoking bans and actions to create and maintain smoke-free homes. Interviews were conducted with adults in 102 households in rural Georgia. Participating families had a young adolescent and included households with a mix of smokers and non-smokers and smoking ban status. Families reported they would consider a total b...

  17. Development of a Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention for Smoking Cessation Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Dzubur, Eldin; Blackman, Kacie C A; Mays, Vickie; Shoptaw, Steven; Huh, Jimi

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a preventable risk factor that contributes to unnecessary lung cancer burden among Korean Americans and there is limited research on effective smoking cessation strategies for this population. Smartphone-based smoking cessation apps that leverage just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) hold promise for smokers attempting to quit. However, little is known about how to develop and tailor a smoking cessation JITAI for Korean American emerging adult (KAEA) smokers. This paper documents the development process of MyQuit USC according to design guidelines for JITAI. Our development process builds on findings from a prior ecological momentary assessment study by using qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to inform which intervention options to offer and the decision rules that dictate their delivery. Qualitative findings highlighted that (1) smoking episodes are highly context-driven and that (2) KAEA smokers believe they need personalized cessation strategies tailored to different contexts. Thus, MyQuit USC operates via decision rules that guide the delivery of personalized implementation intentions, which are contingent on dynamic factors, to be delivered "just in time" at user-scheduled, high-risk smoking situations. Through an iterative design process, informed by quantitative and qualitative formative research, we developed a smoking cessation JITAI tailored specifically for KAEA smokers. Further testing is under way to optimize future versions of the app with the most effective intervention strategies and decision rules. MyQuit USC has the potential to provide cessation support in real-world settings, when KAEAs need them the most.

  18. National estimates and correlates of secondhand smoke exposure in US cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfar, Taghrid; Arheart, Kristopher L; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Byrne, Margaret M; Dietz, Noella A; Chen, Charles Jeng; Lee, David J

    2017-08-01

    Cancer survivors comprise a vulnerable population for exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). This study examined and compared the prevalence, time trends, and predictors of SHS exposure between nonsmoking adult cancer survivors and nonsmoking adults without cancer history (control group). Data were obtained from the 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (survivors: n = 2168; controls: n = 19,436). All adults ≥20 years of age who reported not smoking and had a serum cotinine level of 0.015-10 ng/mL were included in the study. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals, weighted linear regression of prevalence on year for trend analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed with adjustments made for the complex survey design. Survivors were significantly less likely to be exposed to SHS (65.4 vs. 70.6%, respectively). Exposure over time decreased by 16% (from 67.1% in 2001 to 53.3% in 2012) among survivors and by 24% (from 72% in 2001 to 56% in 2012) among controls. Exposed survivors were more likely to be young (OR = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.97-0.99]), non-Hispanic Black (2.51 [1.49-4.26]), with some college education (2.47 [1.56-3.93]), a high school education (2.72 [1.76-4.19]), less than a high school education (2.49 [1.58-3.91]), and poor (1.80 [1.10-2.96]). Considerable numbers of US cancer survivors are exposed to SHS and exposure disparities persist. More efforts are needed to develop and test population policies and clinical-based interventions targeting cancer survivors.

  19. Trends in smoking, diet, physical exercise, and attitudes toward health in European university students from 13 countries, 1990-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Cui, Weiwei; Bellisle, France; Zotti, Anna-Maria; Baranyai, Reka; Sanderman, Robert

    2002-08-01

    Smoking, diet, and physical exercise are key determinants of health. This study assessed changes over 10 years and their relationship to changes in health beliefs and risk awareness. A survey was carried out of university students from 13 European countries (Belgium, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Spain) in 1990 (4,701 men, 5,729 women) and repeated in 2000 (4,604 men, 5,732 women). We assessed smoking, exercise, fruit and fat intake, beliefs in the importance of behaviors for health, and awareness of the influence of behaviors on heart disease risk. Smoking prevalence increased and fruit consumption decreased between 1990 and 2000, while physical exercise and fat intake were more stable. There were large variations between country samples. Health beliefs weakened, with marked decreases in beliefs about smoking and diet. Across country samples, changes in beliefs correlated with changes in the prevalence of behaviors. Awareness of the effects of smoking and exercise was stable, but knowledge of the role of fat intake increased over the decade. The differences in health behaviors, beliefs, and risk awareness between the two surveys were disappointing in this educated sector of young adult Europeans. The association between changes in beliefs and prevalence of behavior emphasizes the importance of enhancing positive attitudes to healthier lifestyles.

  20. Implementation of a campus-wide Irish hospital smoking ban in 2009: prevalence and attitudinal trends among staff and patients in lead up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    We report the evidence base that supported the decision to implement the first campus-wide hospital smoking ban in the Republic of Ireland with effect from 1 January 2009. Three separate data sources are utilized; surveillance data collected from patients and staff in 8 surveys between 1997 and 2006, a 1-week observational study to assess smoker behaviour in designated smoking shelters and an attitudinal interview with 28 smoker patients and 30 staff on the implications of the 2004 indoors workplace smoking ban, conducted in 2005. The main outcome measures were trends in prevalence of smoking over time according to age, sex and occupational groups and attitudes to the 2004 ban and a projected outright campus ban. Smoking rates among patients remained steady, 24.2% in 1997\\/98 and 22.7% in 2006. Staff smoking rates declined from 27.4% to 17.8%, with a strong occupational gradient. Observational evidence suggested a majority of those using smoking shelters in 2005 were women and health-care workers rather than patients. Attitudes of patients and staff were positive towards the 2004 ban, but with some ambivalence on the effectiveness of current arrangements. Staff particularly were concerned with patient safety issues associated with smoking outdoors. The 2004 ban was supported by 87.6% of patients and 81.3% of staff in 2006 and a majority of 58.6% of patients and 52.4% of staff agreed with an outright campus ban being implemented. These findings were persuasive in instigating a process in 2007\\/08 to go totally smoke-free by 2009, the stages for which are discussed.

  1. Effect of chronic smoking on lens nucleus as assessed by Pentacam HR lens densitometry in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, Gökhan; Cetin, Ebru Nevin; Acer, Semra; Yagci, Ramazan; Altintas, Seher; Ongun, Gülin Tugba

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of chronic tobacco smoking on lens nucleus by Pentacam HR lens densitometry (LD) in young adults. Prospective cross-sectional case series. Thirty subjects (23 M, 7 F) who were chronic cigarette smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day for at least 2 years) (group 1) and another 30 subjects (23 M, 7 F) who did not smoke (group 2), were included in this study. The patients were matched for age and sex between the groups. The exclusion criteria were any history of ocular surgery, any systemic disorders and any ocular diseases except for mild refractive disorders. Lens densitometry measurements were done with the Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). The Schirmer test and pachymetry measurements were also performed. Mean age of the patients for both groups was 28.90 ± 8.20 years (range: 18-40 years). Mean lens densitometry (LD) measurements of Group 1 (chronic cigarette smoking group) were higher than those of Group 2 (control group) in all LD techniques; however only mean "peak" LD measurements showed a statistically significant difference between these two groups (Group 1: 8.67 ± 0.61, Group 2: 8.44 ± 0.70, p = 0.04). The mean Schirmer test value was 12.43 ± 5.60 mm in Group 1 and 13.00 ± 4.26 mm in Group 2 (p = 0.55). The mean central corneal thickness (CCT) value was 564.23 ± 34.61 µm in Group 1 and 550.47 ± 32.94 µm in Group 2 (p = 0.03). The Pentacam HR LD seems to be an important option for the evaluation of lens nucleus in young adults, because it gives objective and quantitative data. Although chronic smoking increases lens nucleus density in young adults, the effect is not statistically significant when compared with the control group.

  2. Non-Formal Adult Learning Programs at Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: Trends, Issues, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Dale; Curran, Vernon; Hollett, Ann

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent policy reports have suggested that Canadian universities and community colleges should play a more significant role in response to the adult education and training needs of Canada's workforce. This article discusses the results of a study that examined investment trends and the characteristics of non-formal adult learner…

  3. Educational inequalities in smoking: the role of initiation versus quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralani, Vida

    2013-05-01

    The existing literature on educational inequalities in adult smoking has focused extensively on differences in current smoking and quitting, rather than on differences in never smoking regularly (initiation) by education in the adult population. Knowing the relative contribution of initiation versus quitting is critical for understanding the mechanisms that produce educational gradients in smoking because initiation and quitting occur at different points in the life course. Using data from 31 waves of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (N = 587,174), the analyses show the relative likelihood of being a never versus former smoker by education, sex, and age from 1966 to 2010 and for birth cohorts from 1920 to 1979. The analyses also describe differences in the cumulative probability of quitting over the life course, and the role of initiation versus quitting in producing educational gaps in smoking. The results show that educational gaps in never smoking explain the bulk of the educational inequality in adult smoking. Differences in former smoking play a small and decreasing role in producing these gaps. This is true across the life course, whether measured at age 25 or age 50, and for both men and women. While the prevalence and age patterns of former smoking by education converge across birth cohorts, differences in never smoking by education increase dramatically. At the population level, educational gaps in adult smoking are produced by the combination of inequalities in initiation and quitting, with differences in initiation playing a larger role in producing the observed gaps. The portion of the gap explained by differences in quitting is itself a function of educational differences in initiation. Thus, educational gradients in adult smoking are tethered to experiences in adolescence. These findings have important implications for both understanding and addressing disparities in this important health behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Ecological analysis of secular trends in low birth weight births and adult height in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Urayama, Kevin Yuji; Yoshii, Keisuke; Subramanian, S V; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan. LBW rates exhibited a U-shaped pattern showing reductions until 1978-1979 (5.5%), after which it increased. Conversely, average adult height peaked for those born during the same period (men, 171.5 cm; women, 158.5 cm), followed by a reduction over the next 20 years. LBW rate and adult height showed a strong inverse correlation (men, r=-0.98; women, r=-0.88). A prediction model based on birth and economical characteristics estimated the national average of adult height would continue to decline, to 170.0cm (95% CI 169.6 to 170.3) for men and 157.9cm (95% CI 157.5 to 158.3) for women among those born in 2014. Adult height in Japan has started to decline for those born after 1980, a trend that may be attributed to increases in LBW births over time. Considering the known association between shorter adult height and adverse health outcomes, evidence of population-level decline in adult health due to long-term consequences of increasing LBW births in Japan is anticipated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  6. Effects of the economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Ghislandi, Simone; Muttarak, Raya

    2015-01-01

    Scanty and controversial information is available on the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on smoking behaviour. No study has quantified the effects of fiscal crises on smoking prevalence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 2007-2008 economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA. Using data from the repeated Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys in pre-crisis (2005-2007) and post-crisis (2009-2010) periods on a total of 1,981,607 US adults, we separated the expected (after allowance for the demographic growth of the US population, secular smoking prevalence trends and changes in sociodemographic characteristics) from the unexpected (assumed attributable to the economic crisis) changes in the number of smokers across different employment statuses. Joinpoint regression analysis revealed no significant changes in smoking prevalence trends over the period 2005-2010. The crisis resulted in an increase in the number of smokers in the US by 0.6 million. This is largely due to an unexpected decrease of 1.7 million smokers among employed and an increase of 2.4 million smokers among unemployed individuals, whose smoking prevalence also remains extremely high in the post-crisis period (32.6%). The 2008 financial crisis had a weak effect on smoking prevalence. The pro-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a lower number of smokers) found among the employed is offset by the counter-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a higher number of smokers) found among unemployed individuals. Public health interventions should specifically target those in unemployment, particularly in hard times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. The effect of exposure to biomass smoke on respiratory symptoms in adult rural and urban Nepalese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmi, Om P; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham S; Gaihre, Santosh; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Sadhra, Steven; Steiner, Markus F C; Simkhada, Padam; Smith, William C S; Ayres, Jon G

    2014-11-06

    Half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from biomass burning. This study aimed to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms and biomass smoke exposure in rural and urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study of adults (16+ years) in a rural population (n = 846) exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed urban population (n = 802) in Nepal. A validated questionnaire was used along with measures of indoor air quality (PM2.5 and CO) and outdoor PM2.5. Both men and women exposed to biomass smoke reported more respiratory symptoms compared to those exposed to clean fuel. Women exposed to biomass were more likely to complain of ever wheeze (32.0 % vs. 23.5%; p = 0.004) and breathlessness (17.8% vs. 12.0%, p = 0.017) compared to males with tobacco smoking being a major risk factor. Chronic cough was similar in both the biomass and non-biomass smoke exposed groups whereas chronic phlegm was reported less frequently by participants exposed to biomass smoke. Higher PM2.5 levels (≥2 SDs of the 24-hour mean) were associated with breathlessness (OR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.47, 2.99) and wheeze (1.76, 1.37, 2.26). The study suggests that while those exposed to biomass smoke had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, urban dwellers (who were exposed to higher ambient air pollution) were more at risk of having productive cough.

  8. Racial and non-racial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults 10 years after apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-11-01

    Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. This analysis examined chronic (day-to-day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and non-racial (eg, age, gender or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health study. Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.85) and chronic non-racial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and non-racial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Racial and non-racial discrimination may be related to South African adults' smoking behaviour, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalisability and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Disparities in Current Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Type of Disability, 2009–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. Methods We used data from the 2009–2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18–49 years. Results Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, pdisability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). Conclusions The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur. PMID:24791023

  10. Average sperm count remains unchanged despite reduction in maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, L; Nordkap, L; Bang, A K

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smoking in utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm...... temporal trends. Parental age increased, and exposure in utero to maternal smoking declined from 40% among men investigated in 1996-2000 to 18% among men investigated in 2011-2016. Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed...... counts was observed during the study period despite a decrease in this exposure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Meta-analyses suggest a continuous decline in semen quality but few studies have investigated temporal trends in unselected populations recruited and analysed with the same protocol over a long period...

  11. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X X; Zhao, Y; Huang, L X; Xu, H X; Liu, X Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, P J; Zhang, Y H

    2018-04-01

    To determine the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China. Cross-sectional study. In total, 4614 subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, performed between 2008 and 2012. The present study examined males aged ≥18 years from northwest rural China (n = 707). Data on current smoking and drinking status were collected. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile. Age, ethnic group, educational background, smoking (or alcohol consumption), waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were adjusted as confounders. Total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides (TG)/HDL-C ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, whereas HDL-C was lower in smokers. TG/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, lipid accumulation product and VAI were significantly higher in drinkers than non-drinkers. After adjustment for confounders, significant relationships were observed between smoking status and any dyslipidemia, low HDL-C and high VAI (odds ratios [ORs]: 2.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.25-5.15], 6.13 [95% CI: 2.84-13.25] and 4.39 [95% CI: 2.02-9.54], respectively). The OR for any dyslipidaemia was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.09-3.48) for subjects who smoke and drank alcohol compared with subjects who did not smoke or drink alcohol. Abnormalities in lipid profile are correlated with smoking and alcohol consumption, which calls for intervention strategies to prevent dyslipidaemia and control risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. MTHFR methylation moderates the impact of smoking on DNA methylation at AHRR for African American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Ong, Mei Ling; Brody, Gene H; Dogan, Meeshanthini V; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Smoking has been shown to have a large, reliable, and rapid effect on demethylation of AHRR, particularly at cg05575921, suggesting that methylation may be used as an index of cigarette consumption. Because the availability of methyl donors may also influence the degree of demethylation in response to smoking, factors that affect the activity of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key regulator of methyl group availability, may be of interest. In the current investigation, we examined the extent to which individual differences in methylation of MTHFR moderated the association between smoking and demethylation at cg05575921 as well as at other loci on AHRR associated with a main effect of smoking. Using a discovery sample (AIM, N = 293), and a confirmatory sample (SHAPE, N = 368) of young adult African Americans, degree of methylation of loci in the first exon of MTHFR was associated with amplification of the association between smoking and AHRR demethylation at cg05575921. However, genetic variation at a commonly studied MTHFR variant, C677T, did not influence cg05575921 methylation. The significant interaction between MTHFR methylation and the smoking-induced response at cg05575921 suggests a role for individual differences in methyl cycle regulation in understanding the effects of cigarette consumption on genome wide DNA methylation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An Exploration of the Perspectives of Associate Nurse Unit Managers Regarding the Implementation of Smoke-free Policies in Adult Mental Health Inpatient Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Tania D; Cross, Wendy; Munro, Ian

    2018-04-01

    In Adult Mental Health Inpatient Units, it is not unexpected that leadership of Associate Nurse Unit Managers contributes to successful implementation of smoke-free policies. In light of challenges facing mental health nursing, and limited research describing their leadership and the role it plays in addressing smoke-free policy implementation, the aim of this study is to explore Associate Nurse Unit Managers perspectives' regarding the implementation of smoke-free policies, which were introduced on 1 July, 2015. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken six months post the implementation of smoke-free policies. In this qualitative descriptive study, six Associate Nurse Unit Managers working in a Victorian public Adult Mental Health Inpatient Unit, were asked eight questions which targeted leadership and the implementation and enforcement of smoke-free policies. Associate Nurse Unit Managers provide leadership and role modeling for staff and they are responsible for setting the standards that govern the behavior of nurses within their team. All participants interviewed believed that they were leaders in the workplace. Education and consistency were identified as crucial for smoke-free policies to be successful. Participants acknowledged that the availability of therapeutic interventions, staff resources and the accessibility of nicotine replacement therapy were crucial to assist consumers to remain smoke-free while on the unit. The findings from this research may help to improve the understanding of the practical challenges that Associate Nurse Unit Manager's face in the implementation of smoke-free policies with implications for policies, nursing practice, education and research.

  15. Secondhand smoke in outdoor settings: smokers’ consumption, non-smokers’ perceptions, and attitudes towards smoke-free legislation in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Setting Barcelona, Spain. Participants Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population. Primary and secondary outcomes Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Results Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Conclusions Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. PMID:25854974

  16. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  17. A varying coefficient model to measure the effectiveness of mass media anti-smoking campaigns in generating calls to a Quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quang M; Huggins, Richard M; Hwang, Wen-Han; White, Victoria; Erbas, Bircan

    2010-01-01

    Anti-smoking advertisements are an effective population-based smoking reduction strategy. The Quitline telephone service provides a first point of contact for adults considering quitting. Because of data complexity, the relationship between anti-smoking advertising placement, intensity, and time trends in total call volume is poorly understood. In this study we use a recently developed semi-varying coefficient model to elucidate this relationship. Semi-varying coefficient models comprise parametric and nonparametric components. The model is fitted to the daily number of calls to Quitline in Victoria, Australia to estimate a nonparametric long-term trend and parametric terms for day-of-the-week effects and to clarify the relationship with target audience rating points (TARPs) for the Quit and nicotine replacement advertising campaigns. The number of calls to Quitline increased with the TARP value of both the Quit and other smoking cessation advertisement; the TARP values associated with the Quit program were almost twice as effective. The varying coefficient term was statistically significant for peak periods with little or no advertising. Semi-varying coefficient models are useful for modeling public health data when there is little or no information on other factors related to the at-risk population. These models are well suited to modeling call volume to Quitline, because the varying coefficient allowed the underlying time trend to depend on fixed covariates that also vary with time, thereby explaining more of the variation in the call model.

  18. Time trends in cigarette smoking in two German cohorts--results from EPIC Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, S; Kroke, A; Boeing, H; Becker, N

    2003-08-01

    Smoking prevention is less advanced in Germany compared with other European and North American countries, and fewer data exist, especially on the consumption habits at the individual level over time. EPIC Germany, which is part of a European multicentre study on diet and cancer, collected data on individual smoking behaviour and allows for consideration of the changing consumption pattern for both centres and different age groups. Within EPIC 25 546 and 27 548 participants, respectively, were recruited in Heidelberg and Potsdam. Data on smoking habits were collected by means of a computer-guided interview during the baseline examination between 1994 and 1998. For each birth cohort smoking prevalence and mean number of cigarettes smoked per day at different ages were calculated. Additionally, the prevalence of non-filter cigarette smoking was computed. Smoking prevalence in the 1990s was still higher among men (Heidelberg 16.3-32.3%; Potsdam 18.2-29.3%) than among women (Heidelberg 12.8-32.0%; Potsdam 10.4-27.8%). However, the percentage of women smokers was still increasing. Filter cigarettes comprised a growing percentage of the cigarettes smoked, but especially among men differences between both German cohorts can still be seen: depending on age, 10.0-12.7% of men in the Heidelberg cohort smoked non-filter cigarettes, but only 1.1-2.3% in the Potsdam cohort. The quantity smoked was higher in the Heidelberg than in the Potsdam cohort with respect to the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as the pack-years of smoking. In conclusion, smoking habits in the Potsdam and the Heidelberg cohorts did not strongly differ by smoking prevalence. However, they did differ according to the quantity and quality of smoking. These differences, as well as the changes over the last 40 years may contribute to a changing pattern of diseases in different groups of the German population.

  19. Exposure to smoking in films and smoking behaviour among Norwegian 15- to 20-year-olds: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Sæbø

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies from several countries have revealed significant effects of exposure to smoking in films on smoking behaviour and attitudes among adolescents. This study presents the first findings from the Scandinavian cultural region on this topic. With the objective to test for significant adjusted relationships between exposure to smoking in films and established smoking among 15- to 20-year-old respondents, and susceptibility to smoking among non-smokers in the same age group, a cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2008. 807 Norwegian adolescents and young adults answered a web-based questionnaire. Exposure to smoking in films is estimated by asking the respondents if they had seen films from a list of 56 popular film titles of both local and foreign origin from 2007 and 2008. Associations of exposure and smoking behaviour are tested in two logistic regression models. Respondents with the highest exposure to film smoking are more likely to be established smokers than those with no exposure (adjusted odds ratios=2.22, confidence interval=1.04-4.77. Among non-smokers, those with highest exposure to smoking in films are more likely to be susceptible to smoking than those with no exposure (adjusted odds rations=1.55, confidence interval=0.93-2.56. Film smoking is significantly associated with smoking susceptibility and established smoking among Norwegian adolescents and young adults.

  20. Die Another Day, James Bond's smoking over six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Tucker, Anne

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to examine smoking-related content in all 24 James Bond movies in the Eon Productions series from 1962 to 2015. There were favourable downward trends for any smoking by James Bond (p=0.015 for trend), and for tobacco-related spy-gadgetry (p=0.009). Around 20% of Bond's 60 sexual partners smoked in each decade, and most recently in 2012. There were regular mentions of smoking risks to health (starting from 1967) and product placement of branded packs was present in two movies. Overall, the persisting smoking content remains problematic from a public health perspective, especially given the popularity of this movie series. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  2. Speaking up about Lighting up in Public: Examining Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking and Vaping Assertive Communication Intentions among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S L

    2018-01-24

    Against a backdrop of increasing smoke-free policies, electronic cigarette use, and discussion about public health risks posed by smoking and vaping, this study examines psychosocial predictors of intentions to ask others not to use e-cigarettes (vape) and smoke - i.e., assertive communication intentions. A national sample of U.S. adults (n = 474) reported assertive communication intentions for public venues. Psychosocial correlates included perceived risks of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHSe) and secondhand vapor (SHVe), SHSe and SHVe attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy. Separate linear regression models were conducted for smoking and vaping assertive communication intention outcomes. Perceived risks and self-efficacy were associated with greater vaping and smoking assertive communication intentions; subjective norms were only significant for vaping assertive communication intentions. Although a majority of respondents indicated they were unlikely to intervene to voice objections about SHSe and SHVe in public venues, this study suggests that incidental or intentional messages and policies that influence perceptions of risk, norms, and efficacy could affect willingness to voice objections about others' vaping and smoking in public.

  3. Tobacco smoking – popularity and main trends on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bartoń

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.

  4. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-12-31

    Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, Pused a nicotine replacement therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while 18% (14/79) used an electronic nicotine delivery system to quit (eg, electronic cigarette). A majority (48/79, 61%) commented on at least one Facebook post, with more commenting among those with biochemically verified abstinence at 3 months (P=.036) and those randomized to receive a personal monetary incentive (P=.015). Over a third of participants (28/79, 35%) reported reading most or all of the Facebook posts. Highest acceptability ratings of the intervention were

  5. Exploration of Incarcerated Men's and Women's Attitudes of Smoking in the Presence of Children and Pregnant Women: Is There a Disparity Between Smoking Attitudes and Smoking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Roberts, Mary B; van den Berg, Jacob J; Bock, Beth; Stein, Lyn A R; Martin, Rosemarie A; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2016-05-01

    A major health challenge facing persons who are incarcerated is tobacco smoking. Upon reentry to the community, concerns regarding smoking cessation may be less likely to receive needed attention. Many individuals have partners who are pregnant and/or reside in households where children and pregnant women live. We explored incarcerated adults' attitudes of smoking in the presence of children and pregnant women and how post-release smoking behaviors are influenced by their attitudes. Two hundred forty-seven incarcerated adults participated in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial in a tobacco-free prison. An instrument was developed to examine smoking attitudes and behaviors around children and pregnant women. Moderating effects of smoking factors on post-release abstinence were examined by evaluating interactions between smoking factors and treatment group. Four factors were defined using factor analysis: smoking around children; impact of smoking on child's health; awareness of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk for pregnant women; and importance of smoking avoidance during pregnancy. We found moderation effects of smoking factors on smoking outcomes which included: treatment group by smoking behavior around children (β = 0.8085; standard error [SE] = 0.4002; P = .04); treatment group by impact of smoking on child's health (β = 1.2390; SE = 0.5632; P = .03) and for those smoking 50% fewer cigarettes post-release, treatment group by smoking impact on child's health (β = 1.2356; SE = 0.4436; P smoking around children and pregnant women and awareness of ETS risk for pregnant women was not found to be significantly associated with smoking outcomes and requires additional investigation. Among individuals who continue to smoke post-release, effective ETS interventions are needed aimed at protecting children and pregnant women with whom they live. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  6. The Great Recession, Adolescent Smoking, and Smoking Inequalities: What Role Does Youth Unemployment Play in 24 European Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Conflicting evidence has been reported on smoking behavior among adults during times of economic downturn. No study has yet investigated young people's smoking and inequalities in smoking during economic recessions. This study examines the association between country-level youth unemployment due to the economic recession and adolescent smoking and smoking inequalities in Europe. The WHO collaborative "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children" study in 2009/2010 included 15-year-old adolescents from 24 European countries (N = 43 093). Socioeconomic position (SEP) was measured by the Family Affluence Scale. Logistic multilevel models were conducted. The absolute rate of youth unemployment in 2010 (during the recession) and the relative change rate in youth unemployment (2005/2006-2009/2010) were regressed on smoking and SEP inequalities in smoking in 2010, respectively. Youth unemployment rates were not significantly associated with overall smoking in adolescents. A higher absolute youth unemployment rate in 2010 related to lower likelihoods of smoking among middle (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and low affluent adolescents (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) compared to high affluent adolescents. In contrast, an increase in youth unemployment (2005/2006-2009/2010) was not associated with overall likelihoods of smoking and inequalities in smoking. Our findings indicate that an increase in youth unemployment was not related to smoking and smoking inequalities. However, higher absolute levels of youth unemployment are related to lower likelihoods of smoking in lower SEP adolescents. Thus, smoking among vulnerable groups is more linked to the overall insecure circumstances and the affordability of cigarettes rather than to the economic recession itself. Economic recessions have often led to increases in adult and youth unemployment rates. Conflicting evidence has been reported on smoking behavior among adults during times of economic downturn. This study examines for the first

  7. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  8. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jasper A J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Frierson, Georita M; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Davis, Michelle L; DeBoer, Lindsey B; Briceno, Nicole F

    2012-11-13

    Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US), over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse) group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety), and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP). STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST) for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX) or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL). Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization) per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after the baseline visit, and smoking

  9. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  10. Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2013-10-01

    Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bladder cancer mortality trends and patterns in Córdoba, Argentina (1986-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Osella, Alberto Ruben; Diaz, Maria Del Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Bladder cancer is common worldwide and the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in Argentina. To describe bladder cancer mortality trends in Córdoba (1986-2006), considering the effect of age, period, and cohort, and to estimate the effect of arsenic exposure on bladder cancer, and its interaction with sex, while controlling by smoking habits and space and time variation of the rates. A joinpoint regression was performed to compute the estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) of the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) in an adult population from Córdoba, Argentina. A Poisson model was fitted to estimate the effect of age, period, and cohort. The influence of gender, tobacco smoking (using lung cancer ASMR as surrogate), and arsenic in drinking water was examined using a hierarchical model. A favorable trend (1986-2006) in bladder cancer ASMR in both sexes was found: EAPC of -2.54 in men and -1.69 in women. There was a decreasing trend in relative risk (RR) for cohorts born in 1931 or after. The multilevel model showed an increasing risk for each increase in lung cancer ASMR unit (RR = 1.001) and a biological interaction between sex and arsenic exposure. RR was higher among men exposed to increasing As-exposure categories (RR male low exposure 3.14, RR male intermediate exposure 4.03, RR male high exposure 4.71 versus female low exposure). A non-random space-time distribution of the rates was observed. There has been a decreasing trend in ASMR for bladder cancer in Córdoba. This study confirms that bladder cancer is associated with age, gender, smoking habit, and exposure to arsenic. Moreover, an effect measure modification between exposure to arsenic and sex was found.

  12. Socioeconomic position and smoking behaviour in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Holstein, B; Avlund, K

    2001-01-01

    . Logistic regression was used to analyse the influence of education and occupation on smoking behaviour controlling for sex and birth cohort. RESULTS: In cohorts born after 1930 ever and current smoking were related to years of school education and current occupation. The prevalences of ever and current...... of birth. In multivariate analysis controlling for sex and birth cohort, ex-smoking seemed to be more strongly associated with education than occupation. Those with 12 or more years of school education had twice as high a chance of being ex-smokers as those with 7 years of school or less. CONCLUSION......AIMS: The associations between smoking and various socioeconomic indicators may have different implications and causes, which may also vary according to sex and birth cohort. This study analyses how two dimensions of socioeconomic position, an individual (education) and a structural (occupation...

  13. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons