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Sample records for adult separation anxiety

  1. The separation of adult separation anxiety disorder.

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    Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent.

  2. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

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    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression.

  3. Separation anxiety in families with emerging adults.

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    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2013-06-01

    In several developmental theories, separation anxiety has been identified as an important feature of close interpersonal relationships. Most often, separation anxiety has been examined in the context of mother-child dyads in infancy. Increasingly, however, it is recognized that separation anxiety is also relevant in other relationships (e.g., the father-child relationship) and in later developmental periods (e.g., adolescence and emerging adulthood). The present study aimed to investigate separation anxiety at the family level in families with emerging adults. By using the Social Relations Model, we aimed to determine the extent to which the actor, the partner, their specific relationships, and the family contribute to separation anxiety in dyadic family relationships. A total of 119 Belgian two-parent families with an emerging adult participated in a round-robin design, in which family members reported on their feelings of separation anxiety toward each other. Findings showed that separation anxiety can be represented as a personal characteristic (i.e., an actor effect) and as a specific feature of the mother-child dyad. Further, findings indicate that separation anxiety is also characteristic of the father-mother marital relationship and of the family climate as a whole. Implications for the meaning of separation anxiety and clinical practice are discussed.

  4. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Adult Separation Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain—is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater

  5. Adult separation anxiety disorder in the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Knappe, S.; Clark, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other DSM-IV anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder (SAD) has been considered a disorder that typically begins in childhood, and could be diagnosed only in adults "if onset is before 18." Moreover, SAD is the only DSM-IV anxiety disorder placed under "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed

  6. Childhood separation anxiety and the pathogenesis and treatment of adult anxiety.

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    Milrod, Barbara; Markowitz, John C; Gerber, Andrew J; Cyranowski, Jill; Altemus, Margaret; Shapiro, Theodore; Hofer, Myron; Glatt, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety disorder in childhood leads to adult panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. The prevailing pathophysiological model of anxiety disorders, which emphasizes extinction deficits of fear-conditioned responses, does not fully consider the role of separation anxiety. Pathological early childhood attachments have far-reaching consequences for the later adult ability to experience and internalize positive relationships in order to develop mental capacities for self-soothing, anxiety tolerance, affect modulation, and individuation. Initially identified in attachment research, the phenomenon of separation anxiety is supported by animal model, neuroimaging, and genetic studies. A role of oxytocin is postulated. Adults, inured to their anxiety, often do not identify separation anxiety as problematic, but those who develop anxiety and mood disorders respond more poorly to both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. This poorer response may reflect patients' difficulty in forming and maintaining attachments, including therapeutic relationships. Psychotherapies that focus on relationships and separation anxiety may benefit patients with separation anxiety by using the dyadic therapist-patient relationship to recapture and better understand important elements of earlier pathological parent-child relationships.

  7. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

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    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  8. Ambiguity in the Manifestation of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder Occurring in Complex Anxiety Presentations: Two Clinical Case Reports

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    Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate

    2009-01-01

    Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…

  9. Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

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    Gino Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients, alcohol dependence (30 patients, or pathological gambling (35 patients, were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27 for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups.

  10. The relationships among separation anxiety disorder, adult attachment style and agoraphobia in patients with panic disorder.

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    Pini, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Troisi, Alfonso; Siracusano, Alberto; Cassano, Giovanni B; Shear, Katherine M; Baldwin, David

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that separation anxiety disorder occurs more frequently in adults than children. It is unclear whether the presence of adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is a manifestation of anxious attachment, or a form of agoraphobia, or a specific condition with clinically significant consequences. We conducted a study to examine these questions. A sample of 141 adult outpatients with panic disorder participated in the study. Participants completed standardized measures of separation anxiety, attachment style, agoraphobia, panic disorder severity and quality of life. Patients with ASAD (49.5% of our sample) had greater panic symptom severity and more impairment in quality of life than those without separation anxiety. We found a greater rate of symptoms suggestive of anxious attachment among panic patients with ASAD compared to those without ASAD. However, the relationship between ASAD and attachment style is not strong, and adult ASAD occurs in some patients who report secure attachment style. Similarly, there is little evidence for the idea that separation anxiety disorder is a form of agoraphobia. Factor analysis shows clear differentiation of agoraphobic and separation anxiety symptoms. Our data corroborate the notion that ASAD is a distinct condition associated with impairment in quality of life and needs to be better recognized and treated in patients with panic disorder.

  11. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

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    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

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    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety A A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  13. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method: The sample included 38,993 adults in 18 countr

  14. Separation anxiety in children

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  15. [Separation anxiety. Theoretical considerations].

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    Blandin, N; Parquet, P J; Bailly, D

    1994-01-01

    The interest in separation anxiety is nowadays increasing: this disorder appearing during childhood may predispose to the occurrence of anxiety disorders (such as panic disorder and agoraphobia) and major depression into adulthood. Psychoanalytic theories differ on the nature of separation anxiety and its place in child development. For some authors, separation anxiety must be understood as resulting from the unconscious internal conflicts inherent in the individuation process and gradual attainment of autonomy. From this point of view, the fear of loss of mother by separation is not regarded as resulting from a real danger. However, Freud considers the primary experience of separation from protecting mother as the prototype situation of anxiety and compares the situations generating fear to separation experiences. For him, anxiety originates from two factors: the physiological fact is initiated at the time of birth but the primary traumatic situation is the separation from mother. This point of view may be compared with behavioral theories. Behavioral theories suggest that separation anxiety may be conditioned or learned from innate fears. In Freud's theory, the primary situation of anxiety resulting from the separation from mother plays a role comparable to innate fears. Grappling with the problem of separation anxiety, Bowlby emphasizes then the importance of the child's attachment to one person (mother or primary caregiver) and the fact that this attachment is instinctive. This point of view, based on the watch of infants, is akin to ethological theories on behaviour of non human primates. Bowlby especially shows that the reactions of infant separated from mother evolve on three stages: the phase of protestation which may constitute the prototype of adulthood anxiety, the phase of desperation which may be the prototype of depression, and the phase of detachment. He emphasizes so the role of early separations in the development of vulnerability to depression

  16. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular t

  17. Adult separation anxiety in treatment nonresponders with anxiety disorders: delineation of the syndrome and exploration of attachment-based psychotherapy and biomarkers.

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    Milrod, Barbara; Altemus, Margaret; Gross, Charles; Busch, Fredric; Silver, Gabrielle; Christos, Paul; Stieber, Joshua; Schneier, Franklin

    2016-04-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety [SA] has been identified as being common among patients who do not respond to psychiatric interventions, regardless of intervention type (pharmacological or psychotherapeutic), across anxiety and mood disorders. An attachment formation and maintenance domain has been proposed as contributing to anxiety disorders. We therefore directly determined prevalence of SA in a population of adult treatment non-responders suffering from primary anxiety. In these separation anxious nonresponders, we pilot-tested an SA-focused, attachment-based psychotherapy for anxiety, Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], and assessed whether hypothesized biomarkers of attachment were engaged. We studied separation anxiety [SA] in 46 adults (ages 23-70 [mean 43.9 (14.9)]) with clinically significant anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]≥15), and reporting a history of past non-response to psychotherapy and/or medication treatments. Thirty-seven (80%) had clinically significant symptoms of separation anxiety (Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms [SCI-SAS] score≥8). Five of these subjects completed an open clinical trial of Panic Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], a 21-24 session, 12-week manualized attachment-focused anxiolytic psychodynamic psychotherapy for anxiety. Patients improved on "adult threshold" SCI-SAS (current separation anxiety) (p=.016), HARS (p=0.002), and global severity, assessed by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (p=.0006), at treatment termination. Salivary oxytocin levels decreased 67% after treatment (p=.12). There was no significant change in high or low frequency HRV after treatment, but change in high frequency HRV inversely correlated with treatment change in oxytocin (pattachment-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, potentially supporting the clinical relevance of attachment dysfunction in this sample. The large

  18. Adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief versus healthy control subjects: relationships with lifetime depressive and hypomanic symptoms

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    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD, and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Methods A total of 53 patients with CG and 50 healthy control subjects were consecutively recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P, Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG, Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR lifetime version. Results Patients with CG reported significantly higher scores on the MOODS-SR, ASA-27, and WSAS with respect to healthy control subjects. The scores on the ASA-27 were significantly associated with the MOODS-SR depressive and manic components amongst both patients and healthy control subjects, with a stronger association in the latter. Conclusions A major limitation of the present study is the small sample size that may reduce the generalizability of the results. Moreover, lifetime MOODS-SR does not provide information about the temporal sequence of the manic or depressive symptoms and the loss. The frequent comorbidity with MD and the association with both depressive and manic lifetime symptoms do not support the independence of CG from mood disorders. In our patients, CG is associated with high levels of separation anxiety in adulthood. However, the presence of lifetime mood instability, as measured by the frequent presence of depressive and hypomanic lifetime symptoms, suggests that cyclothymia

  19. Possible Involvement of Avoidant Attachment Style in the Relations Between Adult IBS and Reported Separation Anxiety in Childhood.

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    Ben-Israel, Yuval; Shadach, Eran; Levy, Sigal; Sperber, Ami; Aizenberg, Dov; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2016-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults as well as separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in childhood are associated with anxiety and somatization. Our aim was to examine possible associations between IBS in adulthood and SAD in childhood. Patients with IBS and healthy subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory (SASI), the Somatization Subscale of Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), the Attachment Style Questionnaire, and a retrospective self-report questionnaire regarding RAP. Compared with controls, patients with IBS were characterized by an avoidant attachment style and scored higher on the SCL-90-R scale regarding the tendency to somatization (25.35 ± 7.47 versus16.50 ± 4.40, p Adults with IBS were characterized by somatization, insecure attachment style and recalled higher rates of RAP and surprisingly less symptoms of SAD in childhood. Based on these results, an etiological model for IBS is suggested, in which an avoidant attachment style and a tendency to somatization play an important role in the development of IBS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

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    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats.

  1. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children: Disorder-Specific Responses to Experimental Separation from the Mother

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    Kossowsky, Joe; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in childhood and is predictive of adult anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. However, the disorder has seldom been studied and the attempt to distinguish SAD from other anxiety disorders with regard to psychophysiology has not been made. We expected…

  2. The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non‐clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Eline L.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With DSM‐5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM‐5‐based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized an...

  3. Anxiety: the importunate companion. Psychoanalytic theory of castration and separation anxieties and implications for clinical technique.

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    Davies, Rosemary

    2012-10-01

    In this article I consider the implications of our differing psychoanalytic theories of anxiety on clinical technique. Drawing on differentiations between the focus on separation or castration anxiety and the relative neglect of the latter in contemporary writing, I look in detail at two clinical examples of psychoanalysis in borderline young adults to exemplify the issue.(1).

  4. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS: psychometric properties.

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    Xavier Méndez

    Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  5. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS): psychometric properties.

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    Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M; García-Fernández, José M

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  6. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bogels; N. Snieder; M. Kindt

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their s

  7. Separation anxiety disorder across the lifespan: DSM-5 lifts age restriction on diagnosis.

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    Silove, Derrick; Rees, Susan

    2014-10-01

    DSM-5 has lifted the age criterion in the definition of separation anxiety disorder thereby overturning the long-standing convention of restricting the diagnosis to childhood. Previously, adults with separation anxiety symptoms were assigned to other conventional categories such as panic disorder, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder. Over the past two decades, an evolving body of research has identified separation anxiety disorder in adulthood, with 20-40% of adult psychiatric outpatients being assigned that diagnosis. In the US, the lifetime prevalence of the disorder in adulthood is 6.6%. The removal of the age restriction on diagnosis has important implications for clinical practice. Whereas parents (particularly mothers) of children with separation anxiety disorder commonly attracted the diagnosis of agoraphobia, the latter are more likely now to be diagnosed with the adult form of separation anxiety disorder, focusing attention on the importance of intervening with both members of the dyad to overcome mutual reinforcement of symptoms. In addition, adults with separation anxiety disorder have been found to manifest high levels of disability and they tend to show a poor response to conventional psychological and pharmacological treatments. There is an urgent need therefore to devise novel psychological and pharmacological interventions for the adult form of the disorder. The reformulation of separation anxiety disorder in DSM-5 therefore requires a paradigm shift in which clinicians are alerted to identifying and treating the condition in all age groups. Research across countries is needed to examine the new formulation of separation anxiety disorder amongst populations of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds.

  8. Are you gonna leave me? Separation anxiety is associated with increased amygdala responsiveness and volume.

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    Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Opel, Nils; Kaufmann, Carolin; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Donges, Uta-Susan; Suslow, Thomas; Arolt, Volker; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-02-01

    The core feature of separation anxiety is excessive distress when faced with actual or perceived separation from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment. So far little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of separation anxiety. Therefore, we investigated functional (amygdala responsiveness and functional connectivity during threat-related emotion processing) and structural (grey matter volume) imaging markers associated with separation anxiety as measured with the Relationship Scale Questionnaire in a large sample of healthy adults from the Münster Neuroimaging Cohort (N = 320). We used a robust emotional face-matching task and acquired high-resolution structural images for morphometric analyses using voxel-based morphometry. The main results were positive associations of separation anxiety scores with amygdala reactivity to emotional faces as well as increased amygdala grey matter volumes. A functional connectivity analysis revealed positive associations between separation anxiety and functional coupling of the amygdala with areas involved in visual processes and attention, including several occipital and somatosensory areas. Taken together, the results suggest a higher emotional involvement in subjects with separation anxiety while watching negative facial expressions, and potentially secondary neuro-structural adaptive processes. These results could help to understand and treat (adult) separation anxiety.

  9. Childhood Separation Anxiety and the Risk of Subsequent Psychopathology: Results from a Community Study

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    Brückl, Tanja M.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Pfister, Hildegard; Schneider, Silvia; Lieb, Roselind

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and mental disorders in a community sample and to evaluate whether separation anxiety is specifically related to panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Method: The data come from a 4-year, prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort of adolescents and young adults aged 14–24 years at baseline in Munich, Germany. The present analyses are based on a subsample of the younger cohort that comple...

  10. Mathematics anxiety: separating the math from the anxiety.

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    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.

  11. Psychodynamic Treatment for Separation Anxiety in a Treatment Nonresponder.

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    Busch, Fredric N; Milrod, Barbara L

    2015-10-01

    Separation anxiety, long an area of interest for psychoanalysts, has been included in DSM-5 among general "anxiety disorders" that span across age groups. The syndrome of separation anxiety has been shown to correlate with nonresponse to treatments for anxiety and mood disorders (Milrod et al. 2014). It is therefore of public health importance to develop targeted treatments for this syndrome. Some psychoanalysts have suggested that brief psychoanalytic interventions may be of particular value in addressing separation anxiety. Our clinical work with patients with anxiety disorders with high levels of separation anxiety indicates that they have such intense anger and ambivalence in fraught intimate relationships that they feel stuck and helpless, almost eliminating more positive feelings. This ambivalence and associated unconscious conflicts inevitably emerge in the therapeutic relationship and can threaten to disrupt treatment efforts. We propose a set of focused psychodynamic psychotherapeutic interventions to address separation anxiety, developed as part of Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range (PFPP-XR; Busch et al. 2012). We present a case from our research study of treatment nonresponders with anxiety disorders and separation anxiety. The patient was successfully treated with PFPP-XR in a 21-session treatment.

  12. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.M.; Morren, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal co

  13. Relations between parental and child separation anxiety: The role of dependency-oriented psychological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, L.L.; Otten, R.; Soenens, B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although separation anxiety is prevalent in young children, it remains unclear whether and how maternal separation anxiety is related to separation anxiety in children. This study examined associations between maternal separation anxiety and separation anxiety in children, and the potential effect p

  14. Maternal separation and lesion of adtn alters anxiety and adrenal activity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Bárbara Bárcena; Levin, Gloria; Rivarola, María Angélica; Suárez, Marta Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of early maternal separation on anxiety and hypophyso-adrenal system activity to anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (ADTN) lesion in male rats as adults in order to compare this with previous results with female rats. During the first 3 weeks of life, male rats were isolated 4.5 hr daily and tested as adults. Thirty days after ADTN lesion we found that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plasma levels were affected neither by maternal separation nor by ADTN lesion. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration was increased with lesion of the ADTN in maternally separated rats. A significant increase in plasma catecholamine concentration was induced by early maternal separation. In ADTN-lesioned rats, plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration was significantly lower than in the respective sham-lesioned groups. In terms of anxiety, there were no significant effects of early experience. However, the ADTN lesion tended to decrease anxiety-related behavior.

  15. Short environmental enrichment in adulthood reverses anxiety and basolateral amygdala hypertrophy induced by maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koe, A S; Ashokan, A; Mitra, R

    2016-02-02

    Maternal separation during early childhood results in greater sensitivity to stressors later in adult life. This is reflected as greater propensity to develop stress-related disorders in humans and animal models, including anxiety and depression. Environmental enrichment (EE) reverses some of the damaging effects of maternal separation in rodent models when provided during peripubescent life, temporally proximal to the separation. It is presently unknown if EE provided outside this critical window can still rescue separation-induced anxiety and neural plasticity. In this report we use a rat model to demonstrate that a single short episode of EE in adulthood reduced anxiety-like behaviour in maternally separated rats. We further show that maternal separation resulted in hypertrophy of dendrites and increase in spine density of basolateral amygdala neurons in adulthood, long after initial stress treatment. This is congruent with prior observations showing centrality of basolateral amygdala hypertrophy in anxiety induced by stress during adulthood. In line with the ability of the adult enrichment to rescue stress-induced anxiety, we show that enrichment renormalized stress-induced structural expansion of the amygdala neurons. These observations argue that behavioural plasticity induced by early adversity can be rescued by environmental interventions much later in life, likely mediated by ameliorating effects of enrichment on basolateral amygdala plasticity.

  16. [Separation anxiety disorder in a sample of children of divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés Amorós, Mireia; Espada Sánchez, José Pedro; Méndez Carrillo, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    Anxiety in children through separation from parents is one of the most frequent psychological problems in the infantile population. Children of divorce are more vulnerable to suffer this disorder due to the abrupt separation from one of the parents after the break-up, which they may experience as a traumatic event that predisposes them to react anxiously in daily separations. The purpose of this study is to examine the presence of symptoms of separation anxiety and general anxiety in a Spanish sample of 95 students of ages between 8 and 12 years. They were compared to a group of children of similar ages and sex whose parents are not divorced. The results show that children of divorce present higher levels of separation anxiety than the children whose parents remain together. Moreover, they show significant levels of generalized anxiety, but similar to that of the other group of children (undivorced parents). The clinical implications of these findings are discussed, emphasizing the importance of cooperation and frequent contact of the children with both parents to promote their security and autonomy.

  17. Fluoxetine treatment reverses the intergenerational impact of maternal separation on fear and anxiety behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Cao, Jun; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Early life stress increases risks of fear and anxiety related disorders in adulthood, which may be alleviated by fluoxetine treatment. However, the intergenerational impacts of maternal separation (MS) on fear and anxiety behaviors from father to their offspring are little known. And the potential effects of fluoxetine treatment on the intergenerational transmission have not been well tested. Here, we investigated whether fluoxetine can reverse the intergenerational effects of MS on fear and anxiety behaviors. The first generation (F1) male rats were exposed to MS 3 h daily from postnatal day 2-14 and then treated with fluoxetine for four weeks during adulthood before fear conditioning. We found that maternal separation significantly impaired contextual fear extinction in F1 adult male rats but not in their second generation (F2). Although no obvious effects of MS on anxiety were observed in F1 male rats, the F2 offspring displayed a phenotype of low anxiety-like behaviors despite they were reared in normal condition. Fluoxetine treatment in F1 males not only reversed the impairment of fear extinction in F1 males but also the low anxiety-like behaviors in their F2 offspring. These findings highlight the intergenerational impacts of early life stress on fear and anxiety behaviors, and provide a new sight of the intergenerational effect of fluoxetine therapy for early life stress related mental problems.

  18. Overlap of symptom domains of separation anxiety disorder in adulthood with panic disorder-agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Marnane, Claire

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to explain the high level of comorbidity between separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in adulthood and panic disorder with agoraphobia (Pd-Ag). One possibility is that inadequate specification of symptom domains and/or diagnostic questions accounts for some of the comorbidity. The present anxiety clinic study examined responses of adult patients (n = 646) with SAD and/or Pd-Ag on eight symptom domains based on a previous factor analysis of a commonly used separation anxiety measure, the ASA-27, as well as on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. We also examined questionnaire items that did not load on the factor structure. All separation anxiety domains distinguished strongly between SAD and Pd-Ag. Comparisons across three groups (SAD alone, Pd-Ag alone and comorbid SAD/Pd-Ag) revealed that two symptom domains (anxiety about embarking on trips, and sleep disturbances) showed some overlap between Pd-Ag and SAD. Two of the items of the ASA-27 that did not load with other items in the factor analysis also showed overlap with Pd-Ag, with both referring to anxieties about leaving home. Patients with SAD (with or without Pd-Ag) returned higher scores on anxiety sensitivity than those with Pd-Ag alone. The findings support the distinctiveness of the construct of SAD and the capacity of the ASA-27 to discriminate between that disorder and Pd-Ag. SAD appears to be a more severe form of anxiety than Pd-Ag. There may be a need to refine items to include the reasons for avoiding leaving home, reluctance to sleep alone and to embark on trips, to ensure accurate discrimination between Pd-Ag and SAD in adulthood.

  19. Maternal Daily Diary Report in the Assessment of Childhood Separation Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD…

  20. Canine anxieties and phobias: an update on separation anxiety and noise aversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Barbara L; Mills, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    Companion dogs commonly experience states of anxiety, fears, and phobias. Separation anxiety and noise aversions, as discussed in this article, are especially prevalent. Veterinarians are encouraged to recognize and treat such conditions on first presentation to address welfare issues and optimize successful management. New data suggest new treatment modalities, including behavioral management, pharmacotherapy, and species-specific pheromone use. Failure to treat can result in disruption of the human-animal bond and subsequent abandonment, relinquishment, or even euthanasia of the affected dog.

  1. Canine separation anxiety: strategies for treatment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargisson RJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca J Sargisson School of Psychology, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New ZealandAbstract: Dogs with separation-related behavior problems engage in unwanted behavior such as destruction of property and excessive vocalization when left alone, causing distress for both the dog and the owner, and often leading to the dog being relinquished or euthanized. I review research on factors likely to predispose dogs to developing separation anxiety and on the treatments available. Although research is equivocal, dogs seem to develop separation-related behavior problems if they are male, sourced from shelters or found, and separated from the litter before they are 60 days old. Protective factors include ensuring a wide range of experiences outside the home and with other people between the ages of 5–10 months, stable household routines and absences from the dog, and the avoidance of punishment. The most successful treatment for canine separation-related problems may be behavior modification that focuses on systematic desensitization and counterconditioning, which can be supplemented with medication in the initial stages. Where individual therapy from an animal behavior expert is not possible, advice to dog owners should be clear, simple, and contain five or fewer instructions to improve adherence. Advice is given for people seeking to adopt a dog, for new dog owners, and for existing dog owners who wish to treat their dog’s separation anxiety.Keywords: systematic desensitization, counterconditioning, medication, separation anxiety

  2. Separation anxiety: stress, tension and cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Krithika; Iglesias, Pablo A; Robinson, Douglas N

    2012-07-15

    Cytokinesis, the physical separation of a mother cell into two daughter cells, progresses through a series of well-defined changes in morphology. These changes involve distinct biochemical and mechanical processes. Here, we review the mechanical features of cells during cytokinesis, discussing both the material properties as well as sources of stresses, both active and passive, which lead to the observed changes in morphology. We also describe a mechanosensory feedback control system that regulates protein localization and shape progression during cytokinesis.

  3. Canine separation anxiety: strategies for treatment and management

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Rebecca J Sargisson School of Psychology, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New ZealandAbstract: Dogs with separation-related behavior problems engage in unwanted behavior such as destruction of property and excessive vocalization when left alone, causing distress for both the dog and the owner, and often leading to the dog being relinquished or euthanized. I review research on factors likely to predispose dogs to developing separation anxiety and on the treatments available. Although research...

  4. Separation Anxiety Over for Deep Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image of Deep Impact's impactor probe was taken by the mission's mother ship, or flyby spacecraft, after the two separated at 11:07 p.m. Pacific time, July 2 (2:07 a.m. Eastern time, July 3). The impactor is scheduled to collide with comet Tempel 1 at 10:52 p.m. Pacific time, July 3 (1:52 a.m. Eastern time, July 4). The impactor can be seen at the center of the image.

  5. Separation anxiety: Stress, tension and cytokinesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Krithika [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Iglesias, Pablo A., E-mail: pi@jhu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Robinson, Douglas N., E-mail: dnr@jhmi.edu [Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Cytokinesis, the physical separation of a mother cell into two daughter cells, progresses through a series of well-defined changes in morphology. These changes involve distinct biochemical and mechanical processes. Here, we review the mechanical features of cells during cytokinesis, discussing both the material properties as well as sources of stresses, both active and passive, which lead to the observed changes in morphology. We also describe a mechanosensory feedback control system that regulates protein localization and shape progression during cytokinesis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytokinesis progresses through three distinct mechanical phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cortical tension initially resists deformation of mother cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Late in cytokinesis, cortical tension provides stress, enabling furrow ingression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mechanosensory feedback control system regulates cytokinesis.

  6. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moylan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette

  7. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, pAdolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, psmoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence.

  8. Zinc poisoning associated with separation anxiety in an Argentinean bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoa, A; Fidalgo, L E; Suárez, M L; Espino, L; Pérez-López, M; Santamarina, G

    2002-02-01

    Separation anxiety in dogs is a complex behavioral syndrome produced by many causes. A hunter 4y-old male Argentinean Bulldog had dental disturbances and gastrointestinal and cutaneous symptoms due to high plasma zinc and low copper and calcium plasma concentration. His behavior made him bite galvanized wire fences in his cage and bunk that contained his food, both of a Zn-containing material. Specific treatment resulted in complete recovery.

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of dental anxiety in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Birn, H.; Kirkegaard, E.;

    1993-01-01

    Prevalence, characteristics and consequences of dental anxiety in a randomly selected sample of 645 Danish adults were explored in telephone interviews. Participation rate was 88%. Demographics, fear of specific procedures, negative dentist contacts, general fear tendency, treatment utilization...... and perceived oral conditions were explored by level of dental anxiety using a modified Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). A Seattle fear survey item and a summary item from the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) were also included for fear description comparisons. Correlation between these indices (DAS-DFS: rs = 0.72; DAS......-Seattle item: rs = 0.68) aided semantic validation of DAS anxiety intensity levels. Extreme dental anxiety (DAS > or = 15) was found in 4.2% of the sample and 6% reported moderate anxiety (DAS scores 14-12). Bivariate (B) and logistic regression (L) odds ratios (OR) showed that high dental anxiety...

  10. Measuring Social Anxiety in 11 Countries Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballo, V.E.; Salazar, I.C.; Irurtia, M.J.; Arias, B.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies conducted to develop and validate a new self-report measure of social phobia/anxiety - the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults (SAQ-A) (Cuestionario de ansiedad social para adultos, CASO-A). A diary-item recording procedure was used to generate the initial pool

  11. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2012-01-01

    Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…

  12. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  13. Separation anxiety: at the neurobiological crossroads of adaptation and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Physiological and adaptive separation anxiety (SA) is intimately connected with the evolutionary emergence of new brain structures specific of paleomammalians, the growth of neomammalian--and later hominid--brain and skull size, and the appearance of bipedalism. All these evolutionary milestones have contributed to expanding the behavioral repertoire and plasticity of prehuman and human beings, at the cost of more prolonged dependency of the infant and of the child on parental care. Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) can be seen as an exaggerated/inappropriate manifestation of SA that constitutes a gateway to poorer mental and physical health. By blending epidemiological, genetic-epidemiological, endophenotypic, and animal laboratory approaches, it is possible to delineate some of the mechanisms that link childhood-adolescence SA and SAD to health problems later in life. Causal mechanisms include gene-environment interplays and likely differential regulation of genes and functional net-works that simultaneously affect multiple behavioral and physical phenotypes after exposure to early-life adversity, including parental separation/loss.

  14. The Separation Anxiety Daily Diary: Child Version--Feasibility and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the feasibility and psychometric properties of the child version of the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD-C) in 125 children (ages 7-14 years) from German-speaking areas of Switzerland. Children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 58), "other" anxiety disorders (n = 36), and healthy controls (n = 31) recorded the…

  15. Adult neurogenesis: integrating theories and separating functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimone, James B; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H

    2010-07-01

    The continuous incorporation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus raises exciting questions about memory and learning, and has inspired new computational models to understand the function of adult neurogenesis. These theoretical approaches suggest distinct roles for new neurons as they slowly integrate into the existing dentate gyrus network: immature adult-born neurons seem to function as pattern integrators of temporally adjacent events, thereby enhancing pattern separation for events separated in time; whereas maturing adult-born neurons possibly contribute to pattern separation by being more amenable to learning new information, leading to dedicated groups of granule cells that respond to experienced environments. We review these hypothesized functions and supporting empirical research and point to new directions for future theoretical efforts.

  16. Prevalence of headache and impact on anxiety in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Febriannie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Headache is an extremely common symptom that may have profound impact on peoples’ functioning and quality of life. The two most common primary headache disorders, migraine and tension-type headache, have an annual prevalence of respectively 11% and 40% in adults. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalences of headache and anxiety in primary care patients and the impact of headache on anxiety in these patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 140 adult patients attending a primary health center. Outcome measures included headache impact test scores and Zung-self rating anxiety scale. The mean age of the respondents was 34.6 ± 5.2 years (range 22 - 44 years. Sixty one respondents (43.6% in the preceding month had suffered from headaches that affected their lives, and 91 respondents (65.0% had anxiety symptoms and a raw anxiety score of more than 40. There was a significant association between headaches affecting the lives of the respondents and the anxiety resulting from the headache (p=.0001. Among 16 respondents with attacks of headaches that severely affected their lives, 87.5% were disturbed by anxiety. In conclusion, there was a relatively high proportion of patients in the primary care setting experiencing headaches that potentially affected their lives and had an impact on their anxiety. It may be appropriate to encourage patients to inform their health-care providers about their headaches and to encourage providers to identify patients with frequent headaches.

  17. Alexithymia, emotion processing and social anxiety in adults with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel M-A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Given sparse research on the issue, this study sought to shed light upon the interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing, and social anxiety in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Subjects and methods 73 German adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria participated. We used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to assess alexithymia, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS to assess different features of social anxiety, and we applied the German 'Experience of Emotions Scale' (SEE to measure emotion processing. Results 40% of the sample were found to meet the DSM-IV criteria of social anxiety disorder, and about 22% were highly alexithymic according to a TAS-20 total score ≥ 61; however, the mean TAS-20 total score of 50.94 ± 9.3 was not much higher than in community samples. Alexithymic traits emerged to be closely linked to emotion processing problems, particularly 'difficulty accepting own emotions', and to social anxiety features. Discussion/conclusion Our findings suggest interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing dysfunction, and social anxiety in adults with ADHD, which may entail the therapeutic implication to thoroughly instruct these patients to identify, accept, communicate, and regulate their emotions to aid reducing interaction anxiety.

  18. Salivary oxytocin in clinically anxious youth: Associations with separation anxiety and family accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; McDonald, Nicole; Silverman, Wendy K

    2016-03-01

    Clinical anxiety disorders in youth are common and associated with interpersonal behaviors including reliance on parents for family accommodation, or changes that parents make to their own behaviors to help the youth avoid anxiety related distress. The neuropeptide oxytocin is associated with the regulation of anxiety and of close interpersonal behavior leading to the hypothesis that oxytocinergic functioning plays a role in youth anxiety and its disorders, and the resulting family accommodation. To test this hypothesis salivary OT from 50 youth with primary DSM-5 anxiety disorders was assayed. A multi-source/multi-method anxiety assessment including semistructured interviews with youth and mothers, rating scales, and behavioral observations was used to assess anxiety disorders and symptoms, and family accommodation. Youth with separation anxiety disorder had significantly lower salivary OT levels than clinically anxious youth not diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder. Salivary OT levels were significantly negatively correlated with separation anxiety symptoms based on both youth- and mother-ratings. Anxious behavior displayed by youth during interactions with their mothers was associated with lower salivary OT levels in youth. Maternal ratings of family accommodation were negatively associated with salivary OT levels in youth. Results support the role of the oxytocinergic system in youth anxiety and its disorders and in parental involvement in youth anxiety through family accommodation. OT may be particularly important for diagnoses and symptoms of separation anxiety, which is inherently interpersonal in nature. Findings have potentially important implications for assessment and treatment of anxiety in youth.

  19. Melatonin for pre- and postoperative anxiety in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa V; Halladin, Natalie L; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety in relation to surgery is a well-known problem. Melatonin offers an atoxic alternative to benzodiazepines in ameliorating this condition in the pre- and postoperative period. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of melatonin on pre- and postoperative anxiety in adults when comparing...... melatonin with placebo or when comparing melatonin with benzodiazepines. SEARCH METHODS: The following databases were searched on 19 April 2013: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science. For ongoing trials and protocols we searched clinicaltrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials and the World...... the effect of preoperatively administered melatonin on preoperative or postoperative anxiety. We included adult patients of both genders (15 to 90 years of age) undergoing any kind of surgical procedure in which it was necessary to use general, regional or topical anaesthesia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS...

  20. Is Separation Anxiety in Adolescents and Parents Related to Parental Differentiation of Self?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora; Miller, Paul; Yitzhak, Meital

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between separation anxiety in adolescents after their transition to middle school, on the one hand, and differentiation of self and separation anxiety in their parents, on the other hand. The sample included 88 adolescents from northern Israel, together with their biological parents. Adolescents'…

  1. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. Results: The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Conclusions: Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects. Key words:Bruxism, self-report, anxiety, stress, adult. PMID:22926484

  2. On the separation anxiety of new admission childhood%新入园幼儿分离焦虑再探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚艳杰; 尹红雨

    2013-01-01

      分离焦虑是孩子心理发展的一个重要方面,也是孩子入园过程中一种常见的不安情绪和行为。每个孩子都会不同程度的表现出来。本文从实际出发,从生活环境、生活规律变化、幼儿与成人关系改变、幼儿个性、家长焦虑等几个因素着手,对幼儿入园时产生分离焦虑的原因进行分析,提出缓解幼儿新入园分离焦虑的措施。%Separation anxiety is one of the important aspects of the psychological development of children, is the common restless mood and the behavior in the child admission process. Each child will perform varying degrees. This article embarks from the reality, from the living environment, life rule changes, change of children and adult relationships, children's personality, parental anxiety and so on several factors, to analyze the causes of separation anxiety on child admission, and put forward some new measures to children's separation anxiety.

  3. Do Family Mealtime Interactions Mediate the Association between Asthma Symptoms and Separation Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Winter, Marcia A.; Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Anbar, Ran D.; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Respiratory problems have been shown to be associated with the development of panic anxiety. Family members play an essential role for children to emotionally manage their symptoms. This study aimed to examine the relation between severity of respiratory symptoms in children with asthma and separation anxiety. Relying on direct…

  4. The beneficial effect of methylphenidate in ADHD with comorbid separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Golubchik, Lilya; Sever, Jonathan M; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the response of subsyndromal separation anxiety (SSSA) symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A group of patients with ADHD and SSSA (n=42), aged 8-17 years, received 12 weeks of MPH treatment. The severity of SSSA symptoms was assessed using appropriate scales including the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and the specially designed Child and Adolescent Separation Anxiety Scale (CASAS). The severity of ADHD symptoms was assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale. The severity of ADHD and separation anxiety reduced significantly and significant positive correlations were found between the changes in ADHD Rating Scale and the total CASAS scores (P=0.012), as well as other relevant subscales of Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and CASAS. The MPH-related attenuation in the severity of ADHD was associated with a corresponding improvement in separation anxiety related to school. SSSA symptomatology may be secondary to ADHD and thus the alleviation in ADHD symptoms achieved by MPH treatment results in corresponding relief in separation anxiety.

  5. Anxiety disorders and inflammation in a large adult cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety

  6. Fear and anxiety as separable emotions: an investigation of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Adam M; Kemp, Samantha E; Corr, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    The Gray and McNaughton (2000) theory draws on a wide range of animal data to hypothesize that the emotions of fear and anxiety are separable. The authors tested their hypothesis in two studies. The first study examined associations between scores on questionnaire measures of fear, anxiety, and neuroticism; correlational analysis revealed that fear and anxiety are not interchangeable constructs. The second study examined associations between scores on questionnaire measures of fear/anxiety and performance in a military training setting; regression analysis revealed that fear captured significant variance in performance that was not shared with anxiety. These results imply that hypotheses derived from nonhuman animal data may hold important implications for understanding human emotion and motivation, especially in relation to fear and anxiety.

  7. Meta-analysis on anxiety and depression in adult celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, D F; Gerdes, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We used meta-analysis to test hypotheses concerning whether adult celiac disease is reliably linked with anxiety and/or depression. METHOD: We examined published reports on anxiety and depression in adult celiac disease. RESULTS: Eighteen studies on depression and eleven studies...... on anxiety in adult celiac disease met selection criteria. They show that depression is reliably more common and/or more severe in adults with celiac disease than in healthy adults (overall meta-analysis effect size: 0.97). The fail-safe margin of unpublished reports that would be required to negate...... the finding exceeds 8000. Adults with celiac disease do not, however, differ reliably in terms of depression from adults with other physical illnesses, nor do they differ reliably from healthy adults or adults with other physical illnesses in terms of anxiety. CONCLUSION: Depression is common in adult celiac...

  8. The Impact of Separation Anxiety on the Social and Academic Functioning of Young School-Age Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that up to 31.9% of children suffer from anxiety, some of whom are children suffering from separation anxiety. Separation anxiety can be a common experience for many children and doesn't always require professional interventions; however, up to 9% of anxious children experience severe impairment in their socio-emotional,…

  9. Association of Physical Exercise on Anxiety and Depression Amongst Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzada, Faizan Jameel; Soomro, Nabila; Khan, Shahidda Zakir

    2015-07-01

    This study was done to determine the frequency of anxiety, depression among those who exercise regularly and those who do not. Across-sectional study was conducted at different gymnasiums of Karachi in July-August 2013. A total 269 individual's ages were 18 - 45 years completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the data using simple descriptive statistics. One hundred and thirty four individuals were those who did not perform exercise which included females (55.0%) being more frequently anxious than male (46.4%). Females (39.9%) were more frequently depressed as compared to males (26.4%) less depressed. Chi-square test showed association between anxiety levels and exercise was significantly increased in non-exercisers compared to regular exercisers found to be significant (p=0.015). Individuals who performed regular exercise had a lower frequency of depression (28.9%) than non-exercisers (41.8%). Physical exercise was significantly associated with lower anxiety and depression frequency amongst the studied adult population.

  10. The Changing Construct of Computer Anxiety for Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Jennifer L.; Gee, Nancy R.; Smither, Janan Al-Awar

    1998-01-01

    A revalidation of a previously developed computer anxiety scale indicated changes in the factor structure for younger and older adults. Two factors emerged--"Direct Involvement" and "Indirect Involvement" with computers--as compared with the previous "General Computer Anxiety" and "Equipment Anxiety" factors, suggesting that the construct of…

  11. The Effect of an Educator's Teaching Style on the Math Anxiety of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosch, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Many adults are obstructed from specialized professions based on their anxiety of math. Math anxiety has been extensively researched for over 3 decades. Scholars have attempted to define its origins as well as the means to eliminate its often-debilitating effect on learners. Research indicates that learners with math anxiety often give up career…

  12. Dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression among adult patients with dental anxiety but with different dental-attendance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson, Jenny M; Elfström, Magnus L; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression in relation to regularity of dental treatment among persons with either regular dental care or phobic avoidance, whilst controlling for sociodemographic factors. Psychometric questionnaires on dental anxiety, dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression were delivered to 263 adult patients with dental phobic avoidance behavior who were seeking help from a specialized dental fear clinic and to 141 adult patients with dental anxiety who were receiving regular dental care from various public dental clinics. The results showed that the levels of dental and general anxiety and of depression were significantly higher among irregular attendees compared with regular attendees. Irregular attendees admitted fewer adaptive coping strategies. Predictive of irregular dental care were gender, dental anxiety, general anxiety, and the nonuse of the coping strategy 'optimism'. This study further confirms earlier preliminary results that the use of optimistic thinking is predictive for regular dental attendance habits and that male gender is a risk factor for irregular attendance. Moreover, this study adds that a high level of general anxiety indicates a higher risk for irregular dental care.

  13. Anxiety and depression in adult patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winfried; Huser; Karl-Heinz; Janke; Bodo; Klump; Michael; Gregor; Andreas; Hinz

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety and depression levels in adult patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) with controls.METHODS: The levels of anxiety, depression and of a probable anxiety or depressive disorder were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 441 adult patients with CD recruited by the German Celiac Society, in 235 age-and sex-matched patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in remission or with slight disease activity, and in 441 adult persons of a representa...

  14. The diagnostic utility of separation anxiety disorder symptoms: an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E; Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    At present, it is not clear whether the current definition of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the optimal classification of developmentally inappropriate, severe, and interfering separation anxiety in youth. Much remains to be learned about the relative contributions of individual SAD symptoms for informing diagnosis. Two-parameter logistic Item Response Theory analyses were conducted on the eight core SAD symptoms in an outpatient anxiety sample of treatment-seeking children (N = 359, 59.3 % female, M Age = 11.2) and their parents to determine the diagnostic utility of each of these symptoms. Analyses considered values of item threshold, which characterize the SAD severity level at which each symptom has a 50 % chance of being endorsed, and item discrimination, which characterize how well each symptom distinguishes individuals with higher and lower levels of SAD. Distress related to separation and fear of being alone without major attachment figures showed the strongest discrimination properties and the lowest thresholds for being endorsed. In contrast, worry about harm befalling attachment figures showed the poorest discrimination properties, and nightmares about separation showed the highest threshold for being endorsed. Distress related to separation demonstrated crossing differential item functioning associated with age-at lower separation anxiety levels excessive fear at separation was more likely to be endorsed for children ≥9 years, whereas at higher levels this symptom was more likely to be endorsed by children <9 years. Implications are discussed for optimizing the taxonomy of SAD in youth.

  15. Adult Perceptions of In-Class Collaborative Problem Solving as Mitigation for Statistics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, Karl J.; Miller, Heather; Hammett, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Two purposes existed for initiating this qualitative case study involving adults who had completed a college-level business statistics course. The first purpose was to explore adult challenges with stress and anxiety during the course: a phenomenon labeled statistics anxiety in the literature. The second purpose was to gain insight into adult…

  16. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…

  17. Maternal separation enhances object location memory and prevents exercise-induced MAPK/ERK signalling in adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makena, Nokuthula; Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A

    2012-09-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of developing psychopathology accompanied by reduced cognitive function in later life. Maternal separation induces anxiety-like behaviours and is associated with impaired memory. On the other hand, exercise has been shown to diminish anxiety-like behaviours and improve cognitive function. The effects of maternal separation and exercise on anxiety, memory and hippocampal proteins were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Maternal separation produced anxiety-like behaviours which were reversed by exercise. Maternal separation also enhanced object location memory which was not affected by exercise. Exercise did, however, increase synaptophysin and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the hippocampus of non-separated rats and this effect was not observed in maternally separated rats. These findings show that maternal separation selectively enhanced n memory and prevented activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway in the adult rat hippocampus.

  18. Effects of reconcile (fluoxetine) chewable tablets plus behavior management for canine separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Barbara Sherman; Landsberg, Gary M; Reisner, Ilana R; Ciribassi, John J; Horwitz, Debra; Houpt, Katherine A; Kroll, Tracy L; Luescher, Andrew; Moffat, Kelly S; Douglass, Genefer; Robertson-Plouch, Carol; Veenhuizen, Melissa F; Zimmerman, Alan; Clark, Terrence P

    2007-01-01

    Canine separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem presented to veterinarians. Associated behaviors are distressing to both dog and owner, have the potential to disrupt the human-companion animal bond, and may lead to euthanasia. The results of this study demonstrate the clinical efficacy and safety of Reconcile (fluoxetine, 1 to 2 mg/kg/day [0.45 to 0.91 mg/lb/day]), in conjunction with behavior management, for the treatment of canine separation anxiety. The beef flavored chewable formulation was palatable to treated dogs and easy to administer. This study provides to veterinarians and owners valuable information about an effective separation anxiety treatment plan that combines use of Reconcile with behavior modification.

  19. Comparison of remote versus in-person behavioral consultation for treatment of canine separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Nicole; Dodman, Nicholas H; Moon-Fanelli, Alice A; Patronek, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the validity of remote consultation for treatment of canine separation anxiety, this study compared the efficacy of 2 types of behavioral services offered by Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine (TCSVM): (a) "PetFax," a remote consultation service in which dog caregivers (owners) and a certified applied animal behaviorist correspond via fax or email and (b) in-person clinic consultation, which requires that owners bring their dogs to the Animal Behavior Clinic at TCSVM to consult with a board-certified veterinary behaviorist, a veterinary behavior resident, or a certified applied animal behaviorist. The study tested 4 variables for significant differences between PetFax users and clinic visitors: (a) pre- and posttreatment anxiety scores; (b) owner-reported improvement; (c) percentage of rehomed dogs, dogs relinquished or euthanized because of separation anxiety; and (d) clarity of communication with owners. The study found no significant differences between the groups. Difference scores and owner reports demonstrated substantial reduction in separation anxiety in both groups. Results indicate remote consultation is a valid way for behavioral professionals to share behavior modification advice with owners regarding canine separation anxiety.

  20. Adult neurogenesis: integrating theories and separating functions

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The continuous incorporation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus raises exciting questions about memory and learning, and has inspired new computational models to understand the function of adult neurogenesis. These theoretical approaches suggest distinct roles for new neurons as they slowly integrate into the existing dentate gyrus network: immature adult-born neurons appear to function as pattern integrators of temporally adjacent events, thereby enhancing pattern s...

  1. A Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Specific Phobia, Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Thalia C.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Perrin, Sean; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Bolton, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity amongst anxiety disorders is very common in children as in adults and leads to considerable distress and impairment, yet is poorly understood. Multivariate genetic analyses can shed light on the origins of this comorbidity by revealing whether genetic or environmental risks for one disorder also influence another. We…

  2. Co-occurrence of anxiety and depression amongst older adults in low- and middle-income countries: findings from the 10/66 study

    OpenAIRE

    Prina, Matthew; C.P. Ferri; Guerra, M.; Brayne, C.; M Prince

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is relative little information about the prevalence and risk factors of co-morbid anxiety and depression in later life. These disorders are often associated with worse response to treatment than either condition alone, and researching their epidemiology in diverse settings is vital to policy makers. We therefore investigated the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive syndromes amongst older adults living in developing countries and measured the separate and joint effect of ...

  3. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Childhood as a Risk Factor for Future Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the association between childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and the risk of the development of psychopathology during young adulthood was conducted. Results showed that SAD contributed to the risk for the development of internalizing disorders, which are panic and depression, but decreased the risk for externalizing…

  4. Behavior modification and pharmacotherapy for separation anxiety in a 2-year-old pointer cross

    OpenAIRE

    Lem, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem in dogs. Treatment is based on developing a behavior modification protocol that gradually desensitizes and counter-conditions the dog to being left alone, by rewarding calm, relaxed behavior. Judicious use of pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct to a behavior modification program.

  5. Behavior modification and pharmacotherapy for separation anxiety in a 2-year-old pointer cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Michelle

    2002-03-01

    Separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem in dogs. Treatment is based on developing a behavior modification protocol that gradually desensitizes and counter-conditions the dog to being left alone, by rewarding calm, relaxed behavior. Judicious use of pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct to a behavior modification program.

  6. Separation Anxiety and Bedtime Resistance in Eight-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to examine possible association between degree of maternally reported eight-month-old infants' separation anxiety and their bedtime resistance. It comprised 114 apparently healthy babies (50 boys and 64 girls), who were born in St Petersburg in 2007. The infants were born at term (gestational age greater than or equal to 37 weeks),…

  7. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  8. Distinct Trajectories of Separation Anxiety in the Preschool Years: Persistence at School Entry and Early-Life Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marco; Touchette, Évelyne; Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Dionne, Ginette; Côté, Sylvana M.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how children differ in the onset and evolution of separation anxiety (SA) symptoms during the preschool years, and how SA develops into separation anxiety disorder. In a large, representative population-based sample, we investigated the developmental trajectories of SA symptoms from infancy to school entry, their…

  9. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed.

  10. Modeling the Cognitive Mechanisms Linking Autism Symptoms and Anxiety in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Maisel, M. E.; Stephenson, K. G.; South, M.; Rodgers, J; Freeston, M. H.; Gaigg, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional acceptance, alexithymia, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) contribute to anxiety disorders in neurotypical populations. Their association with anxiety in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been studied. We aimed to model the contributions of these constructs on the relationship between dimensional measures of autism and anxiety. Participants were 151 adults recruited from 2 sites, including those diagnosed with ASD (n = 76) and a matched comparison group ...

  11. Childhood trauma and current psychological functioning in adults with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janice R; Goldin, Philippe R; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2011-05-01

    Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. Participants were 102 individuals with generalized SAD and 30 HCs who completed measures of childhood trauma, social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Compared to HCs, individuals with SAD reported greater childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Within the SAD group, childhood emotional abuse and neglect, but not sexual abuse, physical abuse, or physical neglect, were associated with the severity of social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem.

  12. Overcoming Computer Anxiety: A Three-Step Process for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Thillainatarajan; Lux, Allison C.

    2011-01-01

    Many adult learners returning to school later in life have discovered that technology is heavily embedded in the learning environment. Learning both course contents and technology in unison can be a daunting task for students who feel intimidated by technology. Computer anxiety is a term that describes resistance, fear or anxieties towards…

  13. Instruments Assessing Anxiety in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Heidi; van der Pas, Femke H.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the last decades several instruments measuring anxiety in adults with intellectual disabilities have been developed. Aim: To give an overview of the characteristics and psychometric properties of self-report and informant-report instruments measuring anxiety in this group. Method: Systematic review of the literature. Results:…

  14. Effect of Art Production on Negative Mood and Anxiety for Adults in Treatment for Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurer, Mattye; van der Vennet, Renée

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether art production or viewing and sorting art reproductions would be more effective in reducing negative mood and anxiety for 28 adults with substance use disorders. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups and completed pre- and posttest measures of negative mood and anxiety The hypothesis that art…

  15. Do Reincarnation Beliefs Protect Older Adult Chinese Buddhists against Personal Death Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Victoria Ka-Ying; Coleman, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory survey study was to develop and validate a Buddhist reincarnation beliefs scale and explore the relation between Buddhist reincarnation beliefs and personal death anxiety in 141 older adult Hong Kong Chinese Buddhists. Buddhist reincarnation beliefs were unrelated to personal death anxiety. This suggests that not all…

  16. Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety…

  17. Separation anxiety in children ages 4 through 9 with oral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Margaret C; Wehby, George L; Robbins, James M; Damiano, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    Background : Psychosocial research on children with oral clefts (OCs), i.e., clefts of the lip, palate, or lip and palate, has suggested that these children may have higher rates of anxiety in general, but overall results have been equivocal. In this study we estimated the prevalence of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a population-based sample of children with OCs and identified associated risk factors. Methods : Parents of 279 children with OCs, identified through three state birth defect registries, responded to a postal survey that included the Separation Anxiety subscale of the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and items regarding the child's OC and its sequelae, parent and child health, parent mental health, family structure, and socioeconomic status indicators. Associations with SA were evaluated using bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results : One quarter (24%) of the children screened positive for SAD, which was substantially higher than the U.S. child population estimates of 3% to 5%. OC-related impairments in speaking and eating more than doubled the risk of SAD, as did lower socioeconomic status and lower maternal health rating. Maternal mental health and marital status remained in the logistic model but were not significant. Conclusions : Children with OCs appear to be at increased risk for SAD as measured by the SCARED instrument. OC-related problems with speech and eating more than doubled the risk of SAD. The use of targeted screening tools may help refine our understanding of psychosocial adjustment in children with OCs.

  18. Dental anxiety among adults: An epidemiological study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devapriya Appukuttan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety is a major barrier for dental care utilization. Hence, identifying anxious individuals and their appropriate management becomes crucial in clinical practice. Aim: The study aims to assess dental anxiety, factors influencing dental anxiety, and anxiety towards tooth extraction procedure among patients attending a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1,148 consecutive patients aged 18-70 years. The assessment tools consisted of a consent form, history form, a questionnaire form containing the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS which was used to assess the level of dental anxiety, and an additional question on anxiety towards dental extraction procedure. Results: Among the study group, 63.7% were men and 36.3% were women. Based on the MDAS score, 45.2% of the participants were identified to be less anxious, 51.8% were moderately or extremely anxious, and 3% were suffering from dental phobia. Mean MDAS total score was 10.4 (standard deviation (SD = 3.91. Female participants and younger subjects were more anxious (P < 0.001. Subjects who were anxious had postponed their dental visit (P < 0.001. Participants who had negative dental experience were more anxious (P < 0.05. Notably, 82.6% reported anxiety towards extraction procedure. Significant association was seen between anxiety towards extraction procedure and the respondents gender (P < 0.05, age (P < 0.001, education level (P < 0.05, employment status (P < 0.001, income (P < 0.001, self-perceived oral health status (P < 0.05, and their history of visit to dentist (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Significant percentage of population was suffering from dental anxiety in this study population. A plethora of factors like age, gender, education level, occupation, financial stability, and previous bad dental experience influences dental anxiety to various levels. Extraction followed by drilling of tooth and receiving local anesthetic injection

  19. Social Anxiety among Young Adult Drinkers: The Role of Perceived Norms and Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ashley N.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the separate and combined influence of perceived norms, negative reinforcement drinking motives, and social anxiety on alcohol outcomes. Participants (N = 250) completed measures of injunctive norms, social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data collection occurred in 2010.…

  20. Systematic review of factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagna, Atami; Gallo, Joseph J; Pontone, Gregory M

    2014-07-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders have a substantial impact on the quality of life, the functioning and mortality of older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the factors associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among individuals with PD aged 60 years and older. Following a literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE, 5 articles met the inclusion criteria (adults aged 60 years and older, individuals with PD, and with depression and anxiety disorders, and English-language peer reviewed articles) and were included in this review. These studies were conducted in the U.S (n = 3), in Italy (n = 1) and the U.K (n = 1). Findings indicated that autonomic symptoms, motor fluctuations, severity and frequency of symptoms, staging of the disease, and PD onset and duration were associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults suffering from PD. Despite the limited number of studies included in the review, depression and anxiety disorders are often unrecognized and untreated and the comorbidity greatly exacerbates PD symptoms. The identification of factors associated with the development of depression and anxiety disorders could help in designing preventive interventions that would decrease the risk and burden of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with PD.

  1. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregu

  2. Parental separation anxiety and diabetes self-management of older adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shannon; Dashiff, Carol; Abdullatif, Hussein; Moreland, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Parents of high school seniors with type 1 diabetes mellitus are faced with many concerns and fears as their adolescent prepares to assume primary disease management responsibility and leave the parental residence. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between parental separation anxiety and adolescent self-management and glycemic control. A second aim was to assess the relationship between adolescent self-management and glycemic control. Twenty-three families who had adolescents 16 to 18 years of age in or entering in their senior year of high school were recruited. Adolescents from higher income families reported better self-management skills than those from poorer families (r = 0.410, p = 0.05). Length of time since diabetes diagnosis was inversely related to glycemic control (r = 0.448, p = 0.02), indicating that adolescents who had the disease longer had poorer control. Parental separation anxiety was not related to adolescent self-management. Adolescent self-management was negatively related to glycemic control (r = -0.370, p = 0.08), suggesting that adolescents who demonstrated better self-management skills had improved glycemic control in comparison to adolescents who did not demonstrate effective self-management skills. Paternal, not maternal, separation anxiety demonstrated a significant relationship with glycemic control (r = 0.639, p < 0.001).

  3. Postpartum maternal separation anxiety, overprotective parenting, and children's social-emotional well-being: longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Crawford, Sharinne; Nicholson, Jan M

    2013-08-01

    Postpartum maternal separation anxiety refers to a mothers' experience of worry and concern about leaving her child for short-term separations. The long-term effects of high maternal separation anxiety on maternal parenting behaviors and child outcomes have been not been established empirically. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prospective relationships between maternal separation anxiety during the child's first year of life, and overprotective parenting and children's social and emotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Structural equation modeling with a large representative cohort of Australian mother-child dyads (N = 3,103) indicated that high maternal separation anxiety was associated with more overprotective parenting behaviors and poorer child socioemotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Findings suggest women with high postpartum maternal separation anxiety may sustain this vigilance across the first years following birth, promoting overprotective behaviors, and resulting in increased behavior problems in their children. Support for women around negotiating separation from their children early in parenthood may prevent the establishment of a repertoire of parenting behaviors that includes unnecessarily high vigilance, monitoring, and anxiety about separation.

  4. Separate and Combined Effects of Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Cognitive Restructuring in the Treatment of Musical Performance Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Gladys Acevedo; Horan, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Music students with reactive and adaptive anxieties participated in a musical performance anxiety reduction program. Cue-controlled relaxation (CCR) and cognitive restructuring (CR) were examined separately and in combination in comparison with a standard treatment control condition. The CCR and CR treatments were each effective in reducing state…

  5. Multimorbidity is Associated with Anxiety in Older Adults in the Health and Retirement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Christine E.; O'Hara, Ruth; Goldstein, Mary K.; Beaudreau, Sherry A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study determined whether the number of medical conditions was associated with increased occurrence of anxiety and whether triads of medical conditions were associated with anxiety in a nationally representative sample of older Americans. We determined whether multimorbidity findings were unique to anxiety as compared with depressive symptoms. Methods 4,219 participants (65 or older) completed anxiety and depression measures in the Health and Retirement Study 2006 wave. The logistic regression models’ outcome was elevated anxiety (≥12 on 5-item Beck Anxiety Inventory) or depressive symptoms (≥ on 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale). The predictor variable was a tally of 7 self-report of doctor-diagnosed conditions: arthritis, cancer, diabetes, heart conditions, high blood pressure, lung disease, and stroke. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and depressive or anxiety symptoms. Associations among elevated anxiety or depressive symptoms and 35 triads of medical conditions were examined using Bonferroni corrected chi-square analyses. Results Three or more medical conditions conferred a 2.30-fold increase in elevated anxiety (95% CI: 1.44-4.01). Twenty triads were associated with elevated anxiety as compared with 13 associated with depressive symptoms. Six of 7 medical conditions, with the exception being stroke, were present in the majority of triads. Conclusion Number of medical conditions and specific conditions are associated with increased occurrence of elevated anxiety. Compared with elevated depressive symptoms, anxiety is associated with greater multimorbidity. Since anxiety and depression cause significant morbidity, it may be beneficial to consider these mental health symptoms when evaluating older adults with multimorbidity. PMID:27441851

  6. Adult Attachment and Parental Bonding: Correlations between Perceived Relationship Qualities and Self-Reported Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…

  7. Increasing Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Sufficient to Reduce Anxiety and Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alexis S; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René

    2015-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by antidepressants, and is required for some of their behavioral effects. However, it remains unclear whether expanding the population of adult-born neurons is sufficient to affect anxiety and depression-related behavior. Here, we use an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax is deleted from neural stem cells and their progeny in the adult brain, and thereby increases adult neurogenesis. We find no effects on baseline anxiety and depression-related behavior; however, we find that increasing adult neurogenesis is sufficient to reduce anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT), a mouse model of stress. Thus, neurogenesis differentially affects behavior under baseline conditions and in a model of chronic stress. Moreover, we find no effect of increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, either at baseline or following chronic CORT administration, suggesting that increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis can affect anxiety and depression-related behavior through a mechanism independent of the HPA axis. The use of future techniques to specifically inhibit BAX in the hippocampus could be used to augment adult neurogenesis, and may therefore represent a novel strategy to promote antidepressant-like behavioral effects.

  8. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

  9. Predicting Trainee Ageism Using Knowledge, Anxiety, Compassion, and Contact with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing proportion of older adults in the population, ageism is prevalent and can facilitate discriminatory behavior, even in healthcare settings. This study used multiple regression to investigate the relationship between knowledge of aging, aging anxiety, and degree of older adult contact with ageism in undergraduates training for…

  10. Calibration of Self-Reports of Anxiety and Physiological Measures of Anxiety While Reading in Adults With and Without Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Yael; Breznitz, Zvia; Katzir, Tami

    2016-08-01

    Reading difficulty has been linked to anxiety in adults yet and has not been systematically studied especially in compensated adults with dyslexia. This study examined the relationships between anxiety ratings and physiological arousal while reading among adults with reading disability (RD) compared to skilled readers (SR). Nineteen compensated adults with RD and 20 SR adults were administered a battery of reading tasks and anxiety self-report questionnaires. Physiological measures of arousal were recorded during text reading task. Adults with RD scored significantly lower than SR on all cognitive and reading related measures. They showed no differences on any of the self-report anxiety measures. Interestingly, in the skilled readers' sample, physiological arousal while reading correlated with trait anxiety. No correlations between physiological and self-reported data were found in the RD sample. These findings suggest a model of resiliency in compensated adults with reading disabilities that includes lower anxiety levels and a discord between anxiety reports and actual arousal rates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Visual Object Pattern Separation Deficits in Nondemented Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Chelsea K.; Pirogovsky, Eva; Kirwan, C. Brock; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Young and nondemented older adults were tested on a continuous recognition memory task requiring visual pattern separation. During the task, some objects were repeated across trials and some objects, referred to as lures, were presented that were similar to previously presented objects. The lures resulted in increased interference and an increased…

  12. Visual Object Pattern Separation Varies in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Heather M.; Toner, Chelsea; Pirogovsky, Eva; Kirwan, C. Brock; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Young and nondemented older adults completed a visual object continuous recognition memory task in which some stimuli (lures) were similar but not identical to previously presented objects. The lures were hypothesized to result in increased interference and increased pattern separation demand. To examine variability in object pattern separation…

  13. Effectiveness of Sand-Therapy on the Attenuation of Separation anxiety Signs in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Shariat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The present research was conducted with the aim of determining effect of Sand-therapy on the attenuation of separation anxiety signs among pre-school children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: The statistical society consists of all pre-school children who had separation anxiety disorder and Among100 children, 30 persons were selected using available sampling. The method of this research is quasi-experimental with one group and pre-test and post-test plan. After performing pre-test of separation anxiety disorder scale, the experimental group were trained under sand-therapy training in 10 sessions of 60 minutes for a period of two months and after that, post-test of separation anxiety disorder scale was performed. The research tool consists of the questionnaire CSI-4 of child’s morbid signs. Wilcoxon method was used to analysis the results. Results: The research findings showed that there was a meaningful different (P=0.008 between pre- test & post-test scores of anxiety signs for study group.Conclusion: As a practical message, we can mention that sand therapy is as an interesting and practical playing for the children and it is a meaningful therapy related to attenuation of separation anxious signs.Keywords: Sand therapy, separation anxiety, pre-school-children

  14. A systematic review of interventions for anxiety, depression, and PTSD in adult offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Hunt, Nicholas; Perry, Amanda

    2015-06-01

    There is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in offender populations but with no recent systematic review of interventions to identify what is effective. This systematic review was undertaken to identify randomised controlled trials of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in adult offenders in prison or community settings. A search of five databases identified 14 studies meeting inclusion criteria, which considered the impact of psychological interventions, pharmacological agents, or exercise on levels of depression and anxiety. A narrative synthesis was undertaken and Hedges g effect sizes calculated to allow comparison between studies. Effect sizes for depression interventions ranged from 0.17 to 1.41, for anxiety 0.61 to 0.71 and for posttraumatic stress disorder 0 to 1.41. Cognitive behavioural therapy interventions for the reduction of depression and anxiety in adult offenders appear effective in the short term, though a large-scale trial of sufficient duration is needed to confirm this finding.

  15. Effects of neonatal paternal deprivation or early deprivation on anxiety and social behaviors of the adults in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao; An, Shucheng; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined whether neonatal paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed and pups were raised just by mother) or early deprivation (ED: pups were raised by both parents except separated from not only the dam but also the peers for three hours a day from PND 0 to 13) has long-term effects on anxiety and social behaviors of adult mandarin voles. Newborn mandarin voles of F2 generation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bi-parental care (PC: pups were raised by both parents), PD and ED. The parental care behaviors of F1 generation were observed at the age of 0, 13 and 21 days (PND 0, 13, 21) of F2 generation of PC and PD groups. Moreover, each mandarin vole of F2 generation received an open field test and a social interaction test on PND 70 and PND 75, respectively. No significant differences of parental behavior were observed between mothers and fathers from PC families, showing typical parental behavior of socially monogamous rodents. In addition, no significant differences of maternal behaviors were found between mothers from PC and PD families, indicating no maternal compensation towards pups for the absence of the paternal care. In the open field test, mandarin voles from both PD and ED families displayed higher levels of anxiety and lower locomotor activity, relative to offspring of PC family. In the social interaction test, both PD and ED mandarin voles also showed lower levels of social behavior and higher levels of anxiety. Thus, both PD and ED significantly increase anxiety and reduce social behavior of adult mandarin voles, suggesting that variation in parental investment may lead to variation in anxiety and social behaviors in rodents with different mating systems.

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Gender Differences in the Neurobiology of Anxiety: Focus on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature reports a higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the majority of basic research has focused on male rodents, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge on the neurobiology of anxiety in females. Bridging this gap is crucial for the design of effective translational interventions in women. One of the key brain mechanisms likely to regulate anxious behavior is adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). This review paper aims to discuss the evidence on the differences betw...

  18. Gender Differences in the Neurobiology of Anxiety:Focus on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature reports a higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the majority of basic research has focused on male rodents, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge on the neurobiology of anxiety in females. Bridging this gap is crucial for the design of effective translational interventions in women. One of the key brain mechanisms likely to regulate anxious behavior is adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). This review paper aims to discuss the evidence on the differences betw...

  19. Childhood Trauma and Current Psychological Functioning in Adults with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Janice R.; Goldin, Philippe R; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. P...

  20. Differential effectiveness of two anxiety induction procedures in youth and older adult populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Montorio; Roberto Nuevo; Isabel Cabrera; María Márquez; María Izal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested in older and younger adults the efficacy of two well-known procedures to experimentally induce anxiety: a) Velten self-statements combined with music; b) film scenes. We extended the previous findings in this field to the understudied area of mood induction in older adults. Fifty-seven older adults and 94 college students were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions or to a control group. Results indicated that both procedures were effective, according...

  1. Adult attachment anxiety: using group therapy to promote change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarosh, Cheri L; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2013-11-01

    Group therapy can facilitate changes for members with greater attachment anxiety who tend to struggle with negative self-perceptions, difficulties regulating emotions, poor reflective functioning, and compromised interpersonal relationships. A clinical example of a therapy group with members who had elevated attachment anxiety and who were diagnosed with binge eating disorder demonstrates how attachment theory can be applied to group treatment. The clinical material from the beginning, middle, and end of group is presented to highlight how attachment anxiety influences members' emotional reactions and behaviors in the group, how group factors facilitate change, and how the leader fosters the development of a secure base within the group. Pre- to posttreatment outcomes indicate positive changes in binge eating, depressive symptoms, and attachment avoidance and anxiety. To facilitate change in individuals with greater attachment anxiety, group therapists may foster a secure base in the group through group cohesion, which will facilitate down regulation of emotions, better reflective functioning, and relationships that are less preoccupied with loss and more secure.

  2. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Child

  3. [Psychodynamic-multisystemic Therapy of School Phobia due to Separation Anxiety in Day Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Antje; Fernholz, Judith Maria; Strothe, Kay Susanne; Schlund, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Psychodynamic understanding and systemic approach in the multi-family treatment of a day care clinic are illustrated following the case report of a seven-year old girl with school phobia due to separation anxiety. The treatment modalities of the day clinic at the University Medical Center Muenster are described focussing on the multi-systemic approach. Using psychodynamic and systemic hypotheses the process of treatment is developed. Specific interventions, differentiated into reorganizations of inner and outer world issues, are traced to psychodynamic and systemic hypotheses. In conclusion it is argued that the integration of psychodynamic and multisystemic therapy methods in day clinic parent-child treatment provide a promising treatment approach.

  4. The multidimensional nature and multicultural validity of a new measure of social anxiety: the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballo, Vicente E; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-06-01

    Much has been written about the situations most often feared by persons with social phobia, and several self-report measures are frequently used to assess such feared situations. However, it is not clear whether the situations feared by persons with social phobia form unidimensional or multidimensional factors. If these situations are multidimensional, reliance on a total score of feared situations would not reflect important differences between those dimensions. This research examined the multidimensional nature and multicultural validity of a newly developed instrument (the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults [SAQ-A]) in two studies with a total of 539 patients diagnosed with social phobia and 15,753 nonpatients from 20 different countries. The structure (five clear and solid factors) and psychometric properties of the final instrument (the SAQ-A30) support the multidimensional nature of social anxiety and provide a new perspective in the assessment of social phobia.

  5. Adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Index in relation to depression and anxiety in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afshar, Hamid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in Western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudied region of Middle East. We examined the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI-2010, as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 15·2 % (males 10·8 % and females 18·3 %) and 30·0 % (males 22·9 % and females 35·1 %), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, those in the top quartile of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower chance of anxiety (OR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·72) and a 45 % lower odds of depression (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72), compared with those in the bottom quartile. Stratified analysis by sex revealed that women in the highest categories of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower odds of having anxiety and depression, after adjustment for confounders, but no significant association was found in men. In addition, among individuals who were 40 years old or younger, those with high adherence to AHEI-2010 were 58 and 51 % less likely to have anxiety and depression, compared with those with less adherence. Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of anxiety and depression in Iranian adults. Prospective studies are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  6. Death Awareness, Maternal Separation Anxiety, and Attachment Style among First-Time Mothers--A Terror Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the interplay between death awareness, attachment style, and maternal separation anxiety among first-time mothers of infants aged 3-12 months. In Study 1 (N = 60), a higher accessibility of death-related thoughts was found following induction of thoughts about separation from the infant. In Study 2 (N = 100), a mortality…

  7. Antidepressant medication augmented with cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Petkus, Andrew J; White, Kamila S; Nguyen, Hoang; Kornblith, Sander; Andreescu, Carmen; Zisook, Sidney; Lenze, Eric J

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Generalized anxiety disorder is common among older adults and leads to diminished health and cognitive functioning. Although antidepressant medications are efficacious, many elderly individuals require augmentation treatment. Furthermore, little is known about maintenance strategies for older people. The authors examined whether sequenced treatment combining pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) boosts response and prevents relapse in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. METHOD Participants were individuals at least 60 years of age with generalized anxiety disorder (N=73) who were recruited from outpatient clinics at three sites. Participants received 12 weeks of open-label escitalopram and were then randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 16 weeks of escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) plus modular CBT, followed by 28 weeks of maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram alone, followed by maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram plus CBT, followed by pill placebo; and escitalopram alone, followed by placebo. RESULTS Escitalopram augmented with CBT increased response rates on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire but not on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale compared with escitalopram alone. Both escitalopram and CBT prevented relapse compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates effective strategies for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in older adults. The sequence of antidepressant medication augmented with CBT leads to worry reduction in the short-term. Continued medication prevents relapse, but for many individuals, CBT would allow sustained remission without requiring long-term pharmacotherapy.

  8. Modeling the cognitive mechanisms linking autism symptoms and anxiety in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, Max E; Stephenson, Kevin G; South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui; Freeston, Mark H; Gaigg, Sebastian B

    2016-07-01

    Emotional acceptance, alexithymia, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) contribute to anxiety disorders in neurotypical populations. Their association with anxiety in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been studied. We aimed to model the contributions of these constructs on the relationship between dimensional measures of autism and anxiety. Participants were 151 adults recruited from 2 sites, including those diagnosed with ASD (n = 76) and a matched comparison group (n = 75). All participants completed a battery of questionnaires measuring core autism symptoms, anxiety, emotional acceptance, alexithymia, and intolerance of uncertainty. Structural equation modeling with mediation was used to examine directional relationships among these variables. Autism symptoms directly predicted less emotional acceptance and increased alexithymia and IU. Alexithymia and acceptance were shown to explain 64% of the effect between autism symptom severity and anxiety level. This suggests that people with ASD experience increased levels of anxiety because they are more likely to react aversively to their emotional experiences, while lacking the ability to identify and understand their emotions. Developing and implementing mindfulness-based interventions aimed at assuaging alexithymia and IU, while increasing emotional acceptance, may be especially helpful in treating anxiety in ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  10. Information processing bias and pharmacotherapy outcome in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda R W; Petkus, Andrew J; Nguyen, Hoang; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2013-08-01

    Information processing bias was evaluated in a sample of 25 older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) over the course of 12 weeks of escitalopram pharmacotherapy. Using the CANTAB Affective Go/No Go test, treatment response (as measured by the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale) was predicted from a bias score (i.e., difference score between response latencies for negative and positive words) using mixed-models regression. A more positive bias score across time predicted better response to treatment. Faster responses to positive words relative to negative words were associated with greater symptomatic improvement over time as reflected by scores on the GADSS. There was a trend toward significance for PSWQ scores and no significant effects related to HAMA outcomes. These preliminary findings offer further insights into the role of biased cognitive processing of emotional material in the manifestation of late-life anxiety symptoms.

  11. Separation anxiety, attachment and inter-personal representations: disentangling the role of oxytocin in the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Dadds, Mark; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Khan, Feroza; Radom, Naomi; Silove, Derrick M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to assess cross-sectionally and longitudinally associations between disturbances in maternal early attachment experiences, symptoms of separation anxiety and depression and oxytocin plasma levels. We examined a mediational model that tested the hypothesis that anxious attachment style arising from the mothers' early bonding experiences with her own parents was associated with high levels of separation anxiety which, via its impact on depression, was associated with reduced levels of oxytocin in the postnatal period. Data is reported on a structured sample of 127 women recruited during pregnancy from a general hospital antenatal clinic and an initial follow up cohort of 57 women who were re-assessed at 3-months post-partum. We found an association between lower oxytocin level in the post partum period and symptoms of separation anxiety and depression during pregnancy, as well as maternal negative interpersonal representations, upbringing attributes and anxious attachment style. Further meditational analysis revealed that the unique association between anxious attachment and depression is mediated by separation anxiety and that depressed mood mediated the relationship between separation anxiety and oxytocin. In conjunction with evidence from the literature suggesting that lower oxytocin level is associated with bonding difficulties, our findings have significant implications for understanding the biological processes underpinning adverse attachment experiences, negative affect state, and mother-to-infant bonding difficulties.

  12. Separation anxiety, attachment and inter-personal representations: disentangling the role of oxytocin in the perinatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma Eapen

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aimed to assess cross-sectionally and longitudinally associations between disturbances in maternal early attachment experiences, symptoms of separation anxiety and depression and oxytocin plasma levels. We examined a mediational model that tested the hypothesis that anxious attachment style arising from the mothers' early bonding experiences with her own parents was associated with high levels of separation anxiety which, via its impact on depression, was associated with reduced levels of oxytocin in the postnatal period. Data is reported on a structured sample of 127 women recruited during pregnancy from a general hospital antenatal clinic and an initial follow up cohort of 57 women who were re-assessed at 3-months post-partum. We found an association between lower oxytocin level in the post partum period and symptoms of separation anxiety and depression during pregnancy, as well as maternal negative interpersonal representations, upbringing attributes and anxious attachment style. Further meditational analysis revealed that the unique association between anxious attachment and depression is mediated by separation anxiety and that depressed mood mediated the relationship between separation anxiety and oxytocin. In conjunction with evidence from the literature suggesting that lower oxytocin level is associated with bonding difficulties, our findings have significant implications for understanding the biological processes underpinning adverse attachment experiences, negative affect state, and mother-to-infant bonding difficulties.

  13. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Anxiety Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  14. Associations among Aspects of Meaning in Life and Death Anxiety in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explored the relationship between two aspects of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life, and the fear of death and dying in young adults. A community sample of participants ("N" = 168) completed measures of meaning in life and death anxiety. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed…

  15. Associations among Aspects of Meaning in Life and Death Anxiety in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explored the relationship between two aspects of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life, and the fear of death and dying in young adults. A community sample of participants ("N" = 168) completed measures of meaning in life and death anxiety. A multivariate analysis of variance was…

  16. miR-17-92 Cluster Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Anxiety, and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Jin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence has shown that noncoding RNAs, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs, contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders, although the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that altered levels of miR-17-92 in adult hippocampal neural progenitors have a significant impact on neurogenesis and anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in mice. miR-17-92 deletion in adult neural progenitors decreases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, while its overexpression increases neurogenesis. miR-17-92 affects neurogenesis by regulating genes in the glucocorticoid pathway, especially serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase-1 (Sgk1. miR-17-92 knockout mice show anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, whereas miR-17-92 overexpressing mice exhibit anxiolytic and antidepression-like behaviors. Furthermore, we show that miR-17-92 expression in the adult mouse hippocampus responds to chronic stress, and miR-17-92 rescues proliferation defects induced by corticosterone in hippocampal neural progenitors. Our study uncovers a crucial role for miR-17-92 in adult neural progenitors through regulation of neurogenesis and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

  17. Attentional bias for threat in older adults: moderation of the positivity bias by trait anxiety and stimulus modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lewina O; Knight, Bob G

    2009-09-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that emotion regulation goals motivate older adults to preferentially allocate attention to positive stimuli and away from negative stimuli. This study examined whether anxiety moderates the effect of the positivity bias on attention for threat. The authors employed the dot probe task to compare subliminal and supraliminal attention for threat in 103 young and 44 older adults. Regardless of anxiety, older but not young adults demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant response to angry faces. Anxiety influenced older adults' attention such that anxious individuals demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant reaction to sad faces but an avoidant-vigilant reaction to negative words.

  18. Experiences of Dental Care and Dental Anxiety in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Blomqvist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anxiety is associated with previous distressing dental experiences, such as lack of understanding of the dentist intentions, perceptions of uncontrollability and experiences of pain during dental treatment. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are impaired in building flexible predictions and expectations, which is very much needed during a dental visit. The aims of the study were to investigate if people with ASD have more negative dental experiences and a higher level of dental anxiety compared to a matched control group. Forty-seven adults with ASD and of normal intellectual performance, and 69 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls completed questionnaires on previous dental experiences and dental anxiety, the Dental Anxiety Scale, and the Dental Beliefs Survey. The ASD group experienced pain during dental treatments more often than the controls and 22% had repeatedly experienced being forced to dental treatment they were not prepared for, compared to 3% of the controls. A higher level of dental anxiety was reported by the ASD group. Dental treatment and methods for supporting the communication with patients with ASD need to be developed, in order to reduce the negative dental experiences and dental anxiety in people with ASD.

  19. Demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of the development of anxiety in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Katie; Bramham, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate potential demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD. Participants included 267 adults with a diagnosis of ADHD (168 males:99 females) and an age range of 18-70 years (M = 31 years; SD = 10.03 years). A background interview, parent questionnaire and rating scales were used to gather participant information. Correlations, independent t tests and one-way analysis of variances were used to identify variables associated with anxiety, and a stepwise multiple regression was used to identify potential predictors of anxiety. Variables associated with anxiety included childhood aggression, employment status, difficulties making friends, number of children and caffeine intake. Childhood aggression and caffeine intake were the potential predictors. Clinicians should be aware of these potential predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD in order to minimise the likelihood of the development or maintenance of comorbid anxiety. Future research is needed in order to draw any conclusions on cause and effect.

  20. Differential effectiveness of two anxiety induction procedures in youth and older adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Montorio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested in older and younger adults the efficacy of two well-known procedures to experimentally induce anxiety: a Velten self-statements combined with music; b film scenes. We extended the previous findings in this field to the understudied area of mood induction in older adults. Fifty-seven older adults and 94 college students were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions or to a control group. Results indicated that both procedures were effective, according to a series of ANOVAs for several self-report, physiological, and behavioral measures. Likewise, the highest effect sizes were observed for the Velten procedure (g = .81 vs. g = .71, and the effects were significantly higher in younger (g = 1.0 in the Velten condition than in older adults (g = .62, Q = 4.25, χ2(1, P = .0392. Both procedures were effective to induce inducting anxiety in both age groups, especially the Velten procedure in younger adults. Therefore, Velten self-statements combined with music may be very useful anxiety induction procedure for further research in controlled situations of emotions across the life-span.

  1. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  2. Perceived Parenting Styles Fail to Mediate Between Anxiety and Attachment Styles in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Linda P; Murray, Lindsay E

    2016-09-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found between perceived parenting and attachment styles or anxiety for the siblings but there were robust and expected findings for the control. Adult attachment-related-anxiety was a significant unique predictor of anxiety in the sibling group but there was no mediational role for perceived parenting. Conversely, the majority of parenting styles significantly mediated the relationship between attachment and anxiety in the control. Implications for the atypical findings in the sibling group are discussed.

  3. Perceived Parenting Styles Fail to Mediate between Anxiety and Attachment Styles in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found…

  4. Validation of a short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) in adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ashleigh; Yung, Alison R; Wigman, Johanna T W; Killackey, Eoin; Baksheev, Gennady; Wardenaar, Klaas J

    2014-01-01

    The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure the symptom-dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. A 30-item short adaptation of the MASQ (MASQ-D30) was previously developed and validated in adult psychiatric outpatients. The aim of the present stud

  5. Depression, anxiety and self-care behaviours of young adults with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, Jessica L; Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, F

    2015-01-01

    diabetes with two matched control groups. METHODS: Using cross-sectional survey data from the Australian and Dutch Diabetes Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success (MILES) studies, we matched 93 young adults (aged 18-39 years) with Type 2 diabetes (case group) with: (i) 93 older adults...... more likely to have clinically meaningful depressive symptoms (Cramer's V = 0.23) than those in the Type 2 diabetes control group. Participants in the case group had statistically equivalent depression scores to the Type 1 diabetes control group. The groups did not differ in anxiety scores. Those...... psychological and self-care support than their older counterparts....

  6. Anxiety sensitivity: another reason to separate dental fears from blood-injury fears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Cengiz; Ak, Sertaç; Ak, Hacer Birgül

    2014-03-01

    Although dental phobia is classified under the heading of blood-injury phobia, studies show differences between the two conditions in terms of frequency of fainting and gender distribution. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), which refers to discomfort and negative attributions to bodily anxiety sensations, was useful in differentiating panic anxiety from other phobic anxieties. No study has compared dental phobia with blood-injury phobia directly. We examined 61 subjects, working at a military aircraft factory, using measures on demographics, dental fears (MDAS - Modified Dental Anxiety Scale) and blood-injury fears (MBPI - Multidimensional Blood/Injury Phobia Inventory), in addition to Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Regression analyses revealed that dental phobia was predicted by ASI, whereas blood/injury phobia was not. Our results provide additional support for the proposed distinction between the two conditions.

  7. Effects of juvenile exposure to predator odor on adolescent and adult anxiety and pain nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Ryan J; Dahlborg, Kaitlyn M; O'Loughlin, Lauren E; Bloom, Christopher M

    2014-05-28

    Clinical researchers have tracked patients with early life trauma and noted generalized anxiety disorder, unipolar depression, and risk-taking behaviors developing in late adolescence and into early adulthood. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural and developmental processes that underlie the relationship between early stress and later abnormal behavior. The present model used repeated exposure to 2,3,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a component of fox feces, as an unconditioned fear-eliciting stimulus in order to induce stress in juvenile rats aged postnatal day (PND) 23 through 27. After further physical maturation characteristic of the adolescent stage (PND 42), animals were tested using an elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety and plantar test (Hargreaves method) for pain to assess any lingering effects of the juvenile stress. To assess how an additional stress later in life affects anxiety and pain nociception, PND 43 rats were exposed to inescapable shock (0.8mA) and again tested on EPM and plantar test. A final testing period was conducted in the adult (PND 63) rats to assess resulting changes in adult behaviors. TMT-exposed rats were significantly more anxious in adolescence than controls, but this difference disappeared after exposure to the secondary stressor. In adulthood, but not in adolescence, TMT-exposed rats demonstrated lower pain sensitivity than controls. These results suggest that early life stress can play a significant role in later anxiety and pain nociception, and offer insight into the development and manifestation of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders.

  8. Amygdala-based intrinsic functional connectivity and anxiety disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toazza, Rudineia; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Buchweitz, Augusto; Molle, Roberta Dalle; Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Reis, Roberta Sena; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Esper, Nathalia Bianchini; Aguzzoli, Cristiano; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2016-11-30

    Anxiety disorders (AD) are the most prevalent group of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults. Nevertheless, the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders is still poorly understood. This study investigated differences in the functional connectivity of intrinsic amygdala-based networks of participants with and without AD. Resting state fMRI data were obtained from 18 participants with an AD and 19 healthy comparison individuals. Psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using standardized structured interviews. The comparison between groups was carried out using functional connectivity maps from six seed regions defined using probabilistic maps bilaterally within the amygdala (basolateral, superficial and centromedial amygdala). We found significant between-group differences in five clusters, which showed aberrant functional connectivity with the left basolateral amygdala: right precentral gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, bilateral precuneus, and right superior frontal gyrus in subjects with AD as compared with the comparison subjects. For the comparison subjects, the correlations between the amygdala and the five clusters were either non-significant, or negative. The present study suggests there is an intrinsic disruption in the communication between left basolateral amygdala and a network of brain regions involved with emotion regulation, and with the default mode network in adolescents and young adults with anxiety disorders.

  9. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-hua; SHI Hong-mei; LIU Tong-tong; XUYing-chun; YE Kang-ping; WANG Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background As the widespread use of electric devices in modern life,human are exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) much more frequently than ever.Over the past decades,a substantial number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that ELF MF (50 Hz) exposure is associated with increased risk of various health effects.The present study examined the effects of chronic exposure to ELF MF on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats.Methods The 50-Hz ELF MF was used during the whole experimental procedures and the value of magnetic field (MF)was set to 2 mT.Adult rats were divided randomly to control,MF 1 hour and MF 4 hours group.Anxiety-related behaviors were examined in the open field test and the elevated plus maze; changes in spatial learning and memory were determined in Morris water maze after 4 weeks of daily exposure.Results Rats in MF 4 hours group had increased anxiety-like behaviors with unaltered locomotor activity.In the Morris water maze test,rats had reduced latency to find the hidden platform and improved long-term memory of former location of platform without changes in short-term memory and locomotor activity.Conclusion Chronic ELF MF exposure has anxiogenic effect on rats,and the promoting effects on spatial learning and long-term retention of spatial memory.

  10. Examining self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of anxiety and depression: Two feasibility open trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake F. Dear

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT has considerable public health potential for treating anxiety and depression. However, no research has examined the use of self-guided iCBT, that is, treatment without contact with a clinician, specifically for older adults. The aim of the present study was to undertake a preliminary examination of the acceptability, efficacy and health economic impact of two entirely self-guided iCBT programs for adults over 60 years of age with anxiety and depression. Two separate single-group feasibility open trials of self-guided iCBT were conducted, the Anxiety Trial (n = 27 and the Depression Trial (n = 20, using the control groups of two randomized controlled trials. The online treatment packages consisted of five online educational lessons, which were delivered over 8 weeks without clinical contact. Participants rated the interventions as acceptable with more than 90% reporting the course was worth their time and more than 70% of participants completing at least 3 of the 5 lessons within the eight weeks. Significant reductions on measures of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item; GAD-7 and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item; PHQ-9 were observed from pre-treatment to post-treatment in both the Anxiety Trial (GAD-7 Cohen's d = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.75 and the Depression Trial (PHQ-9 Cohen's d = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.33 to 1.73. The economic analyses indicated that there was statistically significant improvement in health-related quality of life compared to baseline and marginally higher costs associated with treatment for both the Anxiety Trial ($69.84; 95% CI: $4.24 to $135.45 and the Depression Trial ($54.98; 95% CI: $3.84 to $106.12. The results provide preliminary support for the potential of entirely self-guided iCBT for older adults with anxiety and depression and indicate larger scale and controlled research trials are warranted.

  11. Effects of tai chi chuan on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults: lessons from a randomized controlled feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen L; Bergman, Shawn M; Collier, Scott R; Triplett, N Travis; Quin, Rebecca; Bergquist, John; Pieper, Carl F

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine feasibility and estimate the effect of a 10-week tai chi chuan (TCC) intervention on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults. Participants Seventy-five adults (18–40 years) from a predominately undergraduate midsized university. Methods This was an assessor blinded, randomized feasibility trial, and participants were randomized into one of three groups: 10 weeks of TCC meeting 2 times per week, 10 weeks of TCC with a DVD of the curriculum, and control group receiving a handout on anxiety management. Anxiety and sleep quality were assessed 4 times: baseline, 4 weeks, 10 weeks (immediate post-intervention), and 2 months post-intervention. Retention was defined as a participant attending the baseline assessment and at least one other assessment. Adherence to the intervention was set a priori as attendance at 80% of the TCC classes. Results Eighty-five percent of participants were retained during the intervention and 70% completed the 2 month follow-up assessments. To increase statistical power, the two TCC groups were combined in the analyses of anxiety and sleep quality measures. No significant changes in anxiety were found in the control group, while levels of anxiety decreased significantly over time in the two TCC groups. Sleep quality scores improved across time for all three groups, but adherent TCC participants reported greater improvement than control participants. Conclusion TCC may be an effective nonpharmaceutical means of improving anxiety and poor sleep quality in young adults. PMID:27895522

  12. Effects of Clown Doctors on child and caregiver anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Arriaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care. Independent observational records using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale instrument assessed children’s anxiety, while the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured caregiver’s state anxiety. In addition, caregivers assessed the children’s functional health problems by completing the Functional Status Questionnaire. Although no effects of Clown Doctors were found on children’s anxiety, results showed that both low functional health problems and Clown Doctors intervention were significant predictors of lower caregiver anxiety. Caregivers also reported being very satisfied with their intervention. Overall, this study demonstrated the positive role of Clown Doctors for caregivers at a specific paediatric hospital setting.

  13. Factors determining tooth extraction anxiety and fear in adult dental patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astramskaitė, I; Poškevičius, L; Juodžbalys, G

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review previous studies and to identify reliable factors determining anxiety in adult patients undergoing tooth extraction procedures. An electronic literature search was conducted of the MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and Wiley Online Library databases covering the period January 2005 to May 2015. Sequential screening was performed at the title/abstract and full-text level. The review included all human prospective and retrospective follow-up studies and clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and case series that demonstrated at least one factor determining tooth extraction anxiety and/or fear and used specific scales for measurement. The search identified 16 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Factors related to tooth extraction in patients were assessed: propensity to anxiety (P<0.05), pain experience or expectations (P<0.05), level of disturbance during the procedure (P<0.001), difficulty of the procedure (P=0.034), marital status (P=0.003), social class (P=0.012), and type of local anaesthesia (P=0.008). Using a video as the method of providing information (P<0.05) and having had a previous negative dental experience (P<0.05) led to an increase in patient anxiety level. Due to disagreements between studies, further investigations into the other factors are required to clarify the results. However, the absence of a single and appropriate scale that includes both the patient's evaluation and that of the doctor, hinders the rating of patient anxiety.

  14. ANXIETY, STRESS-RELATED FACTORS AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HT is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arterial vessels is persistently elevated. Though HT initially presents itself as an asymptomatic condition, it chronically evolves into a major risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal diseases that, in turn, represent crucial causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. HT is a complex disorder that it is estimated to afflict more than a quarter of the world's adult population. It is classified both on the basis of its patophisyology (primary and secondary HT both on the resting blood pressure values (elevated systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure. It originates from a complicated interaction of genes and several environmental risk factors that include aging, smoking, lack of exercise, overweight and obesity, elevated salt intake, stress, depression and anxiety. Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders, affecting millions of people each year and impairing every aspect of everyday life, both of them characterized by affective, cognitive, psychomotor and neuro-vegetative symptoms. Moreover, work-related stress has been implied as an important risk-factor for HT and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Although different authors have intensively studied and found out possible relations between HT, stress, anxiety and depression during the last decades, a full understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms has not been satisfactorily achieved, especially in young adults. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribute of anxiety and work-related stress in the development of HT in young healthcare profession students and the possible related consequences of early CVDs.

  15. Comparison of Younger and Older Adults' Acceptability of Treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Co-Occurring with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Ament, Patrick A.; Holt, Peter S.; Hunt, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    Acceptability ratings of medication or Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT), for general anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring with Parkinson's Disease (PD) were obtained from younger ("n" = 79) and older ("n" = 54) adults. Participants read a case description of an older adult with PD and comorbid GAD followed by a description…

  16. Udbredelse og opfattelse af angst for tandbehandling blandt voksne danskere.[Prevalence and perceptions of dental anxiety among Danish adults.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Birn, H.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1993-01-01

    English summary: This telephone survey showed that 4.2% of Danish adults over 16 years old have extreme dental anxiety and 6% have moderate fear in a sample of 565 adults from Århus (Table 1). Common perceptions as to the causes of dental fear indicated that most believed it to be due to pain...

  17. Effects of Clown Doctors on child and caregiver anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Arriaga; Catarina Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years) were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care). Independent observational records using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale instrument assessed children’s anxiety, while the State-Trait Anxiet...

  18. Evaluation of effects of olfactory and auditory stimulation on separation anxiety by salivary cortisol measurement in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Separation anxiety (SA) is a serious behavioral problem in dogs. In this study, salivary cortisol was studied to determine if the owner's odor or voice could reduce SA in dogs. Twenty-eight dogs with SA were divided into three groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (with owner's clothes during the separation period; SP) and group 3 (a recording of the owner's voice was played during SP). The dog's saliva was collected after the owner and their dog were in the experimental room for 5 min (PRE). Th...

  19. Effects of Reiki on anxiety, depression, pain, and physiological factors in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Nancy E; Spross, Judith A; Lutz, Katherine; Peng, Cheng

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Reiki as an alternative and complementary approach to treating community-dwelling older adults who experience pain, depression, and/or anxiety. Participants (N = 20) were randomly assigned to either an experimental or wait list control group. The pre- and posttest measures included the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, Faces Pain Scale, and heart rate and blood pressure. The research design included an experimental component to examine changes in these measures and a descriptive component (semi-structured interview) to elicit information about the experience of having Reiki treatments. Significant differences were observed between the experimental and treatment groups on measures of pain, depression, and anxiety; no changes in heart rate and blood pressure were noted. Content analysis of treatment notes and interviews revealed five broad categories of responses: Relaxation; Improved Physical Symptoms, Mood, and Well-Being; Curiosity and a Desire to Learn More; Enhanced Self-Care; and Sensory and Cognitive Responses to Reiki.

  20. Separate and combined effects of anxiety, depression and problem drinking on subjective health among black, hispanic and non-hispanic white men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although separate effects of anxiety and problem drinking were similar among race and ethnic groups, race and ethnicity seemed to modify the combined effects of different mental health problems. These results warrant further exploration of these complex links.

  1. Current perspectives on Internet delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with anxiety and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton, Jessica Smith, Pieter Rossouw, Gavin Andrews Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The aim of the current review is to provide a summary of research into Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT for anxiety disorders. We include 37 randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of iCBT programs in adults (aged over 18 years, as compared with waiting list or active control. The included studies were identified from Medline searches and from reference lists, and only published data were included. Several trials of iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia were identified. Two trials of iCBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified, whilst one trial each was identified for hypochondriasis, specific phobia (spiders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, there were five trials that focused on transdiagnostic therapy for either a range of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid anxiety and depression. Between-group effect sizes were moderate to large for all disorders, and ranged from 0.30 to 2.53. iCBT was found to be commensurate with face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy whether delivered individually or in group format. Guidance may not be necessary for iCBT to be effective for immediate gains, but may be more important in longer-term maintenance of symptom improvement and maximizing patient adherence. The clinical experience of the individual providing guidance does not appear to impact treatment outcomes. Future research needs to focus on the optimal level of guidance required to generate maximum patient benefits, whilst balancing the efficient use of clinician time and resources. Evidence-based contraindications to iCBT should also be developed so that the choice of treatment modality accurately reflects patients’ needs. Further research should be conducted into the effective elements of

  2. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD.

  3. Pain and anxiety experiences of South African adult burn injury patients during physiotherapy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Morris

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A dequate management of procedural pain during physiotherapy management plays an important role in building a trusting relationship betweenthe burn victim and the physiotherapist, and in ensuring desirable functional outcomes. However, the burn pain management regimens currently utilized inburn units, primarily consist of traditional pharmacologic analgesics which areassociated with numerous side-effects and alone are often reported as inadequateto alleviate procedural pain, warranting safer and effective adjunct therapies.Prior to the introduction and implementation of adjunct therapies into a developing world, it is imperative that the current situation in a burn unit, in terms of whether or not the pain management regimens in place are adequate, is first assessed, due to cost concerns. The following short report exemplifies the pain and anxiety experiences of a small number of burn injury patients during physiotherapy at the Tygerberg Hospital adult burn unit, South A frica.  It was hypothesized that the results of this study would underpin whether adult burn injury patients in a developing countryrequire adjunct therapies during physiotherapy management to supplement traditional pharmacologic analgesics inmanaging their procedural pain and subsequent anxiety.

  4. The relationship between worry tendency and sleep quality in Chinese adolescents and young adults: the mediating role of state-trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Youwei; Lin, Rongmao; Tang, Xiangdong; He, Fei; Cai, Weiling; Su, Yankui

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between worry tendency and sleep quality and the mediating effect of state-trait anxiety, 1072 adolescents and young adults from Jiangxi and Fujian Provinces in China were administered questionnaires pertaining to worry tendency, sleep quality, and state-trait anxiety. The results showed significant grade differences for worry tendency, sleep quality, and state-trait anxiety. Worry tendency was negatively associated with sleep quality, which was mediated by state anxiety and trait anxiety. There is a need for interventions that aim to reduce the level of worry tendency to ensure good sleep quality and the progression from worry tendency to anxiety and to poor sleep quality.

  5. Comorbidity of infectious diseases and anxiety disorders in adults and its association with quality of life: a community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eWitthauer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infectious diseases and anxiety disorders are common and both are associated with substantial burden to individual, families and society. A better understanding of their association may be helpful in explicating possible etiological mechanisms related to both. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between specific infectious diseases and anxiety disorders among adults in the community, and to examine whether the co-occurrence of the two is associated with poorer quality of life compared to subjects with one or neither condition. Methods: We used data from the 1998 German Mental Health survey with 4,181 subjects aged 18-65. Various infectious diseases (lifetime and health-related quality of life were assessed via self-report questionnaires and anxiety disorders (past 12-months were diagnosed using M-CIDI interviews; Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between infectious diseases and anxiety disorders; a linear model adjusted for sex was used to examine whether comorbidity of infectious diseases and anxiety disorders was associated with quality of life.Results: Whooping cough (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.36-2.09, scarlet fever (OR=1.31, 95%CI=1.02–1.68 and diphtheria (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.21–2.64 were associated with increased prevalence of any anxiety disorder. Subjects with both infectious diseases and anxiety disorders reported lower levels of both mental and physical quality of life, compared with subjects with only one or neither condition.Conclusions: Extending prior research, this study suggests a relationship between specific infectious diseases and anxiety disorders in an adult community sample. Research targeting etiological mechanisms related to the interplay between infectious diseases and anxiety disorders is warrented.

  6. Association of depression and anxiety status with 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults: The ATTICA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Kollia, Natasa; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsigos, Constantine; Randeva, Harpal S; Yannakoulia, Mary; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic stress frequently manifests with anxiety and/or depressive symptomatology and may have detrimental cardiometabolic effects over time. As such, recognising the potential links between stress-related psychological disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming increasingly important in cardiovascular epidemiology research. The primary aim of this study was to explore prospectively potential associations between clinically relevant depressive symptomatology and anxiety levels and the 10-year CVD incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults. Design A population-based, health and nutrition prospective survey. Methods In the context of the ATTICA Study (2002-2012), 853 adult participants without previous CVD history (453 men (45 ± 13 years) and 400 women (44 ± 18 years)) underwent psychological evaluations through validated, self-reporting depression and anxiety questionnaires. Results After adjustment for multiple established CVD risk factors, both reported depression and anxiety levels were positively and independently associated with the 10-year CVD incidence, with depression markedly increasing the CVD risk by approximately fourfold (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 3.6 (1.3, 11) for depression status; 1.03 (1.0, 1.1) for anxiety levels). Conclusions Our findings indicate that standardised psychological assessments focusing on depression and anxiety should be considered as an additional and distinct aspect in the context of CVD preventive strategies that are designed and implemented by health authorities at the general population level.

  7. JNK1 controls adult hippocampal neurogenesis and imposes cell-autonomous control of anxiety behaviour from the neurogenic niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, H; Marchisella, F; Ortega-Martinez, S; Hollos, P; Eerola, K; Komulainen, E; Kulesskaya, N; Freemantle, E; Fagerholm, V; Savontous, E; Rauvala, H; Peterson, B D; van Praag, H; Coffey, E T

    2016-11-15

    Promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis is expected to induce neuroplastic changes that improve mood and alleviate anxiety. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown and the hypothesis itself is controversial. Here we show that mice lacking Jnk1, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor-treated mice, display increased neurogenesis in adult hippocampus characterized by enhanced cell proliferation and survival, and increased maturation in the ventral region. Correspondingly, anxiety behaviour is reduced in a battery of tests, except when neurogenesis is prevented by AraC treatment. Using engineered retroviruses, we show that exclusive inhibition of JNK in adult-born granule cells alleviates anxiety and reduces depressive-like behaviour. These data validate the neurogenesis hypothesis of anxiety. Moreover, they establish a causal role for JNK in the hippocampal neurogenic niche and anxiety behaviour, and advocate targeting of JNK as an avenue for novel therapies against affective disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 15 November 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.203.

  8. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  9. The association of relationship quality and social networks with depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among older married adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    of positive and negative partner interactions and social networks with depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation. METHODS: Nationally-representative, cross-sectional data of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 4988 community dwelling adults aged >50...... regression was used to assess the association between social relationships and depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, negative partner interactions were significantly associated with increased likelihood of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, while...... of directions of causality. CONCLUSION: By assessing the available social network of older adults, as well as the areas in their social relationships that need to be addressed, it may be possible for practitioners and policy makers to maximize the benefits of network integration and minimize the potentially...

  10. A Critical Comprehensive Review of Religiosity and Anxiety Disorders in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Dany R; Hebborn, Ludger F; Dal, Sylvain J; Naja, Wadih J

    2015-08-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been increasing research with respect to the relation of religion and mental health disorders. Consequently, the current article aims to first provide a comprehensive literature review of the interplay between different domains of religiosity and a wide variety of categorical anxiety disorders in adults, and secondly, to uncover the major methodological flaws often yielding mixed, contradictory and unreliable results. The search was conducted using the PubMed/Medline database and included papers published between 1970 and 2012, under a rigorous set of inclusion/exclusion criteria. A total of ten publications were retained as part of the current study, and three main outcomes were identified: (1) certain aspects of religiosity and specific religious interventions have mostly had a protective impact on generalized anxiety disorder (40% of the studies); (2) other domains of religiosity demonstrated no association with post-traumatic stress disorder (30% of the studies); and (3) mixed results were seen for panic and phobic disorders.

  11. Informant Discrepancies in Adult Social Anxiety Disorder Assessments: Links With Contextual Variations in Observed Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-informant assessments of adult psychopathology often result in discrepancies among informants’ reports. Among 157 adults meeting criteria for either the generalized (n = 106) or nongeneralized (n = 51) social anxiety disorder (SAD) subtype, we examined whether discrepancies between patients’ and clinicians’ reports of patients’ symptoms related to variations in both SAD subtype and expressions of social skills deficits across multiple social interaction tasks. Latent class analyses revealed two behavioral patterns: (a) context-specific social skills deficits and (b) cross-context social skills deficits. Similarly, patients’ symptom reports could be characterized by concordance or discordance with clinicians’ reports. Patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of the patient meeting criteria for the generalized relative to nongeneralized subtype. Further, patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of consistently exhibiting social skills deficits across social interaction tasks (relative to context-specific social skills deficits). These relations were robust in accounting for patient age, clinical severity, and Axis I and II comorbidity. Further, clinical severity did not completely explain variability in patients’ behavior on laboratory tasks or discrepancies between patient and clinician reports. Findings provide the first laboratory-based support for the ability of informant discrepancies to indicate cross-contextual variability in clinical adult assessments, and the first of any developmental period to indicate this for SAD assessments. These findings have important implications for clinical assessment and developmental psychopathology research. PMID:23421526

  12. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a moderator of exercise enhancement of smoking cessation treatment in anxiety vulnerable adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Powers, M.B.; Rosenfield, D.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Jacquart, J.; Davis, M.L.; Beevers, C.G.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Otto, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise interventions facilitate the odds of quit success among high-anxiety sensitive adults smokers. We examined the dependency of these benefits on the genetic BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism; individuals who are Met carriers have lower BDNF responses and reduced associated benef

  13. "Old People Are Cranky": Helping Professional Trainees' Knowledge, Attitudes, Aging Anxiety, and Interest in Working with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a gerontology education course in decreasing ageism and aging anxiety and increasing knowledge and interest in working with older adults among undergraduates training for social services careers. Participants completed study measures at the beginning and end of semester. Analyses supported the study…

  14. Birth order effects on the separation process in young adults: an evolutionary and dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Hermel, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzes the differential contribution of a familial or social focus in imaginative ideation (the personal fable and imagined audience mental constructs) to the separation-individuation process of firstborn, middleborn, and lastborn children. A total of 160 young adults were divided into 3 groups by birth order. Participants' separation-individuation process was evaluated by the Psychological Separation Inventory, and results were cross-validated by the Pathology of Separation-Individuation Inventory. The Imaginative Ideation Inventory tested the relative dominance of the familial and social environments in participants' mental constructs. The findings showed that middleborn children had attained more advanced separation and were lower in family-focused ideation and higher in nonfamilial social ideation. However, the familial and not the social ideation explained the variance in the separation process in all the groups. The findings offer new insights into the effects of birth order on separation and individuation in adolescents and young adults.

  15. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  16. Attachment and separation-individuation process among young adults as volunteers in the field of psychosocial help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonida Kobal Možina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Distinctions among different attachment styles often appear to be unclear. These distinction inadequacies also result from superficial knowledge of psychodynamic factors of the attachment system, which the concept of internal working models often neglects. In my research I have examined the appearance of specific object relations characteristics in the adulthood period. In other words, I have examined the solution of the separation-individuation process according to the internal working models of self and other, which exist in the background of the attachment system. Twenty-one young adult volunteers included in this research took part in a psychotherapeutic camp in order to help children and adolescents with psychosocial problems. Information was gathered with the Interpersonal Relations Questionnaire (Bartholomew in Horowitz, 1991, the Test of Object Relations (Žvelc, 1998 and with two semi-structured interviews. Among volunteers with a negative self-model, dimensions of symbiotic merging, egocentrism, separation anxiety and social isolation were more evident, whereas volunteers with a negative other-model expressed fear of engulfment more clearly. Results have confirmed that volunteers with prevailingly insecure attachment styles have problems with separation-individuation process and with achieving reciprocal autonomy.

  17. Internet-based self-help therapy with FearFighter™ versus no intervention for anxiety disorders in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    an advertisement posted on the homepage of the Student Counselling Service in Denmark. The inclusion criterion for participation in the trial will be the presence of anxiety disorder as assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The exclusion criteria will be suicidal risk, an ongoing episode...... of the Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) programme FearFighter™ versus no intervention for anxiety disorders in adults. METHODS AND DESIGN: We will conduct an investigator-initiated, feasibility randomised controlled trial. Sixty-four participants are expected to be recruited via...

  18. Environmental enrichment models a naturalistic form of maternal separation and shapes the anxiety response patterns of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, E J; Migliore, M M; Pillsbury, S L; Shaik, A N; Kentner, A C

    2015-02-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) mimics positive life experiences by providing enhanced social and physical stimulation. Placement into EE following weaning, or in later life, confers beneficial outcomes on both emotional and cognitive processes. However, anxiety-like behavior is also reported, particularly in rats exposed to enhanced housing during early development. Notably, the quality of maternal behavior affects stress regulation and emotional stability in offspring, yet the impact of environmental context on maternal care has not been thoroughly evaluated, or are the influences of EE on their offspring understood. To investigate the role of EE on these factors we analyzed the details of mother-neonate interactions, and juvenile offspring performance on several anxiety measures. Additionally, we evaluated neurochemical differences (i.e. serotonin, corticosterone, GABA, glutamate) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as a function of EE, Communal Nesting (CN) and Standard Care (SC). Although EE dams spent significantly less time on the nest and had lower nursing frequencies compared to SC dams, there were no differences in maternal licking/grooming. In offspring, EE increased GLUR1 level and GABA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex of both juvenile male and female rats. A similar pattern for glutamate was only observed in males. Although EE offspring spent less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze and had faster escape latencies in a light-dark test, there were no other indications of anxiety-like behavior on these measures or when engaged in social interaction with a conspecific. In the wild, rats live in complicated and variable environments. Consequently dams must leave their nest to defend and forage, limiting their duration of direct contact. EE exposure in early development may mimic this naturalistic maternal separation, shaping parental behavior and offspring resiliency to stressors.

  19. Depression and anxiety in parent versus spouse caregivers of adult patients with traumatic brain injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Naomi; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Canzian, Sonya; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review of studies which evaluated depression and anxiety in parent versus spouse caregivers of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was conducted. Demographic variables of the TBI patients and caregivers, study design, measurement tools used, and outcomes reported were collected. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated for methodological quality. While the majority of studies revealed no significant differences between caregiver types on measures of depression and/or anxiety, there was a great deal of variation in methodology and quality between the studies. Overall, high levels of caregiver distress were exposed, regardless of caregiver type (parent versus spouse). There is a need for qualitative and quantitative research designs in order to elucidate the factors that put caregivers at risk for depression and anxiety.

  20. Evaluation of effects of olfactory and auditory stimulation on separation anxiety by salivary cortisol measurement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon-Joo; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2016-06-30

    Separation anxiety (SA) is a serious behavioral problem in dogs. In this study, salivary cortisol was studied to determine if the owner's odor or voice could reduce SA in dogs. Twenty-eight dogs with SA were divided into three groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (with owner's clothes during the separation period; SP) and group 3 (a recording of the owner's voice was played during SP). The dog's saliva was collected after the owner and their dog were in the experimental room for 5 min (PRE). The dog was then separated from the owner for 20 min and saliva collected four times at intervals of 5 min (SP1-4). Finally, the owner was allowed back into the room to calm the dog for 5 min, after which saliva was collected (POST). Evaluation of salivary cortisol concentrations by ELISA revealed that the ratios of SP1 concentration to PRE or POST concentrations were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 or 3. Additionally, the concentrations of SP1-PRE and SP1-POST among groups differed significantly. These findings indicate that the owner's odor or voice may be helpful to managing stress in dogs with SA.

  1. Effects of tai chi chuan on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults: lessons from a randomized controlled feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldwell KL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karen L Caldwell,1 Shawn M Bergman,2 Scott R Collier,3 N Travis Triplett,3 Rebecca Quin,4 John Bergquist,5 Carl F Pieper6 1Department of Human Development and Psychological Counseling, 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, 4Department of Theatre and Dance, 5Department of Psychology, Appalachian State University, Boone, 6Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Objective: To determine feasibility and estimate the effect of a 10-week tai chi chuan (TCC intervention on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults. Participants: Seventy-five adults (18–40 years from a predominately undergraduate mid-sized university. Methods: This was an assessor blinded, randomized feasibility trial, and participants were randomized into one of three groups: 10 weeks of TCC meeting 2 times per week, 10 weeks of TCC with a DVD of the curriculum, and control group receiving a handout on anxiety management. Anxiety and sleep quality were assessed 4 times: baseline, 4 weeks, 10 weeks (immediate post-intervention, and 2 months post-intervention. Retention was defined as a participant attending the baseline assessment and at least one other assessment. Adherence to the intervention was set a priori as attendance at 80% of the TCC classes. Results: Eighty-five percent of participants were retained during the intervention and 70% completed the 2 month follow-up assessments. To increase statistical power, the two TCC groups were combined in the analyses of anxiety and sleep quality measures. No significant changes in anxiety were found in the control group, while levels of anxiety decreased significantly over time in the two TCC groups. Sleep quality scores improved across time for all three groups, but adherent TCC participants reported greater improvement than control participants. Conclusion: TCC may be an effective nonpharmaceutical means of improving anxiety and poor sleep quality

  2. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function.

  3. Unstable maternal environment, separation anxiety, and heightened CO2 sensitivity induced by gene-by-environment interplay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca R D'Amato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In man, many different events implying childhood separation from caregivers/unstable parental environment are associated with heightened risk for panic disorder in adulthood. Twin data show that the occurrence of such events in childhood contributes to explaining the covariation between separation anxiety disorder, panic, and the related psychobiological trait of CO(2 hypersensitivity. We hypothesized that early interference with infant-mother interaction could moderate the interspecific trait of response to CO(2 through genetic control of sensitivity to the environment. METHODOLOGY: Having spent the first 24 hours after birth with their biological mother, outbred NMRI mice were cross-fostered to adoptive mothers for the following 4 post-natal days. They were successively compared to normally-reared individuals for: number of ultrasonic vocalizations during isolation, respiratory physiology responses to normal air (20%O(2, CO(2-enriched air (6% CO(2, hypoxic air (10%O(2, and avoidance of CO(2-enriched environments. RESULTS: Cross-fostered pups showed significantly more ultrasonic vocalizations, more pronounced hyperventilatory responses (larger tidal volume and minute volume increments to CO(2-enriched air and heightened aversion towards CO(2-enriched environments, than normally-reared individuals. Enhanced tidal volume increment response to 6%CO(2 was present at 16-20, and 75-90 postnatal days, implying the trait's stability. Quantitative genetic analyses of unrelated individuals, sibs and half-sibs, showed that the genetic variance for tidal volume increment during 6%CO(2 breathing was significantly higher (Bartlett χ = 8.3, p = 0.004 among the cross-fostered than the normally-reared individuals, yielding heritability of 0.37 and 0.21 respectively. These results support a stress-diathesis model whereby the genetic influences underlying the response to 6%CO(2 increase their contribution in the presence of an environmental

  4. Effects of environmental enrichment on anxiety responses, spatial memory and cytochrome c oxidase activity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Zancada-Menendez, C; Begega, A; Rubio, S; Arias, J L

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the effect of an environmental enrichment (EE) protocol in adult Wistar rats on the activity in the elevated zero-maze (EZM), performance in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) and we have also examined the changes in the neuronal metabolic activity of several brain regions related to anxiety response and spatial memory through cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry (COx). Our EE protocol had anxiolytic effect in the EZM; the animals spent more time and made more entries into the open quadrants, they had lower latency to enter into the open quadrant and lower levels of defecation. Also, the EE group showed fewer working memory and reference memory errors, as well as lesser distance travelled in the first day of the spatial training. In relation to the neuronal metabolic activity, EE reduced the COx activity in brain regions related to anxiety response, such as the infralimbic cortex, the paraventricular thalamic and hypothalamic nucleus, the basolateral amygdala, and the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between groups in the dorsal hippocampus, more related to spatial cognition. These results suggest a beneficial effect of EE on spatial memory as a result of reducing anxiety levels and the COx activity in brain regions involved in anxiety response. We also found a differential pattern of activation inside the hippocampus, suggesting that the dorsal hippocampus has a preferential involvement in spatial learning and memory, whereas the ventral hippocampus has a role in anxiety response.

  5. Depression, anxiety and telomere length in young adults: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, B L; Mezuk, B; Bareis, N; Lin, J; Blackburn, E H; Epel, E S

    2015-04-01

    Telomere length has been hypothesized to be a marker of cumulative exposure to stress, and stress is an established cause of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depression, anxiety and telomere length, and to assess whether this relationship is moderated by race/ethnicity, gender and/or antidepressant use. Data were from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative PCR method of telomere length relative to standard reference DNA. Past-year major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD), as well as depressed affect and anxious affect, were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory (N=1290). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between depression and anxiety disorders and telomere length. Among women, those with GAD or PD had shorter telomeres than those with no anxious affect (β: -0.07, P0.05). Among respondents currently taking an antidepressant, those with MD had shorter telomeres than those without (β: -0.26, Ptelomere length among those not using antidepressants (β: -0.00, P>0.05). Neither depressive nor anxiety disorders were directly associated with telomere length in young adults. There was suggestive evidence that pharmacologically treated MD is associated with shorter telomere length, likely reflecting the more severe nature of MD that has come to clinical attention.

  6. Separation Anxiety: Detachment from the Extracellular Matrix Induces Metabolic Changes that Can Stimulate Tumorigenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdalena A. Cichon; Derek C. Radisky

    2010-01-01

    @@ One of the earliest stages of tumor progression involves the ability of cells to survive and proliferate when not attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM). New research using a physiologically relevant breast cancer model reveals how separation from the ECM stimulates metabolic changes characteristic of developing tumors.

  7. Association between latent toxoplasmosis and major depression, generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Brown, Bruce L; Berrett, Andrew; Erickson, Lance D; Hedges, Dawson W

    2014-08-01

    Latent infection with the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) has been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and self-harm behaviour. However, the potential relationship between T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG) seropositivity and generalised-anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) has not been investigated. The associations between serum reactivity to T. gondii and major depressive disorder (MDD), GAD and PD were evaluated in a total sample of 1 846 adult participants between the ages of 20 and 39 years from the United States Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Approximately 16% of the overall sample was seropositive for T. gondii and 7% of the sample met criteria for MDD, 2% for GAD and 2% for PD. There were no significant associations between T. gondii IgG seroprevalence and MDD (OR = 0.484, 95% CI = 0.186-1.258), GAD (OR = 0.737, 95% CI = 0.218-2.490) or PD (OR = 0.683, 95% CI = 0.206-2.270) controlling for sex, ethnicity, poverty-to-income ratio and educational attainment. However, limited evidence suggested a possible association between absolute antibody titres for T. gondii and GAD and PD but not MDD. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was not associated with MDD, GAD or PD within the context of the limitations of this study, although there may be an association of T. gondii serointensity with and GAD and PD, which requires further study.

  8. Group cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with Asperger syndrome and anxiety or mood disorder: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Lunsky, Yona

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome are at increased risk for mental health problems compared with the general population, especially with regard to mood and anxiety disorders. Generic mental health services are often ill-equipped to offer psychotherapeutic treatments to this population, and specialized supports are difficult to find. This case series used a manualized cognitive behaviour therapy group programme (Mind Over Mood) with three adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, who were each unable to access psychotherapy through mainstream mental health services. This review highlights the benefits of a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) group approach for adults with Asperger syndrome and suggests some potential modifications to traditional CBT provision. 

  9. Effects of Clown Doctors on Child and Caregiver Anxiety at the Entrance to the Surgery Care Unit and Separation from Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Patrícia; Pacheco, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years) were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care).…

  10. The Influence Factors Analysis of Preschoolers' Separation Anxiety%幼儿分离焦虑影响因素探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄睿

    2015-01-01

    幼儿的分离焦虑反映了不同幼儿依恋类型及家庭教养方式的特点。本文以依恋理论的研究为基础,从抚养者、儿童和外围环境三个角度探讨分离焦虑的影响因素。%Preschoolers' separation anxiety is the upset behavior and emotion arising from the separation between themselves and their care givers,which appears to be different based on the different attachment types and family care models. This paper, based on the attachment theory, explains the influence factors of the preschoolers' separation anxiety from the perspective of care givers, children and the environment.

  11. Anxiety-like behaviour in adult rats perinatally exposed to maternal calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Paolini, Antonio G; Govic, Antonina; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen

    2008-08-22

    Environmental stimuli such as caloric availability during the perinatal period exert a profound influence on the development of an organism. Studies in this domain have focused on the effects of under- and malnutrition while the effects of more mild levels of restriction have not been delineated. Rat dams and their offspring were subjected to one of five dietary regimens: control, CR50% for 3 days preconception, CR25% during gestation, CR25% during lactation, and CR25% during gestation, lactation, and post-weaning (lifelong). The pup retrieval test and maternal observations were conducted during lactation to quantify maternal care. In the pup retrieval test, dams that were concurrently experiencing CR (i.e., from the lactation and lifelong groups) displayed shorter latencies to retrieve all pups than the control and preconception groups and the lactation group constructed better nests than all groups. Adult offspring were tested in three tests of anxiety: the elevated plus maze, open field, and emergence test. No differences were observed in the elevated plus maze; however, in the open field preconception animals made fewer entries and spent more time in the central zone than controls. In addition, preconception offspring exhibited longer latencies to full body emergence, spent less time fully emerged, and spent more time engaged in risk assessment behaviours than all other groups. Offspring from the preconception group were also on average 11% heavier than control rats throughout life and displayed 37% higher serum leptin concentrations than controls. A potential role for leptin in the anxiogenic effect of preconception CR is discussed.

  12. Validation of a short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ashleigh; Yung, Alison R; Wigman, Johanna T W; Killackey, Eoin; Baksheev, Gennady; Wardenaar, Klaas J

    2014-03-30

    The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure the symptom-dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. A 30-item short adaptation of the MASQ (MASQ-D30) was previously developed and validated in adult psychiatric outpatients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the MASQ-D30 in a sample of adolescents and young adults. Help-seeking adolescents from Australia (N=147; mean age: 17.7 years; 58.8% female) completed the original, 90-item MASQ. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the construct validity (a 3-factor structure) of the original MASQ and the MASQ-D30. Internal consistencies and correlations with other instruments were calculated and compared between versions. CFA showed that the intended 3-factor structure fit adequately to the MASQ-D30 data (CFI=0.95; RMSEA=0.08). Internal consistencies ranged from 0.85 to 0.92 across the scales and patterns of correlations with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) indicated adequate convergent/divergent properties. Importantly, the observed psychometric characteristics were comparable with the original MASQ and alternative short-forms. Results indicated that the MASQ-D30 is a valid and reliable instrument in young people, allowing for quick assessment of the tripartite dimensions of depression and anxiety.

  13. Calorie restriction and corticosterone elevation during lactation can each modulate adult male fear and anxiety-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Bell, Veronica; Samuel, Anil; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G

    2014-09-01

    Early life events, such as calorie restriction (CR) and elevated glucocorticoids, can calibrate the lifelong behavioural and physiological profile of an individual. Stress reactivity in adulthood is particularly sensitive to early life events; however, the consequence to fear and anxiety-like behaviour is less clear. Consequently, the current study sought to examine the effects of post-natal CR and glucocorticoid elevation, long considered powerful programming stimuli, on the subsequent fear and anxiety behaviour of the adult offspring. Rat dams received either corticosterone (200 μg/ml) supplementation in drinking water (CORT) or a 25% CR from post-natal day (PND) 1 to 11. Responses to the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field and a predator odour (TMT; 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline) were characterised in the adult male offspring. Both treatment conditions resulted in enhanced fear responses to TMT, characterised by heightened risk assessment and increased avoidance of TMT. CORT nursed offspring further demonstrated an anxiogenic profile in the open field. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function was unchanged in CORT adult offspring, whilst corticosterone concentration was elevated by post-natal CR. CR and CORT treated dams both exhibited greater anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM. A modest and temporary enhancement of maternal care was observed in CR and CORT treated dams, with CR dams further exhibiting rapid pup retrieval latencies. The results indicate enhanced emotionality in the adult male progeny of dams exposed to CR and corticosterone supplementation during the post-natal period. The modest enhancement of maternal care observed by both treatments is unlikely to have influenced the behavioural profile of the offspring.

  14. Ecological momentary assessment versus standard assessment instruments for measuring mindfulness, depressed mood, and anxiety among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Depp, Colin A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    As mobile data capture tools for patient-reported outcomes proliferate in clinical research, a key dimension of measure performance is sensitivity to change. This study compared performance of patient-reported measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety symptoms using traditional paper-and-pencil forms versus real-time, ambulatory measurement of symptoms via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Sixty-seven emotionally distressed older adults completed paper-and-pencil measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety along with two weeks of identical items reported during ambulatory monitoring via EMA before and after participation in a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or a health education intervention. We calculated effect sizes for these measures across both measurement approaches and estimated the Number-Needed-to-Treat (NNT) in both measurement conditions. Study outcomes greatly differed depending on which measurement method was used. When EMA was used to measure clinical symptoms, older adults who participated in the MBSR intervention had significantly higher mindfulness and significantly lower depression and anxiety than participants in the health education intervention at post-treatment. However, these significant changes in symptoms were not found when outcomes were measured with paper-and-pencil measures. The NNT for mindfulness and depression measures administered through EMA were approximately 25-50% lower than NNTs derived from paper-and-pencil administration. Sensitivity to change in anxiety was similar across administration modes. In conclusion, EMA measures of depression and mindfulness substantially outperformed paper-and-pencil measures with the same items. The additional resources associated with EMA in clinical trials would seem to be offset by its greater sensitivity to detect change in key outcome variables.

  15. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group. Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms, Children′s Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software package (v. 20. Results: CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children′s reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping

  16. Does the Vigilance-Avoidance Gazing Behavior of Children with Separation Anxiety Disorder Change after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive biases are of interest in understanding the development of anxiety disorders. They also play a significant role during psychotherapy, where cognitive biases are modified in order to break the vicious cycle responsible for maintaining anxiety disorders. In a previous study, the vigilance-avoidance pattern was shown in children with…

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Behavioral Activation Treatment of Anxiety (BATA) in Three Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jarrod S.; Leach, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three single-case experimental evaluations of Behavioral Activation Treatment of Anxiety (BATA) applied with a 51-year-old male, a 62-year-old female, and a 53-year-old female, each of whom met DSM-IV criteria for anxiety. Each case was a clinical replication of an initial trial of BATA reported in Turner and Leach (2009).…

  18. Social separation and diazepam withdrawal increase anxiety in the elevated plus-maze and serotonin turnover in the median raphe and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Lucinéia; de Andrade, Telma G C S; Graeff, Frederico G

    2010-05-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of social separation for 14 days (chronic stress) and of withdrawal from a 14-day treatment with diazepam (acute stress) on the exploratory behaviour of male rats in the elevated plus-maze and on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) turnover in different brain structures. Social separation had an anxiogenic effect, evidenced by fewer entries into, and less time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Separation also selectively increased 5-hydroxytryptamine turnover in the hippocampus and median raphe nucleus. Diazepam withdrawal had a similar anxiogenic effect in grouped animals and increased 5-hydroxytryptamine turnover in the same brain structures. Chronic treatment with imipramine during the 14 days of separation prevented the behavioural and neurochemical changes caused by social separation. It is suggested that the increase in anxiety determined by both acute and chronic stress is mediated by the activation of the median raphe nucleus-hippocampal 5-hydroxytryptamine pathway.

  19. Are anxiety and fear separable emotions in driving? A laboratory study of behavioural and physiological responses to different driving environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, M P; Chapman, P

    2016-01-01

    Research into anxiety and driving has indicated that those higher in anxiety are potentially more dangerous on the roads. However, simulator findings suggest that conclusions are mixed at best. It is possible that anxiety is becoming confused with fear, which has a focus on more clearly defined sources of threat from the environment, as opposed to the internal, thought-related process associated with anxiety. This research aimed to measure feelings of fear, as well as physiological and attentional reactions to increasing levels of accident risk. Trait anxiety was also measured to see if it interacted with levels of risk or its associated reactions. Participants watched videos of driving scenarios with varying levels of accident risk and had to rate how much fear they would feel if they were the driver of the car, whilst skin conductance, heart rate, and eye movements were recorded. Analysis of the data suggested that perceptions of fear increased with increasing levels of accident risk, and skin conductance reflected this pattern. Eye movements, when considered alongside reaction times, indicated different patterns of performance according to different dangerous situations. These effects were independent of trait anxiety, which was only associated with higher rates of disliking driving and use of maladaptive coping mechanisms on questionnaires. It is concluded that these results could provide useful evidence in support for training-based programmes; it may also be beneficial to study trait anxiety within a more immersive driving environment and on a larger scale.

  20. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  1. The nature of self-esteem and its relationship to anxiety and depression in adult acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Catherine; Deakins, Joseph; Rose, David; Gracey, Fergus

    2016-08-31

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) has a negative impact on self-esteem, which is in turn associated with mood disorders, maladaptive coping and reduced community participation. The aim of the current research was to explore self-esteem as a multi-dimensional construct and identify which factors are associated with symptoms of anxiety or depression. Eighty adults with ABI aged 17-56 years completed the Robson Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), of whom 65 also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; 57.5% of the sample had clinically low self-esteem. The RSES had good internal consistency (α =   .89), and factor analysis identified four factors, which differed from those found previously in other populations. Multiple regression analysis revealed anxiety was differentially predicted by "Self-Worth" and "Self-Efficacy", R(2) =   .44, F(4, 58) =   9, p Self-Regard", R(2) =   .38, F(4, 58) =   9, p self-esteem after ABI. Self-esteem after ABI is multidimensional and differs in structure from self-esteem in the general population. A multidimensional model of self-esteem may be helpful in development of transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural accounts of adjustment.

  2. The Mediating Role of Romantic Desolation and Dating Anxiety in the Association Between Interpersonal Competence and Life Satisfaction Among Polish Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Segrin, Chris

    This study investigates the role of romantic desolation on life satisfaction in young adulthood. Using data from a Polish sample of 330 (205 females and 125 males) young adults aged 20-30, who completed Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Dating Anxiety Scale, Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire-Revised, and Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults-Short Form, romantic desolation (romantic loneliness and lack of a romantic partner) and dating anxiety were tested as mediators of the association between interpersonal competence and life satisfaction. Results revealed that single individuals reported lower life satisfaction and higher romantic loneliness than did partnered individuals. At the same time, no differences emerged between single and partnered individuals in dating anxiety or interpersonal competence. Structural equation modeling results showed that low interpersonal competence has an indirect effect on romantic desolation through higher levels of dating anxiety. Also, dating anxiety had an indirect effect on lower life satisfaction through increased romantic desolation. These results highlight the important role of dating anxiety and romantic desolation for explaining why low interpersonal competence is associated with diminished life satisfaction in young adults.

  3. Community-deliverable exercise and anxiety in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S; Callahan, Leigh F

    2017-01-01

    Introduction While anxiety is a major public health problem in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases (AORD), the effects of exercise on anxiety in adults are not well established despite numerous studies on this topic. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review with an aggregate data meta-analysis to determine the effects of community-deliverable exercise interventions (aerobic, strength training or both) on anxiety in adults with AORD. Methods and analysis Randomised controlled exercise intervention trials ≥4 weeks and published in any language up to 31 December 2016 will be included. Studies will be retrieved by searching 8 electronic databases, cross-referencing and expert review. Dual selection and abstraction of data will occur. The primary outcome will be changes in anxiety. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment instrument while confidence in the cumulative evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) instrument. Standardised effect sizes for anxiety will be calculated from each study and then pooled using the inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet) model. Meta-regression based on the IVhet model will be used to examine the relationship between changes in anxiety and selected covariates. Dissemination The results of this study will be presented at a professional conference and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number CRD42016048728. PMID:28264834

  4. Anxiety sensitivity uniquely predicts exercise behaviors in young adults seeking to increase physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshier, S.J.; Szuhany, K.L.; Hearon, B.A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations withi

  5. Adult dental anxiety and related dentist beliefs in Danish private practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1997-01-01

    A qualitative study about the effects of dental anxiety on private dental practices in Denmark was made. Characteristics of 53 anxious patients were surveyed from 42 randomly selected private practices (PP) in Århus, Denmark. Samples from the specialist dental phobia treatment center, Forsknings-...

  6. Concurrent associations between anxiety sensitivity and perceived health and health disability among young adult daily smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeish, A.C.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity (fear of arousal-related physical and psychological sensations) relative to health factors (smoking variables, alcohol use and exercise level), in predicting perceived health and disability among a sample o

  7. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armfield, J.M.; Ketting, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from

  8. 对托班幼儿分离焦虑及适应性问题的思考%Reflections about Infants' Separation Anxiety and Adaptability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田京巾; 汪娟

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety is an important aspect of the child's psychological development, but also a common anxiety and behavior to the process of admission of children. Each child will be manifested in varying degrees; of course, this is the biggest obstacle to admission to adapt of newborn infants and young children. Therefore, it's a great concern on the resulting separation causes anxiety and how to better adapt to it.%分离焦虑是孩子心理发展的一个重要方面,也是孩子入园过程中一种常见的不安情绪和行为。每个孩子都会不同程度的表现出来,当然这也是托班新生入园适应的最大障碍,因此,其产生分离焦虑的成因及如何更好的适应便引起极大关注。

  9. Early-life risk factors for panic and separation anxiety disorder: insights and outstanding questions arising from human and animal studies of CO2 sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marco; Ogliari, Anna; D'Amato, Francesca; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Genetically informative studies showed that genetic and environmental risk factors act and interact to influence liability to (a) panic disorder, (b) its childhood precursor separation anxiety disorder, and (c) heightened sensitivity to CO2, an endophenotype common to both disorders. Childhood adversities including parental loss influence both panic disorder and CO2 hypersensitivity. However, childhood parental loss and separation anxiety disorder are weakly correlated in humans, suggesting the presence of alternative pathways of risk. The transferability of tests that assess CO2 sensitivity - an interspecific quantitative trait common to all mammals - to the animal laboratory setting allowed for environmentally controlled studies of early parental separation. Animal findings paralleled those of human studies, in that different forms of early maternal separation in mice and rats evoked heightened CO2 sensitivity; in mice, this could be explained by gene-by-environment interactional mechanisms. While several questions and issues (including obvious divergences between humans and rodents) remain open, parallel investigations by contemporary molecular genetic tools of (1) human longitudinal cohorts and (2) animals in controlled laboratory settings, can help elucidate the mechanisms beyond these phenomena.

  10. Taxonomic separation of hippocampal networks: principal cell populations and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelof Maarten evan Dijk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non

  11. Cumulative effects of HIV illness and caring for children orphaned by AIDS on anxiety symptoms among adults caring for children in HIV-endemic South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie; Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler

    2014-06-01

    Adults caring for children in HIV-endemic communities are at risk for poor psychological outcomes. However, we still have a limited understanding of how various HIV impacts--including caregiver's own HIV illness, responsibilities of caring for a child orphaned by AIDS, or both--affect psychological outcomes among caregivers. Furthermore, few studies have explored the relationship between stigma, HIV, and psychological outcomes among caregivers of children in HIV-endemic communities. A cross-sectional survey conducted from 2009 to 2010 assessed anxiety among 2477 caregivers of children in HIV-endemic South Africa. Chi-square tested differences in anxiety among caregivers living with HIV, caregivers of a child orphaned by AIDS, and caregivers affected with both conditions. Multivariate logistic regressions identified whether the relationship between HIV impacts and anxiety remained after controlling for socio-demographic co-factors. Mediation analysis tested the relationship between stigma, HIV, and anxiety. The odds of meeting threshold criteria for clinically relevant anxiety symptoms were two and a half times greater among caregivers living with HIV compared to nonaffected caregivers. The odds of meeting threshold criteria for clinically relevant anxiety symptoms were greatest among caregivers living with HIV and caring for a child orphaned by AIDS. Exposure to AIDS-related stigma partially mediated the relationship between HIV and anxiety. Interventions are needed to address caregiver psychological health, particularly among caregivers affected with both conditions of living with HIV and caring for a child orphaned by AIDS.

  12. Validity and reliability of an Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale in Saudi adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bahammam, Maha A.; Hassan, Mona H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To test the reliability and validity of an Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and to correlate it with other demographic data. Methods: The original English version of the MDAS was translated into Arabic, and then translated back into English by experienced bilingual professionals. Four hundred and seventy-four patients referred to dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from November 2012 to June ...

  13. Effects of juvenile exposure to predator odor on adolescent and adult anxiety and pain nociception

    OpenAIRE

    Post, Ryan J; Dahlborg, Kaitlyn M.; O’Loughlin, Lauren E.; Bloom, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical researchers have tracked patients with early life trauma and noted generalized anxiety disorder, unipolar depression, and risk-taking behaviors developing in late adolescence and into early adulthood. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural and developmental processes that underlie the relationship between early stress and later abnormal behavior. The present model used repeated exposure to 2,3,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a component of fox feces, as an unc...

  14. Primary anxiety disorders and the development of subsequent alcohol use disorder: a 4-year community study of adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Petra; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Pfister, Hildegard; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lieb, Roselind

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cross-sectional findings in community surveys of adults suggest that adolescent anxiety disorders are strong predictors of the subsequent onset of alcohol use, abuse and dependence. However, prospective data that follow a sample of adolescents into adulthood are needed to confirm these associations. Method. Baseline and 4-year follow-up data from the EDSP-Study, a prospective community survey of 3021 (2548 at follow-up) adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 24 years at baseli...

  15. Sensory Bias Predicts Postural Stability, Anxiety, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Adults Walking in Novel Discordant Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their scores on a collective measure of anxiety, cognition, and postural stability in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). A treadmill was mounted to a motion base platform positioned 2 m behind a large visual screen. Training consisted of three walking sessions, each within a week of the previous visit, that presented four 5-minute exposures to various combinations of support surface and visual scene manipulations, all lateral sinusoids. The conditions were scene translation only, support surface translation only, simultaneous scene and support surface translations in-phase, and simultaneous scene and support surface translations 180 out-of-phase. During the Transfer Test, the trained participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. A visual sinusoidal roll perturbation, with twice the original flow rate, was superimposed on a sinusoidal support surface roll perturbation that was 90 out of phase with the scene. A high correlation existed between normalized torso translation, measured in the scene-only condition at the first visit, and a combined measure of normalized heart rate, stride frequency, and reaction time at the transfer test. Results suggest that visually dependent participants experience decreased postural stability, increased anxiety, and increased reaction times compared to their less visually dependent counterparts when negotiating novel discordant conditions.

  16. Huntingtin acts non cell-autonomously on hippocampal neurogenesis and controls anxiety-related behaviors in adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pla

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, characterized by motor defects and psychiatric symptoms, including mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. HD is caused by an abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ expansion in the huntingtin (HTT protein. The development and analysis of various mouse models that express pathogenic polyQ-HTT revealed a link between mutant HTT and the development of anxio-depressive behaviors and various hippocampal neurogenesis defects. However, it is unclear whether such phenotype is linked to alteration of HTT wild-type function in adults. Here, we report the analysis of a new mouse model in which HTT is inducibly deleted from adult mature cortical and hippocampal neurons using the CreER(T2/Lox system. These mice present defects in both the survival and the dendritic arborization of hippocampal newborn neurons. Our data suggest that these non-cell autonomous effects are linked to defects in both BDNF transport and release upon HTT silencing in hippocampal neurons, and in BDNF/TrkB signaling. The controlled deletion of HTT also had anxiogenic-like effects. Our results implicate endogenous wild-type HTT in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and in the control of mood disorders.

  17. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Adult Cancer Patients and Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, Jacob; Wurtzen, Hanne; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) in oncology settings has become increasingly popular, and research in the field has rapidly expanded. The objective was by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of MBT on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and…

  18. Sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index - Confirmatory factor analytic evidence, internal consistency, and construct validity in a young adult sample from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively e

  19. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and sertraline versus a wait-list control group for anxiety disorders in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, J.; Comijs, H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.; Gundy, C.M.; Weijnen, I.J.C.; Hout, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study is the first to investigate the relative effectiveness of cognitive? behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; sertraline) in a randomized, controlled trial on the treatment of anxiety disorders in older adults. Method: Eighty-four p

  20. Cognitive behavioral treatment for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. A therapist manual for primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Melinda A; Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Hopko, Derek R

    2004-01-01

    At least four academic clinical trials have demonstrated the utility of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). These data may not generalize, however, to more heterogeneous and functionally impaired patients and the medical settings in which they typically receive care. A recent pilot project suggested the potential benefits of a new version of CBT for GAD among older patients in primary care. The manual developed and tested in this pilot project is presented here. Treatment components include motivation and education, relaxation skills, cognitive therapy, problem-solving-skills training, exposure exercises, and sleep-management-skills training. Procedures are designed to be administered flexibly to maximize attention to individual patient needs. Examples of session summaries, patient handouts, and homework forms are provided.

  1. Anxiety and Depression during Transition from Hospital to Community in Older Adults: Concepts of a Study to Explain Late Age Onset Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn F. Lalor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition between extended hospitalization and discharge home to community-living contexts for older adults is a critical time period. This transition can have an impact on the health outcomes of older adults such as increasing the risk for health outcomes like falls, functional decline and depression and anxiety. The aim of this work is to identify and understand why older adults experience symptoms of depression and anxiety post-discharge and what factors are associated with this. This is a mixed methods study of adults aged 65 years and over who experienced a period of hospitalization longer than two weeks and return to community-living post-discharge. Participants will complete a questionnaire at baseline and additional monthly follow-up questionnaires for six months. Anxiety and depression and their resulting behaviors are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of health and wellbeing among the ageing population. There is a critical need for research into the impact of an extended period of hospitalization on the health status of older adults post-discharge from hospital. This research will provide evidence that will inform interventions and services provided for older adults after they have been discharged home from hospital care.

  2. A Preliminary Approach to Children's Separation Anxiety Caused by Entering Kindergarten%幼儿的入园分离焦虑初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡力英

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic connotation of chil-dren's separation anxiety caused by entering kindergarten, ana-lyzes its negative influences and causes, and proposes the strate-gies of alleviating it.%本文介绍了幼儿的入园分离焦虑的基本概念,分析了其消极影响以及成因,并在此基础上提出了缓解幼儿入园分离性焦虑的策略。

  3. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses.

  4. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses.

  5. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

  6. Pooled patient-level meta-analysis of children and adults completing a computer-based anxiety intervention targeting attentional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca B; Wallace, Meredith; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Amir, Nader; Graur, Simona; Cummings, Logan; Popa, Paul; Carlbring, Per; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-12-01

    Computer-based approaches, such as Attention Bias Modification (ABM), could help improve access to care for anxiety. Study-level meta-analyses of ABM have produced conflicting findings and leave critical questions unresolved regarding ABM's mechanisms of action and clinical potential. We pooled patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of children and adults with high-anxiety. Attentional bias (AB) towards threat, the target mechanism of ABM, was tested as an outcome and a mechanistic mediator and moderator of anxiety reduction. Diagnostic remission and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were clinical outcomes available in enough studies to enable pooling. Per-patient data were obtained on at least one outcome from 13/16 eligible studies [86% of eligible participants; n=778]. Significant main effects of ABM on diagnostic remission (ABM-22.6%, control-10.8%; OR=2.57; p=0.006) and AB (β* (95%CI)=-0.63 (-0.83, -0.42); p<0.00005) were observed. There was no main effect of ABM on LSAS. However, moderator analyses suggested ABM was effective for patients who were younger (≤37y), trained in the lab, and/or assessed by clinicians. Under the same conditions where ABM was effective, mechanistic links between AB and anxiety reduction were supported. Under these specific circumstances, ABM reduces anxiety and acts through its target mechanism, supporting ABM's theoretical basis while simultaneously suggesting clinical indications and refinements to improve its currently limited clinical potential.

  7. Social support as a moderator of the relationship between anxiety and depression: an empirical study with adult survivors of Wenchuan earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On May 12th 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale struck China, causing a large number of casualties and significant economic losses. By interviewing 2080 survivors of Wenchuan earthquake, the objective of this study is to estimate the role of different types of social support as possible moderating factors between anxiety and depression. METHODS: A stratified random sampling strategy about the cross-sectional study was adopted. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS were used. A total of 2080 adult survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake from 19 damaged countries participated in the survey. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to evaluate the moderating role of social support on the relationship between anxiety and depression. RESULTS: One year after the Wenchuan earthquake, anxiety and depression were found to be 37.6% and 40.7%, respectively. Demographic characteristics were seen as significant in the cases of depression, except for age (p=0.599, while age and education level were not found to be significant for anxiety. The results showed that social support, especially subjective support could moderate the association between anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Social support should be particularly focused on female survivors, those of the Han ethnic group, and those with a lower level of education and a lower income. Psychological intervention and care for survivors should focus on those most disoriented by the disaster.

  8. Cognitive behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Is CBT equally efficacious in adults of working age and older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishita, Naoko; Laidlaw, Ken

    2017-03-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the efficacy of CBT for GAD between adults of working age and older people. In addition, we conducted a qualitative content analysis of treatment protocols used in studies with older clients to explore potential factors that may enhance treatment outcomes with this particular client group. Applying the inclusion criteria resulted in the identification of 15 studies with 22 comparisons between CBT and control groups (770 patients). When examining overall effect sizes for CBT for GAD between older people and adults of working age there were no statistically significant differences in outcome. However, overall effect size of CBT for GAD was moderate for older people (g=0.55, 95% CI 0.22-0.88) and large for adults of working age (g=0.94, 95% CI 0.52-1.36), suggesting that there is still room for improvement in CBT with older people. The main difference in outcome between CBT for GAD between the two age groups was related to methodological quality in that no older people studies used an intention-to-treat design. The content analysis demonstrated that studies with older clients were conducted according to robust CBT protocols but did not take account of gerontological evidence to make them more age-appropriate.

  9. 爱的分离--透过家长的教养方式看宝宝的分离焦虑%The Separation of Love:See Separation Anxiety Baby Through the Parents Rearing Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖琴

    2014-01-01

    2~3岁是多数宝宝入园的年龄,也是宝宝情绪发展的重要时期。多数宝宝能通过转移注意力、自我安慰、寻求帮助等方式来调整焦虑不安的情绪。但如今因为家庭教养方式的不同,造成宝宝与家长分离后注意力难以分散,哭闹强烈并持续时间长,形成了严重的分离焦虑情绪。通过实验活动来观察两岁宝宝面对家长的离开时不同的分离情绪来反思家长的教养方法。探讨有利于缓解宝宝入园分离焦虑的家庭教养方式。%Two to three years old is the age when most of the baby into the garden,and the baby’s emotional development important period. Most babies can pass distraction,comfort themselves,seeking help to adjust their anxious mood. But now is different because the family upbringing,caused the baby separated from parents after attention is hard to disperse,strong and long duration of the crying,formed the serious separation anxiety.Activities through the experiment to observe when two years old baby in front of the separation of different emotions when they leave parents,to reflect on the parents education method. Discussion is beneficial to alleviate baby separation anxiety way of family nurture in the park.

  10. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumiya, Hitomi; Godai, Ayumi; Araiso, Hiromi; Mori, Shingo; Furukawa, Shoei; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice) and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation.

  11. AP2γ controls adult hippocampal neurogenesis and modulates cognitive, but not anxiety or depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Pinheiro, A; Alves, N D; Patrício, P; Machado-Santos, A R; Loureiro-Campos, E; Silva, J M; Sardinha, V M; Reis, J; Schorle, H; Oliveira, J F; Ninkovic, J; Sousa, N; Pinto, L

    2016-10-25

    Hippocampal neurogenesis has been proposed to participate in a myriad of behavioral responses, both in basal states and in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we identify activating protein 2γ (AP2γ, also known as Tcfap2c), originally described to regulate the generation of neurons in the developing cortex, as a modulator of adult hippocampal glutamatergic neurogenesis in mice. Specifically, AP2γ is present in a sub-population of hippocampal transient amplifying progenitors. There, it is found to act as a positive regulator of the cell fate determinants Tbr2 and NeuroD, promoting proliferation and differentiation of new glutamatergic granular neurons. Conditional ablation of AP2γ in the adult brain significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and disrupted neural coherence between the ventral hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, it resulted in the precipitation of multimodal cognitive deficits. This indicates that the sub-population of AP2γ-positive hippocampal progenitors may constitute an important cellular substrate for hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. Concurrently, AP2γ deletion produced significant impairments in contextual memory and reversal learning. More so, in a water maze reference memory task a delay in the transition to cognitive strategies relying on hippocampal function integrity was observed. Interestingly, anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were not significantly affected. Altogether, findings open new perspectives in understanding the role of specific sub-populations of newborn neurons in the (patho)physiology of neuropsychiatric disorders affecting hippocampal neuroplasticity and cognitive function in the adult brain.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 25 October 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.169.

  12. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Soumiya

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation.

  13. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  14. Effects of adult-onset calorie restriction on anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Govic, Antonina; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G; Kent, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has consistently been shown to increase lifespan and ameliorate disease outcomes. Its effects on behavior are less clear, although anxiolytic-like effects have been observed. Rats were subjected to 1 of 4 dietary regimens: control, CR25%, CR50% and, an acute episode of CR and tested in 3 tests of anxiety: the open field test, the elevated plus maze, and the modified open field test. In the open field test, the CR25% and CR50% groups made more central zone entries than the control and Acute groups, which was primarily due to differences in the initial 5 min of the test. Moreover, both CR groups engaged in greater exploration of the central zone than the control group in the initial 5 min of the test. The Acute group also exhibited significantly longer latencies to leave the central zone at test onset than the control and CR50% group. In the elevated plus maze, the Acute group also displayed longer latencies to open arm entry as compared to the control and CR50% group and showed a lower ratio of open to total arm entries compared to all other groups. There were no effects of CR on any variable of the modified open field test. Possible neurochemical mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic-like effect of CR are discussed.

  15. Attachment anxiety and avoidance as mediators of the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Ardalan, Firouz; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Von Wyl, Agnes; Hengartner, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style.

  16. Safe Use of Complementary Health Products and Practices for Anxiety | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... join-a-study/adults/adults-anxiety-disorders.shtml Children: Anxiety Disorders – Research Studies www.nimh.nih.gov/labs-at-nimh/join-a-study/children/children-anxiety-disorders.shtml MedlinePlus.gov Type "anxiety disorders" in ...

  17. Effect of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in adults: an in-depth literature review of randomized trials with effect size calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Susan; Cohen, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the effect of Reiki therapy for pain and anxiety in randomized clinical trials. A systematic search of PubMed, ProQuest, Cochrane, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Global Health, and Medline databases was conducted using the search terms pain, anxiety, and Reiki. The Center for Reiki Research also was examined for articles. Studies that used randomization and a control or usual care group, used Reiki therapy in one arm of the study, were published in 2000 or later in peer-reviewed journals in English, and measured pain or anxiety were included. After removing duplicates, 49 articles were examined and 12 articles received full review. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria: four articles studied cancer patients, one examined post-surgical patients, and two analyzed community dwelling older adults. Effect sizes were calculated for all studies using Cohen's d statistic. Effect sizes for within group differences ranged from d = 0.24 for decrease in anxiety in women undergoing breast biopsy to d = 2.08 for decreased pain in community dwelling adults. The between group differences ranged from d = 0.32 for decrease of pain in a Reiki versus rest intervention for cancer patients to d = 4.5 for decrease in pain in community dwelling adults. Although the number of studies is limited, based on the size Cohen's d statistics calculated in this review, there is evidence to suggest that Reiki therapy may be effective for pain and anxiety. Continued research using Reiki therapy with larger sample sizes, consistently randomized groups, and standardized treatment protocols is recommended.

  18. "He Really Leant on Me a Lot": Parents' Perspectives on the Provision of Support to Divorced and Separated Adult Children in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Virpi; Doyle, Martha; O'Dwyer, Ciara

    2011-01-01

    The literature on intergenerational transfers and divorce has paid little attention to the experiences of older adults whose son or daughter has divorced or separated. The authors conducted 31 qualitative interviews to explore support provision from the perspective of older adults with divorced or separated adult children. All respondents were…

  19. Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced

    OpenAIRE

    Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quali...

  20. Tamoxifen Activation of Cre-Recombinase Has No Persisting Effects on Adult Neurogenesis or Learning and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheneichner, Peter; Romanelli, Pasquale; Bieler, Lara; Pagitsch, Sebastian; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; König, Richard; Marschallinger, Julia; Aigner, Ludwig; Couillard-Després, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is a tightly regulated process continuously taking place in the central nervous system of most mammalian species. In neuroscience research, transgenic animals bearing the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2-Lox system are widely used. In this study, we made use of a Nestin-CreERT2/R26R-YFP transgenic mouse model in which the CreERT2 activates the expression of YFP in multipotent neural stem cells upon tamoxifen application. Humoral factors, such as the levels of estrogens, have been reported to affect the hippocampal neurogenesis. The application of tamoxifen, a mixed agonist/antagonist of the estrogen receptor that permeates the blood-brain-barrier, could thus influence adult neurogenesis. Although the functions of adult neurogenesis are yet to be fully deciphered, a reciprocal interaction between rates of neurogenesis on the one hand and learning and mood regulation on the other hand, has been suggested. The impact of tamoxifen on neurogenesis and behavior was therefore addressed following five daily applications according to the open field test, the elevated plus maze, and Morris water maze. In addition, the impact of short-term tamoxifen application on progenitor cell proliferation, morphology, and fate in the neurogenic niche of the dentate gyrus were investigated. Finally, the influence of the route of administration (oral vs. intra-peritoneal) and gender-specific response were scrutinized. The sub-acute analysis did neither reveal significant differences in behavior, such as voluntary motor activity, anxiety behavior, and spatial learning, nor in cell proliferation, cell survival, dendritic arborization or maturation rate within the dentate gyrus between saline solution-, corn oil-, and tamoxifen-treated groups. Finally, neither the route of application, nor the gender of treated mice influenced the response to tamoxifen. We conclude that short tamoxifen treatments used to activate the CreERT2 system in transgenic mouse models does not have a

  1. Tamoxifen Activation of Cre-Recombinase Has No Persisting Effects on Adult Neurogenesis or Learning and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheneichner, Peter; Romanelli, Pasquale; Bieler, Lara; Pagitsch, Sebastian; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; König, Richard; Marschallinger, Julia; Aigner, Ludwig; Couillard-Després, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is a tightly regulated process continuously taking place in the central nervous system of most mammalian species. In neuroscience research, transgenic animals bearing the tamoxifen-inducible CreER(T2)-Lox system are widely used. In this study, we made use of a Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP transgenic mouse model in which the CreER(T2) activates the expression of YFP in multipotent neural stem cells upon tamoxifen application. Humoral factors, such as the levels of estrogens, have been reported to affect the hippocampal neurogenesis. The application of tamoxifen, a mixed agonist/antagonist of the estrogen receptor that permeates the blood-brain-barrier, could thus influence adult neurogenesis. Although the functions of adult neurogenesis are yet to be fully deciphered, a reciprocal interaction between rates of neurogenesis on the one hand and learning and mood regulation on the other hand, has been suggested. The impact of tamoxifen on neurogenesis and behavior was therefore addressed following five daily applications according to the open field test, the elevated plus maze, and Morris water maze. In addition, the impact of short-term tamoxifen application on progenitor cell proliferation, morphology, and fate in the neurogenic niche of the dentate gyrus were investigated. Finally, the influence of the route of administration (oral vs. intra-peritoneal) and gender-specific response were scrutinized. The sub-acute analysis did neither reveal significant differences in behavior, such as voluntary motor activity, anxiety behavior, and spatial learning, nor in cell proliferation, cell survival, dendritic arborization or maturation rate within the dentate gyrus between saline solution-, corn oil-, and tamoxifen-treated groups. Finally, neither the route of application, nor the gender of treated mice influenced the response to tamoxifen. We conclude that short tamoxifen treatments used to activate the CreER(T2) system in transgenic mouse models does not

  2. Relations of Naturally Occurring Variations in State Anxiety and Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissel, Emily E E; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2016-08-01

    Although effects of anxiety on cognitive performance have been extensively examined, anxiety-cognition relationships are often defined by between-person relationships. The current research investigated the effects of within-person variations in state anxiety on cognitive performance based on measures from three separate sessions in a sample of 1,769 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 99 years of age. Some of the adults in the sample exhibited a wide range of state anxiety across the three sessions, whereas others were fairly stable. Although one might have expected that cognitive performance would be low only on sessions in which the level of state anxiety was high, this pattern was not evident in any of five different cognitive abilities (vocabulary, memory, reasoning, spatial relations, or perceptual speed tasks). Instead, one's average level of anxiety was a more important determinant of cognitive performance than one's current level of state anxiety. Specifically, for memory and reasoning abilities, trait anxiety alone related to decreased cognitive function, regardless of state anxiety. For spatial relations and speed abilities, low state anxiety was related to decreased cognitive function in participants with high trait anxiety.

  3. Internet Addiction and its Psychosocial Risks (Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Loneliness) among Iranian Adolescents and Young Adults: A Structural Equation Model in a Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ostovar, S; Allahyar, N; Aminpoor, H; Moafian, F.; Nor, MBM; Griffiths, MD

    2016-01-01

    Internet addiction has become an increasingly researched area in many Westernized countries. However, there has been little research in developing countries such as Iran, and when research has been conducted, it has typically utilized small samples. This study investigated the relationship of Internet addiction with stress, depression, anxiety, and loneliness in 1,052 Iranian adolescents and young adults. The participants were randomly selected to complete a battery of psychometrically valida...

  4. Lactobacillus plantarum attenuates anxiety-related behavior and protects against stress-induced dysbiosis in adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J.; Doerr, Holly M.; Grzelak, Agata K.; Busi, Susheel B.; Jasarevic, Eldin; Ericsson, Aaron C.; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of probiotics has become increasingly popular as a means to try to improve health and well-being. Not only are probiotics considered beneficial to digestive health, but increasing evidence suggests direct and indirect interactions between gut microbiota (GM) and the central nervous system (CNS). Here, adult zebrafish were supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum to determine the effects of probiotic treatment on structural and functional changes of the GM, as well as host neurological and behavioral changes. L. plantarum administration altered the β-diversity of the GM while leaving the major core architecture intact. These minor structural changes were accompanied by significant enrichment of several predicted metabolic pathways. In addition to GM modifications, L. plantarum treatment also significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior and altered GABAergic and serotonergic signaling in the brain. Lastly, L. plantarum supplementation provided protection against stress-induced dysbiosis of the GM. These results underscore the influence commensal microbes have on physiological function in the host, and demonstrate bidirectional communication between the GM and the host. PMID:27641717

  5. Relations of sex, age, perceived fitness, and aerobic activity with social physique anxiety in adults sixty years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A; Bowden, Rodney G; Owens, Robin; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2004-12-01

    Self-reported physical activity, and perceived fitness were examined to assess their effects on social physique anxiety in a sample of older individuals (N= 249; M age=70.4 yr., SD=8.2). Participants reported their fitness as "average" to "above average." There were no significant effects of perceived fitness or age on social physique anxiety scores. The women had significantly higher social physique anxiety scores than the men.

  6. Sex and strategy use matters for pattern separation, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene expression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shunya; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) plays a crucial role for pattern separation, and there are sex differences in the regulation of neurogenesis. Although sex differences, favoring males, in spatial navigation have been reported, it is not known whether there are sex differences in pattern separation. The current study was designed to determine whether there are sex differences in the ability for separating similar or distinct patterns, learning strategy choice, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the DG in response to pattern separation training. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single injection of the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and were tested for the ability of separating spatial patterns in a spatial pattern separation version of delayed nonmatching to place task using the eight-arm radial arm maze. Twenty-seven days following BrdU injection, rats received a probe trial to determine whether they were idiothetic or spatial strategy users. We found that male spatial strategy users outperformed female spatial strategy users only when separating similar, but not distinct, patterns. Furthermore, male spatial strategy users had greater neurogenesis in response to pattern separation training than all other groups. Interestingly, neurogenesis was positively correlated with performance on similar pattern trials during pattern separation in female spatial strategy users but negatively correlated with performance in male idiothetic strategy users. These results suggest that the survival of new neurons may play an important positive role for pattern separation of similar patterns in females. Furthermore, we found sex and strategy differences in IEG expression in the CA1 and CA3 regions in response to pattern separation. These findings emphasize the importance of studying biological sex on hippocampal function and neural plasticity.

  7. Lifespan anxiety is reflected in human amygdala cortical connectivity.

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    He, Ye; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-03-01

    The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large-scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been examined in relation to anxiety, especially across the lifespan. We employed resting-state functional MRI data from 280 healthy adults (18-83.5 yrs) to elucidate the relationship between anxiety and amygdala iFC with common cortical networks including the visual network, somatomotor network, dorsal attention network, ventral attention network, limbic network, frontoparietal network, and default network. Global and network-specific iFC were separately computed as mean iFC of amygdala with the entire cerebral cortex and each cortical network. We detected negative correlation between global positive amygdala iFC and trait anxiety. Network-specific associations between amygdala iFC and anxiety were also detectable. Specifically, the higher iFC strength between the left amygdala and the limbic network predicted lower state anxiety. For the trait anxiety, left amygdala anxiety-connectivity correlation was observed in both somatomotor and dorsal attention networks, whereas the right amygdala anxiety-connectivity correlation was primarily distributed in the frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. Ventral attention network exhibited significant anxiety-gender interactions on its iFC with amygdala. Together with findings from additional vertex-wise analysis, these data clearly indicated that both low-level sensory networks and high-level associative networks could contribute to detectable predictions of anxiety behaviors by their iFC profiles with the amygdala. This set of systems neuroscience findings could lead to novel functional network models on neural correlates of human anxiety and provide targets for novel treatment strategies on anxiety disorders.

  8. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

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    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  9. Ethnicity modifies the additive effects of anxiety and drug use disorders on suicidal ideation among black adults in the United States

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    Shervin Assari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to test if ethnicity moderates the additive effects of lifetime psychiatric disorders on serious suicidal thoughts among a nationally representative sample of Black adults in the United States. Methods: For this study, we used data of 5,181 Black adults (3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Five lifetime psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, and drug abuse were considered as the independent variables. Lifetime serious suicidal ideation was considered as the dependent variable. Logistic regressions were used to determine if ethnicity modifies the effects of each psychiatric disorder on serious suicide ideation. Ethnicity was conceptualized as the possible moderator and socio-demographics (i.e., age, gender, education level, employment, marital status and country region were control variables. Results: Among African Americans, major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. Among Caribbean Blacks, major depressive disorder and drug abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. In the pooled sample, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and anxiety disorder and a marginally significant interaction between ethnicity and drug abuse. Conclusions: Based on our study, suicidality due to psychiatric disorders among Black adults in the United States may depend on ethnicity. General anxiety disorder seems to be a more important risk factor for suicidal ideation among African Americans while drug abuse may contribute more to the risk of suicidal thoughts among Caribbean Blacks.

  10. Highly Palatable Food during Adolescence Improves Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Rats that Experienced Neonatal Maternal Separation

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    Jong-Ho Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum consumption of highly palatable food (HPF during adolescence on the adverse behavioral outcome of neonatal maternal separation.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 hours daily during the first 2 weeks of birth (maternal separation, MS or left undisturbed (nonhandled, NH. Half of MS pups received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28 (MS+HPF. Pups were subjected to behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to stress challenge was analyzed by radioimmunoassay.ResultsDaily caloric intake and body weight gain did not differ among the experimental groups. Ambulatory activities were decreased defecation activity and rostral grooming were increased in MS controls (fed with chow only compared with NH rats. MS controls spent less time in open arms, and more time in closed arms during the elevated plus maze test, than NH rats. Immobility duration during the forced swim test was increased in MS controls compared with NH rats. Cookie access normalized the behavioral scores of ambulatory and defecation activities and grooming, but not the scores during the elevated plus maze and swim tests in MS rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was blunted in MS rats fed with chow only, and cookie access normalized it.ConclusionProlonged access to HPF during adolescence and youth partly improves anxiety-related, but not depressive, symptoms in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, possibly in relation with improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis.

  11. Increased adult hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and normal levels of neurogenesis in maternal separation rats.

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    Greisen, Mia H; Altar, C Anthony; Bolwig, Tom G; Whitehead, Richard; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2005-03-15

    Repeated maternal separation of rat pups during the early postnatal period may affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurons in brain areas that are compromised by chronic stress. In the present study, a highly significant increase in hippocampal BDNF protein concentration was found in adult rats that as neonates had been subjected to 180 min of daily separation compared with handled rats separated for 15 min daily. BDNF protein was unchanged in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus/paraventricular nucleus. Expression of BDNF mRNA in the CA1, CA3, or dentate gyrus of the hippocampus or in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus was not affected by maternal separation. All animals displayed similar behavioral patterns in a forced-swim paradigm, which did not affect BDNF protein concentration in the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Repeated administration of bromodeoxyuridine revealed equal numbers of surviving, newly generated granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats from the 15 min or 180 min groups. The age-dependent decline in neurogenesis from 3 months to 7 months of age did not differ between the groups. Insofar as BDNF can stimulate neurogenesis and repair, we propose that the elevated hippocampal protein concentration found in maternally deprived rats might be a compensatory reaction to separation during the neonatal period, maintaining adult neurogenesis at levels equal to those of the handled rats.

  12. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison of Symptom Change in Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Applied Relaxation

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    Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…

  13. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  14. Stress-Induced Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Phenotype Associated with Transient Reduction in Neurogenesis in Adult Nestin-CreERT2/Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A Transgenic Mice.

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    Yun, Sanghee; Donovan, Michael H; Ross, Michele N; Richardson, Devon R; Reister, Robin; Farnbauch, Laure A; Fischer, Stephanie J; Riethmacher, Dieter; Gershenfeld, Howard K; Lagace, Diane C; Eisch, Amelia J

    2016-01-01

    Depression and anxiety involve hippocampal dysfunction, but the specific relationship between these mood disorders and adult hippocampal dentate gyrus neurogenesis remains unclear. In both humans with MDD and rodent models of depression, administration of antidepressants increases DG progenitor and granule cell number, yet rodents with induced ablation of DG neurogenesis typically do not demonstrate depressive- or anxiety-like behaviors. The conflicting data may be explained by the varied duration and degree to which adult neurogenesis is reduced in different rodent neurogenesis ablation models. In order to test this hypothesis we examined how a transient-rather than permanent-inducible reduction in neurogenesis would alter depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Transgenic Nestin-CreERT2/floxed diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA) mice (Cre+DTA+) and littermates (Cre+DTA-; control) were given tamoxifen (TAM) to induce recombination and decrease nestin-expressing stem cells and their progeny. The decreased neurogenesis was transient: 12 days post-TAM Cre+DTA+ mice had fewer DG proliferating Ki67+ cells and fewer DCX+ neuroblasts/immature neurons relative to control, but 30 days post-TAM Cre+DTA+ mice had the same DCX+ cell number as control. This ability of DG neurogenesis to recover after partial ablation also correlated with changes in behavior. Relative to control, Cre+DTA+ mice tested between 12-30 days post-TAM displayed indices of a stress-induced anxiety phenotype-longer latency to consume highly palatable food in the unfamiliar cage in the novelty-induced hypophagia test, and a depression phenotype-longer time of immobility in the tail suspension test, but Cre+DTA+ mice tested after 30 days post-TAM did not. These findings suggest a functional association between adult neurogenesis and stress induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, where induced reduction in DCX+ cells at the time of behavioral testing is coupled with stress-induced anxiety and a

  15. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Balneaves, Lynda G.; Faulkner, Guy; Ortiz, Abigail; McIntosh, Diane; Morehouse, Rachel L.; Ravindran, Lakshmi; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Lam, Raymond W.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Milev, Roumen V.; Parikh, Sagar V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments” is the fifth of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. Results: Evidence-informed responses were developed for 12 questions for 2 broad categories of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions: 1) physical and meditative treatments (light therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, yoga, and acupuncture) and 2) natural health products (St. John’s wort, omega-3 fatty acids; S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], dehydroepiandrosterone, folate, Crocus sativus, and others). Recommendations were based on available data on efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Conclusions: For MDD of mild to moderate severity, exercise, light therapy, St. John’s wort, omega-3 fatty acids, SAM-e, and yoga are recommended as first- or second-line treatments. Adjunctive exercise and adjunctive St. John’s wort are second-line recommendations for moderate to severe MDD. Other physical treatments and natural health products have less evidence but may be considered as third-line treatments. CAM treatments are generally well tolerated. Caveats include methodological limitations of studies and paucity of data on long-term outcomes and drug interactions. PMID:27486153

  16. Long-term effects of repeated maternal separation and ethanol intake on HPA axis responsiveness in adult rats.

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    Odeon, María Mercedes; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2017-02-15

    It has been shown that early life manipulations produce behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. The long term consequences of repeated maternal separation (RMS) plus cold stress and ethanol intake were evaluated during adolescence and adult rats on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male adult Wistar rats. RMS+ cold stress was applied from postnatal day (PD) 2 in which the pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4°C) 1h per day for 20days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7days: PD22-29 and PD59-66. Half of the animals were sacrificed, while the others were exposed to acute stress (AS) for 2h and then they were killed. RMS+ cold stress: a) increased voluntary ethanol intake in adolescent and adult rats; b) reduced protein expression (Western measurements) in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in hypothalamus (Hyp) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in hippocampus (Hic) while increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in Hic; c) decreased plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and increased corticosterone (COR) levels in HPA axis, d) adult rats exposure a new AS incremented ACTH and COR levels. However, this modification did not alter the HPA axis capacity to respond to a new type of stressor. These results demonstrate the consequences of early life stress on the vulnerability of ethanol consumption and HPA axis responsiveness to a stressor in adult rats.

  17. The association between parental history of diagnosed mood/anxiety disorders and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adult offspring

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    Low Nancy CP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increases the risk of mood and/or anxiety disorders, or symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a prospective cohort investigation of 1293 grade 7 students. Data on mental health outcomes were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 20.4 (0.7 years on average. Parental data were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires. This current analysis pertains to 564 participants with maternal and/or paternal data. The association between maternal and paternal history and each of diagnosed anxiety disorder, diagnosed mood disorder, and symptoms of specific anxiety disorders in offspring was studied in multivariate logistic regression. Results A higher proportion of mothers than fathers had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder (23% versus 12%. Similarly, 14% of female offspring had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder, compared to 6% of male offspring. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for maternal history was 2.2 (1.1, 4.5 for diagnosed mood disorders, 4.0 (2.1, 7.8 for diagnosed anxiety disorders, and 2.2 (1.2, 4.0 for social phobia symptoms. Paternal history was not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in offspring. Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal mood/anxiety disorders were associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, as well as symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Efforts to detect mood and anxiety

  18. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

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    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations.

  19. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

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    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  20. 17α-Ethinyl estradiol affects anxiety and shoaling behavior in adult male zebra fish (Danio rerio).

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    Reyhanian, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Bollner, Tomas; Olsson, Per-Erik; Olsén, Håkan; Hällström, Inger Porsch

    2011-09-01

    Ethinyl estradiol is a potent endocrine disrupting compound in fish and ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. In this study, we exposed adult zebra fish (Danio rerio) males to 0, 5 or 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol/L for 14 days and analyzed the effects on non-reproductive behavior. Effects of treatment of the exposed males was shown by vitellogenin induction, while brain aromatase (CYP 19B) activity was not significantly altered. Both concentrations of Ethinyl estradiol significantly altered the behavior in the Novel tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The effects were, however, opposite for the two concentrations. Fish that were exposed to 5 ng/L had longer latency before upswim, fewer transitions to the upper half and shorter total time spent in the upper half compared with control fish, while 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol treatment resulted in shorter latency and more and longer visits to the upper half. The swimming activity of 25, but not 5 ng-exposed fish were slightly but significantly reduced, and these fish tended to spend a lot of time at the surface. We also studied the shoaling behavior as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. The fish treated with Ethinyl estradiol had significantly longer latency before leaving shoal mates and left the shoal fewer times. Further, the fish exposed to 5 ng/L also spent significantly less time away from shoal than control fish. Fertilization frequency was higher in males exposed to 5 ng/L Ethinyl estradiol when compared with control males, while no spawning was observed after treatment with 25 ng/L. The testes from both treatment groups contained a normal distribution of spermatogenesis stages, and no abnormality in testis morphology could be observed. In conclusion, we have observed effects on two behaviors not related to reproduction in zebra fish males after

  1. 分离性焦虑障碍史与成年期精神疾病的关系(综述)%Relationship between medical history of separation anxiety disorder in early life and mental diseases in adulthood (Review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申自力; 王传升; 刘海燕; 刘丽琼

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the literatures from the bibliographic database PubMed on the relation between separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in early life and mental diseases in adulthood. The data indicated that SAD was related to several different mental diseases in adulthood. The longitudinal designed studies supported that SAD served as a risk for adult anxiety disorders spectrum or depression. However, whether SAD is a risk for dysthymic, bipolar, personality and eating disorder in adulthood was uncertainty, so further studies based on longitudinal design are needed. It was also found that SAD usually comorbid with gender identity disorder in childhood, and such co-morbidity might influence individual psychosexual development The limitation among these literatures was, when the relation between SAD and mental disease in adulthood was examined, the effect caused by genetic and environmental variables or comorbidity variables was uncontrolled, and such control was crucial for the study to determine whether SAD served as a risk or how high of the risk rate contributed by SAD.%本文对早期分离性焦虑障碍史与成年期精神疾病两者关系的国外研究文献进行了综述.分析表明:分离性焦虑障碍史与成年期多种精神疾病之间存在关联,纵向研究结果支持分离性焦虑障碍史作为成年期焦虑障碍谱系及抑郁的风险因素,但其是否作为成年期心境恶劣、双相情感障碍、人格障碍、进食障碍的风险因素还需纵向研究的确认.此外,在儿童期,分离性焦虑障碍与性别认同障碍存在共患关系,可能对个体性心理发展产生影响.现有研究中存在的不足是,在检验分离性焦虑障碍史与成年期精神疾病两者关系时,未见有对遗传和环境变量的控制,也少见有对共病进行控制,而这类控制对确认其是否作为风险及风险大小是十分必要的.

  2. Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the depression, anxiety, and stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a nonclinical sample of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Siefert, Caleb J; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle M; Stein, Michelle B; Renna, Megan; Blais, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Health care professionals are coming under increased pressure to empirically monitor patient outcomes across settings as a means of improving clinical practice. Within the psychiatric and primary care communities, many have begun utilizing brief psychometric measures of psychological functioning to accomplish these goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21-item version (DASS-21), and contribute normative data to facilitate interpretation using a sample of U.S. adults (N = 503). Item-scale convergence was generally supported, although assumptions of item-scale divergence were not met. Only 86%, 50%, and 43% of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress items, respectively, correlated significantly greater with their hypothesized scales than other scales. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all scales and comparable to existing research (αs = .91, .80, and .84 for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, respectively). Scale-level correlations were greater than what has been reported elsewhere (range of rs = .68 to .73), and principal components analysis supported the extraction of only one component accounting for 47% of the item-level variance. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) favored a three-factor structure when compared to a one-factor model. The implications for the health care professions are discussed.

  3. Use of folic acid and vitamin supplementation among adults with depression and anxiety: a cross-sectional, population-based survey

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    Croft Janet B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that folate deficiency may be causatively linked to depressive symptoms. However, little is known on the status of use of folic acid and vitamin supplements among people with mental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and the likelihood of use of folic acid or vitamin supplements among adults with depression and anxiety in comparison to those without these conditions. Methods Using data from 46, 119 participants (aged ≥ 18 years in the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, we estimated the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for taking folic acid and vitamin supplements among those with ever diagnosed depression (n = 8, 019, ever diagnosed anxiety (n = 5, 546 or elevated depressive symptoms (n = 3, 978, defined as having a depression severity score of ≥ 10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 diagnostic algorithm. Results Overall, women were more likely than men to take folic acid supplements 1-4 times/day (50.2% versus 38.7%, P Conclusion The prevalence and the likelihood of taking folic acid and vitamin supplements varied substantially by a history of diagnosed depression among both men and women and by a history of diagnosed anxiety among men, but not by presence of elevated depressive symptoms in either sex.

  4. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

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    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  5. Temporary separation from parents in early childhood and serious personality disorders in adult life.

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    Lahti, Marius; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Eriksson, Johan G

    2012-10-01

    We have previously shown that the temporary separation of Finnish children from both parents during World War II predicted any serious mental, substance use, and personality disorders in adulthood. Here we examine if parental separation is a specific vulnerability factor for any- and dramatic personality disorders relative to other mental disorders. We extracted information on separations from the Finnish National Archives and psychiatric diagnoses from the national Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death-Registers. Of the 12,734 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants, 1,717 were separated, 1,487 had any mental, 194 any personality, and 77 dramatic personality disorders. In those who were separated, the risk of any serious personality disorders was significantly higher also among individuals with any serious mental disorders. The increased risks of any serious and dramatic personality disorders were particularly characteristic of individuals separated before the age of five, and that of dramatic personality disorder of separated men. Parental separation may thus be a specific vulnerability factor for serious personality disorders.

  6. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  7. Developmental minocycline treatment reverses the effects of neonatal immune activation on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, hippocampal inflammation, and HPA axis activity in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Jafar; Kosari-Nasab, Morteza; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal infection is associated with increased lifetime risk for neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression, with evidence showing that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-(HPA)-axis system may be partly responsible. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that minocycline exhibits antidepressant effects through inhibition of microglial activation and anti-inflammatory actions, and of interest is that recent studies suggest that minocycline alleviates the behavioral abnormalities induced by early-life insults. The current study was designed to determine if developmental minocycline treatment attenuates the neonatal immune activation-induced anxiety- and depression-like symptoms and HPA-axis-dysregulation later in life. To this end, neonatal mice were treated to either lipopolysaccharide or saline on postnatal days (PND) 3-5, then dams during lactation (PND 6-20) and male offspring during adolescence (PND 21-40) received oral administration of minocycline or water via regular drinking bottles. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, HPA-axis-reactivity (corticosterone), and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and IL-1β) after exposure to stress were evaluated. The results indicated that neonatal immune activation resulted in increased anxiety and depression-like symptoms, HPA-axis-hyperactivity, and elevated the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the hippocampus in response to stress in adulthood. Interestingly, developmental minocycline treatment significantly reduced the abnormalities induced by neonatal inflammation in adult mice. In addition, minocycline, regardless of postnatal inflammation, did not have any detrimental effects on the above measured parameters. Considering that minocycline is currently under exploration as an alternative or adjunctive therapy for reducing the symptoms of neurological disorders, our findings suggest that minocycline during development can decrease the behavioral abnormalities induced by early

  8. Internet-delivered treatment for older adults with anxiety and depression: implementation of the Wellbeing Plus Course in routine clinical care and comparison with research trial outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Lauren G.; Fogliati, Vincent J.; Dear, Blake F.; Nielssen, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Background The Wellbeing Plus Course is an internet-delivered psychological intervention for older adults with anxiety or depression. Aims To compare the effectiveness of the Wellbeing Plus Course in a public health setting (clinic group) with its efficacy in a randomised controlled trial (research group). Method Participants (n=949) were Australian adults aged 60 and above. Primary outcome measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Results Initial symptom severity was higher in the clinic group and course completion was lower. Both groups showed significant symptom reductions at post-treatment and were satisfied with the treatment. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Within-group symptom changes were comparable between settings; there were no between-group differences on primary outcomes or satisfaction. Conclusions The Wellbeing Plus Course is as effective and acceptable in routine clinical care, as it is in controlled research trials. Declaration of interest N.T. and B.F.D developed the Wellbeing Plus Course but derived no financial benefit from it. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703794

  9. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  10. Treatment Options for Separative Anxiety of Children ;with Autism%孤独症儿童分离性焦虑的处理方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴峥嵘

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨孤独症儿童分离性焦虑的处理方案。方法:根据孩子的具体情况,采取了亲子同训、游戏疗法、心理暗示、药物治疗等方法。结果:孩子在一个月后的评估中,情绪有明显的改善。结论:1)孤独症儿童的情绪障碍有多种,应仔细查找原由,区分对待。2)孤独症儿童分离性焦虑的克服,可结合孤独症的康复训练,采取行为疗法、游戏疗法、心理暗示、药物治疗等方法进行。3)患有分离性焦虑的孤独症儿童的家长切忌急躁和不理睬的态度,应多鼓励和安抚,引导孩子正确释放情感。%  Objective: To explore the treatment options for separa-tive anxiety of children with autism. Method: In accordance with children's specific conditions, parent-child training, game thera-py, psychological implication and drug treatment are adopted. Result: In the evaluation a month later, children' emotion is obvi-ously improved. Conclusion: 1) There are various reasons for mood disorders of children with autism, so we should carefully find them and treat respectively. 2) The above methods can be adopted. 3) Parents of children with autism should be patient to help their children.

  11. Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eDavies

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM, or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 hr after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes.

  12. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615 indi

  13. Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: which symptoms are associated with increased risk in community dwelling older adults?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2012-12-15

    Depression is a risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). It has been reported that somatic symptoms of depression and not cognitive symptoms are associated with increased risk although findings have been inconsistent. Few studies have examined whether co-morbid anxiety confers additive risk.

  14. Math Anxiety, Math Self-Concept, and Math Self-Efficacy in Adult Learners Compared to Traditional Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Molly M.; Fusco, Brooke R.

    2014-01-01

    Adult learners comprise a significant portion of current undergraduate populations, and projections indicate steady or growing numbers of adult learners in the future. Previous research has suggested that adult learners possess lower self-confidence than and face barriers not experienced by traditional undergraduate students. These constructs have…

  15. Relationship between adult social phobia and childhood anxiety Relação entre fobia social na vida adulta e ansiedade na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Gus Manfro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of traumas and the presence of childhood anxiety disorders in adult patients with social phobia and investigate their influence on the presentation of the disorder. METHODS: Twenty-four adult patients with social phobia were asked about the presence of trauma before the age of 16. The K-SADS-E and the DICA-P interviews were used to assess these patients regarding childhood anxiety disorders. RESULTS: Twelve (50% patients reported a history of trauma before the age of 16. The presence of trauma did not influence the presentation of the disorder. Seventy-five percent of patients had a history of anxiety disorders in childhood. Patients with a history of at least 2 childhood anxiety disorders had an increased lifetime prevalence of major depression (10 vs. 3; p=.04 and family history of psychiatric disorders (13 vs. 6; p=.02. CONCLUSION: Anxiety disorder in childhood is associated with family history of psychiatric disorders. The presence of more than one diagnosis of anxiety disorder in childhood can be considered a risk factor for the development of depression in adult patients with social phobia.OBJETIVO: A meta desse estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de traumas e a presença de transtornos de ansiedade na infância em pacientes adultos com fobia social e investigar sua influência na apresentação do transtorno. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro pacientes adultos com fobia social foram questionados sobre a presença de trauma antes dos 16 anos. A presença de transtornos de ansiedade na infância foi avaliada por meio do K-SADS-E e DICA-P. RESULTADOS: Doze (50% pacientes relataram história de trauma antes dos 16 anos. A presença de trauma não influenciou a apresentação do transtorno de ansiedade social. Três quartos dos pacientes apresentavam história de transtorno de ansiedade na infância. Pacientes com história de dois ou mais transtornos de ansiedade na infância tinham uma

  16. An Investigation into the Relationship between Anxiety and Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley

    1990-01-01

    In this study, 102 adult stutterers were assessed on state and trait anxiety before, and on trait anxiety after, intensive behavioral treatment. Results showed that persons who stutter have significantly higher levels of fear (trait anxiety) in a demanding speech situation and also higher levels of chronic anxiety (trait anxiety) than matched…

  17. Over-generalization in youth with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bar, Nurit; Laufer, Offir; Yoran-Hegesh, Roni; Paz, Rony

    2017-02-01

    Over-generalization of dangerous stimuli is a possible etiological account of anxiety. Recently, we demonstrated it could result from alterations in early perceptual mechanisms, i.e., a fundamental change in the way the stimulus is perceived. Yet it is still unclear if these mechanisms already exist in youth, or develop only later. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the mechanism of generalization in youth suffering from anxiety disorders. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and age-matched control participants underwent a conditioning task where a loss or gain outcome was associated with two well-separated tones. A generalization probe then followed in which different surrounding tones were presented and classified. Generalization curves and changes in discrimination abilities were compared between groups and according to the background variables. We found that patients had lower perceptual discrimination thresholds after conditioning, and tended to have wider generalization curve. Relative enhanced generalization was observed in adolescents with anxiety, in males, and as the level of anxiety rose. Our results suggest that over-generalization in anxiety can start already during adolescence, and may suggest that an early perceptual source can give rise to later more cognitive over-generalization during adult anxiety.

  18. Lifespan anxiety is reflected in human amygdala cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large‐scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been examined in relation to anxiety, especially across the lifespan. We employed resting‐state functional MRI data from 280 healthy adults (18–83.5 yrs) to elucidate the relationship between anxiety and amygdala iFC with common cortical networks including the visual network, somatomotor network, dorsal attention network, ventral attention network, limbic network, frontoparietal network, and default network. Global and network‐specific iFC were separately computed as mean iFC of amygdala with the entire cerebral cortex and each cortical network. We detected negative correlation between global positive amygdala iFC and trait anxiety. Network‐specific associations between amygdala iFC and anxiety were also detectable. Specifically, the higher iFC strength between the left amygdala and the limbic network predicted lower state anxiety. For the trait anxiety, left amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was observed in both somatomotor and dorsal attention networks, whereas the right amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was primarily distributed in the frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. Ventral attention network exhibited significant anxiety–gender interactions on its iFC with amygdala. Together with findings from additional vertex‐wise analysis, these data clearly indicated that both low‐level sensory networks and high‐level associative networks could contribute to detectable predictions of anxiety behaviors by their iFC profiles with the amygdala. This set of systems neuroscience findings could lead to novel functional network models on neural correlates of human anxiety and provide targets for novel treatment strategies on anxiety disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1178–1193, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping

  19. Facing social fears. An investigation of mindfulness-based stress reduction for young adults with social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hjeltnes, Aslak

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent condition that often leads to co-morbid mental disorders and chronic functional impairments in most domains of human life. Psychological interventions are often effective, but many SAD patients do not respond to existing treatments, highlighting a need to explore new psychological interventions in order to expand the range of effective treatments for SAD. Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions (MABIs) have been proposed as a ...

  20. Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Muris; M. Kindt; S. Boegels; H. Merckelbach; B, Gadet; V. Moulaert

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationship between childhood anxiety and threat perception abnormalities. 105 children (aged 8-13 yrs) were exposed to stories reflecting 3 types of anxiety: social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety. From children's reactions to the stories, a number of threat perce

  1. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programmes for anxiety or depression in adults with intellectual disabilities: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Gemma; Tsimopoulou, Ioanna; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Azmi, Sabiha

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the application of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This review sought to synthesise available evidence on the effectiveness of CBT for anxiety or depression to assess the current level of evidence and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted to identify qualitative and quantitative studies. Robust criteria were applied to select papers that were relevant to the review. Included papers were subject to quality appraisal. Eleven out of the 223 studies considered met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review in which CBT was used with participants with ID and anxiety (n=3), depression (n=4) or a mixed clinical presentation (n=4). There remains a paucity of evidence of effectiveness, however, the studies indicate that CBT is feasible and well-tolerated and may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression among adults with mild ID. Qualitative data reflect a positive perception of CBT amongst clients and carers. Further research is required to investigate the components of CBT, suitability for CBT, and requisite skills for CBT, which uses valid, sensitive and more holistic outcome measures.

  2. Ageism and Risk-Taking in Young Adults: Evidence for a Link between Death Anxiety and Ageism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Lauren E.; Kennison, Shelia M.; Bradley, Kristopher I.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between ageism and risk-taking in young adults. They hypothesized that young adults may attempt to distance themselves from their future older selves and from an awareness of their mortality by seeking out experiences that make them feel strong, energetic, and invulnerable (i.e., experiences involving…

  3. Psychology Doctoral Students' Interest in Working with Older Adults: The Roles of Knowledge, Ageism, Aging Anxiety and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing population of older adults with more reported mental health needs, there are not sufficient psychologists interested in working with this population. This study looked at why interest is so low, looking particularly at the correlations between interest in working with older adults and knowledge about aging, ageism, aging anxiety…

  4. 结构家庭疗法对儿童分离性焦虑症的疗效分析%Analysis of curative effects of structural family therapy on separation anxiety disorder of childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马会斌; 李振宇; 孙丽娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过调整家庭成员关系的“结构家庭疗法”对儿童分离性焦虑症的治疗效果进行分析比较。方法:将18例儿童焦虑患者随机分为研究组和对照组各9例。两组患儿均维持原用治疗方案不变,在此基础上研究组患儿给予结构家庭疗法,观察12周,于治疗前后采用 Hamilton 焦虑测量量表(HAMA)评定患儿的焦虑程度;家庭功能量表(FAD)评价患儿家庭功能。结果:治疗后研究组患儿的焦虑总分显著下降(t=7.63;P<0.01);患者 FAD 量表角色、情感介入、行为控制因子评分均明显改善(P<0.05)。结论:结构家庭疗法可不同程度的改善家庭功能,有助于缓解儿童分离性焦虑症的焦虑症状。%Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of structural family therapy (adjusting the relationship between family members) on separation anxiety disorder of childhood. Methods:18 children anxiety patients was randomly divided into study group and control group, 9 children in each group. All the patients maintained the old treatment program. Beside, the structural family thera-py had been used to study group. Both groups had been observed for 12 weeks. The Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) was used to as-sess the patient's level of anxiety before and after the treatment. The family assessment device (FAD) was used to assess the family function. Results: After the treatment, the total anxiety score of study group significantly decreased (t=0. 763; P<0. 05). The scores of the patients' role, emotional involvement, and behavior control were significantly improved (P<0. 05). Conclusions: The structural family therapy helps to alleviate thesymptoms of childhood's separation anxiety disorder and improvethe family function of the patients to some degrees.

  5. Test Anxiety Reduction. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Eda; Hanna, Joyce

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist teachers in helping their adult and teenage students learn to cope with their test anxiety. The introduction examines some of the causes of test anxiety and its negative ramifications from the standpoint of class placement, class grades, employment opportunities, and job advancement. General guidelines…

  6. Clinical Characterization of Adults with Asperger's Syndrome Assessed by Self-Report Questionnaires Based on Depression, Anxiety, and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Chieko; Iwanami, Akira; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Ota, Haruhisa; Tani, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Kato, Nobumasa

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosing Asperger's syndrome (AS) in adults is difficult and efficient indicators for a precise diagnosis are important in the clinical setting. We examined the clinical characteristics of AS in 129 adults (median age, 32.0 years [range, 19-57]; 102 men and 27 women; AS group (n = 64; median age, 32.0 years [range, 19-50]; 50 men and 14 women),…

  7. EFECTOS DE LA SEPARACIÓN MATERNA TEMPRANA SOBRE EL DESEMPEÑO EN EL LABERINTO EN CRUZ ELEVADO EN RATAS ADULTAS Effects of Early Maternal Separation on The Performance in the Elevated Plus Maze in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO ARMANDO LEÓN RODRÍGUEZ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha demostrado que alteraciones en la interacción madre-cría produce efectos duraderos sobre el desarrollo cerebral y comportamental; de esta forma sujetos expuestos a estrés por separación materna temprana (SMT presentan variaciones en los comportamientos indicadores de ansiedad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos específicos del estrés por SMT sobre los comportamientos indicadores de ansiedad en ratas Wistar adultas machos y hembras. Las ratas fueron anidadas con ciclo luz/oscuridad invertido (7 p.m./7 a.m., agua y comida ad libitum. El procedimiento de separación se realizó dos veces diarias durante los días postnatales 1 al 21 (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.. Los comportamientos indicadores de ansiedad fueron evaluados por medio del laberinto en cruz elevado (LCE cuando las crías alcanzaron un peso de 230 g. Se encontró que el estrés por SMT tiene efectos específicos para cada sexo sobre los comportamientos relacionados con la ansiedad, las hembras separadas maternalmente presentaron un perfil ansioso menor que las no separadas y los machos separados mostraron mayor conflicto exploración/evitación. Estos resultados corroboran hallazgos preliminares de nuestro laboratorio, en los que se evidencia interacción entre la vulnerabilidad ante desafíos ambientales tempranos y los mecanismos compensatorios del cuidado materno.It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother-pup interaction during early life exerts long-lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS show variations in anxiety-like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety-like behaviors in adult male and female Wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m., water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark

  8. A Foucaultian Approach to Academic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Gavrielle

    2008-01-01

    Academic anxiety interferes with achievement and performance, as well as social and psychological development among children and adults. Although the writings of Michel Foucault do not address anxiety directly, his themes of knowledge and power have been applied to education and describe relationships that are likely to create anxiety among some…

  9. Perceived parental functioning, self-esteem, and psychological distress in adults whose parents are separated/divorced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina eVerrocchio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire, quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments, self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results. About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusions. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.

  10. Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent–child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Results: About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65–70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusion: The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed. PMID:26635670

  11. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  13. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A What's in this article? What Is Test Anxiety? What Causes It? Who's Likely to Have Test Anxiety? What Can You Do? en español Ansiedad ante ... prevent them from doing their best on a test. continue What Causes It? All anxiety is a reaction to anticipating something stressful. Like ...

  14. Single episode of mild murine malaria induces neuroinflammation, alters microglial profile, impairs adult neurogenesis, and causes deficits in social and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Suman K; Tillu, Rucha; Sood, Ankit; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Sengupta, Arjun; Sharma, Shobhona; Vaidya, Vidita A; Pathak, Sulabha

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral malaria is associated with cerebrovascular damage and neurological sequelae. However, the neurological consequences of uncomplicated malaria, the most prevalent form of the disease, remain uninvestigated. Here, using a mild malaria model, we show that a single Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection in adult mice induces neuroinflammation, neurogenic, and behavioral changes in the absence of a blood-brain barrier breach. Using cytokine arrays we show that the infection induces differential serum and brain cytokine profiles, both at peak parasitemia and 15days post-parasite clearance. At the peak of infection, along with the serum, the brain also exhibited a definitive pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and gene expression analysis revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were also produced locally in the hippocampus, an adult neurogenic niche. Hippocampal microglia numbers were enhanced, and we noted a shift to an activated profile at this time point, accompanied by a striking redistribution of the microglia to the subgranular zone adjacent to hippocampal neuronal progenitors. In the hippocampus, a distinct decline in progenitor turnover and survival was observed at peak parasitemia, accompanied by a shift from neuronal to glial fate specification. Studies in transgenic Nestin-GFP reporter mice demonstrated a decline in the Nestin-GFP(+)/GFAP(+) quiescent neural stem cell pool at peak parasitemia. Although these cellular changes reverted to normal 15days post-parasite clearance, specific brain cytokines continued to exhibit dysregulation. Behavioral analysis revealed selective deficits in social and anxiety-like behaviors, with no change observed in locomotor, cognitive, and depression-like behaviors, with a return to baseline at recovery. Collectively, these findings indicate that even a single episode of mild malaria results in alterations of the brain cytokine profile, causes specific behavioral dysfunction, is accompanied by hippocampal microglial

  15. Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…

  16. Rat dams exposed repeatedly to a daily brief separation from the pups exhibit increased maternal behavior, decreased anxiety and altered levels of receptors for estrogens (ERα, ERβ), oxytocin and serotonin (5-HT1A) in their brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Antonios; Kalpachidou, Theodora; Raftogianni, Androniki; Zografou, Efstratia; Tzanou, Athanasia; Pondiki, Stavroula; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2015-02-01

    In the present study we investigated the neurobiological mechanisms underlying expression of maternal behavior. Increased maternal behavior was experimentally induced by a brief 15-min separation between the mother and the pups during postnatal days 1 to 22. On postnatal days (PND) 12 and 22, we determined in experimental and control dams levels of anxiety in the elevated plus maze (EPM) as well as the levels of receptors for estrogens (ERα, ERβ), oxytocin (OTR) and serotonin (5-HT1AR) in areas of the limbic system (prefrontal cortex-PFC, hippocampus, lateral septum-SL, medial preoptic area-MPOA, shell of nucleus accumbens-nAc-Sh, central-CeA and basolateral-BLA amygdala), involved in the regulation of maternal behavior. Experimental dams, which showed increased maternal behavior towards their offspring, displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM on both PND12 and PND22. These behavioral differences could be attributed to neurochemical alterations in their brain: On both PND12 and PND22, experimental mothers had higher levels of ERα and OTRs in the PFC, hippocampus, CeA, SL, MPOA and nAc-Sh. The experimental manipulation-induced increase in ERβ levels was less widespread, being localized in PFC, the hippocampal CA2 area, MPOA and nAc-Sh. In addition, 5-HT1ARs were reduced in the PFC, hippocampus, CeA, MPOA and nAc-Sh of the experimental mothers. Our results show that the experience of the daily repeated brief separation from the pups results in increased brain ERs and OTRs, as well as decreased 5-HT1ARs in the dam's brain; these neurochemical changes could underlie the observed increase in maternal behavior and the reduction of anxiety.

  17. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  18. Trichotillomania and Co-occurring Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Redden, Sarah A.; Leppink, Eric W.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania appears to be a fairly common disorder, with high rates of co-occurring anxiety disorders. Many individuals with trichotillomania also report that pulling worsens during periods of increased anxiety. Even with these clinical links to anxiety, little research has explored whether trichotillomania with co-occurring anxiety is a meaningful subtype. Methods 165 adults with trichotillomania were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, functioning, and comorbidity. Participants also underwent cognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Clinical features and cognitive functioning were compared between those with current co-occurring anxiety disorders (i.e. social anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and anxiety disorder NOS) (n=38) and those with no anxiety disorder (n=127). Results Participants with trichotillomania and co-occurring anxiety reported significantly worse hair pulling symptoms, were more likely to have co-occurring depression, and were more likely to have a first-degree relative with obsessive compulsive disorder. Those with anxiety disorders also exhibited significantly worse motor inhibitory performance on a task of motor inhibition (stop-signal task). Conclusions This study suggests that anxiety disorders affect the clinical presentation of hair pulling behavior. Further research is needed to validate our findings and to consider whether treatments should be specially tailored differently for adults with trichotillomania who have co-occurring anxiety disorders, or more pronounced cognitive impairment. PMID:27668531

  19. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  20. Exposure-Focused Family-Based CBT for Youth With ASD and Comorbid Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Social Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Specific Phobia

  1. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-22

    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence.

  2. Estudo exploratório da síndrome de ansiedade de separação em cães de apartamento Exploratory study of separation anxiety syndrome in apartment dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Marques Soares

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de ansiedade de separação em animais é um distúrbio de comportamento caracterizado, em cães, por comportamentos indesejados manifestados por esses animais quando afastados de suas figuras de apego. Este trabalho buscou caracterizar o problema na população de cães residentes em apartamento de um bairro no Município de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, por meio de uma pesquisa de campo por meio de dois questionários, um para identificação da síndrome de ansiedade de separação (QI-SASA e outro questionário de apoio. Nessa população, 55,9% dos cães apresentaram seus sinais característicos, sendo as manifestações mais frequentes as vocalizações excessivas (53,8%, os comportamentos destrutivos (46,1% e os comportamentos depressivos (34,6%. Os resultados também sugerem um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida dos proprietários dos cães que desenvolvem a SASA.Separation anxiety syndrome in animals is a behavioral disorder characterized by undesirable wanted behaviour showed by dogs when they are away from their attachment figures. In this study, with the goal of understanding the syndrome in indoor dogs from a suburb of the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, two questionnaires were used: a questionnaire to identify separation anxiety syndrome in animals (QI-SASA and a questionnaire of support. In the surveyed population, 55.9% of the dogs presented clinical signs of SASA, being the most frequent excessive vocalizations (53.8%, destructive behaviours (46.1%, and depressive behaviour (34.6%. The results also suggest a negative impact on the life quality of the owners and dogs.

  3. An Empirical Research on Anxiety of Adult Learners in On - line English Learning%一项关于成人学习者网络英语课程学习焦虑的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春祥

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the on - line English language learning and the anxiety of adult students. On - line learning can offer people more access to education. The research requires a great deal of efforts and its purpose is to find out how on - line learning affects adult students. This study is to test the "On - line Language Learning Anxiety"invento-ry. The following researches attempt to reveal the relationship between the on - line language learning anxiety and many factors,attempting to find the causes,produce the solutions and improve the learning efficiency.%研究成人学习者英语网络课程学习及其学习焦虑的问题。目的在于验证“网络语言学习焦虑”量表,找出成人学习者英语网络课程学习的现状和学习焦虑的原因,给出有效解决方法,提高成人在网络环境下英语课程学习效果。

  4. Music interventions for dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, J; Teague, A

    2016-11-25

    Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Non-pharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children. The use of music for passive distraction may not be adequate for children and highly anxious adults. Instead, interventions offered by a trained music therapist may be needed to optimize music's anxiolytic impact. Music therapy interventions are individualized to the patient's presenting needs and geared at enhancing patients' active engagement in the management of their anxiety. Interventions may include (i) active refocusing of attention, (ii) music-guided deep breathing, (iii) music-assisted relaxation, and (iv) music-guided imagery. In addition, music therapists can teach patients music-based anxiety management skills prior to dental treatments, offer them the opportunity to express emotions related to the upcoming procedure, and help them gain a sense of control and safety. Clinical guidelines for the use of music listening by dental practitioners are offered.

  5. Depression, anxiety, hostility and hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Hirvonen, Toivo; Kvist, Mårten; Lertola, Kaarlo; Niemelä, Pirkko

    2005-09-01

    Sixty-five women (aged 32 - 54 yrs) were assessed at 2 months before to 8 months after total abdominal hysterectomy on four separate occasions. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), Measurement of Masculinity-Femininity (MF), Likert scales and semantic differentials for psychological, somatic and sexual factors varied as assessment tools. High-dysphoric and low-dysphoric women were compared with regard to hysterectomy outcomes. Married nulliparae suffered from enhanced depression post-surgery. Pre-surgery anxiety, back pain and lack of dyspareunia contributed to post-surgery anxiety. Pre-surgery anxiety was related to life crises. Pre- and post-surgery hostility occurred in conjunction with poor sexual gratification. Post-hysterectomy health improved, but quality of sexual relationship was impaired. Partner support and knowledge counteracted hysterectomy aftermath. Post-hysterectomy symptoms constituted a continuum to pre-surgery signs of depression, anxiety or hostility.

  6. 术前单独咨询对第三磨牙拔除焦虑水平的影响%Effect of Separate Consultation before Surgery on the Level of Anxiety in the Third Molar Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任迅; 彭敏

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价术前单独咨询对第三磨牙拔除焦虑水平的影响。方法52名患者随机纳入试验组与对照组,每组26例。试验组患者在拔牙术前一周接受拔除第三磨牙相关信息的单独咨询,对照组在术前即时接受相同咨询。两组患者均填写焦虑与疼痛问卷,医师填写患者依从性和疗效评估量表,对结果进行统计分析。结果患者焦虑水平与拔牙后疼痛程度和治疗效果间存在明显相关。试验组患者在焦虑和疼痛程度上显著低于对照组,试验组患者对单独咨询接受度高,且对于麻醉和术中操作的依从性好,整体治疗效果好于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论口腔医生可考虑对拔牙患者进行术前单独咨询。%Objective To evaluate the effect of separate consultation before surgery on the level of anxiety in the third molar extraction. Methods 52 patients were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group,26 cases in each group. Patients in the experimental group were received the individual consultation on the relevant information of the third molar ex-traction a week before the extraction,while the control group were received the same advice immediately before surgery. The two groups of patients filled with anxiety and pain questionnaire and the doctors filled out the patient compliance and therapeutic effect assessment scale. The results were statistically analyzed. Results There was a significant correlation between the level of anxiety and pain after tooth extraction and treatment effect. The pain and anxiety of patients in the experimental group were significantly lower than that of the control group. Patients in the experimental group received a high degree of acceptance of separate consulta-tion,the compliance of anesthesia and surgery was good,and the overall treatment effect was better than that of the control group. And all of the differences were

  7. Study on the Adult Attachment Styles of the Outpatients with Anxiety Disorder%门诊焦虑障碍患者的成人依恋类型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛莹; 杨蕴萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:探索精神科门诊焦虑障碍患者的成人依恋类型特点.方法:对符合简要国际神经精神科访谈工具(MINI)中文版诊断的123名焦虑障碍患者和123名健康人予以亲密关系体验问卷中文版修订版(ECR-R)、状态-特质焦虑量表(STAI)测试.结果:①焦虑障碍组不安全依恋类型比例(57%)、ECR-R焦虑维度、回避维度及STAI分值显著高于正常对照组.②不安全依恋类型者罹患焦虑障碍的风险是安全型的4.88倍,其中恐惧型风险最大,是安全型的15.02倍,迷恋型者是4.38倍,淡漠型是3.76倍.③不同依恋类型的焦虑障碍患者STAI分值差异显著,其中恐惧型患者的焦虑水平最高.病例组安全型被试的STAI分值显著高于对照组安全型.结论:焦虑障碍患者中不安全依恋类型占多数,不安全依恋类型是罹患焦虑障碍的重要危险因素,其中恐惧型的风险最大.%Objective: To study the trait of the adult attachment styles of the outpatients with anxiety disorders. Methods: Anxiety disorders of 123 outpatients meeting the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were assessed by Experience of Close Relationship-Revised Version(ECR-R), State-trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI). Results: ①Compared with control group, social anxiety disorders group had higher rate of insecure adult attachment styles, higher scores in E-CR-R anxiety and avoidance and the STAI. ②Insecure style had 4.88 times of the risk of the anxiety disorders, fearful style had the highest risk (15.02 times), preoccupied style had 4.38 times and dismissing style had 3.76 times. ③There were significant difference of STAI on the adult attachment within case group, fearful style with the highest level of anxiety. The score of STAI was higher of the participant with secure style in case group than control group. Conclusion: Insecure adult attachment styls are majority among anxiety disorder patients and it is the important risk factor of the

  8. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We coll...

  9. The Course of Childhood Anxiety Symptoms: Developmental Trajectories and Child-Related Factors in Normal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R.

    2013-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a…

  10. 生命早期孤养对小鼠应激易感性的影响%Effect of early maternal separation on susceptibility to stress of adult mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利飞; 何静静; 胡意员; 邢晓玲; 何金彩

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of the early maternal separation (MS) paradigm on susceptibility to stress and the cognitive abilities of adult mice. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal feeding group (N: n=9), long maternal separation (LMS: 3 hour, n=9) and brief maternal separations(BMS: 15 min, n=8 ) from postnatal 2-21 days. During adulthood, 3 groups mice received acute unpredictable mild stress of 3 days. The learning and memory abilities were measured by Morris water maze and behavior was measured by open-field test and Elevated Plus Maze after stress. Results: Compared with the control group, LMS increased number of crossing and distance in peripheral area (P<0.05), and in the total area of open field (P<0.05). LMS enhanced exploration of closed arms in the elevated plus maze (P<0.05). But, there is no unified conclusion about the effects of susceptibility to stress of adult mice in BMS. However in the Morris water maze, there is no significant difference in three groups in the learning and memory abilities. It indicated that early maternal separation increased susceptibility of anxiety-like behavior. Conclusion: Early maternal separation can increase susceptibility to stress of adult mice, there is no significant difference in three groups in the learning and memory abilities.%目的:观察生命早期母婴分离对小鼠应激易感性及认知能力的影响.方法:新生的小鼠于出生后第2天随机分为正常饲养组(N组:正常饲养,n=9)、长时间母婴分离组(LMS组:分离3h,n=9)及短时间母婴分离组(BMS组:分离15 min,n=8).3组小鼠出生后21 d断乳,断乳后常规饲养.小鼠成年后,用幽闭+电击的方法对3组小鼠给予急性应激,应激之后借助旷场实验、高架十字迷宫、水迷宫实验评价小鼠的情绪及学习记忆能力.结果:在旷场实验中,与N组比较,LMS及BMS组小鼠的外周路程明显增加,差异具有统计学意义(P< 0.05);在高架十字迷宫

  11. 幼儿“分离焦虑”的原因分析及缓解措施探讨%The Study of Factors and Measures of Children's Separation Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丹丹; 滕春燕

    2011-01-01

    Children will be in state of separation anxiety in the beginning of going to children'garden. If it's serious, it will reduce the effects of children's intelligence activities and affect the ability of creativity and social adaptation. We analyze three facts of separation anxiety'factor, and confer the measures of children's garden and parents according to the characteristics of children'development.%幼儿入园初期会出现“分离焦虑”现象。早期幼儿的‘盼离焦虑”如果比较严重,会降低幼儿智力活动的效果,甚至会影响将来的创造力以及社会的适应能力。笔者对从幼儿“分离焦虑”的形成原因做了三方面的分析,并根据幼儿的身心发展等特点,结合笔者在实际工作中遇到幼儿的“分离焦虑”现象,探讨了缓解幼儿“分离焦虑”的方法和策略。

  12. Co-morbidity of depression and anxiety in common age-related eye diseases: a population-based study of 662 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Wood, Joanne; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of co-morbid age-related eye disease and symptoms of depression and anxiety in late life, and the relative roles of visual function and disease in explaining symptoms of depression and anxiety. A community-based sample of 662 individuals aged over 70 years was recruited through the electoral roll. Vision was measured using a battery of tests including high and low contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, motion sensitivity, stereoacuity, Useful Field of View, and visual fields. Depression and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Goldberg scales. The prevalence of self-reported eye disease [cataract, glaucoma, or age-related macular degeneration (AMD)] in the sample was 43.4%, with 7.7% reporting more than one form of ocular pathology. Of those with no eye disease, 3.7% had clinically significant depressive symptoms. This rate was 6.7% among cataract patients, 4.3% among those with glaucoma, and 10.5% for AMD. Generalized linear models adjusting for demographics, general health, treatment, and disability examined self-reported eye disease and visual function as correlates of depression and anxiety. Depressive symptoms were associated with cataract only, AMD, comorbid eye diseases and reduced low contrast visual acuity. Anxiety was significantly associated with self-reported cataract, and reduced low contrast visual acuity, motion sensitivity and contrast sensitivity. We found no evidence for elevated rates of depressive or anxiety symptoms associated with self-reported glaucoma. The results support previous findings of high rates of depression and anxiety in cataract and AMD, and in addition show that mood and anxiety are associated with objective measures of visual function independently of self-reported eye disease. The findings have implications for the assessment and treatment of mental health in the context of late-life visual impairment.

  13. Changes over time in adult dental fear and correlation to depression and anxiety: a cohort study of pregnant mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hagqvist, Outi; Luoto, Anni; Rantavuori, Kari; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Lahti, Satu

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate (i) changes in dental fear over time during pregnancy and after delivery among mothers and fathers and (ii) whether these changes inter-relate to changes in depression and anxiety. Longitudinal pilot data for the FinnBrain Cohort study were used. Of 254 pregnant families, 80% agreed to participate and 60% returned questionnaires at the first data-collection point. After three data-collection points [weeks 18-20 and 32-34 of pregnancy (H18-20 and H32-34, respectively), and 3 months after childbirth], 99 mothers and 74 fathers had filled out at least two out of three Modified Dental Anxiety Scale questionnaires and were included in this study. Other questionnaires used were the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire. All scales were analyzed as sum scores. Among mothers, dental fear decreased during late pregnancy and increased slightly after childbirth, but no statistically significant correlations between dental fear and depression or anxiety, except for fear of giving birth, were found. Among fathers dental fear increased and was correlated with depression and anxiety. Dental fear seems to fluctuate among women during pregnancy and could be affected by hormonal changes.

  14. 成人偏头痛患者并发焦虑/抑郁状况及睡眠特点分析%Anxiety/Depression Status in Adult Migraine Patients and Sleep Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉青

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究成人偏头痛患者并发焦虑/抑郁障碍的状况,了解偏头痛患者的睡眠特点。方法本研究选择成人偏头痛患者94例,正常对照60例。应用一般资料问卷、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)及匹兹堡睡眠量表(PSQI)问卷对上述研究对象进行问卷调查。通过对偏头痛组和正常对照组的焦虑/抑郁情绪及睡眠状况进行评估和比较,了解偏头痛患者并发焦虑/抑郁的状况,并了解偏头痛患者的睡眠特点。结果(1)偏头痛患者中并发焦虑/抑郁的比例为46.8%/50.0%,以并发轻度焦虑/抑郁最常见,(轻度25.5%/28.7%,中度16.0%/12.8%,重度6.4%/8.5%);偏头痛患者并发情绪障碍以焦虑、抑郁共存为主(44.7%)。(2)偏头痛患者失眠症发生率58.5%,存在主观睡眠质量差、入睡时间长、睡眠短缺、睡眠效率低、睡眠难维持及日间功能障碍等睡眠特点。结论偏头痛患者并发焦虑抑郁及睡眠障碍比例明显高于正常人群,偏头痛患者中,焦虑/抑郁障碍与睡眠障碍相互影响。%Objective To investigate the status of the adult migraine patients complicated with anxiety/depression disorder, and understand the characteristic of their sleep feature . Methods The study involved 94 adult migraine patients, and 60 normal controls. Application of general data questionnaire, self-evaluation of anxiety scale (SAS), depression self-rating scale (SDS) and Pittsburgh sleep scale (PSQI) survey questionnaire survey was conducted on the above research object. Through the migraine group and normal control group anxiety/depression and sleep status evaluation and comparison, understand the status of the migraine patients complicated with anxiety/depression, and understand the characteristics of the migraine sufferers of sleep. Results (1) the proportion of migraine patients complicated with anxiety/depression is 46.8%/50.0%, with complicated

  15. The Modified Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: A Valid and Reliable Instrument for Use with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Szűcs, Dénes

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) can be observed in children from primary school age into the teenage years and adulthood, but many MA rating scales are only suitable for use with adults or older adolescents. We have adapted one such rating scale, the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), to be used with British children aged 8–13. In this study, we assess the scale's reliability, factor structure, and divergent validity. The modified AMAS (mAMAS) was administered to a very large (n = 1746) cohort of British children and adolescents. This large sample size meant that as well as conducting confirmatory factor analysis on the scale itself, we were also able to split the sample to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of items from the mAMAS alongside items from child test anxiety and general anxiety rating scales. Factor analysis of the mAMAS confirmed that it has the same underlying factor structure as the original AMAS, with subscales measuring anxiety about Learning and Evaluation in math. Furthermore, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the mAMAS alongside scales measuring test anxiety and general anxiety showed that mAMAS items cluster onto one factor (perceived to represent MA). The mAMAS provides a valid and reliable scale for measuring MA in children and adolescents, from a younger age than is possible with the original AMAS. Results from this study also suggest that MA is truly a unique construct, separate from both test anxiety and general anxiety, even in childhood. PMID:28154542

  16. Communicative Anxiety in the Second and Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alaitz; Gorter, Durk; Cenoz, Jasone

    2017-01-01

    The present paper reports a study on communicative anxiety of two groups of adult users. The paper aims at exploring the communicative anxiety of multilingual speakers and at analysing the communicative anxiety in second and third languages. This study includes 532 participants who were divided in two groups according their L1. One group of…

  17. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Connections with Self-Reported Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Lichtenstein-Phelps, June; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Thomas, Charles L., Jr.; Borkovec, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Even though generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common of the anxiety disorders, relatively little is known about its precursors. Bowlby's attachment theory provides a framework within which these precursors can be considered. According to Bowlby, adult anxiety may be rooted in childhood experiences that leave a child uncertain…

  18. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Rachel R.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Bailey, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the nature of mathematics anxiety in a sample of 106 ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade students. Although much is known about mathematics anxiety in older children and adults, little is known about when mathematics anxiety first emerges or its characteristics in young children. Results from exploratory factor…

  19. Guided internet-administered self-help to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer during adolescence (U-CARE: YoungCan): a study protocol for a feasibility trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, Malin; Wikman, Anna; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Grönqvist, Helena; Ljungman, Gustaf; Woodford, Joanne; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; von Essen, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A subgroup of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer during adolescence reports elevated levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and unmet needs for psychological support. Evidence-based psychological treatments tailored for this population are lacking. This protocol describes a feasibility study of a guided-internet-administered self-help programme (YoungCan) primarily targeting symptoms of anxiety and depression among young persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence and of the planned study procedures for a future controlled trial. Methods/analysis The study is an uncontrolled feasibility trial with a pre-post and 3-month follow-up design. Potential participants aged 15–25 years, diagnosed with cancer during adolescence, will be identified via the Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry. 30 participants will be included. Participants will receive YoungCan, a 12-week therapist-guided, internet-administered self-help programme consisting primarily of cognitive–behavioural therapy organised into individually assigned modules targeting depressive symptoms, worry and anxiety, body dissatisfaction and post-traumatic stress. Interactive peer support and psychoeducative functions are also available. Feasibility outcomes include: recruitment and eligibility criteria; data collection; attrition; resources needed to complete the study and programme; safety procedures; participants' and therapists' adherence to the programme; and participants' acceptability of the programme and study methodology. Additionally, mechanisms of impact will be explored and data regarding symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, body dissatisfaction, reactions to social interactions, quality of life, axis I diagnoses according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and healthcare service use will be collected. Exploratory analyses of changes in targeted outcomes will be conducted. Ethics/dissemination This feasibility protocol was

  20. Separation Anxiety among Parents and Children at Beginning Period of Kindergarten and Countermeasures%幼儿园新生家长“分离焦虑”的原因及其应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝一玲

    2014-01-01

    幼儿园新生家长的分离焦虑,一直存在却往往被忽视,它直接影响幼儿的顺利入园,也影响到家长安心工作,克服这一问题是幼儿园一项重要工作,新生家长的分离焦虑有一定的原因,幼儿“分离焦虑”和家长“分离焦虑”密切相关,应当同样重视,同时采取系统措施加以解决,才能收到理想的效果。%There has always been the separation anxiety among the children and parents when firstly enter kindergarten .But it has also been ignored since then ,w hich may affect directly the enter kindergar-ten of the new-children and affect their parents normal work .It is the kindergarten's important duty to de-termine how to overcome this problem .This text shows the performances of those parents who have this symptom and analyzes the reasons that how the symptom appears .This article will finally put forwards some countermeasures which would be practical for other kindergartens to practise .

  1. Concordances and discrepancies between ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria for anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adornetto Carmen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders are classified by two major nosological systems, the ICD-10 and the DSM-IV-TR, consisting of different diagnostic criteria. The present study investigated the diagnostic concordance between the two systems for anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence, in particular for separation anxiety disorder (SAD, specific phobia, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. Methods A structured clinical interview, the Kinder-DIPS, was administered to 210 children and 258 parents. The percentage of agreement, kappa, and Yule’s Y coefficients were calculated for all diagnoses. Specific criteria causing discrepancies between the two classification systems were identified. Results DSM-IV-TR consistently classified more children than ICD-10 with an anxiety disorder, with a higher concordance between DSM-IV-TR and the ICD-10 child section (F9 than with the adult section (F4 of the ICD-10. This result was found for all four investigated anxiety disorders. The results revealed low to high levels of concordance and poor to good agreement between the classification systems, depending on the anxiety disorder. Conclusions The two classification systems identify different children with an anxiety disorder. However, it remains an open question, whether the research results can be generalized to clinical practice since DSM-IV-TR is mainly used in research while ICD-10 is widely established in clinical practice in Europe. Therefore, the population investigated by the DSM (research population is not identical with the population examined using the ICD (clinical population.

  2. The impact of maternal separation on adult mouse behaviour and on the total neuron number in the mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, K.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    , the number of errors made by the MS24 mice compared to controls and in total distance moved. The mice were subsequently sacrificed and the total number of neurons estimated in the hippocampus using the optical fractionator. We found a significant loss of neurons in the dentate gyrus in MS mice compared...... to controls. Apparently a single maternal separation can impact the number of neurons in mouse hippocampus either by a decrease of neurogenesis or as an increase in neuron apoptosis. This study is the first to assess the result of maternal separation combining behaviour and stereology Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  3. Depression, anxiety and cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus--a study of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Osijek, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degmecić, Dunja; Bacun, Tatjana; Kovac, Vlatka; Mioc, Josipa; Horvat, Jasna; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2014-06-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the rate of depression and anxiety in the patients with diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM), and also to determine the state of the congnitive functions in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus compared with the control group. Study was designed as a epidemiological cross sectional study, sample consisted of 108 patients, 66 of the patients were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, and 42 were control group. All of them were interviewed by psychiatrist and tested through clinical interview with Hamilton depression rating scale, Hamilton Anxiety rating scale, Mini mental state examination and questionnaire about sociodemografic data. Results show that group of patients with DM were statistically significant more depressed than the control group of the patients (p = 0.035). Pathological anxiety measured by Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) appeared in 34 DM patients and 7 of the patients in control group, which is also statistically significant difference (p = 0.002). Evaluation of the cognitive status done with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE showed us the patients with DM presented more cognitive dysfunctions compared with the control group. We can conclude that the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in diabetic patients points to the need for greater investment in appropriate diagnostic evaluation of patients that consider mental issues.

  4. The Relative Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Family Background Risk Factors on Adult Adversities in Female Outpatients Treated for Anxiety Disorders and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleikis, Dawn E.; Mykletun, Arnstein; Dahl, Alv A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study from Norway examines the relative influence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and family background risk factors (FBRF) on the risk for current mental disorders and the quality of current intimate relationships in women with CSA treated for anxiety disorders and/or depression. Women with these disorders frequently seek treatment,…

  5. Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7–11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and overall ASD severity), multimethod- (diagnostic interviews, parent-, and child-based measures) analysis was conducted. Results from structural equa...

  6. 简析婴幼儿的“分离焦虑”--幼儿园新生入园常见问题%A Brief Analysis on the "Separation Anxiety" of Young Children:Common Problems upon New Students' Enter-ing Kindergarten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云

    2014-01-01

    分离焦虑是指当孩子和亲密的抚养者面临分离时,会产生一种不安情绪和不适应行为,而这种情绪和行为,依不同年龄,会有不同的行为反应,它是儿童时期较常见的一种情绪障碍,每个孩子都可能会有,只是轻重程度不同而已。新入园的幼儿分离焦虑主要是由陌生环境、人际关系以及自身的适应能力所导致的,根据幼儿分离焦虑产生的原因分析,得出缓解策略。%Separation anxiety refers to a kind of unease and in-adaptability when a child is faced with the separation from his in-timate caregivers, and there are different behavioral responses in accordance with different ages. It is a common mood disorder maybe during every child's childhood, and the difference is its degree. New kindergarten students' separation anxiety is mainly caused by the strange environment, interpersonal relationship and their own adaptability. Based on the analysis of the causes of children's separation anxiety, this paper concluded strategies of alleviating it.

  7. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that involved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxiety only yielded a positive correlation with performance...

  8. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...

  9. A review of Lacan's seminar on anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatkine, Gilbert

    2006-08-01

    The seminar on anxiety marks a turning point in the development of Lacan's thought from several perspectives. First, Lacan implicitly abandons his theory that the unconscious is structured like a language. He also abandons the endeavour to identify Freud's theory with his own. He develops some original new ideas about anxiety, some of which are of great interest, such as the connection between castration anxiety and narcissism; others, such as his denial of the existence of separation anxiety, are absurd. Lacan's main point of divergence from Freud, his rejection of the inner world, also emerges clearly in this seminar.

  10. Behaviorial inhibition and history of childhood anxiety disorders in Brazilian adult patients with panic disorder and social anxiety disorder Comportamento inibido e história de transtornos de ansiedade na infância em pacientes brasileiros adultos com transtorno do pânico e transtorno de ansiedade social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rassier Isolan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the presence of behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders during childhood in Brazilian adult patients with panic disorder and social anxiety disorder compared to a control group. METHODS: Fifty patients with panic disorder, 50 patients with social anxiety disorder, and 50 control subjects were included in the study. To assess the history of childhood anxiety, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E, and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Parent Version (DICA-P were used. The presence of behavioral inhibition in childhood was assessed by the self-reported scale of Behavioral Inhibition Retrospective Version (RSRI-30. RESULTS: Patients showed significantly higher prevalence of anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in childhood compared to the control group. Patients with social anxiety disorder also showed significantly higher rates of avoidance disorder (46% vs. 18%, p = 0.005, social anxiety disorder (60% vs. 26%, p = 0.001, presence of at least one anxiety disorder (82% vs. 56%, p = 0.009 and global behavioral inhibition (2.89 ± 0.61 vs. 2.46 ± 0.61, p OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a presença de história de comportamento inibido e de transtornos de ansiedade na infância em pacientes brasileiros adultos com transtorno do pânico e com transtorno de ansiedade social, comparando-os com um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta pacientes com transtorno do pânico, 50 com transtorno de ansiedade social e 50 controles participaram do estudo. Para avaliar a presença de história de ansiedade na infância foi utilizada a Escala para Avaliação de Transtornos Afetivos e Esquizofrenia para Crianças em Idade Escolar - Versão Epidemiológica (K-SADS-E e o Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Parent Version (DICA-P. A presença de comportamento inibido na infância foi avaliada através da Escala Auto-Aplicativa de Comportamento

  11. Relationships between tinnitus and the prevalence of anxiety and depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, JM; Bhattacharyya, N; Lin, HW

    2017-01-01

    Quantify the relationships between tinnitus, and anxiety and depression among adults.Cross-sectional analysis of a national health survey.Adult respondents in the 2007 Integrated Health Interview Series tinnitus module were analyzed. Data for tinnitus symptoms and severity and reported anxiety and depression symptoms were extracted. Associations between tinnitus problems and anxiety, depression, lost workdays, days of alcohol consumption, and mean hours of sleep were assessed.Among 21.4 ± 0.6...

  12. Are there specific metacognitive processes associated with anxiety disorders in youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Landon Bacow

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Terri Landon Bacow1, Jill Ehrenreich May2, Leslie R Brody3, Donna B Pincus41Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Miami, FL, USA; 3Department of Psychology, 4Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders, Boston University, MA, USAAbstract: While Wells’ metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD posits that certain metacognitive processes, such as negative meta-worry (negative beliefs about worry, are more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD than other anxiety disorders in adults, research has yet to determine whether the same pattern is true for younger individuals. We examined the relationship between several metacognitive processes and anxiety disorder diagnostic status in a sample of 98 youth aged 7–17 years. Twenty youth with GAD were compared with similarly sized groups of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, n = 18, social phobia (SOC, n = 20, separation anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 20, and healthy controls who were not patients (NONP, n = 20 using a self-report measure of metacognition adapted for use with young people in this age range (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children. Contrary to expectations, only one specific metacognitive process was significantly associated with an anxiety disorder diagnosis, in that the controls endorsed a greater degree of cognitive monitoring (self-reported awareness of one’s thoughts than those with SAD. In addition, there was a trend indicating that nonpatients scored higher than youth with GAD on this scale. These surprising results suggest potentially differing patterns in the relationships between symptoms and metacognitive awareness in anxious youth, depending on the type of anxiety disorder presentation.Keywords: metacognition, childhood, adolescence, anxiety, diagnosis

  13. Depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Ehrenstein, Ondine S von; Priebe, Stefan; Mielck, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-07-01

    Prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among migrants (i.e. refugees, labor migrants) vary among studies and it's been found that prevalence rates of depression and anxiety may be linked to financial strain in the country of immigration. Our aim is to review studies on prevalence rates of depression and/or anxiety (acknowledging that Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is within that class of disorders), and to evaluate associations between the Gross National Product (GNP) of the immigration country as a moderating factor for depression, anxiety and PTSD among migrants. We carried out a systematic literature review in the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE for population based studies published from 1990 to 2007 reporting prevalence rates of depression and/or anxiety and or PTSD according to DSM- or ICD- criteria in adults, and a calculation of combined estimates for proportions using the DerSimonian-Laird estimation. A total of 348 records were retrieved with 37 publications on 35 populations meeting our inclusion criteria. 35 studies were included in the final evaluation. Our meta-analysis shows that the combined prevalence rates for depression were 20 percent among labor migrants vs. 44 percent among refugees; for anxiety the combined estimates were 21 percent among labor migrants vs. 40 percent among (n=24,051) refugees. Higher GNP in the country of immigration was related to lower symptom prevalence of depression and/or anxiety in labor migrants but not in refugees. We conclude that depression and/or anxiety in labor migrants and refugees require separate consideration, and that better economic conditions in the host country reflected by a higher GNP appear to be related to better mental health in labor migrants but not in refugees.

  14. Information seeking and anxiety among colonoscopy-naïve adults: Direct-to-colonoscopy vs traditional consult-first pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A; Kalkat, Harmandeep; Graff, Lesley A; Walker, John R; Singh, Harminder; Duerksen, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of direct to colonoscopy pathways on information seeking behaviors and anxiety among colonoscopy-naïve patients. METHODS Colonoscopy-naïve patients at two tertiary care hospitals completed a survey immediately prior to their scheduled outpatient procedure and before receiving sedation. Survey items included clinical pathway (direct or consult), procedure indication (cancer screening or symptom investigation), telephone and written contact from the physician endoscopist office, information sources, and pre-procedure anxiety. Participants reported pre-procedure anxiety using a 10 point scale anchored by “very relaxed” (1) and “very nervous” (10). At least three months following the procedure, patient medical records were reviewed to determine sedative dose, procedure indications and any adverse events. The primary comparison was between the direct and consult pathways. Given the very different implications, a secondary analysis considering the patient-reported indication for the procedure (symptoms or screening). Effects of pathway (direct vs consult) were compared both within and between the screening and symptom subgroups. RESULTS Of 409 patients who completed the survey, 34% followed a direct pathway. Indications for colonoscopy were similar in each group. The majority of the participants were women (58%), married (61%), and internet users (81%). The most important information source was family physicians (Direct) and specialist physicians (Consult). Use of other information sources, including the internet (20% vs 18%) and Direct family and friends (64% vs 53%), was similar in the Direct and Consult groups, respectively. Only 31% of the 81% who were internet users accessed internet health information. Most sought fundamental information such as what a colonoscopy is or why it is done. Pre-procedure anxiety did not differ between care pathways. Those undergoing colonoscopy for symptoms reported greater anxiety [mean 5.3, 95

  15. Social anxiety in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan, Tamara V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.

  16. [Social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine

    2010-06-20

    Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used.

  17. Examining sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    ), specific phobia (SP), social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD and PTSD), although the latter three are technically no longer categorised as anxiety disorders according to DSM-5. This chapter...... provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation......Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA...

  18. 成人根管治疗患者的牙科焦虑症对根管治疗选择及治疗的影响分析%Survey of dental anxiety of adult patients with root canal therapy and effects of dental anxiety on root canal therapy and choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琰; 高义军

    2011-01-01

    Objeetive To survey dental anxiety of adult patients with root canal therapy and effects of dental anxiety on root canal therapy and choices. Methods 340 adult patients with root canal therapy were investigated by means of questionnaire on dental anxiety scales. Adult patients with root canal therapy were divided into two groups according to scores of questionnaire. Root canal therapy choices were analyzed and reasons for not choosing root canal therapy were included, 30 adult patients were selected randomly in each group. Root canal therapy were carried on two groups respectively. The change of DA level were measured in patients of two groups during treatment period. The data before and after root canal therapy were analyzed. Results 1 The incidence ratio of DA among 340 adult patients with root canal therapy was 32. 94%, 35. 71 % ul DA choosed root canal therapy,63. 16% in the other group. There were statistical differences in root canal therapy choices between two groups(P < 0. 01). 2 Primary reasons for not choosing root canal therapy were fear of pain and breaking needie. 3 The level of DA decreased along with the increasing of treatment frequency. There were statistical difference between different treatment period in the DA of same group(P<0. 01). There were statistical difference in the DA of the same treatment period between two groupsCP <0. 01). Conclusion adult patients with dental anxiety choose root canal therapy less likely than those without dental anxiety. Improving people's knowledge about root canal therapy and relief of dental anxiety for root canal therapy will make them choose root canal therapy and receive the better root canal therapy.%目的:了解成人根管治疗患者的牙科焦虑症(dental anxiety,DA)情况和牙科焦虑症对根管治疗选择及治疗的影响.方法:采用改良牙科焦虑量表(MDAS)对340名成人根管治疗患者进行问卷调查,分析牙科焦虑症情况.并按问卷得分将研究

  19. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  20. Exploring the manifestations of anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Victoria; Lecavalier, Luc; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Cipriano, Noreen; Aman, Michael G; McCracken, James T; McDougle, Christopher J; Tierney, Elaine; King, Bryan H; Hollander, Eric; Sikich, Linmarie; Bregman, Joel; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Katsovich, Lily; Dukes, Kimberly; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gadow, Kenneth; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    This study explores the manifestation and measurement of anxiety symptoms in 415 children with ASDs on a 20-item, parent-rated, DSM-IV referenced anxiety scale. In both high and low-functioning children (IQ above vs. below 70), commonly endorsed items assessed restlessness, tension and sleep difficulties. Items requiring verbal expression of worry by the child were rarely endorsed. Higher anxiety was associated with functional language, IQ above 70 and higher scores on several other behavioral measures. Four underlying factors emerged: Generalized Anxiety, Separation Anxiety, Social Anxiety and Over-arousal. Our findings extend our understanding of anxiety across IQ in ASD and provide guidance for improving anxiety outcome measurement.

  1. The Impact of Technological Language Anxiety on Adults Learning to Use Computers, in Esan West L.G.A. of Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusi, F. I.; Asokhia, M. O.; Longe, B. O.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of studying what affects adult learners and the use computer is motivated by the fact that technological innovations are being churned out in geometrical progression in the 21st century. Not to be computer literate is to be in the realm of darkness. Despite the popularity of computer training some problems still inhibit adults in…

  2. The combination of health anxiety and somatic symptoms: Specificity to anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns among patients in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Kelley, Lance P; Griggs, Jackson O

    2016-05-30

    Prior research has found that health anxiety is related to poor patient outcomes in primary care settings. Health anxiety is characterized by at least two presentations: with either severe or no/mild somatic symptoms. Preliminary data indicate that anxiety sensitivity may be important for understanding the presentation of health anxiety with severe somatic symptoms. We further examined whether the combination of health anxiety and somatic symptoms was related to anxiety sensitivity. Participants were adults presenting for treatment at a community health center (N=538). As predicted, the interactive effect between health anxiety and somatic symptoms was associated with anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. Health anxiety shared a stronger association with anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns when coupled with severe, relative to mild, somatic symptoms. Contrary to predictions, the interactive effect was not associated with the other dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. We discuss the potential relevancy of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns to the combined presentation of health anxiety and severe somatic symptoms, as well as how this dimension of anxiety sensitivity could be treated in primary care settings.

  3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety, anxiety disorders, anxious, behavior therapy, GAD, generalized anxiety disorder, mental health neuroses, mood disorders, psychiatric disorder, psychotherapy Family Health, Men, Seniors, Women January 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  4. Math anxiety differentially affects WAIS-IV arithmetic performance in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.

  5. Influence study of nursing intervention toward social support and anxiety and depression of primipara separated from high-risk born infant%护理干预对高危儿母婴分离初产妇社会支持、焦虑和抑郁的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄连欣; 班亮阶; 陆青梅; 农瑞珍; 林娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To research the influence of nursing intervention toward social support and anxiety and depression of primipara separated from high-risk born infant. Methods 88 cases of primipara separated from high-risk born infant were asked to filled in the social support rating scale (SSRS) and anxiety self-assessment scale (SAS) and depression self rating scale (SDS), carried out nursing intervention based on the survey result, compared the degree of social support and anxiety and depression of the primiparas before and after the nursing intervention. Results Before the nursing intervention, there were 57 cases of moderate anxiety (64.77%) and 31 cases of severe anxiety (35.23%); there were 21 cases of mild depression (23.86%), 66 cases of moderate depression (75.00%) and 1 case of severe depression (1.14%). After the nursing intervention, there were 12 cases of moderate anxiety (13.64%), 42 cases of mild anxiety (47.73%) and 27 cases of mild depression (30.68%). The difference of social support, anxiety and depression of primiparas before and after the nursing intervention had statistical significance (P < 0.01). Conclusion Primipara separated from high-risk born infant can get good social support, but have high level of anxiety and depression. Medical workers should perform relevant nursing intervention measure to improve the primipara's social support, lower their anxiety and depression, make them feel good and improve their quality of life.%目的 探讨护理干预对高危儿母婴分离初产妇社会支持、焦虑和抑郁的影响.方法对88例高危儿母婴分离初产妇发放社会支持评定量表(SSRS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS).根据调查结果实施护理干预,比较实施护理干预前后其社会支持、焦虑和抑郁有无差异.结果实施护理干预前,中度焦虑57例(64.77%),重度焦虑31例(35.23%);轻度抑郁21例(23.86%),中度抑郁66例(75.00%),重度抑郁1例(1.14%).实施护理干预

  6. Transient gastric irritation in the neonatal rats leads to changes in hypothalamic CRF expression, depression- and anxiety-like behavior as adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liansheng Liu

    Full Text Available AIMS: A disturbance of the brain-gut axis is a prominent feature in functional bowel disorders (such as irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia and psychological abnormalities are often implicated in their pathogenesis. We hypothesized that psychological morbidity in these conditions may result from gastrointestinal problems, rather than causing them. METHODS: Functional dyspepsia was induced by neonatal gastric irritation in male rats. 10-day old male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA or vehicle by oral gavage for 6 days. At 8-10 weeks of age, rats were tested with sucrose preference and forced-swimming tests to examine depression-like behavior. Elevated plus maze, open field and light-dark box tests were used to test anxiety-like behaviors. ACTH and corticosterone responses to a minor stressor, saline injection, and hypothalamic CRF expression were also measured. RESULTS: Behavioral tests revealed changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in IA-treated, but not control rats. As compared with controls, hypothalamic and amygdaloid CRF immunoreactivity, basal levels of plasma corticosterone and stress-induced ACTH were significantly higher in IA-treated rats. Gastric sensory ablation with resiniferatoxin had no effect on behaviors but treatment with CRF type 1 receptor antagonist, antalarmin, reversed the depression-like behavior in IA-treated rats CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that transient gastric irritation in the neonatal period can induce a long lasting increase in depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, increased expression of CRF in the hypothalamus, and an increased sensitivity of HPA axis to stress. The depression-like behavior may be mediated by the CRF1 receptor. These findings have significant implications for the pathogenesis of psychological co-morbidity in patients with functional bowel disorders.

  7. Thyroid hormones and fear learning but not anxiety are affected in adult apoE transgenic mice exposed postnatally to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverte, Ingrid; Pujol, Andreu; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2014-06-22

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a family of industrial chemicals used as flame retardants. The fully brominated deca-BDE (BDE-209) is the most used and its potential risk for humans is controversial. The ability of PBDEs to target nervous and endocrine systems suggests multiple enduring effects after perinatal exposure. Cognitive and motor behavior alterations have been reported after developmental exposure to PBDEs, including BDE-209, whereas very little work has been carried out on anxiety and emotional learning. We have previously reported long-term effects of postnatal BDE-209 exposure on spatial memory dependent upon apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphism and age. ApoE is involved in lipid transport and its different polymorphisms (ε2, ε3, ε4) confer different vulnerabilities to neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment and anxiety. In the present study we assessed the long term effects of early exposure to BDE-209 on anxiety, fear learning and thyroid hormone levels in mice carrying different apoE polymorphisms (ε2, ε3, ε4). BDE-209 (0, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered on postnatal day 10 (PND 10). At 4 and 12 months of age mice were tested in an open field (OF) and an elevated zero maze (EZM). Fear conditioning and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated in mice at 5-6 months of age. Postnatal exposure to BDE-209 impaired cued fear learning in apoE2 and apoE3 mice. Levels of thyroid hormones were increased in apoE3 female mice exposed to BDE-209. Our findings indicate long lasting effects of BDE-209 on emotional learning and thyroid hormone levels after a single postnatal exposure.

  8. Effects of Chronic Vitamin D3 Hormone Administration on Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adult Female Rats after Long-Term Ovariectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present preclinical study was created to determine the therapeutic effects of vitamin D hormone treatment as an adjunctive therapy alone or in a combination with low dose of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2 on anxiety-like behavior in female rats with long-term absence of estrogen. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic cholecalciferol administration (1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg subcutaneously, SC, once daily, for 14 days on the anxiety-like state after long-term ovariectomy in female rats. Twelve weeks postovariectomy, cholecalciferol was administered to ovariectomized (OVX rats and OVX rats treated with 17β-E2 (0.5 µg/rat SC, once daily, for 14 days. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM and the light/dark test (LDT, and locomotor and grooming activities were tested in the open field test (OFT. Cholecalciferol at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg alone or in combination with 17β-E2 produced anxiolytic-like effects in OVX rats as evidenced in the EPM and the LDT, as well as increased grooming activity in the OFT. Our results indicate that cholecalciferol, at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, has a profound anxiolytic-like effects in the experimental rat model of long-term estrogen deficiency.

  9. Arc visualization of odor objects reveals experience-dependent ensemble sharpening, separation, and merging in anterior piriform cortex in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhawat, Amin Md; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2014-07-30

    Visualization using the immediate early gene Arc revealed sparser and more robust odor representations in the anterior piriform cortex of adult rats when odor was associated with water reward over 2-3 d. Rewarded odor "mixtures" resulted in rats responding to either component odor similarly, and, correspondingly, the odor representations became more similar as indexed by increased overlap in piriform Arc-expressing (Arc(+)) pyramidal neurons. The increased overlap was consistent with the rats' generalization from component odors. Discriminating among highly similar odor mixtures for reward led to increased differentiation of the neural representations as indexed by a reduction in overlap for piriform Arc(+) pyramidal neurons after training. Similar odor mixture discrimination also required more trials to criterion. The visible reduction in the overlap of odor representations indexes pattern separation. The Arc visualization of odor representations in the anterior piriform network suggests that odor objects are widely distributed representations and can be rapidly modified by reward training in adult rats. We suggest that dynamic changes such as those observed here in piriform odor encoding are at the heart of perceptual learning and reflect the continuing plastic nature of mature associative cortex as an outcome of successful problem solving.

  10. Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Scali

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience. METHODS: We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10 in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21-0.93]. This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44-7.01]. CONCLUSION: Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a "vaccination" effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.

  11. Anxiety symptoms and disorders among adults living with HIV and AIDS: A critical review and integrative synthesis of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Charles; Zvolensky, Michael J; Woods, Steven P; Gonzalez, Adam; Safren, Steven A; O'Cleirigh, Conall M

    2017-02-01

    There are over 35 million people worldwide infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and its progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS; WHO, 2014). With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (i.e., cART) in 1996, persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) now have much longer life expectancies. However, living with HIV remains challenging, as it is associated with a number of significant and recurrent (chronic) stressors including physical pain, side effects of cART, social stigma, and discrimination, among other social stressors. Presumably, as a result of these types of stressors, a disproportionately high number of PLWHA struggle with clinically-significant psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Although much scientific and clinical attention has focused on depressed mood and psychopathology among PLWHA, there has been comparably less focus on anxiety and its disorders. The paucity of work in this area is concerning from a public health perspective, as anxiety symptoms and disorders are the most common class of psychiatric disorders and often maintain a large negative impact on life functioning.

  12. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  13. Associations between parenting behavior and anxiety in a rodent model and a clinical sample: relationship to peripheral BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, R; Portella, A K; Goldani, M Z; Kapczinski, F P; Leistner-Segal, S; Leistner-Segala, S; Salum, G A; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2012-01-01

    Adverse early-life environment is associated with anxiety-like behaviors and disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is sensitive to this environment and could be a marker of underlying brain changes. We aimed at evaluating the development of anxiety-like behaviors in a rat model of early adversity, as well as the possible association with BDNF levels. Similar associations were investigated in a sample of adolescent humans. For the rat study, Wistar rat litters were divided into: early-life stress (ELS, limited access to nesting material) and control groups. Maternal behavior was observed from days 1 to 9 of life and, as adults, rats were subjected to behavioral testing and BDNF measurements in plasma, hippocampus, amygdala and periaqueductal gray. For the human study, 129 adolescents were evaluated for anxiety symptoms and perceived parental care. Serum BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene were investigated. We found that ELS dams showed more pure contact, that is, contact with low care and high control, toward pups, and their adult offspring demonstrated higher anxiety-like behaviors and plasma BDNF. Also the pure contact correlated positively with adult peripheral BDNF. Similarly in humans, there was a positive correlation between maternal overprotection and serum BDNF only in Met carriers. We also found negative correlations between maternal warmth and separation anxiety, social phobia and school phobia. Finally, our translational approach revealed that ELS, mediated through variations in maternal care, is associated with anxiety in both rats and humans and increased peripheral BDNF may be marking these phenomena.

  14. [Subjective verbal methods in preoperative measurement of anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, S; Hutner, G; Ott, H; Fichte, K; Doenicke, A

    1988-06-01

    The role of preoperative anxiety in perioperative adaptation is viewed in two different ways. Janis suggested that anxiety is a drive that evokes the cognitive work of worrying. Leventhal stresses the importance of coping behavior for adaptation, while anxiety may or may not accompany this coping process. Both theories have empirical support. The aim of this study was to determine whether both theories could show empirical support because the scientists chose different methods: Janis used interviews, Leventhal and Lazarus anxiety scales. The study analyzed the pre- and postoperative emotional reactions of surgical patients with three different methods of anxiety measurement: an anxiety scale, a fear thermometer, and a psychoanalytic interview (Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis method). The different methods were compared and related to the adaptation behavior (Table 3). The data showed a clear interaction between the selected methods and respective theories about the effects of preoperative anxiety on intra- and postoperative adaptation. The anxiety scales showed no correlation with adaptation behavior (blood pressure and heart rate during surgery; postoperative pain medication) and were not related to the anxiety scores obtained from the interview (content analysis). On the other hand, the interview anxiety measurements showed a clear relationship between separation anxiety (and also shame anxiety), physiological excitement during surgery (increase in heart rate), and postoperative medication (increased analgesics and tranquilizers). The patients who worried about the risks of surgery (Verletzungsangst, see Fig. 3) had very good perioperative adjustment, so that the quality of anxiety measured in the interview was very important for the prediction of adaptation.

  15. Research on the visceral hypersensitivity and psychological changes in adult mice induced by neonatal maternal separation%新生期母婴分离致小鼠成年慢性内脏痛觉高敏及精神改变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐惠黎; 王航; 王远征; 张咏梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibility of establishment of a chronic visceral hypersensitivity model of mice induced by neonatal maternal separation and its meaning .Methods Neonatal mice were randomly divided into two groups.An half number of mice were subjected to 3 h of neonatal maternal separation per day from Days 2 to 15, while another half number of mice were set as controls .All mice underwent behavior test at eight weeks old , in order to evalu-ate their visceral sensitivity as well as anxiety and depression -like behavior induced by neonatal maternal separation . Results Compared with the control , neonatal maternal separation caused visceral hypersensitivity , especially higher ab-dominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores (P0.05).After neonatal maternal separation , the mice presented anxiety and depression -like behav-ior, according to a shorter period of time in the central zone during the open field test (P<0.05) and an extended period of motionless in the forced swimming test ( P<0.01) respectively.Conclusion Neonatal maternal separation can lead to chronic visceral hypersensitivity in adult mice , accompanied with anxiety and depression -like behavior at the same time.%目的:探讨建立小鼠新生期母婴分离致慢性内脏痛觉高敏模型的可能性及意义。方法将新生小鼠随机分成2组,母婴分离组出生后第2~15天每天与母鼠分离3 h,对照组出生后不予处理。8周龄时进行行为学测试,测定评估内脏痛觉敏感性及对焦虑、抑郁行为的影响。结果与对照组比较:母婴分离组小鼠腹壁撤退反射评分增高(P<0.01)、痛阈降低(P<0.01)、腹外斜肌放电波幅明显升高(P<0.05),表现出内脏痛觉高敏;在糖水偏好实验中未表现出行为差异(P>0.05);在旷场实验中中心区停留时间缩短(P<0.05),出现焦虑行为;在强迫游泳实验中表现为不动时间延长(P<0.01),存在行为绝

  16. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    ’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually......The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying...... . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces...

  17. [Anxiety disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders.

  18. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Mindfulness in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idusohan-Moizer, H.; Sawicka, A.; Dendle, J.; Albany, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a range of health and psychological disorders in adults and young people without intellectual disabilities (ID). Clinical studies are emerging reporting on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions as a stand-alone treatment for common clinical…

  19. Using Tic-Tac Software to Reduce Anxiety-Related Behaviour in Adults with Autism and Learning Difficulties during Waiting Periods: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Cristina; Herrera, Gerardo; Remírez de Ganuza, Conchi; Cuesta, José L.; Abellán, Raquel; Campos, Arturo; Navarro, Ignacio; Sevilla, Javier; Pardo, Carlos; Amati, Fabián

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of time and processing of changes across time are commonly observed in individuals with autism. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of the use of the software tool Tic-Tac, designed to make time visual, in three adults with autism and learning difficulties. This research focused on applying the tool in waiting…

  20. Psychiatric comorbidity among adults with schizophrenia: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-11-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that often co-occurs with and can be exacerbated by other psychiatric conditions. There have not been adequate efforts to examine schizophrenia and psychiatric comorbidity beyond pairwise examination using clusters of diagnoses. This study used latent class analysis to characterize patterns of 5-year psychiatric comorbidity among a national sample of adults with schizophrenia. Baseline data from 1446 adults with schizophrenia across 57 sites in the United States were analyzed. Three latent classes were identified labeled Solely Schizophrenia, Comorbid Anxiety and Depressive Disorders with Schizophrenia, and Comorbid Addiction and Schizophrenia. Adults in the Solely Schizophrenia class had significantly better mental health than those in the two comorbid classes, but poorer illness and treatment insight than those with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. These results suggest that addiction and schizophrenia may represent a separate latent profile from depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. More research is needed on how treatment can take advantage of the greater insight possessed by those with schizophrenia and comorbid anxiety and depression.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety.

  2. The Effects of Maternal Separation on Adult Methamphetamine Self-Administration, Extinction, Reinstatement, and MeCP2 Immunoreactivity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The maternal separation (MS paradigm is an animal model of early life stress. Animals subjected to MS during the first two weeks of life display altered behavioral and neuroendocrinological stress responses as adults. MS also produces altered responsiveness to and self-administration (SA of various drugs of abuse including cocaine, ethanol, opioids, and amphetamine. Methamphetamine (METH causes great harm to both the individual user and to society; yet, no studies have examined the effects of MS on METH SA. This study was performed to examine the effects of MS on the acquisition of METH SA, extinction, and reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior in adulthood. Given the known influence of early life stress and drug exposure on epigenetic processes, group differences in levels of the epigenetic marker methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc core were also investigated. Long-Evans pups and dams were separated on postnatal days (PND 2-14 for either 180 (MS180 or 15 min (MS15. Male offspring were allowed to acquire METH SA (0.05 mg/kg/infusion in 15 2-hr daily sessions starting at PND67, followed by extinction training and cue-induced reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior. Rats were then assessed for MeCP2 levels in the NAc core by immunohistochemistry. The MS180 group self-administered significantly more METH and acquired SA earlier than the MS15 group. No group differences in extinction or cue-induced reinstatement were observed. MS15 rats had significantly elevated MeCP2-immunoreactive cells in the NAc core as compared to MS180 rats. Together, these data suggest that MS has lasting influences on METH SA as well as epigenetic processes in the brain reward circuitry.

  3. Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendre, M; Comasco, E; Nylander, I; Nilsson, K W

    2015-01-01

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption affect Maoa expression in stress- and reward-related brain regions in the rat. Outbred Wistar rats were exposed to rearing conditions associated with stress (prolonged maternal separation) or no stress during early life, and given free choice between alcohol and/or water in adulthood. Transcript levels of Maoa were assessed in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala and dorsal striatum (DS). Blood was collected to assess corticosterone levels. After alcohol consumption, lower blood corticosterone and Maoa expression in the NAc and DS were found in rats exposed to early life stress compared with control rats. An interaction between early life stress and voluntary alcohol intake was found in the NAc. Alcohol intake before death correlated negatively with Maoa expression in DS in high alcohol-drinking rats exposed to early life stress. Maoa expression is sensitive to adulthood voluntary alcohol consumption in the presence of early life stress in outbred rats. These findings add knowledge of the molecular basis of the previously reported associations between early life stress, MAOA and susceptibility to alcohol misuse. PMID:26645625

  4. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  5. When a Scale Measures More Than Its Name Denotes: The Case of the Test Anxiety Scale for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.

    1976-01-01

    The Test Anxiety Scale for Children was rewritten to form separate comparative self-evaluation and anxiety scales. Correlations with variables that had been found to be related to the original scale and assumed to be affected by anxiety were generally higher for the self-evaluation scale than the anxiety scales. (Author)

  6. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  7. Fluoxetine for the Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Open-Label, Long-Term Extension to a Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan B.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Ehmann, Mary; Bridge, Jeffrey; Wood, D. Scott; Muthen, Bengt; Brent, David

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of fluoxetine for the long-term treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Method: Children and adolescents (7-17 years old) with anxiety disorders were studied in open treatment for 1 year after they…

  8. anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Hofflich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 7–14 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.

  9. The Effect of Child Distress on Accommodation of Anxiety: Relations With Maternal Beliefs, Empathy, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C

    2015-12-16

    Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.

  10. Balance Treatment Ameliorates Anxiety and Increases Self-Esteem in Children with Comorbid Anxiety and Balance Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Haim, Yair; Weizman, Einat; Levin, Moran; Sadeh, Avi; Mintz, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Comorbidity between balance and anxiety disorders in adult population is a well-studied clinical entity. Children might be particularly prone to develop balance-anxiety comorbidity, but surprisingly they are practically neglected in this field of research. The consequence is that children are treated for what seems to be the primary disorder…

  11. Comparing telehealth-based and clinic-based group cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with depression and anxiety: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasreen Khatri, Elsa Marziali, Illia Tchernikov, Nancy ShepherdRotman Research Institute, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate reliable adherence to a group cognitive behavioral (CBT therapy protocol when delivered using on-line video conferencing as compared with face-to-face delivery of group CBT. A secondary aim was to show comparability of changes in subject depression inventory scores between on-line and face-to-face delivery of group CBT.Methods: We screened 31 individuals, 18 of whom met the criteria for a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition diagnosis of mood and/or anxiety disorder. All qualifying participants had the necessary equipment (computer, webcam, Internet for participation in the study, but could exercise their preference for either the on-line or face-to-face format. Eighteen completed the 13 weekly session intervention program (ten face-to-face; eight video conferencing. We coded adherence to protocol in both intervention formats and generated pre–post changes in scores on the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II for each participant.Results: Application of the CBT protocol coding system showed reliable adherence to the group CBT intervention protocol in both delivery formats. Similarly, qualitative analysis of the themes in group discussion indicated that both groups addressed similar issues. Pre–post intervention scores for the BDI-II were comparable across the two delivery formats, with 60% of participants in each group showing a positive change in BDI-II severity classification (eg, from moderate to low symptoms.Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrates that group CBT could be delivered in a technology-supported environment (on-line video conferencing and can meet the same professional practice standards and outcomes as face-to-face delivery of the intervention program.Keywords: psychotherapy, gerontology, mood

  12. 社交焦虑障碍成人依恋类型及其家庭环境的研究%Study on relationship between the adult attachment styles of social anxiety disorder and its family envi-ronment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱益; 张伟波; 蔡军; 仇剑崟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between adult attachment styles and family environment in social anxiety disorder( SAD). Method:Forty SAD and 40 normal controls were evaluated by self made general social demographic questionnaire,adult attachment scale( AAS)and family environment scale-Chinese version( FES-CV). Results:Chi-square test revealed a significant adult attachment style difference between SAD group and NC group(t=15. 429,P<0. 01);T test revealed significant cohesion,expressiveness,intellec-tual-cultural orientation,active-recreational orientation and conflict differences between SAD group and NC group;cohesion,expressiveness,intellectual-cultural orientation,active-recreational orientation and conflict were correlated with insecure style in SAD group. Conclusion:The main adult attachment style in SAD is insecure style,which related with poor family environments.%目的:分析社交焦虑障碍( SAD)患者的成人依恋类型及其家庭环境的关系。方法:以SAD患者40例为研究组,建立配对正常对照组40名,采用成人依恋量表( AAS)及家庭环境量表中文版( FES-CV)进行评估。结果:SAD组与正常对照组相比,在成人依恋安全和不安全型分布上差异有统计学意义( t=15.429,P<0.01);SAD组在FES-CV中亲密度、情感表达、矛盾性、知识性及娱乐性等因子与正常对照组相比差异有统计学意义,SAD组患者的成人依恋不安全型与其家庭的亲密度、情感表达、矛盾性、知识性、娱乐性有关。结论:SAD的成人依恋类型以不安全型为主,与其不良家庭环境有关。

  13. Anxiety and Performance: An Endogenous Learning-by-doing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Rauh; Giulio Seccia

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we show that a standard economic model, the endogenous learning-by-doing model, captures several major themes from the anxiety literature in psychology. In our model, anxiety is a fully endogenous construct that can be separated naturally into its cognitive and physiological components. As such, our results are directly comparable with hypotheses and evidence from psychology. We show that anxiety can serve a motivating function, which suggests potential applications in the pr...

  14. "Library Anxiety" and "Computer Anxiety": Measures, Validity, and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerabek, J. Ann; Meyer, Linda S.; Kordinak, S. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of library anxiety and computer anxiety focuses on a study of undergraduates that investigated the construct validity of the Computer Anxiety Index and the Library Anxiety Scale. Explains the use of the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT) Anxiety Scale for the criterion measure of anxiety. (Author/LRW)

  15. Selective processing of threatening information: effects of attachment representation and anxiety disorder on attention and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichhoven, I.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; de Ruiter, C.; Brosschot, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the mental representation of attachment on information processing, 28 anxiety disorder outpatients, as diagnosed by the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule?Revised, were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. They also complet

  16. The Experiences of Anxiety of Japanese EFL Learners: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety is an educational phenomenon that has gained growing attention among researchers over the past three decades. It is a form of anxiety that can be debilitating and arises from various sources. This research examined foreign language classroom-based anxiety experiences of two adult Japanese English language…

  17. Factors Affecting the Level of Test Anxiety among EFL Learners at Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2013-01-01

    Many studies on test anxiety among adult language learners have been performed, while only a few studies have dealt with overall test anxiety. In addition, these studies do not specifically address test anxiety in foreign language learning among elementary school language learners. Thus, this study aims to investigate the level of test anxiety…

  18. Math Anxiety, Working Memory, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2013-01-01

    Although math anxiety is associated with poor mathematical knowledge and low course grades (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007), research establishing a connection between math anxiety and math achievement has generally been conducted with young adults, ignoring the emergence of math anxiety in young children. In the current study, we explored whether…

  19. Psychometric properties of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale, the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis and the Social Performance Survey Schedule in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD), the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS), and the Social Performance Survey Schedule (SPSS). Data were collected in two community-based groups of adults with mild to profound ID (n = 263). Subscale reliability (internal consistency) ranged from fair to excellent for the ABC, the ADAMS, and the SPSS (mean coefficient α across ABC subscales was .87 (ranging from fair to excellent), the ADAMS subscales .83 (ranging from fair to good), and the SPSS subscales .91 (range from good to excellent). The ADD subscales had generally lower reliability scores with a mean of .59 (ranging from unacceptable to good). Convergent and discriminant validity was determined by bivariate Spearman ρ correlations between subscales of one instrument and the subscales of the other three instruments. For the most part, all four instruments showed solid convergent and discriminant validity. To examine the factorial validity, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were attempted with the inter-item covariance matrix of each instrument. Generally, the data did not show good fits with the measurement models for the SPSS, ABC, or the ADAMS (CFA analyses with the ADD would not converge). However, most of the items on these three instruments had significant loadings on their respective factors.

  20. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to participate in social functions. Social anxiety disorder affects the ability to function in work and relationships. ... Alcohol or other drug use may occur with social anxiety disorder. Loneliness and social isolation may occur.

  1. Soundoff: My Anxieties about Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Math anxiety affects both sexes, and is not the cause of imbalance in mathematical professions. Attempts to broaden perceptions of mathematics deal only with the symptoms of math anxiety. The principal cause is the methodology used to teach mathematics. Problem-solving processes must be employed. (MNS)

  2. Personal constructs of anxiety under the 1,5-benzodiazepine derivative clobazam related to trait-anxiety levels of the personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Kentridge, R

    1982-01-01

    In an initial interview, 20 volunteer subjects provided 32 personal constructs of anxiety, using Kelly's repertory grid technique. The bipolar ends of the anxiety constructs were then separated by 10-point rating scales. Subjects could then indicate the degree of anxiety feeling on their own personal constructs. The 20 subjects were divided into high and low trait-anxiety sub-groups, on the basis of Speilberger trait-anxiety (personality) scores. Subjects were administered acute single doses of 20 mg clobazam or matching placebo, in a counterbalanced double-blind design. Anxiety levels on the individual personal constructs of anxiety were measured 2 h after drug administration. There was a significant ANOVA interaction effect between drug condition and trait-anxiety. Of the ten subjects in the high trait-anxiety sub-group, eight demonstrated reduced levels of personal construct anxiety under clobazam (three significantly). In contrast, of the ten subjects in the low trait-anxiety sub-group, nine demonstrated increased levels of personal construct anxiety (eight significantly). The present results are discussed in relation to previous similar findings. Clobazam and other benzodiazepine derivatives (such as diazepam) are effective anxiolytics with the clinically anxious and with normal volunteers having high trait-anxiety personalities. However, normal subjects with low trait-anxiety personalities often produce paradoxical increases in anxiety feelings.

  3. Interpersonal trauma, attachment insecurity and anxiety in an inpatient psychiatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltgen, Anika; Arbona, Consuelo; Frankel, Leslie; Frueh, B Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Current research suggests that interpersonal trauma has an impact on insecure attachment and anxiety. Some research further suggests that attachment may play a mediating role between traumatic events and psychopathology. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the experience of interpersonal trauma, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance and clinical anxiety severity among adult psychiatric inpatients who reported having experienced interpersonal trauma after the age of 16. It was hypothesized that attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance would mediate the relationship between interpersonal trauma and clinical anxiety level. This study used archival data on 414 adult psychiatric inpatients in a large city in the Southwest U.S. Results suggest that interpersonal trauma was correlated to attachment avoidance but not to attachment anxiety and that attachment avoidance partially mediated the relation of interpersonal trauma to anxiety. The attachment framework appositely explains how a negative model of other contributes to the relation between experiences of interpersonal trauma and anxiety in adulthood.

  4. Deconstructing Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William

    2008-01-01

    Recent changes to educational policy which have focused attention on the use of high stakes testing as performance and accountability measures have renewed interest in test anxiety both in the UK and the USA. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical examination of the test anxiety construct, and explore the ways in which test anxiety is…

  5. Levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kandasamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones can cause adverse neuropsychiatric side effects, which are more common in older age. We present three cases of levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia in young adults. In all the cases, discontinuation of levofloxacin immediately lead to remission.

  6. Family Treatment of Childhood Anxiety: A Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paula M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a family-based treatment for childhood anxiety. Children (N=79) with separation anxiety, overanxious disorder or social phobia were randomly allocated to three treatment conditions: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), CBT and family management, or a waiting list. Indicated 69.8% of the children no longer fulfilled diagnostic criteria for…

  7. Application of a cognitive neuroscience perspective of cognitive control to late-life anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Sherry A; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Reynolds, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence supports a negative association between anxiety and cognitive control. Given age-related reductions in some cognitive abilities and the relation of late life anxiety to cognitive impairment, this negative association may be particularly relevant to older adults. This critical review conceptualizes anxiety and cognitive control from cognitive neuroscience and cognitive aging theoretical perspectives and evaluates the methodological approaches and measures used to assess cognitive control. Consistent with behavioral investigations of young adults, the studies reviewed implicate specific and potentially negative effects of anxiety on cognitive control processes in older adults. Hypotheses regarding the role of both aging and anxiety on cognitive control, the bi-directionality between anxiety and cognitive control, and the potential for specific symptoms of anxiety (particularly worry) to mediate this association, are specified and discussed.

  8. Uncontrollable and unpredictable stress interacts with subclinical depression and anxiety scores in determining anxiety response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havranek, Michael M; Bolliger, Bianca; Roos, Sophie; Pryce, Christopher R; Quednow, Boris B; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    According to learned helplessness theory, uncontrollable stress is assumed to be a critical etiological factor in the pathogenesis of depression. In contrast, unpredictability of stressors is assumed to facilitate the development of sustained anxiety. Despite the frequent co-morbidity of depression and anxiety disorders, these two factors have rarely been studied simultaneously in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether there are interaction effects of uncontrollability and unpredictability on anxiety response in healthy participants. Seventy-nine healthy participants performed a visual dot probe task with emotional faces, while receiving mild electrical shocks in four different conditions (2 × 2 factorial design). In (un)controllable conditions, participants were (not) able to attenuate shock intensity. In (un)predictable conditions, participants were (not) able to anticipate shock occurrence. Before the experiment, participants' subclinical depression and anxiety scores were measured using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI/BAI). During the experiment, continuous skin conductance and self-reported state anxiety were assessed and attentional biases towards angry faces were calculated. As expected, participants showed greater anxiety in uncontrollable compared to controllable and in unpredictable compared to predictable conditions. Additionally, anxiety decreased within the test sessions in participants with low BDI/BAI scores but not in participants with higher BDI/BAI scores. Most importantly, controllability and predictability interacted with each other and with BDI/BAI scores with regard to anxiety. Our results provide evidence that uncontrollability and unpredictability of stressors not only have separate but also interaction effects on several anxiety measures in susceptible individuals and may provide insights into the psychological mechanisms underlying a depressive/anxiety co-morbidity.

  9. Fears in Clinic-Referred Children: Relations with Child Anxiety Sensitivity, Maternal Overcontrol, and Maternal Phobic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Horsch, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    Relations among maternal phobic anxiety, maternal overcontrol, child anxiety sensitivity, and child level of fear were explored in 156 children referred to an outpatient clinic for psychological evaluation. In addition, these relations were examined separately in analyses of age, gender, and diagnostic status. Overall, age, gender, and child…

  10. MEK Inhibitors Reverse cAMP-Mediated Anxiety in Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Pia R.; Anastasaki, Corina; Grant, Nicola J.;

    2015-01-01

    Altered phosphodiesterase (PDE)-cyclic AMP (cAMP) activity is frequently associated with anxiety disorders, but current therapies act by reducing neuronal excitability rather than targeting PDE-cAMP-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we report the novel repositioning of anti-cancer MEK inhibitors...... as anxiolytics in a zebrafish model of anxiety-like behaviors. PDE inhibitors or activators of adenylate cyclase cause behaviors consistent with anxiety in larvae and adult zebrafish. Small-molecule screening identifies MEK inhibitors as potent suppressors of cAMP anxiety behaviors in both larvae and adult...... zebrafish, while causing no anxiolytic behavioral effects on their own. The mechanism underlying cAMP-induced anxiety is via crosstalk to activation of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. We propose that targeting crosstalk signaling pathways can be an effective strategy for mental health disorders, and advance...

  11. The State of Anxiety Felt by Elementary School Pupils during Foreign Language Activities

    OpenAIRE

    松宮, 奈賀子

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the state of anxiety felt by elementary school pupils while they are in foreign language activities classes. "Foreign language anxiety" is considered to have negative effects to the learners' learning and thus should be taken away. However, the foreign language anxiety has been believed to relate basically to the adult learners and few studies have been conducted which deals young learners' anxiety on foreign language learning. In this paper, about 1,500 element...

  12. Math Anxiety in Second and Third Graders and Its Relation to Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Sarah S.; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure f...

  13. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  14. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.V.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background:  Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  15. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F.V.A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  16. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such distinct

  17. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  18. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  19. Anxiety and the processing of threat in children: Further examination of the cognitive inhibition hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kindt; M. van den Hout; M. Morren; H. van Kasteren

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal co

  20. Should OCD be classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-V?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Stein; N.A. Fineberg; O.J. Bienvenu; D. Denys; C. Lochner; G. Nestadt; J.F. Leckman; S.L. Rauch; K.A. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    In DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder. In ICD-10, OCD is classified separately from the anxiety disorders, although within the same larger category as anxiety disorders (as one of the "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform dis

  1. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, "normal anxiety" does not equal "pathological anxiety" although many phenomena are evident in healthy subjects, however to a lower extent. Differential effects of distinct brain regions and lateralization phenomena in different anxiety disorders are mentioned. An overview of neuroimaging investigations in anxiety disorders is given after a brief summary of results from healthy volunteers. Concluding implications for future research are made by the authors.

  2. Prevalence, associated factors and predictors of anxiety: a community survey in Selangor, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety is the most common mental health disorders in the general population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety, its associated factors and the predictors of anxiety among adults in the community of Selangor, Malaysia. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out in three districts in Selangor, Malaysia. The inclusion criteria of this study were Malaysian citizens, adults aged 18 years and above, and living in the selected living quarters based on the list ...

  3. Temporal Dynamics of Cognitive Performance and Anxiety Across Older Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Andrew J; Reynolds, Chandra A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Kremen, William S; Gatz, Margaret

    2017-03-23

    Cognitive decline and anxiety symptoms commonly co-occur in later life, but the temporal order of changes on these two attributes is unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if greater anxiety leads to subsequent declines in cognitive performance or if worse cognitive performance leads to increased anxiety. In this study, we sought to elucidate the temporal dynamics between anxiety symptoms and cognitive performance across old age-that is, the extent to which level and change in one variable influence subsequent changes in a second variable. We examined data from 721 nondemented participants from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Participants completed as many as eight assessments of cognitive performance and anxiety over a 26-year period. Bivariate dual-change score models were fit to examine the dynamic association between anxiety and cognitive performance. Bidirectional associations between anxiety and cognitive performance were found among measures of processing speed, attention, and memory but not visuospatial abilities. Higher anxiety was associated with greater declines in processing speed over the duration of 6 years and worsening attention over a span of 3 years. The reverse direction was also significant in that slower processing speed, worse attention, and poorer nonverbal and working memory performance were associated with larger increases in anxiety 3 years later. These findings highlight that in cognitively intact older adults, the association between anxiety and worse cognitive performance is bidirectional and complex. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Parameters for screening music performance anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana E. Barbar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI, in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. Method: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. Results: Subjects with social anxiety indicators exhibited higher mean total K-MPAI scores, as well as higher individual scores on 62% of its items. The area under the ROC curve was 0.734 (p = 0.001, and considered appropriate. Within the possible cutoff scores presented, the score -15 had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity values. However, the score -7 had greater specificity and accuracy. Conclusion: The K-MPAI showed appropriate discriminant validity, with a marked association between music performance anxiety and social anxiety. The cutoff scores presented in the study have both clinical and research value, allowing screening for music performance anxiety and identification of possible cases.

  5. Perfectionism in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2014-09-01

    Although perfectionism has been identified as a factor in many psychiatric disorders across the life span, it is relatively understudied in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders. Furthermore, there exists little cohesion among previous research, restricting the conclusions that can be made across studies. In this review, research associating perfectionism with pediatric anxiety and depression is examined and a framework is presented synthesizing research to date. We focus on detailing the current understanding of how perfectionism develops and interacts with other developmental features characteristic of anxiety and depression in children and potential pathways that result in anxiety and depressive disorders. This includes: how perfectionism is measured in children, comparisons with relevant adult literature, the development of perfectionism in children and adolescents, mediators and moderators of the link between perfectionism and anxiety and depression, and the role of perfectionism in treatment and prevention of these disorders. We also present research detailing perfectionism across cultures. Findings from these studies are beginning to implicate perfectionism as an underlying process that may contribute broadly to the development of anxiety and depression in a pediatric population. Throughout the review, difficulties, limitations, and gaps in the current understanding are presented while offering suggestions for future research.

  6. Sexual experience promotes adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus despite an initial elevation in stress hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Leuner

    Full Text Available Aversive stressful experiences are typically associated with increased anxiety and a predisposition to develop mood disorders. Negative stress also suppresses adult neurogenesis and restricts dendritic architecture in the hippocampus, a brain region associated with anxiety regulation. The effects of aversive stress on hippocampal structure and function have been linked to stress-induced elevations in glucocorticoids. Normalizing corticosterone levels prevents some of the deleterious consequences of stress, including increased anxiety and suppressed structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Here we examined whether a rewarding stressor, namely sexual experience, also adversely affects hippocampal structure and function in adult rats. Adult male rats were exposed to a sexually-receptive female once (acute or once daily for 14 consecutive days (chronic and levels of circulating glucocorticoids were measured. Separate cohorts of sexually experienced rats were injected with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine in order to measure cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In addition, brains were processed using Golgi impregnation to assess the effects of sexual experience on dendritic spines and dendritic complexity in the hippocampus. Finally, to evaluate whether sexual experience alters hippocampal function, rats were tested on two tests of anxiety-like behavior: novelty suppressed feeding and the elevated plus maze. We found that acute sexual experience increased circulating corticosterone levels and the number of new neurons in the hippocampus. Chronic sexual experience no longer produced an increase in corticosterone levels but continued to promote adult neurogenesis and stimulate the growth of dendritic spines and dendritic architecture. Chronic sexual experience also reduced anxiety-like behavior. These findings suggest that a rewarding experience not only buffers against the deleterious actions of early elevated

  7. Coping with anxiety in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Leslie D; Waid, Lisa D; Fincke, Candy

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how older adults cope with three forms of anxiety, and potential avenues for applied interventions. Although the findings shed light on some interesting findings with potential psychosocial applications, several limitations need to be noted. First, this study was based on two assumptions. The assumption, based on earlier work (Carver et al., 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Zeidner & Saklofske, 1996), that certain coping strategies are more effective than others, and an assumption of the direction of influence in which anxiety is a precursor of coping strategies. Because this was an exploratory study, the research questions did not directly test these assumptions. Second, this study is correlational in nature. Therefore, conclusions cannot be drawn about the causality of these associations. Third, as with any self-report data and self-selected sample, one needs to interpret the findings with caution. Similarly, for the purposes of the study, a non-clinical sample of older adults was examined using three distinct conceptualizations of anxiety. Suggestions for future research include: Replication of this study using a multidimensional measure of anxiety appropriate for clinical samples. A longitudinal replication of this study identifying patterns of coping that facilitate adjustment over time. Finally, a more general purpose of this study was to focus attention on a neglected issue in gerontology--the experience of anxietY in later life (Frazier & Waid, 1999; Gatz, 1995; Rabins, 1992; Shamoian, 1991; Sheikh, 1992; Smyer, 1995; Stanley & Beck, 1998), and, most importantly, the role of gerontological nurses in early assessment and intervention for successful treatment of anxiety in older adults.

  8. Archetypal Anxieties in Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-huei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study intends to study the archetypal anxieties in Stanley Kubrick’s (1980 The Shining, which can be interpreted as Danny’s journey for the completion of his individualization process. In his individualization process, Danny has to go through the anxieties often seen in fairytales, such as separation anxieties, authoritarian anxieties, Oedipal rivalry anxieties, and sexual anxieties, in order to acquire his autonomy. The Overlook Hotel becomes symbolic of collective human evil, being charged with evil spirits. Only those who refused to identify themselves as victims would escape from the evil history of the hotel and would not be transformed into a homicidal maniac, pouring their anger to their families.

  9. An investigation on the effect of emotional management problems on children's anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Afrooz Afshari; Hamid Taher Neshat Doost; Sholeh Amiri; Mozhgan Kar Ahmadi; Mohammad Reza Marasy

    2014-01-01

    Today’s research on emotion regulation reveals its importance on many mental and physical heath related issues. One of the problems to deregulation of emotions is anxiety disorders subject. The aim of this research is to identify the relationship between emotional management problems including emotional inhibition, emotional deregulation and emotional coping on children’s anxiety symptoms, where it includes separation anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, school phobia and generalized anxi...

  10. Dementia: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead to complications too. These include malnutrition, falls, osteoporosis (“thinning bones”), bone fractures, frailty, sleep problems, anxiety, agitation, delirium, and disturbed behavior. Caring for an older adult with dementia and other health problems can be ...

  11. Symptom overlap in anxiety and multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Donnchadha, Seán

    2013-02-14

    BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.

  12. Mapping mindfulness facets onto dimensions of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression, with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress-anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these

  13. 不同数学焦虑成人的算术策略运用差异:ERP研究%Differences of Arithmetic Strategy Use in Adults with Different Math Anxieties:An ERP Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司继伟; 徐艳丽; 封洪敏; 许晓华; 周超

    2014-01-01

    采用事件相关电位(ERP)技术和选择/无选法范式,在两位数加法心算和估算中,探索高、低数学焦虑个体的算术计算策略运用及其内在机制。行为结果:数学焦虑效应在策略运用的反应时和正确率指标上的差异都不显著;而脑电结果:高数学焦虑个体的 N400波幅显著高于低数学焦虑个体;选择条件中,估算与心算的数学焦虑效应的N100波幅差异;无选条件中,高低数学焦虑个体N1-P2复合波的波幅和潜伏期差异显著。数学焦虑效应在策略编码(0~250 ms)和策略选择/执行阶段(250 ms之后)存在差异。%As one of the leading researching topics of contemporary cognitive science, strategy use depends on many factors, such as situation, problem characteristics, individual differences including math anxiety, etc. (Siegler, 2007;Imbo& Vandierendonck, 2007).Various theories on arithmetic anxiety have been proposed, however, the role of arithmetic anxiety in strategy utilization and its potential mechanism is still far from clear (Wang&Liu, 2007). The neural mechanism of arithmetic strategies utilization affected by math anxiety still needs further exploring. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) is usually utilized in exploring brain mechanisms in arithmetic performance, and the choice/no-choice method is a standard method to obtain unbiased data about strategy utilization. In this study, we employed the ERPs and choice/no-choice method to investigate the influence of math anxiety upon individual strategy utilization during arithmetic processing. Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (R-MARS) and Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to test 154 students and 34 participants were picked and divided to two groups (17 high math anxiety and 17 low math anxiety). Participants were required to finish the two-digit addition computational mental arithmetic and computational estimation based on applying the ERP technique to test the neurophysiologic

  14. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definition of anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers and learners.

  15. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definitionof anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers andlearners.

  16. Anxiety During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Tools for Mom Frequently Asked Questions Useful Links Media Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety Approximately 6% of pregnant women and 10% of postpartum women develop anxiety. Sometimes ...

  17. Using the Beck Anxiety Inventory among South Africans Living with HIV: Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Coetzee, Bronwyne; Saal, Wylene; Nel, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    We administered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to 101 adults receiving HIV treatment. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a single anxiety factor that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in the data. A single score may be used to indicate the overall level of anxiety of individuals receiving HIV treatment in South Africa.

  18. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment. The Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale was evaluated with 67 youth with autism spectrum disorders to examine its utility in measuring anxiety and depression in this population. Parents and children (aged 11-15 years) referred to a multisite intervention study completed the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, Child Behavior Checklist, and Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results suggest acceptable internal consistency of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Modest convergent validity was found among the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and other standardized measures of anxiety and depression. There were stronger correlations between Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale Total scores and subscales of measures expected to correlate significantly than those not expected to correlate. One exception was a significant association between the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and Child Behavior Checklist Attention subscale, calling into question the divergent validity in separating anxiety from attention problems. Overall, results suggest preliminary support for the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  19. Intimacy patterns and relationship satisfaction of women with eating problems and the mediating effects of depression, trait anxiety and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L; Wertheim, E H

    1998-01-01

    The association between eating problems; and intimacy and relationship styles was examined. Young adult females (n = 360) completed the Adult Attachment Style (AAS), questionnaire; questions on satisfaction with intimacy; the Sexual Attitude Scale; items on sexual avoidance; a set of six descriptions for mother, friend, and partner; and measures of depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and eating problems. Women with greater eating problems described more difficulties in intimate relationships including less satisfaction with closeness, more discomfort in close intimate relationships, and less positive descriptions of friend and mother. When depression, general anxiety, and social anxiety were entered first in a regression, intimacy measures no longer added unique variance. However, public self-consciousness predicted over and above general affect and social anxiety measures. Results were consistent with a mediator model in which intimacy difficulties for women with eating problems are explained by depression, trait anxiety, and public self-consciousness.

  20. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  1. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  2. Addressing Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that between 25% to 40% of students experience test anxiety, with students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds having higher prevalence rates. Since test anxiety impacts student well-being and the validity of the important educational decisions based on testing data, this article…

  3. Test and Performance Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Test and performance anxiety is not recognized easily in schools, in large part because adolescents rarely refer themselves for emotional concerns. Not wanting to risk teasing or public attention, anxious adolescents suffer in silence and under perform on school-related tasks. In school, anxiety is experienced often by students when being…

  4. [Anxiety in progressive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michaela; Heydweiller, Katrin; Mücke, Martin; Cuhls, Henning; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety in terminally ill patients has a high impact on symptoms, trajectory and quality of life. There are different screening instruments for diagnosis. The holistic approach of palliative care considers the physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs and can improve the distress caused by anxiety. Early integration in palliative care decreases burden of symptoms and increases quality of life.

  5. Factor structure of social fears: The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, S A; Heimberg, R G; Horner, K J; Juster, H R; Schneier, F R; Liebowitz, M R

    1999-01-01

    In the assessment of social anxiety, investigators often differentiate between social interactional anxiety and performance anxiety. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), a clinician-administered measure of social anxiety and avoidance, was originally developed with separate subscales for the assessment of fear and avoidance of situations involving social interaction and performance/observation by others. Separate confirmatory factor analyses of the LSAS fear and avoidance ratings demonstrated that this two-factor model did not provide an adequate fit to the data, suggesting the need to further investigate the underlying structure of the LSAS. Separate exploratory common factor analyses of the fear and avoidance ratings yielded four similar factors for each: (1) social interaction, (2) public speaking, (3) observation by others, and (4) eating and drinking in public, which demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity with other measures of social anxiety. These findings suggest that there are four global categories of social fear assessed by the LSAS, and that while social interaction anxiety appears to be unifactorial, fear of performance/observation situations may be multifactorial.

  6. A history of anxiety: from Hippocrates to DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the history of the nosology of anxiety disorders. Greek and Latin physicians and philosophers distinguished anxiety from other types of negative affect, and identified it as a medical disorder. Ancient Epicurean and Stoic philosophers suggested techniques to reach an anxiety-free state of mind that are reminiscent of modern cognitive psychology. Between classical antiquity and the late 19(th) century there was a long interval during which anxiety was not classified as a separate illness. However, typical cases of anxiety disorders kept being reported, even if under different names. In the 17(th) century, Robert Burton described anxiety in The Anatomy of Melancholy. Panic attacks and generalized anxiety disorder may be recognized in the "panophobias" in the nosology published by Boissier de Sauvages in the 18(th) century. Also, anxiety symptoms were an important component of new disease constructs, culminating in neurasthenia in the 19(th) century. Emil Kraepelin devoted much attention to the possible presence of severe anxiety in manic-depressive illness, thereby anticipating the "anxious distress" specifier of bipolar disorders in DSM-5. A pitfall to consider is that the meaning of common medical terms, such as melancholia, evolves according to places and epochs.

  7. Atomoxetine Induced Seperation Anxiety: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Gul Celik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine (NE inhibitor, is introduced as a safe non-stimulant alternative treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, especially co-morbid ADHD and anxiety disorder and/or Tourette syndrome. Generally known side effects were including weight loss, decrease appetite, nausea and somnolence, exacerbation of tics. In this paper, we want to present an adolescent case with ADHD-inattention type who developed separation anxiety during Atomoxetine treatment. It will be discussed in light of current knowledge about possible neurotransmitter systems associated with side effects of Atomoxetine. Consequently, atomoxetine treatment may trigger anxiety or obsessional thoughts although without any premorbid psychopathology. However, it is unclear whether effects of genetic, gender or adolescence period are associated with this. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 503-505

  8. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chandrasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress. Settings and Design: Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45, a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60. Statistical Analysis: t-test, Mann-Whitney test. Results: The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001 in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006 in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the

  9. Symptoms and development of anxiety in children with or without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shulamite A; Berkovits, Lauren D; Baker, Bruce L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group differences in presentation and trajectory of anxiety symptoms and disorders in children with moderate to borderline intellectual disability (ID) and children with typical cognitive development (TD). Examined anxiety disorders and symptoms in children with ID (n=74) or TD (n=116) annually from ages 5 through 9 using a parent structured interview and questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine odds of meeting anxiety criteria and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine anxiety trajectory. Children with ID had significantly higher rates of clinical levels of anxiety on the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 8 and 9 and higher rates of separation anxiety disorder at age 5 compared to those with TD. Children with ID were also more likely to have externalizing problems co-occurring with anxiety. The rate of increase of anxiety symptoms over time was positive and similar in the two groups, and neither group showed sex differences in anxiety rates. Results suggest that children with ID have both higher rates of anxiety across time and are delayed in showing typical decreases in separation anxiety in early childhood. Implications for intervention are discussed in terms of the importance of screening for and treating anxiety in children with ID.

  10. Evaluation of death anxiety and effecting factors in a Turkish sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zümrüt Gedik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that people with higher levels of self-actualization have lower death anxiety and that negative emotional states are related to death anxiety. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and self-actualization, depression, and trait anxiety. A Turkish sample of 116 undergraduates and adults completed Templer’s Death Anxiety Scale, Personal Orientation Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory’s Trait Anxiety Form. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the only significant predictors of death anxiety were trait anxiety and gender. The correlation between death anxiety and self - actualization was found to be negative and statistically significant (p < .001. Women had significantly higher death anxiety compared to men; whereas death anxiety mean scores did not show significant differences by age group and the belief in afterlife. In conclusion, this study supports the assumptions of the existential school regarding the association between death anxiety and self-actualization.

  11. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  12. Managing anxiety in the elective surgical patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Michael John

    Patients coming into hospital can suffer a great deal of anxiety--Mathews et al (1981) suggested patients who undergo surgery experience acute psychological distress in the pre-operative period. These fears manifest themselves as uncertainty, loss of control and decreased self-esteem, anticipation of postoperative pain, and fear of separation from family (Egan et al, 1992; Asilioglu and Celik, 2004). As technical advances and improved anaesthetic techniques become available to the NHS, the ability to offer day surgery to a wider patient population is increasing. In fact Bernier et al (2003) and Elliott et al (2003) have suggested that 60% of future operations will be day procedures. This means as health-care professionals, nurses will have shorter time available not only to identify patients who may be experiencing anxiety, but also to offer them the support they need to cope with the surgery. Anxiety can have a profound effect on patients--it affects them in a variety of ways, from ignoring the illness, which could have a serious impact on the patient's life, to the constant demand for attention which can take the nurse away from the care of other patients on the ward (Thomas et al, 1995). Recently, there has been increasing interest in the possible influences of properative anxiety on the course and outcome of surgical procedures and the potential benefits of anxiety-reducing interventions (Markland et al, 1993). Caumo et al (2001) suggested that pre-operative management of a patients anxiety would be improved if health-care professionals had more knowledge about the potential predictors of pre-operative anxiety.

  13. Teachers' Knowledge of Anxiety and Identification of Excessive Anxiety in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had an…

  14. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  15. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-10-22

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations.

  16. Anxiety disorders in young people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíse Campos Mondin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.

  17. The effects of marriage and separation on the psychotropic medication use of non-married cohabiters: a register-based longitudinal study among adult Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-11-01

    Non-marital cohabitation has become increasingly common and is suggested to offer similar mental-health benefits as marriage does. We studied levels and changes in cohabiters' mental health five years before and five years after entering into marriage or separating, and compared long-term non-married and married cohabiters. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics, excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to non-marital transition and gender, using register data on 189,394 Finns aged 25 to 64. Similar levels of psychotropic-medication use were found among individuals in long unions that continued throughout the follow-up and were non-marital, marital, or changed from non-marital to marital. Among men and women who separated from longer cohabiting unions of more than five years, however, an increase in medication prevalence was observed immediately before separation, followed by a similar decline after separation. At the time of separation the level of medication use was 9.9 per cent (95% CI = 8.7 - 11.3) among men and 15.7 per cent (95% CI = 14.2 - 17.4) among women compared to 4.3 per cent (95% CI = 3.7 - 5.0) and 8.0 per cent (95% CI = 7.2 - 9.0), respectively, among those who cohabited continuously. No changes in medication use were observed before or after separation among those leaving shorter cohabiting unions of less than five years. Among those marrying following shorter cohabiting unions a positive effect of approaching marriage was observed only among women. Compared to continuous cohabiters, the level of medication use was higher among men and women separating from both short-term and long-term cohabiting unions five years before separation. This selective effect suggests that cohabiters with mental-health problems might benefit from relationship counselling. In a long-term stable union it seems to matter little for mental health whether the union is marital or non

  18. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thach Duc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21 for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach’s alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Results Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. Conclusions The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource

  19. Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Cooper, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are extremely common and are often associated with lifelong psychiatric disturbance. Consistent with DSM-5 and the extant literature, this review concerns the assessment and treatment of specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. Evidence-based psychological treatments (cognitive behaviour therapy; CBT) for these disorders have been developed and investigated, and in recent years promising low-intensity versions of CBT interventions have been proposed that offer a means to increase access to evidence-based treatments. There is some evidence of effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people, however, routine prescription is not recommended due to concerns about potential harm.

  20. Computer Use and Computer Anxiety in Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunwoo; Jang, Yuri; Xie, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Responding to the limited literature on computer use in ethnic minority older populations, the present study examined predictors of computer use and computer anxiety in older Korean Americans. Separate regression models were estimated for computer use and computer anxiety with the common sets of predictors: (a) demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, and education), (b) physical health indicators (chronic conditions, functional disability, and self-rated health), and (c) sociocultural factors (acculturation and attitudes toward aging). Approximately 60% of the participants were computer-users, and they had significantly lower levels of computer anxiety than non-users. A higher likelihood of computer use and lower levels of computer anxiety were commonly observed among individuals with younger age, male gender, advanced education, more positive ratings of health, and higher levels of acculturation. In addition, positive attitudes toward aging were found to reduce computer anxiety. Findings provide implications for developing computer training and education programs for the target population.

  1. Perceptual-motor learning benefits from increased stress and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordacre, Brenton; Immink, Maarten A; Ridding, Michael C; Hillier, Susan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to manipulate psychological stress and anxiety to investigate effects on ensuing perceptual-motor learning. Thirty-six participants attended two experimental sessions separated by 24h. In the first session, participants were randomized to either a mental arithmetic task known to increase stress and anxiety levels or a control condition and subsequently completed training on a speeded precision pinch task. Learning of the pinch task was assessed at the second session. Those exposed to the high stress-anxiety mental arithmetic task prior to training reported elevated levels of both stress and anxiety and demonstrated shorter movement times and improved retention of movement accuracy and movement variability. Response execution processes appear to benefit from elevated states of stress and anxiety immediately prior to training even when elicited by an unrelated task.

  2. Construction of anxiety and dimensional personality model in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2013-06-01

    A sample of 402 volunteer male (n = 156) and female (n = 246) Kuwaiti undergraduates responded to the Arabic versions of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The latter questionnaire has four subscales: Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Lie. Women obtained a higher mean score on Kuwait University Anxiety Scale and Neuroticism than did men, while men had a higher mean score on Psychoticism than did women. Factor analysis of the intercorrelations between the five variables, separately conducted for men and women, gave rise to two orthogonal factors called Anxiety-and-Neuroticism vs Extraversion, and Psychoticism vs Lie. Stepwise regression revealed that Neuroticism was the main predictor of anxiety. It was concluded that persons with high Neuroticism scores may be more vulnerable to anxiety than those with low scores.

  3. Parental Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance Predicting Child's Anxiety and Academic Efficacy in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebi Sümer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has documented that attachment security is systematically linked with child adjustment and academic competence. This study aims to examine the associations between parents' own report of anxious and avoidant attachment and their children's report of trait anxiety and academic self-efficacy in math and Turkish literature courses. Mothers (N=1539 and fathers (N=1436 from four cities in Turkey, separately completed the measures of attachment orientations, and their children (N=1877, attending 4th and 5th grades, completed the measures of trait anxiety and academic self-concept on math and literature courses in their school. Regression analyses showed that whereas mother attachment anxiety predicted boys' trait anxiety, father attachment avoidance predicted girls' anxiety. In predicting academic self-efficacy, mother attachment avoidance predicted their son's and father attachment anxiety predicted their daughter's academic self-efficacy in both math and literature courses. Our results confirmed the importance of having a warm and secure romantic attachment between spouses in marriage, not only for their relationship satisfaction and happiness, but also for their children's emotional adjustment and academic competence.

  4. Explicit memory in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Roth, W.T.; Andrich, M.; Margraf, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study selective memory bias favoring anxiety-relevant materials in patients with anxiety disorders. In the 1st experiment, 32 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 30 with social phobia (speaking anxiety), and 31 control participants incidentally learned

  5. Foreign and Second Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that anxiety interferes with language learning has long interested scholars, language teachers, and language learners themselves. It is intuitive that anxiety would inhibit the learning and/or production of a second language (L2). The important term in the last sentence is "anxiety". The concept of anxiety is itself multi-faceted,…

  6. [Semeiology of anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, M

    1983-01-01

    The difference of concept between somatic anxiety (" angoisse ") and psychic anxiety (" anxi été") as it was considered by authors in the past, has now fallen into disuse. However, it is worth considering this difference on the basis of the recent data relative to the selective effect that certain antidepressant drugs may have on panic attacks, while they have no effect on the basic anxiety. Consequently, a new nosography could then be considered in function of several factors: the reaction to imipramine, the preponderance in the disorders of their acuity and of the somatic impact, the spontaneous appearance of these same disorders.

  7. A Case Study of Adult Examination Anxiety Disorder by Eclectic Psychotherapy%运用综合心理疗法治疗一例成人考试焦虑症的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓旭阳; 何家声; 郭晋林

    2002-01-01

    Objective:This is a case study in which a 30-year-old male suffering from Examination Anxiety Disorder was treated by Eclectic Psychotherapy. Methods: Using Eclectic Psychotherapy, an approach that combines principles of Client Centeed Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, Rational Emotion Therapy (RET),and Behavior Therapy, the patient was treated for a total of 22 sessions.Results: The study showed obvious therapeutic effect for Eclectic Psychotherapy. The patient reported complete relief of his examination anxiety symptoms at conclusion of treatment. Follow-up by telephone at 1 month and 6 months after treatment showed that the patient remained stable and well.Conclusion: Eclectic Psychotherapy is an efficient way for treating symptoms of severe Examination Anxiety Disorder, both in terms of permanent cure and temporary relief.

  8. Dental anxiety and pain related to ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Coelho Leal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART is considered to be well accepted, both by children and by adult patients. The objective of this review is to present and discuss the evidence regarding the acceptability of ART, from the patient's perspective. Aspects related to dental anxiety/fear and pain/discomfort have been highlighted, to facilitate better understanding and use of the information available in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: The ART approach has been shown to cause less discomfort than other conventional approaches and is, therefore, considered a very promising "atraumatic" management approach for cavitated carious lesions in children, anxious adults and possibly, for dental-phobic patients.

  9. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety.

  10. Association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in adolescents

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    Marianna de Abreu Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, affecting approximately 10% of individuals throughout life; its onset can be detected since early childhood or adolescence. Studies in adults have shown that anxiety disorders are associated with alcohol abuse, but few studies have investigated the association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in early ages. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use in young subjects. METHODS: A total of 239 individuals aged 10-17 years were randomly selected from schools located in the catchment area of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED was used to evaluate the presence of anxiety symptoms, and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, to evaluate alcohol use. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-seven individuals (53.1% reported having already used alcohol. Of these, 14 individuals showed problematic alcohol use (5.8% . There was no association between lifetime use of alcohol and anxiety symptoms, but mean SCARED scores in individuals with problematic alcohol use was higher if compared to those without problematic use, even after adjustment for age and gender (29.9±8.5 vs. 23.7±11.8, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitation of a cross-sectional design, our study suggests that anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use early in life.

  11. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Michele M; Wiseman, Pamela

    2002-06-01

    Evidence for alternative treatments for depression, anxiety, and insomnia are reviewed in this article. Treatment of depression with St. John's wort, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine, dehydroepiandosterone, folate, exercise, acupuncture, and meditation are examined. Evidence for the efficacy of kava kava, exercise, relaxation therapies, and acupuncture in treatment anxiety is reviewed. The use of valerian, melatonin, chamomile, passionflower, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapies (i.e., sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, and sleep hygiene) for insomnia is discussed.

  12. NEUROBIOLOGICAL MODULATORS OF ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Mohale Deepak S.; Tripathi Alok S.; Wadhwani Paresh J.; Shrirao Abhijit V.; Chandewar Anil V.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety can be a core symptom of various mental/ behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic disorder, adaptive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social withdrawal disorder, and various phobias. The neuroanatomic circuits that support fear and anxiety behavior are modulated by a variety of neurochemicals, these include the peptidergic neurotransmitters, Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and substance P, the ...

  13. The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, P J; Lilienfeld, S O; Ellis, M; Loney, B; Silverthorn, P

    1999-10-01

    Although several theoretical models posit that low levels of anxiety are a risk factor for psychopathy and antisocial behavior, a number of studies have reported elevated levels of anxiety among antisocial individuals. Nevertheless, most investigators in this literature have not distinguished between fearfulness and trait anxiety or attempted to separate the antisocial lifestyle dimension from the callous and unemotional dimension of psychopathy. In a study of clinically referred children (N = 143), we found that (a) measures of trait anxiety and fearlessness (low fearfulness) exhibited low correlations; (b) conduct problems tended to be positively correlated with trait anxiety, whereas callous and unemotional traits tended to be negatively correlated with trait anxiety; and (c) controlling statistically for the effects of one dimension increased the divergent correlations of the other dimension with both trait anxiety and fearful inhibition. These findings bear potentially important implications for the diagnosis and etiology of psychopathy and antisocial behavior and suggest that distinctions between trait anxiety and fearful inhibition, as well as between the two dimensions of psychopathy, may help to clarify longstanding confusion in this literature.

  14. Math Anxiety And Metacognition in Mathematics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Shanna Lin

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores the connections among metacognition, math ability, and math anxiety, predominantly within an educational context. An ultimate goal is to improve student success in math by first addressing student misconceptions of self-ability that drive study habits.To inform later discussions of these connections, I first provide supporting groundwork research for each of these cognitive functions separately in Chapters 1-3. In Chapter 1, background information on math cognitio...

  15. Psychiatric comorbidities among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders: a community study

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    Estácio Amaro da Silva Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in a community sample of adolescents, the presence of comorbidities in different anxiety disorders. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, initially composed of 2,457 adolescents, aged between 10-17 years old, from public schools of the area covered by the Basic Health Unit of a university hospital. We applied the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED to assess for anxiety disorders. Then, 138 positive cases in the screening were assessed for mental disorders through the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Results Patients with anxiety disorders had more association with other anxiety disorders, as well as depression, and enuresis. The most common comorbidity described in our study was between generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 4.21, 95% CI 1.88, 9.58. Significant association was observed between other disorders such as enuresis and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 3.81, 95% CI 1.16, 12.49, as well as depression and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.52, 7.61. Conclusion Our study showed a relevant presence of comorbidities adolescents with anxiety disorders, selected from a community sample, especially regarding other anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  16. Cognitive bias modification of interpretation in children with social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, Faith; Apetroaia, Adela; Clarke, Kiri; Creswell, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Negative (or a lack of positive) interpretation of ambiguous social situations has been hypothesised to maintain social anxiety disorder in children, yet there is currently limited evidence to support this. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretation (CBM-I) provides a means to explore the causal influence of interpretation bias on social anxiety disorder, and has been associated with a reduction in social anxiety symptoms in adults. Seven to twelve year old children with a diagnosis of soc...

  17. Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21

    OpenAIRE

    Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Tanner,Barry Allen; Arfken,Cynthia Lee

    2012-01-01

    To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years) comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The co...

  18. Measuring Adult Learners' Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivational Factors, and Achievement Expectations: A Comparative Study between Chinese as a Second-Language Students and English as a Second-Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on interpreting the impacts of foreign language anxiety and individual characteristics on the achievement expectations of Chinese second-language learners and English second-language students at the university level. Four research questions are examined through quantitative design. In relation to methodology, this study…

  19. Validity study of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Portuguese version by the Rasch Rating Scale model

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    Sónia Quintão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to conduct a validation study of the Portuguese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and then compare it with the most used scales of anxiety in Portugal. The sample consisted of 1,160 adults (427 men and 733 women, aged 18-82 years old (M=33.39; SD=11.85. Instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. It was found that Beck Anxiety Inventory's system of four categories, the data-model fit, and people reliability were adequate. The measure can be considered as unidimensional. Gender and age-related differences were not a threat to the validity. BAI correlated significantly with other anxiety measures. In conclusion, BAI shows good psychometric quality.

  20. Pathways to social anxiety: the role of reinforcement sensitivities and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Elodie J; Staiger, Petra K; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Smillie, Luke D

    2014-12-30

    Past research has demonstrated a strong relationship between threat sensitivity and social anxiety; however, the relationship between reward sensitivity and social anxiety is less clear. Further, the role that emotion regulation (ER) may play in the expression of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is rarely considered. The current study tested whether two emotion regulation strategies (emotional suppression and cognitive reappraisal) mediated associations between threat sensitivity and reward sensitivity and social anxiety in a community sample (402 adults, 78% female; Mage=32.49, S.D.age=11.53). Path analyses indicated that low reappraisal mediated the relationship between high threat sensitivity and high social anxiety; and both low reappraisal and high suppression mediated the relationship between low reward sensitivity and high social anxiety. These results highlight the potential role that emotion regulation plays in the relationship between trait motivation and social anxiety.

  1. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered cognitive behavior therapy compared with befriending for treating depression and anxiety in older adults with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Colleen Doyle,1 David Dunt,2 David Ames,3 Marcia Fearn,3 Emily (Chuanmei You,1 Sunil Bhar41Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Centre for Health Policy, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3National Ageing Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Department of Psychological Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, AustraliaBackground: COPD is an umbrella term to describe chronic lung diseases that cause limitations in lung airflow, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of depression and anxiety in people with COPD is high, although these comorbidities are often undiagnosed, untreated, or undertreated. There is a need to identify efficacious treatments for depression and anxiety in people with COPD. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for the treatment of anxiety and depression has a strong evidence base. There has been some success delivering this treatment over the telephone in limited studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of both telephone-administered CBT and befriending on outcomes for patients with diagnosed COPD who have at least mild levels of depression and/or anxiety.Methods: The protocol described in this paper is of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing eight sessions of telephone CBT to an active social control, referred to as befriending. Primary outcome measures will include depression and anxiety symptoms, and secondary outcome measures will include quality of life, self-efficacy, and COPD symptom severity. Participants’ satisfaction with the intervention and therapeutic alliance will also be assessed. Measures will be taken pre- and postdelivery of the intervention and again at 8 weeks following the intervention.Conclusion: People with COPD often have limitations to their mobility because of their breathlessness. They are often already attending many medical appointments and could be reluctant to attend for

  2. Early stress evokes temporally distinct consequences on the hippocampal transcriptome, anxiety and cognitive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Deepika; Bhattacharya, Amrita; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2014-02-01

    The early stress of maternal separation (ES) exerts long-lasting effects on cognition and anxiety. Recent evidence indicates enhanced hippocampus-dependent spatial learning in young adult ES animals, which shifts towards a decline in long-term memory in middle-aged life. Further, we find that ES animals exhibit enhanced anxiety in young adulthood that does not persist into middle-aged life. Here, we demonstrate unique, predominantly non-overlapping, hippocampal transcriptomes in young adult and middle-aged ES animals that accompany the temporally-specific behavioural consequences. Strikingly, the extent of gene dysregulation in middle-aged ES animals was substantially higher than in young adulthood. Functional analysis revealed distinct biological processes enriched at the two ages, highlighting the temporal shift in ES-evoked gene regulation. Our results suggest that ES history interacts with aging to exacerbate age-associated transcriptional changes and cognitive decline. qPCR profiling of histone deacetylases (Hdacs) and histone methyltransferases (HMTs) revealed an age-dependent, opposing regulation with decreased expression noted in young adult ES animals (Hdac 2, 7, 8, 9 and Suv39h1) and enhanced levels in middle-aged life (Hdac 2, 6, 8 and Suv39h1). While altered expression of histone modifying enzymes did not translate into global histone acetylation or methylation changes, we noted differential enrichment of histone acetylation and methylation modifications at the promoters of multiple genes regulated in the hippocampi of young adult and middle-aged ES animals. Our results highlight the differential molecular and behavioural consequences of ES across a life-span, and suggest a possible role for epigenetic mechanisms in contributing to the temporally-specific transcriptional changes following ES.

  3. Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, John C.

    2002-01-01

    expressions) for accessing and modifying shared structures, and for explicit allocation and deallocation of storage. Assertions are extended by introducing a "separating conjunction" that asserts that its sub-formulas hold for disjoint parts of the heap, and a closely related "separating implication". Coupled......, dynamically allocated arrays, and recursive procedures. We will also discuss promising future directions....

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  5. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    Effects of hypnotherapy (HT) and self-hypnosis training on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 years were compared with group therapy (GT) and individual desensitization (SD) using scales of dental anxiety, dental beliefs, and fear of a next dentist (after specialist treatment). All...

  6. The Relationship between Teacher and Peer Support and English-Language Learners' Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shufen; Eslami, Zohreh; Hu, Rou-Jui Sophia

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to shed light on the relationship between support (from teachers and peers) and foreign-language learners' anxiety. A total of 158 adult Taiwanese English-language learners completed three questionnaires: a background questionnaire, the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale, and the Classroom Life Measure. The results showed…

  7. The Effects of Young EFL Learners' Perceptions of Tests on Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2012-01-01

    Studies conducted so far have mainly focused on the relationships between perceptions of tests and test anxiety among adult foreign language learners, while there is a lack of research focusing on young learners on the above-mentioned issue. Thus, this study aims to examine the relationship between test anxiety among young learners who study…

  8. Effective Strategies for Dealing with Test Anxiety. Teacher to Teacher Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa

    Test anxiety is exceedingly common among learners in adult basic education. Any one or more of the following can cause individuals to experience test anxiety: learned behavior resulting from the expectations of parents, teachers, or significant others; associations that students have built between grades or test performance and personal worth;…

  9. Adolescent Subthreshold-Depression and Anxiety: Psychopathology, Functional Impairment and Increased Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Judit; Miklosi, Monika; Kereszteny, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering…

  10. Antipsychotic drugs a last resort for these 5 conditions (ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia and PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and described in more detail here. Anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)—an excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations—affects about 6.8 million adults in the U.S., according to the National Institute of Mental Health. Twice as many women as men suffer from the condition. People with ...

  11. Evidence for the Discriminant Validity of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale From Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Krieg, Alexander; Becker, Theresa M; Kerns, John G

    2016-10-01

    Social anhedonia and social anxiety are two constructs with similar behaviors including avoidance of and withdrawal from social situations. In three studies, the current research aimed to test whether social anhedonia could be discriminated from social anxiety using the most common measure of social anhedonia, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS). In Study 1, an item-level factor analysis of the RSAS found two factors: Social Apathy/Aversion and Social Withdrawal. In Study 2, this two-factor structure was confirmed in a separate sample. In Study 3, a model with social anhedonia and anxiety scale scores loading on separate factors fit better than a model with social anhedonia and anxiety loading on a single factor. Social anhedonia and anxiety displayed differential associations with negative schizotypy and emotion processing. Findings suggest that the RSAS is successful in measuring social anhedonia distinct from social anxiety.

  12. GABAergic control of critical developmental periods for anxiety- and depression-related behavior in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Shen

    Full Text Available Vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders is thought to have origins in early life and is increasingly recognized to involve deficits in GABAergic neurotransmission. Mice that were rendered heterozygous for the γ2 subunit gene of GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs show behavioral, cognitive, neuroendocrine and pharmacologic features expected of a mouse model of melancholic anxious depression, including reduced survival of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Here we embarked on elucidating the developmental substrate underlying this phenotype, focusing on the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test as relevant behavioral paradigms. In a first series of experiments using hemizygous tamoxifen-induced genetic inactivation of a floxed γ2 genomic locus we show that reducing the gene dosage at postnatal days (P13/14 but not P27/28 results in altered behavior in both of these tests in adulthood, reminiscent of the anxious-depressive phenotype previously described for global heterozygous mice. However, in contrast to global heterozygous mice, the behavioral changes induced by γ2 subunit knockdown at P13/14 occurred without changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, indicating that altered neurogenesis is not an absolute prerequisite for anxiety- and depression-related behavior in this model. In a separate series of experiments using a pharmacological approach, acute but transient potentiation of GABA(ARs with diazepam uncovered distinct developmental vulnerabilities for altered behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test, respectively. Specifically, diazepam given during P10-16 but not during later weeks resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, while diazepam administered during P29-35 but not earlier nor later resulted in increased immobility behavior in adulthood. We conclude that anxiety-like behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and behavioral despair-like immobility in the Forced Swim Test are controlled by separate

  13. Modification of female and male social behaviors in estrogen receptor beta knockout mice by neonatal maternal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumeko C Tsuda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal separation (MS is an animal model mimicking the effects of early life stress on the development of emotional and social behaviors. Recent studies revealed that MS stress increased social anxiety levels in female mice and reduced peri-pubertal aggression in male mice. Estrogen receptor (ER β plays a pivotal role in the regulation of stress responses and anxiety-related and social behaviors. Behavioral studies using ERβ knockout (βERKO mice reported increased social investigation and decreased social anxiety in βERKO females, and elevated aggression levels in βERKO males compared to wild-type (WT mice. In the present study, using βERKO and WT mice, we examined whether ERβ contributes to MS effects on anxiety and social behaviors. βERKO and WT mice were separated from their dam daily (4 h from postnatal day 1 to 14 and control groups were left undisturbed. First, MS and ERβ gene deletion individually increased anxiety-related behaviors in the open field test, but only in female mice. Anxiety levels were not further modified in βERKO female mice subjected to MS stress. Second, βERKO female mice showed higher levels of social investigation compared with WT in the social investigation test and long-term social preference test. However, MS greatly reduced social investigation duration and elevated number of stretched approaches in WT and βERKO females in the social investigation test, suggesting elevated levels of social anxiety in both genotypes. Third, peri-pubertal and adult βERKO male mice were more aggressive than WT mice as indicated by heightened aggression duration. On the other hand, MS significantly decreased aggression duration in both genotypes, but only in peri-pubertal male mice. Altogether, these results suggest that βERKO mice are sensitive to the adverse effects of MS stress on subsequent female and male social behaviors, which could then have overrode the ERβ effects on female social anxiety and male aggression.

  14. Postanesthesia care unit visitation decreases family member anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amy J; Deselms, JoAnn; Ruyle, Shelley; Morrissey-Lucas, Marcella; Kollar, Suzie; Cannon, Shelly; Schick, Lois

    2012-02-01

    Despite advocacy by professional nursing organizations, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the response of family members to a visit with an adult patient during a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Therefore, the purpose of this RCT was to evaluate the impact of a brief PACU visitation on the anxiety of family members. The study was conducted in a phase I PACU of a large community-based hospital. Subjects were designated adult family members or significant others of an adult PACU patient who had undergone general anesthesia. A pretest-posttest RCT design was used. The dependent variable was the change in anxiety scores of the visitor after seeing his or her family member in the PACU. Student t test (unpaired, two tailed) was used to determine if changes in anxiety scores (posttest score-pretest score) were different for the PACU visit and no visit groups. A total of 45 participants were studied over a 3-month period, with N=24 randomly assigned to a PACU visit and N=21 assigned to usual care (no PACU visit). Participants in the PACU visit group had a statistically significant (P=.0001) decrease in anxiety after the visitation period (-4.11±6.4); participants in the usual care group (no PACU visit) had an increase in anxiety (+4.47±6.6). The results from this study support the value and importance of PACU visitation for family members.

  15. Childhood Language Disorder and Social Anxiety in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, E B; Bao, Lin; Beitchman, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Language disorder is associated with anxiety and with social problems in childhood and adolescence. However, the relation between language disorder and adult social anxiety is not well known. This study examines social anxiety in early adulthood in a 26-year prospective longitudinal study following individuals identified with a communication disorder at age 5 and a control group. Social anxiety diagnoses and subthreshold symptoms were examined at ages 19, 25, and 31 using a structured diagnostic interview; social anxiety symptoms related to social interaction and social performance were also assessed dimensionally at age 31. Multiple imputation was used to address attrition. Compared to controls, participants with childhood language disorder had higher rates of subthreshold social phobia at ages 19 and 25 and endorsed higher levels of social interaction anxiety symptoms at age 31, with particular difficulty talking to others and asserting their perspectives. Childhood language disorder is a specific risk factor for a circumscribed set of social anxiety symptoms in adulthood, which are likely associated with communication challenges.

  16. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E

    2015-12-01

    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p Roma men and women exhibit high levels of shame and anxiety. Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  17. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  18. Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias KidsHealth > For Parents > Anxiety, Fears, ... unsettling experiences and challenging situations of life. Many Anxieties and Fears Are Normal Anxiety is defined as " ...

  19. Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eWu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA, a new measure for assessing math anxiety in 2nd and 3rd graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II. Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were significantly correlated with scores on the Math Reasoning subtest, which involves more complex verbal problem solving, but not with the Numerical Operations subtest which assesses basic computation skills. Our results suggest that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. Our results further suggest that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement in young children.

  20. Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure for assessing math anxiety in second and third graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II). Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were strongly correlated with Mathematical Reasoning scores, which involves more complex verbal problem solving. SEMA scores were weakly correlated with Numerical Operations which assesses basic computation skills, suggesting that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. We also found that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement

  1. Statistics Anxiety, State Anxiety during an Examination, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. Aims: The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical…

  2. Social anxiety and training in neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C

    1998-12-01

    The Liebowitz Social Phobia Scale measured the effect of training on social anxiety responses of 28 adults prior to and following a 21-day residential training, and at 6 mo. follow-up. Significant reductions posttraining and at follow-up were evident in the mean self-reported global scale scores on fear and avoidance behavior in social situations. The item scores, aggregated to reflect the situational domains of formal and informal speaking, being observed by others, and assertion, showed significant and continuing reduction from posttraining through follow-up. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may be associated with reduced responses to social anxiety, but as there was no formal control group, pretest scores from another study were used. Interpretation is limited.

  3. Children’s Foreign Language Anxiety Scale: Preliminary Tests of Reliability and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Selami; Harputlu, Leyla; Güzel, Serhat; Uştuk, Özgehan; Savran Çelik, Şeyda; Genç, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety (FLA), which constitutes a serious problem in the foreign language learning process, has been mainly seen as a research issue regarding adult language learners, while it has been overlooked in children. This is because there is a lack of appropriate tools to measure FLA among children, whereas there are many studies on the scales that aim to measure anxiety levels among adult learners. Thus, the current study aims to conduct the preliminary tests of reliability and va...

  4. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  5. Neonatal administration of fluoxetine did not alter the anxiety indicators, but decreased the locomotor activity in adult rats in the elevated plus-maze Administração neonatal de fluoxetina não alterou os indicadores de ansiedade, mas diminuiu a atividade locomotora em ratos adultos no labirinto elevado em cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the anxiety and locomotor activity (LA in 52 Wistar adult male rats, being 26 treated with fluoxetine (10 mg/Kg - sc in the neonatal period. These same rats received foot shock (FS (1.6-mA - 2-s in the 90th day. The anxiety and LA were appraised by plus-maze. The time spent in the open arms was used as anxiety index and the LA was measured by number of entries in closed arms (NECA and the total of entries (TE. T-test was used with pO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ansiedade e a atividade locomotora (AL em 52 ratos Wistar adultos machos, sendo 26 tratados no período neonatal com fluoxetina (10 mg/Kg - sc e no 90º dia, receberam estímulos elétricos nas patas (1,6-mA-2-s. A ansiedade e a AL foram avaliadas por meio do labirinto elevado em cruz. O tempo de permanência dos animais nos braços abertos (BA foi utilizado como índice de ansiedade e a AL medida pelo número de entradas nos braços fechados (NEBF e pelo total de entradas (TE nos BA e BF. O teste t foi utilizado, com (p<0,05 e os dados apresentados em média±erro padrão. Os animais tratados reduziram o NEBF (2,35±0,33 e o TE (3,96±0,61 comparados a seus controles (4,65±0,52 e (6,96±0,94. A administração neonatal de fluoxetina não alterou a ansiedade, mas diminuiu a AL dos animais que receberam EE.

  6. Risco de suicídio em jovens com transtornos de ansiedade: estudo de base populacional Riesgo de suicidio en jóvenes con trastornos de ansiedad: estudio de base poblacional Suicide risk in young adults with anxiety disorders: population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Ederson da Silva Rodrigues

    2012-04-01

    importancia de mayor atención al riesgo de suicidio también en pacientes con trastornos de ansiedad.This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the presence of anxiety disorders and suicide risk in young adults. In a cross-sectional population-based design young adults answered a questionnaire about sociodemographic, behavioral and health characteristics. The measure of psychological well-being was made by Faces Scale of Andrews while the substances use evaluation was performed according to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0 evaluated anxiety disorders and suicide risk. Among the 1.621 young adults interviewed, 20.9% had some anxiety disorders and 8.6% suicide risk. After multivariate analysis, the presence of any anxiety disorder was significantly associated with suicide risk (PR 6.10 95% CI 3.95 to 9.43. Thus, it is highlighted the importance of greater attention to suicide risk in those patients with anxiety disorders.

  7. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), but not the Defence Mechanism Test (DMTm), separates schizophrenics and normal controls in a factorial cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, S A

    1998-06-01

    Ten schizophrenic patients and ten healthy control subjects matched with respect to sex, age and education were tested by a psychological test battery including WAIS, WCST, FAS and a modified version of the tachistoscopic Defence Mechanism Test (DMTm). In a Q-factor analysis two factors were derived in the analysis of DMTm test scores. The distribution of cases among these factors was wholly at random. On the other hand, when analysing WAIS scores, five factors were derived and schizophrenic cases as well as control subjects were almost unequivocally clustered by different factors. It is argued that also if an unequivocal categorisation of cases had been achieved in the analysis of DMTm data, such a finding might well have been interpreted as an effect of anomalies in cerebral structures assumed to be of critical importance in the filtering of signals in the stream of visual perception. The existence of such anomalies in schizophrenics is now well established by neuroimaging as well as postmortem studies, and findings are also well in accordance with phenomenological and physiological data. The failure of DMTm to separate schizophrenic and control subjects does thus make the second and important step in a discussion on validity entirely superfluous, namely whether signs recorded really measure what they are assumed to measure, in this case defence mechanisms in a psychoanalytic sense.

  8. Discriminant validity of constructs derived from the self-regulative model for evaluation anxiety for predicting clinical manifestations of test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Frank; Wendt, Julia; Hamm, Alfons O

    2015-10-01

    Test anxiety is a highly prevalent and impairing syndrome. However, research on clinically relevant manifestations of test anxiety and especially on effective treatment components is still very sparse. In the present study we examined the predictive validity of constructs derived from the self-regulative model for evaluation anxiety proposed by Zeidner and Matthews (2007) for discriminating clinical and non-clinical levels of test anxiety. We compared self-report data from 47 clinically test anxious patients with those from 41 healthy university students. Results showed that learning goals, self-concept of abilities, self-incrimination, elaboration and perfectionism were the constructs that independently separated clinical from non-clinical levels of test anxiety, thus providing the strongest discriminant validity even when controlling for an effect of the global severity of mental health problems. These constructs spread across all three domains proposed in the model, thus providing important implications for possible targets of interventions to reduce clinical levels of test anxiety.

  9. Factors That Explains Student Anxiety toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; Moreno-García, Elena; Santana-Villegas, Josefina del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to test whether anxiety toward mathematics is made up of a five-factor structure: anxiety toward evaluation, anxiety toward temporality, anxiety toward understanding of mathematical problems, anxiety toward numbers and operations, and anxiety toward mathematical situations in real life. Our study sample was formed of…

  10. Identification of a pheromone that increases anxiety in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Tamogami, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2014-12-30

    Chemical communication plays an important role in the social lives of various mammalian species. Some of these chemicals are called pheromones. Rats release a specific odor into the air when stressed. This stress-related odor increases the anxiety levels of other rats; therefore, it is possible that the anxiety-causing molecules are present in the stress-related odorants. Here, we have tried to identify the responsible molecules by using the acoustic startle reflex as a bioassay system to detect anxiogenic activity. After successive fractionation of the stress-related odor, we detected 4-methylpentanal and hexanal in the final fraction that still possessed anxiogenic properties. Using synthetic molecules, we found that minute amounts of the binary mixture, but not either molecule separately, increased anxiety in rats. Furthermore, we determined that the mixture increased a specific type of anxiety and evoked anxiety-related behavioral responses in an experimental model that was different from the acoustic startle reflex. Analyses of neural mechanisms proposed that the neural circuit related to anxiety was only activated when the two molecules were simultaneously perceived by two olfactory systems. We concluded that the mixture is a pheromone that increases anxiety in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying a rat pheromone. Our results could aid further research on rat pheromones, which would enhance our understanding of chemical communication in mammals.

  11. Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health Problems and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.

  12. The Separation Experiences of Foster Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sally E.

    Reactions of foster children to separation from their families of origin were identified from case materials of 36 Canadian protective service workers. A broad range of reactions was apparent. Discussion focuses on anxiety, regression, physiological symptoms, denial of feelings, persistent attachment to rejecting or unreliable parents, rebellious…

  13. Anxiety and Charles Bonnet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geueke, Anna; Morley, Michael G.; Morley, Katharine; Lorch, Alice; Jackson, MaryLou; Lambrou, Angeliki; Wenberg, June; Oteng-Amoako, Afua

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Some persons with Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) suffer significant anxiety because of their visual hallucinations, while others do not. The aim of the study presented here was to compare levels of anxiety in persons with low vision with and without CBS. Methods: This retrospective study compared the level of anxiety in 31 persons…

  14. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  15. Anxiety in foreign language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2012-01-01

    Among the affective emotional variables in foreign language learning and teaching, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for affective language learning. In this paper, the author comes up with some solutions in dealing with different types of anxiety. The author believes the facilitative anxiety may benefit a lot in language teaching and learning.

  16. Math Anxiety: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Nancy E.

    While much progress has been made in treating math anxiety, little is yet known about its causes, correlates or effects. The present study examined factors related to the prevalence and intensity of math anxiety in college students and the extent to which math anxiety is predictive of math course grades. The 655 subjects were obtained from two…

  17. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  18. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  19. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated…

  20. Adapting Metacognitive Therapy to Children with Generalised Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Normann, Nicoline; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    -c) with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and create suggestions for an adapted manual. The adaptation was based on the structure and techniques used in MCT for adults with GAD. However, the developmental limitations of children were taken into account. For instance, therapy was aided with worksheets, practical...