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Sample records for adult rat brain

  1. Effects of NOS inhibitor on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury in the adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLi-Sha; XuJiang-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury (DBI) in the adult rat brain. Methods Adult male SD rats were subjected to diffuse brain injury (DBI) model. By using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we compared the proliferation rate of

  2. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert;

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain...

  3. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain. PMID:24217015

  4. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  5. Low-intensity treadmill exercise and/or bright light promote neurogenesis in adult rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Jin Kwon; Jeongsook Park; So Yun Park; Kwang Seop Song; Sun Tae Jung; So Bong Jung; Ik Ryeul Park; Wan Sung Choi; Sun Ok Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region responsible for learning and memory functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise and bright light exposure on neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in adult rat hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, exercise, light, or exercise + light groups (n = 9 per group). The rats in the exercise group were subjected to treadmill exercise (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, over a 4-week period), the light group rats were irradiated (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, 10 000 lx, over a 4-week period), the exercise + light group rats were subjected to treadmill exercise in combination with bright light exposure, and the control group rats remained sedentary over a 4-week period. Compared with the control group, there was a significant increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats in the exercise, light, and exercise + light groups. Moreover, the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly higher in the exercise group and light group than that in the control group. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression between the control group and exercise + light group. These results indicate that low-intensity treadmill exercise (first 5 minutes at a speed of 2 m/min, second 5 minutes at a speed of 5 m/min, and the last 20 minutes at a speed of 8 m/min) or bright-light exposure therapy induces positive biochemical changes in the brain. In view of these findings, we propose that moderate exercise or exposure to sunlight during childhood can be beneficial for neural development.

  6. Expression of nestin by neural cells in the adult rat and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Neurons and glial cells in the developing brain arise from neural progenitor cells (NPCs. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, is thought to be expressed exclusively by NPCs in the normal brain, and is replaced by the expression of proteins specific for neurons or glia in differentiated cells. Nestin expressing NPCs are found in the adult brain in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus. While significant attention has been paid to studying NPCs in the SVZ and SGZ in the adult brain, relatively little attention has been paid to determining whether nestin-expressing neural cells (NECs exist outside of the SVZ and SGZ. We therefore stained sections immunocytochemically from the adult rat and human brain for NECs, observed four distinct classes of these cells, and present here the first comprehensive report on these cells. Class I cells are among the smallest neural cells in the brain and are widely distributed. Class II cells are located in the walls of the aqueduct and third ventricle. Class IV cells are found throughout the forebrain and typically reside immediately adjacent to a neuron. Class III cells are observed only in the basal forebrain and closely related areas such as the hippocampus and corpus striatum. Class III cells resemble neurons structurally and co-express markers associated exclusively with neurons. Cell proliferation experiments demonstrate that Class III cells are not recently born. Instead, these cells appear to be mature neurons in the adult brain that express nestin. Neurons that express nestin are not supposed to exist in the brain at any stage of development. That these unique neurons are found only in brain regions involved in higher order cognitive function suggests that they may be remodeling their cytoskeleton in supporting the neural plasticity required for these functions.

  7. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  8. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  9. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Ch. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: meinecke@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 {mu}m thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 {mu}m) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques.

  10. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 μm thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 μm) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... wireless devices Head injuries Smoking Hormone therapy SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ...

  12. New Experimental Model of Brain Tumors in Brains of Adult Immunocompetent Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Baklaushev, Vladimir P.; Kavsan, Vadym M.; Balynska, Olena V; Yusubalieva, Gaukhar M.; Abakumov, Maxim A.; Chekhonin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Xenograft models, namely heterotransplantation of human cancer cells or tumor biopsies into immunodeficient rodents are the major preclinical approach for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. However, in these models the animals must be used only after the severe systemic immune suppression in order to ensure graft survival. Thus, additional new human brain tumor models without immune suppression of the recipient rodent may be required. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory o...

  13. Environmental Circadian Disruption Worsens Neurologic Impairment and Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpeng; Ma, Shanshan; Guo, Dewei; Cheng, Tian; Li, Hongwei; Tian, Yi; Li, Jianbin; Guan, Fangxia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Circadian rhythms modulate many physiologic processes and behaviors. Therefore, their disruption causes a variety of potential adverse effects in humans and animals. Circadian disruption induced by constant light exposure has been discovered to produce pathophysiologic consequences after brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to more severe impairment and disruption of neurophysiologic processes are not well understood. Here, we evaluated the effect of constant light exposure on the neurobehavioral impairment and survival of neurons in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a weight-drop model of TBI and then exposed to either a standard 12-/12-h light/dark cycle or a constant 24-h light/light cycle for 14 days. Our results showed that 14 days of constant light exposure after TBI significantly worsened the sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which were associated with decreased body weight, impaired water and food intake, increased cortical lesion volume, and decreased neuronal survival. Furthermore, environmental circadian disruption inhibited cell proliferation and newborn cell survival and decreased immature cell production in rats subjected to the TBI model. We conclude that circadian disruption induced by constant light exposure worsens histologic and neurobehavioral impairment and inhibits neurogenesis in adult TBI rats. Our novel findings suggest that light exposure should be decreased and circadian rhythm reestablished in hospitalized TBI patients and that drugs and strategies that maintain circadian rhythm would offer a novel therapeutic option. PMID:26886755

  14. A comparison of different models with motor dysfunction after traumatic brain injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Pu, Hongjian; Liu, Yingchao; Wang, Zengtao; Wang, Bomin; Xu, Wendong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the model that could produce reproducible and persistent motor weakness and define the accurate tasks and testing parameters for longitudinal assessment of neurological deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We compared the effects of two rat models that suffered different controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, as well as extensive motor cortex resection model, on behavior recovery and brain morphology. Behavioral tests including the skilled reaching task, limb-use asymmetry test and the grasping test were employed to evaluate neurofunctional recovery from pre- to 12 weeks after the injury. The results demonstrated that all the rats in four groups showed spontaneous functional improvement with the past of time after surgery, especially in rats with mild and moderate CCI injury. At the end of the experiment, the animals' performance reached preoperative base lines on reaching task and limb-use asymmetry test in mild and moderate groups, while severe motor weakness could be observed in rats with severe CCI injury, as well as rats with extended motor cortex resection. Overall, the results of this study indicated that both models with severe CCI injury and extended resection of the motor cortex developed reproducible and long-lasting motor weakness, comparable in severity and duration and identified skilled reaching task, as well as limb-use asymmetry test, as sensitive assessments for slight neurological deficits after brain injury. This will help to provide the basis for further research of the processes after the TBI and development of novel therapies. PMID:25385190

  15. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  16. Microarray analysis of thyroid hormone-induced changes in mRNA expression in the adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Mreyoud, Amjad; Fishman, Miriam; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2004-07-15

    To determine which genes in the adult rat brain are regulated by thyroid hormone (TH), we used microarrays to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on neuron-specific gene expression. Four-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were rendered hyperthyroid by intraperitoneal injection of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3, 15 microg/100 g body weight) for 10 consecutive days. To minimize interindividual variability, pooled cerebral tissue RNA from four-control and five-hyperthyroid rats was hybridized in duplicates to the Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) U34N rat neurobiology microarray, which contains probes for 1224 neural-specific genes. Changes in gene expression were considered significant only if they were observed in both pair-wise comparisons as well as by Northern blot analysis. Hyperthyroidism was associated with modest changes in the expression of only 11 genes. The expression of the phosphodiesterase Enpp2, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), growth hormone (GH), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase beta-subunit (Camk2b), neuron-specific protein PEP-19 (Pcp4), a sodium-dependent neurotransmitter, and the myelin-associated glycoprotein (S-MAG) was significantly increased. Three genes were suppressed by hyperthyroidism, including the activity and neurotransmitter-induced early genes-1 and -7 (ANIA-1 and ANIA-7) and the guanine nucleotide-binding protein one (Gnb1). The present study underscores the paucity of TH responsive genes in adult cerebral tissue. PMID:15234464

  17. Metabolism of plasma-derived B-methyl-heptadecanoic acid in adult, awake rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have determined the utilization of [1-14C]-3-methyl-heptadecanoic acid (BHM), a beta-methyl fatty acid analog considered unable to undergo beta-oxidation, by brain in awake, 3 month-old Fischer-344 rats. BMH purity, structure, and mass were verified by TLC, NMR, and EI-MS. The distribution of radioactivity between CO2, water-soluble metabolites, lipids, and proteins was measured in plasma and brain after an intravenous bolus administration. Plasma radioactivity decreased rapidly within 20 min after injection, whereas the proportion of plasma 14CO2 increased to represent 20% of plasma radioactivity from 10-20 min, 6% at 1 h, and less thereafter. Total brain radioactivity peaked at 45 min, and decreased by 50% at 4 h and by 70% at 48 h. The proportion of label in the lipid fraction initially declined very rapidly, representing only 15% of total brain radioactivity at 1 h with 70 and 15% in the water-soluble and protein fractions. However, by 4 h, the lipid, protein, and aqueous compartments contained 30, 25, and 45% of the brain label, respectively, and 50, 35, and 15% at 48 h. Amino acids comprised most of the water-soluble radioactivity, with the combined glutamate and glutamine pools containing 60-70% of the aqueous label from 5 min to 6 h. Therefore, in addition to being incorporated into brain lipids, significant oxidation of BMH occurred, labelling brain amino acids and proteins, such that the decrease in brain radioactivity primarily represents decreasing water-soluble radioactivity

  18. Expression of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein in the brain of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennet, N; Herden, C; Bubb, V J; Quinn, J P; Kipar, A

    2008-03-01

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a VIP-regulated gene, which is essential for brain development. A synthetic peptide (NAP) derived from the ADNP sequence is highly neuroprotective, therefore it has been hypothesised that ADNP has a similar role. ADNP contains classical transcription factor motifs and nuclear localisation domains, but it has also been reported to be secreted and to co-localise with microtubules, indicating that ADNP may have multiple functions. We investigated the pattern of ADNP expression by immunohistology in normal rat brain, in order to generate a framework for future studies examining changes in ADNP expression in response to noxious stimuli or in models of disease. We found widespread ADNP-like immunoreactivity in neurons throughout the rat brain, with the highest expression in the cerebellum, and strong expression in the thalamus, mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata. ADNP-like immunoreactivity was mainly observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, and fibre tracts were often strongly positive as well. In addition, positive neuronal nuclei were occasionally observed. ADNP-like immunoreactivity was lost in degenerating "dark" neurons, whereas it appeared to locate to the nucleus in some of the morphologically unaltered adjacent cells. Occasional astrocyte and microglial cells were also positive. We suggest that the widespread expression of ADNP may correlate with the wide-ranging protective effects of NAP, and that the cytoplasmic and axonal localisation of ADNP-like immunoreactivity suggests additional, non-transcriptional functions of ADNP. PMID:18072088

  19. Long-term upregulation of inflammation and suppression of cell proliferation in the brain of adult rats exposed to traumatic brain injury using the controlled cortical impact model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Acosta

    Full Text Available The long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI, specifically the detrimental effects of inflammation on the neurogenic niches, are not very well understood. In the present in vivo study, we examined the prolonged pathological outcomes of experimental TBI in different parts of the rat brain with special emphasis on inflammation and neurogenesis. Sixty days after moderate controlled cortical impact injury, adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were euthanized and brain tissues harvested. Antibodies against the activated microglial marker, OX6, the cell cycle-regulating protein marker, Ki67, and the immature neuronal marker, doublecortin, DCX, were used to estimate microglial activation, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation, respectively, in the subventricular zone (SVZ, subgranular zone (SGZ, striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle. Stereology-based analyses revealed significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle. In parallel, significant decrements in Ki67-positive proliferating cells in SVZ and SGZ, but only trends of reduced DCX-positive immature neuronal cells in SVZ and SGZ were detected relative to sham control group. These results indicate a progressive deterioration of the TBI brain over time characterized by elevated inflammation and suppressed neurogenesis. Therapeutic intervention at the chronic stage of TBI may confer abrogation of these deleterious cell death processes.

  20. Increased expression of neurotrophin 4 following focal cerebral ischemia in adult rat brain with treadmill exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Chung

    Full Text Available Neurotrophin 4 (NT-4 belongs to the family of neurotrophic factors, and it interacts with the tyrosine kinase B (trkB receptor. NT-4 has neuroprotective effects following cerebral ischemia. Its role might be similar to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, because both interact with trkB. Exercise also improves neural function by increasing neurotrophic factors. However, expression profiles of NT-4 in the brain during exercise are unknown. Here, we assessed the expressions of NT-4 and its receptor, trkB, following cerebral ischemia and hypothesized that exercise changes the expressions of NT-4 and trkB. Results showed that in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model, ischemia decreased NT-4 and trkB expression. Immunohistochemistry showed their immunoreactivities around the region of the ischemic area. Treadmill exercise changed the expression of NT-4, which increased in the contralateral hemisphere in rats with ischemic injury. TrkB also showed similar patterns to its neurotophins. The change in NT-4 suggested that exercise might have primed NT4 production so that further injury causes slightly greater increases in NT4 compared with non-exercise controls.

  1. The incidence of critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency is associated with severity of traumatic brain injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhao, Zilong; Chai, Yan; Luo, Lanlan; Jiang, Rongcai; Zhang, Jianning

    2014-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes deleterious critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency (CIRCI), leading to high mortality and morbidity. However, the incidence of CIRCI following different TBI severities is not fully defined. This study was designed to investigate mechanistically the effects of injury severity on corticosteroid response and the development of CIRCI in a rat model of experimentally controlled TBI. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sham, mild injury, moderate injury or severe injury groups. TBI was induced using a fluid percussion device at magnitudes of 1.2-1.4 atm (mild injury), 2.0-2.2 atm (moderate injury), and 3.2-3.5 atm (severe injury). We first assessed the effects of injury severity on the mortality and CIRCI occurrence using electrical stimulation test to assess corticosteroid response. We also investigated a series of pathological changes in the hypothalamus, especially in the paraventricular nuclei (PVN), among different injury group including: apoptosis detected by a TUNEL assay, blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability assessed by brain water content and Evans Blue extravasation into the cerebral parenchyma, and BBB integrity evaluated by CD31 and Claudin-5 expression and transmission electron microscopy. We made the following observations. First, 6.7% of mild-injured, 13.3% of moderate-injured, and 68.8% of severe-injured rats developed CIRCI, with a peak incidence on post-injury day 7. Second, TBI-induced CIRCI is closely correlated with injury severity. As the injury severity rises both the incidence of CIRCI and mortality surge; Third, increased level of injury severity reduces the expression of endothelial tight junction protein, aggravate BBB permeability and exacerbate the ensuing neural apoptosis in the PVN of hypothalamus. These findings indicate that increased severity of TBI aggravate the incidence of CIRCI by causing damage to tight junctions of vascular endothelial cells and increasing neuronal

  2. A Novel Rodent Model of Autism: Intraventricular Infusions of Propionic Acid Increase Locomotor Activity and Induce Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Discrete Regions of Adult Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick F. MacFabe; Karina Rodríguez-Capote; Jennifer E.  Franklin; Martin Kavaliers; Fred Possmayer; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp; Andrew E. Franklin

    2008-01-01

    Innate neuroinflammatory changes, increased oxidative stress and disorders of glutathione metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Propionic acid (PPA) is a dietary and gut bacterial short chain fatty acid which can produce brain and behavioral changes reminiscent of ASD following intraventricular infusion in rats. Adult Long-Evans rats were given intraventricular infusions of either PPA (500ug uL-1, 4µl anima-1) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) ...

  3. Migration of bone marrow progenitor cells in the adult brain of rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennie, Donnahue; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David S

    2016-04-26

    Neurogenesis takes place in the adult mammalian brain in three areas: Subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG); subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle; olfactory bulb. Different molecular markers can be used to characterize the cells involved in adult neurogenesis. It has been recently suggested that a population of bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells may migrate to the brain and differentiate into neuronal lineage. To explore this hypothesis, we injected recombinant SV40-derived vectors into the BM and followed the potential migration of the transduced cells. Long-term BM-directed gene transfer using recombinant SV40-derived vectors leads to expression of the genes delivered to the BM firstly in circulating cells, then after several months in mature neurons and microglial cells, and thus without central nervous system (CNS) lesion. Most of transgene-expressing cells expressed NeuN, a marker of mature neurons. Thus, BM-derived cells may function as progenitors of CNS cells in adult animals. The mechanism by which the cells from the BM come to be neurons remains to be determined. Although the observed gradual increase in transgene-expressing neurons over 16 mo suggests that the pathway involved differentiation of BM-resident cells into neurons, cell fusion as the principal route cannot be totally ruled out. Additional studies using similar viral vectors showed that BM-derived progenitor cells migrating in the CNS express markers of neuronal precursors or immature neurons. Transgene-positive cells were found in the subgranular zone of the DG of the hippocampus 16 mo after intramarrow injection of the vector. In addition to cells expressing markers of mature neurons, transgene-positive cells were also positive for nestin and doublecortin, molecules expressed by developing neuronal cells. These cells were actively proliferating, as shown by short term BrdU incorporation studies. Inducing seizures by using kainic acid increased the number of BM progenitor cells

  4. Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Histology and DNA Content of the Brain Cortex and Hypothalamus of Young and Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) arising from mobile phone. The present study investigates the effect of the daily exposure of adult and young rats to EMR for 1 hour (at a frequency of 900 MHz, a power density of 0.02 mW/cm2 and an average specific absorption rate of 1.165 W/kg) on the DNA content and tissue architecture of the cortex and hypothalamus of the rat brain. Both young and adult rats were sacrificed at two intervals, after 4 months of daily EMR exposure and after 1 month of stopping the exposure. The present results showed a significant increase in the DNA intensity of young and adult rats in both areas after 4 months of daily EMR exposure. However, decreased DNA content around the normal level was observed after one month of stopping the exposure. Light microscopic examination of irradiated rats revealed edema, vacuolation, necrosis and proliferated glial cells. Stopping EMR exposure showed mild amelioration in the structural damage of the cerebral cortex of young animals, however, most drastic changes still persisted in the other animals. In conclusion, these data may confirm the neurotoxic risks arising from the extensive use of mobile phones that may alter the brain histology and impair its function

  5. Neonatal domoic acid decreases in vivo binding of [11C]yohimbine to α2 adrenoceptors in adult rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Majken; Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Jakobsen, Steen;

    treated rats. microPET data revealed that DOM60 rats had a 40-47 % reduction in [11C]yohimbine binding in limbic and cortical brain regions relative to saline treated rats. We conclude that neonatal administration of DOM combined with the potential stress associated with behavioural testing results in a...... age 3-4 rats per group were injected with [11C]yohimbine, an α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist and scanned in a micro positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. DOM60 spent more time in the periphery during the open field test and less time struggling in the forced swim test compared to the saline...

  6. Influence of mild traumatic brain injury during pediatric stage on short-term memory and hippocampal apoptosis in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mi-Sook; Oh, Hyean-Ae; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of neurological deficit in the brain, which induces short- and long-term brain damage, cognitive impairment with/without structural alteration, motor deficits, emotional problems, and death both in children and adults. In the present study, we evaluated whether mild TBI in childhood causes persisting memory impairment until adulthood. Moreover, we investigated the influence of mild TBI on memory impairment in relation with hippocampal apoptosis....

  7. Restraint Stress-Induced Morphological Changes at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Petra eSántha; Szilvia eVeszelka; Zsófia eHoyk; Mária eMészáros; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Andrea E Tóth; Lóránd eKiss; András eKincses; Zita eOláh; György eSeprényi; Gabor eRakhely; András eDér; Magdolna ePákáski; Janos eKalman; Ágnes eKittel

    2016-01-01

    Stress is well-known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognized in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3, and 21 days) were investigated on the morphology of th...

  8. Sex differences in the effects of adolescent stress on adult brain inflammatory markers in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pyter, Leah M.; Kelly, Sean D.; Harrell, Constance S; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2013-01-01

    Both basic and clinical research indicates that females are more susceptible to stress-related affective disorders than males. One of the mechanisms by which stress induces depression is via inflammatory signaling in the brain. Stress during adolescence, in particular, can also disrupt the activation and continued development of both the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and –gonadal (HPG) axes, both of which modulate inflammatory pathways and brain regions involved in affective behavior. ...

  9. Differential treatment regimen-related effects of cannabinoids on D1 and D2 receptors in adolescent and adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Victoria S; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2010-12-01

    Animal studies suggest differential effects of cannabinoids on dopamine-related behaviours in adolescence and adulthood however few studies have investigated the underlying neurochemical effects of cannabinoids during adolescence. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid, HU210, on dopamine receptor density in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 35) and adult (PND 70) rats received a single dose of 100μg/kg HU210 or 25, 50 or 100μg/kg HU210 for 4 or 14 days. Dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) or D2 receptor (D2R) density was measured in the medial and lateral (CPUL) caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle (TU) and substantia nigra (D1R only) using in vitro autoradiography. D1R and D2R densities were 1.6-1.7- and 1.1-1.4-fold higher respectively in adolescent control rats compared to adults. In adult rats, D1R density was increased by 1.2- and 1.3-fold (pHU210 treatment. A significant overall effect of treatment (pHU210. In adolescents, an overall effect of treatment on D1R density after a single exposure to HU210 was seen (p=0.0026) but no changes in D1R or D2R densities were observed in other treatment groups. These results suggest that the adolescent rat brain does not display the same compensatory mechanisms activated in the adult brain following cannabinoid treatment. PMID:20673846

  10. Identification and culture of neural stem cells isolated from adult rat subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze proliferation and differentiation of glial fibrillary acid protein(GFAP)-and nestin-positive(GFAP+/nestin+)cells isolated from the subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury to determine whether GFAP+/nestin+ cells exhibit characteristics of neural stem cells.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 12 weeks and weighing 200-250 g,were randomly and evenly assigned to normal control group and model group.In the model group,a rat model of fluid percussion brain injury was es...

  11. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Daniel R.; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Watt, Michael J.; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI...

  12. Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel eDavies; Dawne eOlson; Danielle eMeyer; Jamie eScholl; Michael eWatt; Pasquale eManzerra; Kenneth eRenner; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mT...

  13. Does Neonatal Brain Ischemia Induce Schizophrenia-Like Behavior in Young Adult Rats?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejkalová, H.; Kaiser, M.; Klaschka, Jan; Šťastný, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2007), s. 815-823. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neonatal ischemia * schizophrenia * rat * prepulse inhibition Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  14. Age-dependent actions of dexamethasone on the development of focal hypoxic-ischemic brain in new-born and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The pharmacotherapy of hypoxic-ischemic (H-I) brain oedema is poorly characterized. Several clinical trials have shown that glucocorticoids exert a harmful effect in patients with cerebral ischemia, but others have described opposite results. The mechanism of H-I brain oedema and cell death is not fully elucidated yet. It is well-known that glucocorticoids have membrane stabilizing and antioxidants properties. These types of steroids may indirectly act on different enzymes playing role in H-I damage. The hypoxic brain oedema is associated with impaired water metabolism and brain water electrolyte contents change. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the neuroprotective effect of the dexamethasone on focal H-I cytotoxic and vasogenic brain oedema depends on its penetration into the brain tissue or is exerted by other mechanisms. We measured the effect of glucocorticoid dexamethasone, antiglucocorticoid mifepristone (RU 486) and their combination on focal H-I cytotoxic and vasogenic brain oedema in neonate and adult rats. We also studied different calcium-channel inhibitors influence on the survival of the H-I animals. Mifepristone alone had no effect however antagonized the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in ipsilateral hemisphere of 1-week old rats. Our work demonstrates that dexamethasone can penetrate into both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres of the one and two-weeks-old rats but not in 4 or 12-weeks-old animals. Thus, the results suggest that the site of protective action of dexamethasone is in the brain tissue and the penetration of it depends on the total development of blood-brain barrier.

  15. Regional variation in expression of acetylcholinesterase mRNA in adult rat brain analyzed by in situ hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, P; Rao, R; Koenigsberger, C; Brimijoin, S

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis of regional variation in expression of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7), steady-state levels of AChE activity and mRNA were examined. Relative AChE activity in Triton extracts from six areas of the rat brain varied as follows: cortex < cerebellum < medulla < pons-midbrain < thalamus < striatum. In contralateral samples from the same brains, AChE mRNA was assessed by Northern blotting with random-primed 32P-labeled cDNA. The regional abundance of...

  16. Neonatal brain infusion of quinolinic acid induces schizophrenia-like behaviour in adult rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejkalová, H.; Skuba, I.; Klaschka, Jan; Šťastný, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, Suppl. 1 (2005), s. 97-97. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /11./. 09.09.2005-12.09.2005, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA MZd NF7626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : schizophrenia * rats * behaviour * quinolinic acid Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  17. Bisphenol A Prevents the Synaptogenic Response to Testosterone in the Brain of Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leranth, Csaba; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; MacLusky, Neil J.; Hajszan, Tibor

    2007-01-01

    Exposure measurement data from several developed countries indicate that human beings are widely exposed to low levels of the synthetic xenoestrogen, bisphenol A. We reported previously that bisphenol A, even at doses below the reference safe daily limit for human exposure, recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, impairs the synaptogenic response to 17β-estradiol in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Recent experiments revealed that bisphenol A also interferes with andro...

  18. Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

  19. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  20. Systemic Effects of Fractionated, Whole-Brain Irradiation in Young Adult and Aging Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, M. E.; Paitsel, M.; Bourland, J. D.; Riddle, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Cranial irradiation is a critical and effective treatment for primary brain tumors and metastases. Unfortunately, most patients who are treated and survive for more than a few months develop neural and cognitive problems as the result of radiation-induced normal tissue injury. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these cognitive deficits remain largely unknown and there are no validated treatments to prevent or ameliorate them; thus, there is a significant and continuing need for preclin...

  1. Expression of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein in the brain of adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gennet, N.; Herden, C.; Bubb, V J; Quinn, J P; Kipar, A.

    2008-01-01

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a VIP-regulated gene, which is essential for brain development. A synthetic peptide (NAP) derived from the ADNP sequence is highly neuroprotective, therefore it has been hypothesised that ADNP has a similar role. ADNP contains classical transcription factor motifs and nuclear localisation domains, but it has also been reported to be secreted and to co-localise with microtubules, indicating that ADNP may have multiple...

  2. A Novel Rodent Model of Autism: Intraventricular Infusions of Propionic Acid Increase Locomotor Activity and Induce Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Discrete Regions of Adult Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick F. MacFabe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate neuroinflammatory changes, increased oxidative stress and disorders of glutathione metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Propionic acid (PPA is a dietary and gut bacterial short chain fatty acid which can produce brain and behavioral changes reminiscent of ASD following intraventricular infusion in rats. Adult Long-Evans rats were given intraventricular infusions of either PPA (500ug uL-1, 4µl anima-1 or phosphate buffered saline (PBS vehicle, twice daily for 7 days. Immediately following the second daily infusion, the locomotor activity of each rat was assessed in an automated open field (Versamax for 30 min. PPA-treated rats showed significant increases in locomotor activity compared to PBS vehicle controls. Following the last treatment day, specific brain regions were assessed for neuroinflammatory or oxidative stress markers. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed reactive astrogliosis (GFAP, activated microglia (CD68, Iba1 without apoptotic cell loss (Caspase 3 and NeuN in hippocampus and white matter (external capsule of PPA treated rats. Biomarkers of protein and lipid peroxidation, total glutathione (GSH as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione S-transferase (GST were examined in brain homogenates. Some brain regions of PPA treated animals (neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum showed increased lipid and protein oxidation accompanied by decreased total GSH in neocortex. Catalase activity was decreased in most brain regions of PPA treated animals suggestive of reduced antioxidant enzymatic activity. GPx and GR activity was relatively unaffected by PPA treatment while GST was increased perhaps indicating involvement of GSH in the removal of PPA or related catabolites. Impairments in GSH and catalase levels may render CNS cells more susceptible to oxidative stress

  3. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at − 80 °C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative

  4. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects outcome. Successful outcome after radiotherapy requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the selected target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance dose is not exceeded. For many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full prescription dose to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs, which is usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. This course will cover important concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation, and biologically effective dose (BED). Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, size and anatomical locations will be given

  5. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a wide variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects survival. In each case the intent of radiation therapy is to destroy the neoplasm without affecting normal tissues. However, for many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Successful outcome after radiation therapy of brain tumors usually requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance doses are not exceeded. For some tumors it may be impossible to satisfy all three criteria. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full dose of radiation to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs and are usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, sizes, and anatomic location will be given. For some tumors, protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. Several concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors will be discussed, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation and biologically effective dose (BED)

  6. Neonatal domoic acid decreases in vivo binding of [11C]yohimbine to α2 adrenoceptors in adult rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Majken; Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Jakobsen, Steen;

    forced swim test at day 50, 75 and 98, respectively. At ~120 days of age 3-4 rats per group were injected with [11C]yohimbine, an α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, and scanned in a Mediso micro positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, to measure α2 adrenoceptor binding. The volume of distribution (VT......-quantitative analysis. MicroPET images were analyzed using PMOD software and registered to an average Sprague-Dawley rat MRI brain atlas to acquire data in limbic and cortical regions of interest. Results: In behavioural testing DOM60, and to a lesser extent DOM20 rats, spent more time in the periphery during the open...... field test and less time struggling in the forced swim test compared to the saline treated rats. Analysis of the microPET data revealed that relative to saline treated rats, DOM60 rats had a 40-47 % reduction in [11C]yohimbine binding in the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate cortex and...

  7. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  8. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects outcome. Successful outcome after radiotherapy requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the selected target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance dose is not exceeded. For many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full prescription dose to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs, which is usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. This course will cover important concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation, and biologically effective dose (BED). Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, size and anatomical locations will be given. Note: I will incorporate examples of interesting, difficult and unusual cases from other practices as time permits, provided slides and descriptive materials are sent to me in advance of the course

  9. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  10. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel R; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L; Scholl, Jamie L; Watt, Michael J; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM), or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 h after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes. PMID:27147992

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals adolescent binge ethanol-induced brain structural integrity alterations in adult rats that correlate with behavioral dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Yaxley, Richard; Paniagua, Beatriz; Crews, Fulton T

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by considerable brain maturation that coincides with the development of adult behavior. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can have deleterious effects on brain maturation because of the heightened neuroplasticity of the adolescent brain. Using an animal model of adolescent intermittent ethanol [AIE; 5.0 g/kg, intragastric, 20 percent EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day (P)25 to P55], we assessed the adult brain structural volumes and integrity on P80 and P220 using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While we did not observe a long-term effect of AIE on structural volumes, AIE did reduce axial diffusivity (AD) in the cerebellum, hippocampus and neocortex. Radial diffusivity (RD) was reduced in the hippocampus and neocortex of AIE-treated animals. Prior AIE treatment did not affect fractional anisotropy (FA), but did lead to long-term reductions of mean diffusivity (MD) in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum. AIE resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior and diminished object recognition memory, the latter of which was positively correlated with DTI measures. Across aging, whole brain volumes increased, as did volumes of the corpus callosum and neocortex. This was accompanied by age-associated AD reductions in the cerebellum and neocortex as well as RD and MD reductions in the cerebellum. Further, we found that FA increased in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum as rats aged from P80 to P220. Thus, both age and AIE treatment caused long-term changes to brain structural integrity that could contribute to cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25678360

  12. Role Of Ginkgo BILOBA Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity And Distribution Of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride In Some Brain Areas Of Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) on distribution of14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus) and its toxicity using the determination of monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)) as well as estimation of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of14C-CCl4 (1 ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of 14C amount in all tested brain areas during experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 14C-CCl4 treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P14C amount in areas under investigation. The maximum reduction was recorded in hypothalamus on 3rd day (-49.28%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4. The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period, which might be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. The data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4.

  13. Bcl-2 enhances the formation of newborn striatal long-projection neurons in adult rat brain after a transient ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Jun Guo; Fang Liu; Xiao Sun; Jun-Jie Huang; Ming Xu; Feng-Yan Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective It has been reported that B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) enhances neurogenesis as well as supporting axonal growth after injury.In the present study,we investigated whether Bcl-2 overexpression plays a role in the formation of newborn striatonigral projection neurons in the adult rat brain after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).Methods We infused human Bcl-2-expressing plasmid (pBcl-2) into the lateral ventricle immediately after 30 min of MCAO,injected 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneally to label proliferative cells,and microinjected fluorogold (FG) into the substantia nigra at 11 weeks of reperfusion followed by multiple immunostaining of striatonigral projection neurons at 12 weeks.Results We found that pBcl-2 treatment significantly increased the number of newborn neurons (BrdU+-NeuN+) in the striatum ipsilateral to the MCAO.We further detected newborn striatonigral projection neurons (BrdU+-FG+-NeuN+) in the ipsilateral striatum at 12 weeks.More interestingly,the number of newborn striatonigral projection neurons (BrdU+-FG+) was significantly increased by pBcl-2 treatment compared to that by pEGFP,a control plasmid.Conclusion Taken together,we found that Bcl-2 overexpression in the brain enhanced the generation of newborn striatonigral projection neurons.This provides a potential strategy for promoting the reestablishment of neural networks and brain repair after ischemic injury.

  14. Neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β modulates tumour necrosis factor alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in brain and also in ovaries of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharan, Radhika Nagamangalam; Krishnagiri, Harshini; Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Sarangi, SitiKantha; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-02-01

    The sexually dimorphic organization in perinatal rat brain is influenced by steroid hormones. Exposure to high levels of estrogen or endocrine-disrupting compounds during perinatal period may perturb this process, resulting in compromised reproductive physiology and behavior as observed in adult In our recent observation neonatal exposure of the female rats to estradiol-17β resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α, up-regulation of COX-2 and increase in SDN-POA size in pre-optic area in the adulthood. It is known that the control of reproductive performance in female involves a complex interplay of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. The present study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism involved in changes observed in the ovarian morphology and expression of selected genes in the ovary. Administration of estradiol-17β (100 μg) on day 2 and 3 after birth revealed up-regulation of ER-α, ER-β, COX-2 and down-regulation of TNF-α expression. Also the decrease in the ovarian weight, altered ovarian morphology and changes in the 2D protein profiles were also seen. This is apparently the first report documenting that neonatal estradiol exposure modulates TNF-α and COX-2 expression in the ovary as seen during adult stage. Our results permit us to suggest that cues originating from the modified brain structure due to neonatal exposure of estradiol-17β remodel the ovary at the molecular level in such a way that there is a disharmony in the reproductive function during adulthood and these changes are perennial and can lead to infertility and changes of reproductive behavior. PMID:26872318

  15. Opiates inhibit neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Eisch, Amelia J.; Barrot, Michel; Schad, Christina A.; Self, David W; Nestler, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Recent work implicates regulation of neurogenesis as a form of plasticity in the adult rat hippocampus. Given the known effects of opiates such as morphine and heroin on hippocampal function, we examined opiate regulation of neurogenesis in this brain region. Chronic administration of morphine decreased neurogenesis by 42% in the adult rat hippocampal granule cell layer. A similar effect was seen in rats after chronic self-administration of heroin. Opiate regulation of neurogenesis was not me...

  16. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. Anatomical integration of newly generated dentate granule neurons following traumatic brain injury in adult rats and its association to cognitive recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; McGinn, Melissa J; Zhou, Zhengwen; Harvey, H Ben; Bullock, M Ross; Colello, Raymond J

    2007-03-01

    The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI), the consequences of which are manifested as learning and memory deficits. Following injury, substantive spontaneous cognitive recovery occurs, suggesting that innate repair mechanisms exist in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism contributing to this is largely unknown. The existence of neural stem cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and their proliferative response following injury led us to speculate that neurogenesis may contribute to cognitive recovery following TBI. To test this, we first examined the time course of cognitive recovery following lateral fluid percussion injury in rats. Cognitive deficits were tested at 11-15, 26-30 or 56-60 days post-injury using Morris Water Maze. At 11-15 and 26-30 days post-injury, animals displayed significant cognitive deficits, which were no longer apparent at 56-60 days post-TBI, suggesting an innate cognitive recovery at 56-60 days. We next examined the proliferative response, maturational fate and integration of newly generated cells in the DG following injury. Specifically, rats received BrdU at 2-5 days post-injury followed by Fluorogold (FG) injection into the CA3 region at 56 days post-TBI. We found the majority of BrdU+ cells which survived for 10 weeks became dentate granule neurons, as assessed by NeuN and calbindin labeling, approximately 30% being labeled with FG, demonstrating their integration into the hippocampus. Additionally, some BrdU+ cells were synaptophysin-positive, suggesting they received synaptic input. Collectively, our data demonstrate the extensive anatomical integration of new born dentate granule neurons at the time when innate cognitive recovery is observed. PMID:17198703

  18. Lipoprotein lipase is produced, regulated, and functional in rat brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Eckel, R.H.; Robbins, R J

    1984-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LP lipase, triacylglycero-protein acylhydrolase EC 3.1.1.34) activity was found in four dissimilar brain regions (hypothalamus, cortex, cerebellum, and midbrain) of adult male rats. Progressive accumulation of LP lipase activity in cultured fetal rat hypothalamic cells was also observed, indicating de novo synthesis of the lipase. The brain LP lipase activity was serum-dependent and was inhibited by 1 M NaCl and by protamine sulfate. Kinetic analysis revealed an apparent K...

  19. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Bindila, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Rubio, Leticia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10%) or sucrose liquid diets for 2 weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+) and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ) and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3 ± 1.1 g/kg/day) after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ, and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133) exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence. PMID:26483633

  20. The effects of donor stage on the survival and function of embryonic striatal grafts in the adult rat brain; II. Correlation between positron emission tomography and reaching behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafts of embryonic striatal primordia are able to elicit behavioural recovery in rats which have received an excitotoxic lesion to the striatum, and it is believed that the P zones or striatal-like tissue within the transplants play a crucial role in these functional effects. We performed this study to compare the effects of different donor stage of embryonic tissue on both the morphology (see accompanying paper) and function of striatal transplants. Both the medial and lateral ganglionic eminence was dissected from rat embryos of either 10 mm, 15 mm, 19 mm, or 23 mm crown-rump length, and implanted as a cell suspension into adult rats which had received an ibotenic acid lesion 10 days prior to transplantation. After four months the animals were tested on the 'staircase task' of skilled forelimb use. At 10-14 months rats from the groups which had received grafts from 10 mm or 15 mm donor embryos were taken for positron emission tomography scanning in a small diameter postiron emission tomography scanner, using ligands to the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, [11C]SCH 23390 and [11C]raclopride, respectively. A lesion-alone group was also scanned with the same ligands for comparison. Animals which had received transplants from the 10 mm donors showed a significant recovery with their contralateral paw on the 'staircase test'. No other groups showed recovery on this task. Similarly, the animals with grafts from the youngest donors showed a significant increase in D1 and D2 receptor binding when compared to the lesion-alone group. No increase in signal was observed with either ligand in the group which had received grafts from 15 mm donors. Success in paw reaching showed a strong correlation to both the positron emission tomography signal obtained and the P zone volume of the grafts.These results suggest that striatal grafts from younger donors (10 mm CRL) give greater behavioural recovery than grafts prepared from older embryos. This recovery is due to both the increased

  1. Large-scale reconstitution of a retina-to-brain pathway in adult rats using gene therapy and bridging grafts: An anatomical and behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Si-Wei; Hellström, Mats; Pollett, Margaret A; LeVaillant, Chrisna; Moses, Colette; Rigby, Paul J; Penrose, Marissa; Rodger, Jennifer; Harvey, Alan R

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral nerve (PN) grafts can be used to bridge tissue defects in the CNS. Using a PN-to-optic nerve (ON) graft model, we combined gene therapy with pharmacotherapy to promote the long-distance regeneration of injured adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Autologous sciatic nerve was sutured onto the transected ON and the distal end immediately inserted into contralateral superior colliculus (SC). Control rats received intraocular injections of saline or adeno-associated virus (AAV) encoding GFP. In experimental groups, three bi-cistronic AAV vectors encoding ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were injected into different regions of the grafted eye. Each vector encoded a different fluorescent reporter to assess retinotopic order in the regenerate projection. To encourage sprouting/synaptogenesis, after 6weeks some AAV-CNTF injected rats received an intravitreal injection of recombinant brain-derived neurotrophic factor (rBDNF) or AAV-BDNF. Four months after surgery, cholera toxin B was used to visualize regenerate RGC axons. RGC viability and axonal regrowth into SC were significantly greater in AAV-CNTF groups. In some cases, near the insertion site, regenerate axonal density resembled retinal terminal densities seen in normal SC. Complex arbors were seen in superficial but not deep SC layers and many terminals were immunopositive for presynaptic proteins vGlut2 and SV2. There was improvement in visual function via the grafted eye with significantly greater pupillary constriction in both AAV-CNTF+BDNF groups. In both control and AAV-CNTF+rBDNF groups the extent of light avoidance correlated with the maximal distance of axonal penetration into superficial SC. Despite the robust regrowth of RGC axons back into the SC, axons originating from different parts of the retina were intermixed at the PN graft/host SC interface, indicating that there remained a lack of order in this extensive regenerate projection. PMID:26970586

  2. Time-dependent co-relation of BDNF and CREB mRNAs in adult rat brains following acute psychological stress in the communication box paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongying; Wang, Yanmei; Yan, Min; Ma, Hongxia; Gao, Yanjie; Li, Zexuan; Li, Changqi; Tian, Hongjun; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2016-06-15

    Psychological stress affects human health, and chronic stress leads to life-threatening diseases, such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological stress coping mechanisms involve the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and downstream cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), which are targets of the adverse effects of stress paradigms. Fourty-seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, physical stress and six psychological stress groups which were assayed at 0h, 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 6h and 24h after communication box (CB) stress induction. Behavioral assessment using open field and elevated plus maze tests determined that CB stress significantly increased anxiety. After CB stress, the alternation of mRNA levels of BDNF and CREB were assessed at different time points by in situ hybridization. The mRNA levels of BDNF and CREB were significantly decreased, then gradually recovered over 24h to maximum levels in the hippocampus (CA1 region), prefrontal cortex (PFC), central amygdaloid nuclei (AG), shell of accumbens nucleus (NAC), periaqueductal gray (PAG) and ventral tegmental area, except for the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, mRNA levels of BDNF and CREB were positively correlated in all examined brain regions, except for the VTA region at 0 and 24h after CB stress induction. These findings suggest that BDNF and CREB may belong to the same pathway and be involved in psychological stress response mechanisms, and protect the organism from stress induced, aversive processes leading to disease. PMID:27132084

  3. Structural plasticity of the adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, Fred H.

    2004-01-01

    The adult brain has long been considered stable and unchanging, except for the inevitable decline that occurs with aqinq. This view is now being challenged with clear evidence that structural changes occur in the brain throughout life, including the generation of new neurons and other brain cells, and connections between and among neurons. What is as remarkable is that the changes that occur in the adult brain are influenced by the behaviors an individual engages in, as well as the environmen...

  4. Dynamic changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin in the hippocampus of adult rat brain following ischemic vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianping Yu; Peng Zhang; Xiong Zhang; Linhui Wang; Mingyuan Tian; Yu Li

    2011-01-01

    Vascular dementia produced by permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries involves progressive deterioration of intellectual and cognitive function in rats, which are closely associated with the hippocampus. This study used immunohistochemical analysis to detect the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin in the hippocampus in a vascular dementia model. The results revealed that both glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin expression were increased 1 day after permanent ligation of the bilateral common carotid arteries, compared with a sham-operated group. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein peaked at 7 days post-surgery. The expression of nestin was a little weaker than that of glial fibrillary acidic protein, and peaked at 14 days (P<0.01). The expression of both proteins slightly decreased at 21 and 28 days, accompanied by recovery of cerebral blood flow. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin exhibited dynamic expression in the rat hippocampus after permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries. This finding suggests that dynamic alterations in protein expression play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia.

  5. Inflammation is detrimental for neurogenesis in adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Christine T.; Claasen, Jan-Hendrik; Bonde, Sara; Kokaia, Zaal; Lindvall, Olle

    2003-11-01

    New hippocampal neurons are continuously generated in the adult brain. Here, we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, which gives rise to microglia activation in the area where the new neurons are born, strongly impairs basal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. The increased neurogenesis triggered by a brain insult is also attenuated if it is associated with microglia activation caused by tissue damage or lipopolysaccharide infusion. The impaired neurogenesis in inflammation is restored by systemic administration of minocycline, which inhibits microglia activation. Our data raise the possibility that suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis by activated microglia contributes to cognitive dysfunction in aging, dementia, epilepsy, and other conditions leading to brain inflammation.

  6. Reactive hyperemia of rat brain following high altitude hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive 85Sr microparticles were used to assess the cardiac output and blood flow through medulla oblongata, cerebellum, subcortical portions and cerebral cortex in adult laboratory rats 20 hours after 8-hour exposure to 7000 m high altitude hypoxia. The local blood supply increased in all parts of the brain, in particular in medulla oblongata and cerebellum. (author). 10 figs., 9 refs

  7. Brain Volume Determination in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekic, Tim; Hardy, Maurice; Fujii, Mutsumi; McBride, Devin W; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema is routinely measured using the wet-dry method. Volume, however, is the sum total of all cerebral tissues, including water. Therefore, volumetric change following injury may not be adequately quantified using percentage of edema. We thus tested the hypothesis that dried brains can be reconstituted with water and then re-measured to determine the actual volume. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30). Animals were euthanized at 24 and 72 h after evaluation of neurobehavior for determination of brain water content. Dried brains were thereafter reconstituted with equal parts of water (lost from brain edema) and centrifuged to remove air bubbles. The total volume was quantified using hydrostatic (underwater) physics principles that 1 ml water (mass) = 1 cm(3) (volume). The amount of additional water needed to reach a preset level marked on 2-ml test tubes was added to that lost from brain edema, and from the brain itself, to determine the final volume. SAH significantly increased both brain water and volume while worsening neurological function in affected rats. Volumetric measurements demonstrated significant brain swelling after SAH, in addition to the brain edema approach. This modification of the "wet-dry" method permits brain volume determination using valuable post hoc dried brain tissue. PMID:26463930

  8. Opposite effect of phencyclidine on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in juvenile and adult limbic rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    The psychotomimetic effect of NMDA antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) in humans spurred the hypoglutamatergic theory of schizophrenia. This theory is supported by animal studies demonstrating schizophrenia-like behavioral and molecular changes following PCP administration to adult or neonata...... juvenile rats corresponds best with the proposed "hypofrontality" in schizophrenia, suggesting the merits of using PCP in juvenile animals as a model for schizophrenia, as this would relate better to the typical onset and clinical features of schizophrenia....

  9. Aquaporin 9 in rat brain after severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liu; Mei Yang; Guo-ping Qiu; Fei Zhuo; Wei-hua Yu; Shan-quan Sun; Yun Xiu

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reveal the expression and possible roles of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) in rat brain, after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Brain water content (BWC), tetrazolium chloride staining, Evans blue staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used. RESULTS: The BWC reached the first and second (highest) peaks at 6 and 72 hours, and the blood brain barrier (BBB) was severely destroyed at six hours after ...

  10. Methylphenidate treatment induces oxidative stress in young rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Márcio R; Reinke, Adalisa; Petronilho, Fabrícia C; Gomes, Karin M; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2006-03-17

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is frequently prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychostimulants can cause long-lasting neurochemical and behavioral adaptations. Here, we evaluated oxidative damage in the rat brain and the differential age-dependent response to MPH after acute and chronic exposure. We investigated the oxidative damage, assessed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), and the protein carbonyl assays in cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebral cortex of young (25 days old) and adult (60 days old) male Wistar rats after acute and chronic exposure to MPH. Chronic MPH-treated young rats presented a dose-dependent increase in TBARS content and protein carbonyls formation in specific rat brain regions. In the acute exposure, only MPH highest dose increased lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus. No difference in protein carbonylation was observed among groups in all structures analyzed. In adult rats, we did not find oxidative damage in both acute and chronic treatment. Chronic exposure to MPH in induces oxidative damage in young rat brain, differentially from chronic exposure during adulthood. These findings highlight the need for further research to improve understanding of MPH effects on developing nervous system and the potential consequences in adulthood resulting from early-life drug exposure. PMID:16494852

  11. Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation. : Maoa,ELS and alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Bendre, Megha; Comasco, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid; Nilsson, Kent W.

    2015-01-01

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption a...

  12. TIN DISTRIBUTION IN ADULT RAT TISSUES AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRIMETHYLTIN AND TRIETHYLTIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time course of distribution of tin in the adult rat was determined in brain, liver kidney, heart, and blood following single ip administrations of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT) and triethyltin bromide (TET). Adult Long-Evans rats were killed 1 hr, 4 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr, 5 days, 1...

  13. DHA Depletion in Rat Brain Is Associated With Impairment on Spatial Learning and Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING XIAO; LING WANG; RUO-JUN XU; ZHEN-YU CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency in brain on spatial learning and memory in rats. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were fed with an n-3 fatty acid deficient diet for two generations to induce DHA depletion in brain. DHA in seven brain regions was analyzed using the gas-liquid chromatography. Morris water maze (MWM) was employed as an assessing index of spatial learning and memory in the n-3 fatty acid deficient adult rats of second generation. Results Feeding an n-3 deficient diet for two generations depleted DHA differently by 39%-63% in the seven brain regions including cerebellum, medulla, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, cortex and midbrain. The MWM test showed that the n-3 deficient rats took a longer time and swam a longer distance to find the escape platform than the n-3 Adq group. Conclusion The spatial learning and memory in adult rats are partially impaired by brain DHA depletion.

  14. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...... studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients.......The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and...... in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing...

  15. Elemental concentration analysis in brain of young, adult and old wistar rats by X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The mainly goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentrations with different postnatal ages (2, 8, 20, 48 and 72 weeks) at three different regions of the rat brain, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus by X-Ray Total Reflection Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF). The advantages for this analytical multielemental technique are: low background, linear relation in the quantification analysis and low detection limit (ngg{sup -1}). The fluorescence measurements were carried out at XRF beamline at the Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). It was possible to determine the following elements: Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr (at trace level) and P, S, Cl, K and Ca (at major levels) were determined in the brain. In general, Fe levels were more pronounced in entorhinal cortex. There was also observed that the hippocampus of the old female rat presented the highest concentrations for Al, P, S, K, and Zn. In contrast to this, the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex presented the less levels for Al and K in the young animals. On the other hand, Cl levels were more conspicuous in the entorhinal cortex of the oldest male animal studied. (author)

  16. Effect of GSM-1800 and U.M.T.S. exposures on micro-glial activation and heat shock proteins induction in brain: a study on young adult and elderly rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contradictory results have emerged from recent studies describing low -level radiofrequency radiation (R.F.R.) as a hazardous factor for the central nervous system while others described such type of exposure as totally safe. In the brain, heat shock proteins (H.s.p.) are often induced under harmful conditions such as ischemia, traumatic injury, epilepsy, hyperthermia, drug administration, and neuro-degenerative diseases. Under those conditions, activation of the micro-glial cell population is often observed. In this work we studied the effect of two types of mobile phone signals, GSM-1800 and U.M.T.S. on the expression of two major H.s.p., induced in the brain under harmful conditions, H.s.p. 70 and H.s.p. 25. We also studied micro-glial activation in young adult (8 weeks) and elderly (17 months) Wistar rats. Height animals by group were exposed. Exposures were performed using a brain-averaged S.A.R. of 2 W/kg following two types of protocols: an acute exposure, with exposure lasting only two hours, and a sub chronic exposure in which the animals were exposed for two hours per day, five days per week, during four weeks. In all cases, rats were progressively habituated to the exposure setup (rockets) over two weeks to avoid stress and a sham group was exposed for each condition. Positive controls were performed by induction of a status epilepticus using a subcutaneous injection kainic acid (10 mg/kg). At the end of exposure, rats were anesthetized with isofluran and perfused from the heart with P.B.S. then paraformaldehyde prior to removing of the brain. Sections (10 m m thick) were prepared on slides for immunohistochemistry. Brain samples were coded and the analysis was performed in a blind manner. The sections were immuno-histo-chemically stained with antibodies raised in rabbits against H.s.p.25 and against the inducible form of H.s.p.70. The whole glial cell population was detected by its common cell surface glyco conjugates, which bind the plant Griffonia

  17. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  18. Antioxidant property of aminophylline in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals being considered an important component of secondary damage during ischemia, trauma, and neurodegenerative diseases in the CNS. Aminophylline has been reported to possess free radical scavenging effect in lung tissue. But there is no information regarding aminophylline's neuroprotective effect against lipid peroxidation in the brain. Aim: The present study was to locate the region of brain that is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage and also aimed at investigating the antioxidant action of aminophylline in rat brain homogenates against in vitro induced lipid peroxidation. Method: Male Wister rats (n = 34 were randomly selected and divided into three groups. The whole rat brains all rats were homogenized in 1:10 cold Tris–HCl buffer by using homogenizer. Peroxidation was induced with ferrous iron (Fe2+, ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in Group I (n = 12. Aminophylline was added into the reaction mixtures just before the induction of peroxidation in Group III (n = 12. Result: The highest lipid peroxidation was obtained with Fe2+, Ascorbate and H202-induced group and aminophylline showed definite free radical scavenging effect on rat brain. Conclusion: Analysis of the results demonstrated that aminophylline has no antioxidant effect on rat brain and spinal cord homogenates in vitro. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to evaluate the free radical scavenging effect of aminophylline.

  19. BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kanna; Mikawa, Sumiko; Sato, Kohji

    2016-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3) is a very unique member of the TGF-β superfamily, because it functions as an antagonist to both the canonical BMP and activin pathways and plays important roles in multiple biological events. Although BMP3 expression has been described in the early development of the kidney, intestine and bone, little information is available for BMP3 expression in the central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS using immunohistochemistry. BMP3 was intensely expressed in most neurons and their axons. Furthermore, we found that astrocytes and ependymal cells also express BMP3 protein. These data indicate that BMP3 is widely expressed throughout the adult CNS, and its abundant expression in the adult brain strongly supports the idea that BMP3 plays important roles in the adult brain. PMID:27130896

  20. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  1. Opposite effect of phencyclidine on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in juvenile and adult limbic rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    juvenile rats corresponds best with the proposed "hypofrontality" in schizophrenia, suggesting the merits of using PCP in juvenile animals as a model for schizophrenia, as this would relate better to the typical onset and clinical features of schizophrenia.......The psychotomimetic effect of NMDA antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) in humans spurred the hypoglutamatergic theory of schizophrenia. This theory is supported by animal studies demonstrating schizophrenia-like behavioral and molecular changes following PCP administration to adult or neonatal...... animals. However, schizophrenia is believed to develop in part due to neurodevelopmental dysfunction during adolescence. Therefore, the effects of PCP in juvenile animals may better reflect the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Here, we compare the effect of PCP (5mg/kg/day for 5 days) on activity...

  2. Prostaglandin E2 metabolism in rat brain: Role of the blood-brain interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strazielle Nathalie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is involved in the regulation of synaptic activity and plasticity, and in brain maturation. It is also an important mediator of the central response to inflammatory challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the tissues forming the blood-brain interfaces to act as signal termination sites for PGE2 by metabolic inactivation. Methods The specific activity of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase was measured in homogenates of microvessels, choroid plexuses and cerebral cortex isolated from postnatal and adult rat brain, and compared to the activity measured in peripheral organs which are established signal termination sites for prostaglandins. PGE2 metabolites produced ex vivo by choroid plexuses were identified and quantified by HPLC coupled to radiochemical detection. Results The data confirmed the absence of metabolic activity in brain parenchyma, and showed that no detectable activity was associated with brain microvessels forming the blood-brain barrier. By contrast, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was measured in both fourth and lateral ventricle choroid plexuses from 2-day-old rats, albeit at a lower level than in lung or kidney. The activity was barely detectable in adult choroidal tissue. Metabolic profiles indicated that isolated choroid plexus has the ability to metabolize PGE2, mainly into 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE2. In short-term incubations, this metabolite distributed in the tissue rather than in the external medium, suggesting its release in the choroidal stroma. Conclusion The rat choroidal tissue has a significant ability to metabolize PGE2 during early postnatal life. This metabolic activity may participate in signal termination of centrally released PGE2 in the brain, or function as an enzymatic barrier acting to maintain PGE2 homeostasis in CSF during the critical early postnatal period of brain development.

  3. Aspartame and the rat brain monoaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, C; De Simoni, M G; Fodritto, F; Raimondi, L; Diomede, L; Salmona, M; Algeri, S; Garattini, S

    1988-12-01

    A high dose of aspartame (APM) was administered to rats to study possible effects on brain monoaminergic systems. APM and its metabolite phenylalanine (Phe) were given orally at doses of 1000 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Significant increases were seen in brain Phe and tyrosine (Tyr) levels. Two different approaches were used to study monoaminergic systems: whole tissue measurements by HPLC-ED and in vivo voltammetry in freely moving rats. Dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were taken as indexes of neuronal activity. In spite of the high dose used, no modification was found in monoamines or their metabolites in striatum, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. PMID:2464204

  4. Experimental study on the effects of isoflurane on the adult rat brain activity%异氟醚对成年大鼠脑组织活性影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶文雁; 黄可欣; 石搏; 黄可敬; 张艳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨异氟醚吸入麻醉对成年大鼠学习记忆能力和脑组织活性的影响.方法 取健康成年雄性Wistar大鼠30只,随机分为2组,空白对照组15只和异氟醚麻醉组15只;麻醉组给予2%异氟醚和40%氧气诱导及维持麻醉3 h,对照组单纯吸入含40% 氧气的空氧混合气体3 h.麻醉组和对照组干预结束24 h后,开始每天上午水迷宫训练连续7 d,第8 d进行Morris水迷宫测试,测试潜伏期、经过平台次数和平台象限停留时间;测试结束后处死大鼠取脑组织,采用生化方法检测乙酰胆碱酯酶(TchE)、单胺氧化酶(MAO)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和脂质过氧化物活性(LPO).结果 与对照组比较,麻醉组大鼠潜伏期、经过平台次数和平台象限停留时间均无显著差异(P>0.05),脑组织TchE、MAO、SOD和LPO活性亦无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 2%单纯异氟醚吸入麻醉不改变成年大鼠麻醉后学习记忆能力及脑组织活性.%Objective To investigate the effect of isoflurane anesthesia on learning and memory ability and brain activity in adult rats. Methods male Wistar 30 rats, were randomly divided into 2 groups, blank control group(n=15) and isoflurane group(n= 15) ; anesthesia group were induced by 2% and 40% oxygen and isoflurane maintained anesthesia 3 h,thc control group inhaled mixed gas containing 40% oxygen for 3 h. Anesthesia group and control group after intervention after 24h starts every morning, water maze training continuous 7d,8D were tested in Morris water maze test,during the test,through the platform,latency and the number of platform quadrant dwell time ;after the test rats were sacrificed to get the brain tissue,detected by biochemical methods aectylcholincstcrasc(TchK) ,monoaminc oxidase (MAO) ,supcroxidc dismutase(SOD) and lipid peroxidation activity(LPO). Results compared with the control group, the latency of rats after anesthesia,the platform and the number of platform quadrant residence time had no

  5. Elemental concentration analysis in brain structures from young, adult and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, R.F.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Jesus, E.F.O. de [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); University of Rio de Janeiro State, Physics Institute, RJ (Brazil); Carmo, M.G.T. do [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Nutrition Institute, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, S. [University of Campinas State, Civil Engineering Department, SP (Brazil); Rocha, M.S. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy, RJ (Brazil); Martinez, A.M.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Histology and Embryology, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues are of great importance since trace elements are involved in a number of metabolic and physiological processes in the human body, and their deficiency and excess may lead to different metabolic disorders. In this way, the main goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentration in different brain structures, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, visual cortex and hippocampus, from Wistar female rats (n = 15) with different ages: 2, 8 and 48 weeks. The measurements were performed at the Synchrotron Light Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In the entorhinal cortex, the following elements decreased with age: Zn, S, Cl, K, Ca and Br. In the temporal cortex, Ca, Fe and Br levels increased with aging and on the other hand, P, S, Cl, K and Rb levels decreased with aging. In the visual cortex almost all the elements decreased with aging: Cl, Ca, Fe, Ni and Zn. In the hippocampus, in turn, most of the elements identified, increased with aging: Al, P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The increase of Fe with aging in the hippocampus is an important fact that will be studied, since it is involved in oxidative stress. It is believed that oxidative stress is the one of the main causes responsible for neuronal death in Parkinson's disease.

  6. Combined age- and trauma-related proteomic changes in rat neocortex: a basis for brain vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Mehan, Neal D.; Strauss, Kenneth I

    2011-01-01

    This proteomic study investigates the widely observed clinical phenomenon, that after comparable brain injuries, geriatric patients fare worse and recover less cognitive and neurologic function than younger victims. Utilizing a rat traumatic brain injury model, sham surgery or a neocortical contusion was induced in 3 age groups. Geriatric (21 months) rats performed worse on behavioral measures than young adults (12–16 weeks) and juveniles (5– 6 weeks). Motor coordination and certain cognitive...

  7. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heekyung; Kang, Eunchai; GoodSmith, Douglas; Yoon, Do Yeon; Song, Hongjun; Knierim, James J; Ming, Guo-Li; Christian, Kimberly M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, soma hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function. PMID:26161071

  8. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekyung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1, the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, somatic hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function.

  9. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  10. Neuroglobin in the rat brain: localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Allen, Gregg C; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;

    2008-01-01

    rat brain using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This revealed the interesting finding that Ngb expression is restricted to a few neurone populations, many of which are involved in the sleep-wake cycle, circadian regulation or food regulation. In...

  11. Laser scattering by transcranial rat brain illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marcelo V. P.; Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka T.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Suzuki, Luis C.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2012-06-01

    Due to the great number of applications of Low-Level-Laser-Therapy (LLLT) in Central Nervous System (CNS), the study of light penetration through skull and distribution in the brain becomes extremely important. The aim is to analyze the possibility of precise illumination of deep regions of the rat brain, measure the penetration and distribution of red (λ = 660 nm) and Near Infra-Red (NIR) (λ = 808 nm) diode laser light and compare optical properties of brain structures. The head of the animal (Rattus Novergicus) was epilated and divided by a sagittal cut, 2.3 mm away from mid plane. This section of rat's head was illuminated with red and NIR lasers in points above three anatomical structures: hippocampus, cerebellum and frontal cortex. A high resolution camera, perpendicularly positioned, was used to obtain images of the brain structures. Profiles of scattered intensities in the laser direction were obtained from the images. There is a peak in the scattered light profile corresponding to the skin layer. The bone layer gives rise to a valley in the profile indicating low scattering coefficient, or frontal scattering. Another peak in the region related to the brain is an indication of high scattering coefficient (μs) for this tissue. This work corroborates the use of transcranial LLLT in studies with rats which are subjected to models of CNS diseases. The outcomes of this study point to the possibility of transcranial LLLT in humans for a large number of diseases.

  12. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  13. Upregulated gene expression of local brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor after intracisternal administration of marrow stromal cells in rats with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德志; 周良辅; 朱剑虹; 毛颖; 吴雪海

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of rat marrow stromal cells (rMSCs) on gene expression of local brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) after injection of rMSCs into Cistern Magnum of adult rats subjected to traumatic brain injury(TBI).Results: Group cell transplantation had higher BDNF and NGF gene expressions than Group saline control during a period of less than 3 weeks (P<0.05).Conclusions: rMSCs transplantation via Cistern Magnum in rats subjected to traumatic brain injury can enhance expressions of local brain NGF and BDNF to a certain extent.

  14. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early postnatal maternal separation (MS can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day [PND] 1–21 on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21, adolescent (PND 35 and young adult (PND 56 Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased BDNF in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG of adolescent rats as well as in the DG of young adult rats. However, the expression of BDNF in the mPFC in the young adult rats was decreased by MS. Additionally, in the hippocampus, there was decreased BDNF expression with age in both the MS and socially reared rats. However, in the mPFC, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the socially reared rats; nevertheless, the BDNF expression was significantly decreased in the MS young adult rats. In the NAc, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the male NMS rats, and the young adult female MS rats had less BDNF expression than the adolescent female MS rats. The

  15. Rat brain methotrexate levels following cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain disfunction has been reported in leukemia patients receiving both brain irradiation and methotrexate (MTX) therapy. It has been speculated that the neuropathy is a result of radiation-induced vascular permeability in the brain, allowing increased levels of MTX to cross the Blood-Brain-Barrier. If this hypothesis is correct, it may be possible to reduce brain MTX concentrations following irradiation by administering drugs which reduce the radiation-induced vascular permeability. To examine the hypothesis, the authors have irradiated male S-D rats to the brain area only with a single dose of 20 Gy /sup 137/Cs gamma rays. Various times following irradiation we have administered MTX i.v. at either 50 or 100 mg/kg. At 18 hours after MTX administration, brain tissue was taken, and the MTX concentration was measured. Compared to nonirradiated controls, elevated levels of MTX were seen in the brain when the drug was administered 30 hours following irradiation (p < 0.05). Elevated levels were not seen when the drug was administered 7 or 14 days post irradiation. Blood levels of the drug in irradiated animals were elevated compared to nonirradiated controls when MTX was administered 7 days post irradiation. Additional time points must be evaluated before any substantial conclusions can be drawn

  16. Experimental evidence for sex-specific plasticity in adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Herczeg, Gábor; Gonda, Abigél; Balázs, Gergely; Noreikiene, Kristina; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain regions during early ontogeny is known from many vertebrate taxa, but less is known about plasticity in the brains of adults. In contrast to mammals and birds, most parts of a fish’s brain continue to undergo neurogenesis throughout adulthood, making lifelong plasticity in brain size possible. We tested whether maturing adult three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) reared in a stimulus-poor environment exhibited br...

  17. Aquaporin 9 in rat brain after severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To reveal the expression and possible roles of aquaporin 9 (AQP9 in rat brain, after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: Brain water content (BWC, tetrazolium chloride staining, Evans blue staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC, immunofluorescence (IF, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used. RESULTS: The BWC reached the first and second (highest peaks at 6 and 72 hours, and the blood brain barrier (BBB was severely destroyed at six hours after the TBI. The worst brain ischemia occurred at 72 hours after TBI. Widespread AQP9-positive astrocytes and neurons in the hypothalamus were detected by means of IHC and IF after TBI. The abundance of AQP9 and its mRNA increased after TBI and reached two peaks at 6 and 72 hours, respectively, after TBI. CONCLUSIONS: Increased AQP9 might contribute to clearance of excess water and lactate in the early stage of TBI. Widespread AQP9-positive astrocytes might help lactate move into neurons and result in cellular brain edema in the later stage of TBI. AQP9-positive neurons suggest that AQP9 plays a role in energy balance after TBI.

  18. Disruption of the blood-brain interface in neonatal rat neocortex induces a transient expression of metallothionein in reactive astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Moos, T

    1995-01-01

    rats were subjected to a localized freeze lesion of the neocortex of the right temporal cortex. This lesion results in a disrupted blood-brain interface, leading to extravasation of plasma proteins. From 16 h, reactive astrocytosis, defined as an increase in the number and size of cells expressing GFAP......Exposure of the adult rat brain parenchyma to zinc induces an increase in the intracerebral expression of the metal-binding protein, metallothionein, which is normally confined to astrocytes, ependymal cells, choroid plexus epithelial cells, and brain endothelial cells. Metallothionein is expressed...... only in diminutive amounts in astrocytes of the neonatal rat brain, which could imply that neonatal rats are devoid of the capacity to detoxify free metals released from a brain wound. In order to examine the influence of a brain injury on the expression of metallothionein in the neonatal brain, PO...

  19. Influence of age on the passage of paraquat through the blood-brain barrier in rats: a distribution and pathological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to determine the extent of paraquat entry into the brain of neonatal and elderly rats, as compared with adult rats, which may be dependent on the efficacy of the blood-brain barrier. A single, median lethal dose (20 mg/kg s.c.) of paraquat containing [14C]paraquat was administered to neonatal (10 day old), adult (3 month old) and elderly (18 month old) rats. In contrast to the adult and elderly rats where paraquat levels fell over the 24 h post-dosing period to negligible levels, paraquat concentrations in neonatal brains did not decrease with time between 0.5 and 24 h following dosing. The distribution of [14C]paraquat was measured in selective brain regions using quantitative autoradiography in all three age groups of rats, 30 min and 24 h following dosing. Autoradiography demonstrated that brain paraquat distributions were similar in the rat age groups. Most of the paraquat was confined to regions outside the blood-brain barrier and to brain regions that lack a complete blood-brain barrier e.g. dorsal hypothalamus, area postrema and the anterior olfactory bulb. Between 0.5 h and 24 h following dosing, paraquat concentrations in deeper brain structures, some distance away from the sites of entry, began to slowly increase in all the rat age groups. By 24 h following dosing, a majority of brain regions examined using quantitative autoradiography revealed significantly higher paraquat concentrations in neonatal brains as compared to brain regions of adult and elderly rats. Despite increased paraquat entry into neonatal brain, we could find no evidence for paraquat-induced neuronal cell damage following a detailed histopathological examination of perfused-fixed brains. In conclusion, impaired blood-brain barrier integrity in neonatal brain thus permitting more paraquat to enter than in adult brain, did not result in neuronal damage

  20. Immunochemical characterization of rat brain protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyclonal antibodies against rat brain protein kinase C (the Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme) were raised in goat. These antibodies can neutralize completely the kinase activity in purified enzyme preparation as well as that in the crude homogenate. Immunoblot analysis of the purified and the crude protein kinase C preparations revealed a major immunoreactive band of 80 kDa. The antibodies also recognize the same enzyme from other rat tissues. Neuronal tissues (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and retina) and lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen) were found to be enriched in protein kinase C, whereas lung, kidney, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle contained relatively low amounts of this kinase. Limited proteolysis of the purified rat brain protein kinase C with trypsin results in an initial degradation of the kinase into two major fragments of 48 and 38 kDa. Both fragments are recognized by the antibodies. However, further digestion of the 48-kDa fragment to 45 kDa and the 38-kDa fragment to 33 kDa causes a loss of the immunoreactivity. Upon incubation of the cerebellar extract with Ca2+, the 48-kDa fragment was also identified as a major proteolytic product of protein kinase C. Proteolytic degradation of protein kinase C converts the Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent kinase to an independent form without causing a large impairment of the binding of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. The two major proteolytic fragments were separated by ion exchange chromatography and one of them (45-48 kDa) was identified as a protein kinase and the other (33-38 kDa) as a phorbol ester-binding protein. These results demonstrate that rat brain protein kinase C is composed of two functionally distinct units, namely, a protein kinase and a Ca2+-independent/phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester-binding protein

  1. Calcium transport abnormality in uremic rat brain synaptosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, C.L.; Sarnacki, P; Arieff, A I

    1985-01-01

    Brain calcium is elevated in patients and laboratory animals with uremia. The significance of this finding is unclear. We evaluated calcium transport in brain of both normal and acutely uremic rats (blood urea nitrogen = 250 mg/dl) by performing studies in synaptosomes from rat brain cerebral cortex. Synaptosomes are vesicular presynaptic nerve endings from brain that contain mitochondria and are metabolically active. Two mechanisms of calcium transport were evaluated using radioactive 45Ca++...

  2. Effects of Various Kynurenine Metabolites on Respiratory Parameters of Rat Brain, Liver and Heart Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Halina; Staniek, Katrin; Bertignol-Spörr, Melanie; Attam, Martin; Kronsteiner, Carina; Kepplinger, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid dose-dependently and significantly affected rat heart mitochondria. Now we have investigated the effects of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids on respiratory parameters (ie, state 2, state 3), respiratory control index (RC) and ADP/oxygen ratio in brain, liver and heart mitochondria of adult rats. Mitochond...

  3. Ethanol effects on rat brain phosphoinositide metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in acidic phospholipids in brain plasma and synaptic plasma membranes upon chronic ethanol administration was observed. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in an increase in {sup 32}P{sub i} incorporation into the acidic phospholipids in synaptosomes. Postdecapitative ischemic treatment resulted rapid degradation of poly-PI in rat brain. However, there was a rapid appearance of IP{sub 2} in ethanol group which indicated a more rapid turnover of IP{sub 3} in the ethanol-treated rats. Carbachol stimulated accumulation of labeled inositol phosphates in brain slices and synaptosomes. Carbachol-stimulated release of IP and IP{sub 2} was calcium dependent and was inhibited by EGTA and atropine. Adenosine triphosphates and 1 mM further enhanced carbachol-induced formation of IP and IP{sub 2}, but showed an increase and a decrease in IP{sub 3} at 1 mM and 0.01 mM, respectively. Guanosine triphosphate at 0.1 mM did not change in labeled IP, but there was a significant increase in labeled IP{sub 2} and decrease in IP{sub 3}. Mn and CMP greatly enhanced incorporation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol into PI, but not into poly-PI labeling in brain synaptosomes. Incubation of brain synaptosomes resulted in a Ca{sup 2+}, time-dependent release of labeled IP. However, the pool of PI labeled through this pathway is not susceptible to carbachol stimulation. When saponin permeabilized synaptosomal preparations were incubated with ({sup 3}H)-inositol-PI or ({sup 14}C)-arachidonoyl-PI, ATP enhanced the formation of labeled IP and DG.

  4. Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 Expression in the Rat Brain Both in Basal Condition and following Learning Predominantly Derives from the Maternal Allele

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojing Ye; Amy Kohtz; Gabriella Pollonini; Andrea Riccio; Alberini, Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Insulin like growth factor 2 (Igf2) is known as a maternally imprinted gene involved in growth and development. Recently, Igf2 was found to also be regulated and required in the adult rat hippocampus for long-term memory formation, raising the question of its allelic regulation in adult brain regions following experience and in cognitive processes. We show that, in adult rats, Igf2 is abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in cognitive functions, like hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...

  5. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (14C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 109 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Total anesthesia, rats brain surgery, nitric oxide (NO) and free radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenković Ankica V.; Jovanović Marina; Ninković Milica; Maksimović M.; Bošković Bogdan

    2005-01-01

    It is expected that clinical recovery after surgically induced brain trauma is followed by molecular and biochemical restitution. Seven days after surgery, we investigated whether the plastic cannula implanted in the left brain ventricle of adult Wistar rats (n = 6-7), performed in pentobarbital anesthesia, could influence oxidative stress elements (superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation), as well as the antioxidative system (superoxide dismuthase-SOD). Also, we investigated whether nitric o...

  7. Perinatal Manganese Exposure and Hydroxyl Radical Formation in Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bałasz, Michał; Szkilnik, Ryszard; Brus, Ryszard; Malinowska-Borowska, Jolanta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Nowak, Damian; Kostrzewa, Richard M.; Nowak, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of pre- and postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure on hydroxyl radical (HO•) formation in the brains of dopamine (DA) partially denervated rats (Parkinsonian rats). Wistar rats were given tap water containing 10,000 ppm manganese chloride during the duration of pregnancy and until the time of weaning. Control rat dams consumed tap water without added Mn. Three days after birth, rats of both groups were treated with 6-hydroxydopamine at one of ...

  8. Heterogeneity of Ductular Reactions in Adult Rat and Human Liver Revealed by Novel Expression of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumor 1

    OpenAIRE

    Bisgaard, Hanne Cathrine; Holmskov, Uffe; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Nagy, Peter; Nielsen, Ole; Ott, Peter; Hage, Ester; Dalhoff, Kim; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Tygstrup, Niels

    2002-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of mammalian adult liver reflects the ability of a number of cell populations within the hepatic lineage to take action. Limited information is available regarding factors and mechanisms that determine the specific lineage level at which liver cells contribute to liver repair as well as the fate of their progeny in the hostile environment created by liver injury. In the present study, we attempted to identify novel molecules preferentially involved in liver regenerat...

  9. Sex Differences and Laterality in Astrocyte Number and Complexity in the Adult Rat Medial Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, RYAN T.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    The posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD) is sexually dimorphic in several rodent species. In several other brain nuclei, astrocytes change morphology in response to steroid hormones. We visualized MePD astrocytes using glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry. We compared the number and process complexity of MePD astrocytes in adult wildtype male and female rats and testicular feminized mutant (TFM) male rats that lack functional androgen receptors (ARs) to de...

  10. From Child to Young Adult, the Brain Changes Its Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Kaustubh Supekar; Mark Musen; Vinod Menon

    2009-01-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at th...

  11. Experience-Dependent Neural Plasticity in the Adult Damaged Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Abigail L.; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Jones, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral experience is at work modifying the structure and function of the brain throughout the lifespan, but it has a particularly dramatic influence after brain injury. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of experience in reorganizing the adult damaged brain, with a focus on findings from rodent stroke models of chronic upper…

  12. Summary of high field diffusion MRI and microscopy data demonstrate microstructural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This data article describes a large, high resolution diffusion MRI data set from fixed rat brain acquired at high field strength. The rat brain samples consist of21adult rat brain hemispheres from animals exposed to chronic mild stress (anhedonic and resilient) and controls. Histology from...... (ALDH1L1). This combination of high field diffusion data and high resolution images from microscopy enables comparison of microstructural parameters derived from diffusion MRIto histological microstructure. The data provided here is used in the article (Jespersen, 2016) [1]....

  13. Prenatal immune challenge alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Reul, J M; Stec, I; Wiegers, G J; Labeur, M S; Linthorst, A C; Arzt, E; Holsboer, F

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether non-abortive maternal infections would compromise fetal brain development and alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning when adult. To study putative teratogenic effects of a T cell-mediated immune response versus an endotoxic challenge, 10-d-pregnant rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(8) human red blood cells (HRBC) or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (Escherichia coli LPS: 30 micrograms/kg). The adult male progeny (3 ...

  14. Social instability stress differentially affects amygdalar neuron adaptations and memory performance in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Feng Tsai; Chia-Yuan Chang; Lung Yu; Yu-Min Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of developmental changes and reorganization in the brain. It has been hypothesized that stress has a greater neurological impact on adolescents than on adults. However, scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis is still limited. We treated adolescent (4-week-old) and adult (8-week-old) rats with social instability stress for five weeks and compared the subsequent structural and functional changes to amygdala neurons. In the stress-free control condition, the a...

  15. Hyperammonemia,brain edema and blood-brain barrier alterations in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats and paravrtamol intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Camila Scorticati; Juan P. Prestifilippo; Francisco X. Eizayaga; José L. Castro; Salvador Romay; Maria A. Fernández; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C. Perazzo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity, brain edema,animal behavior and ammonia plasma levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats with and without acute liver intoxication.METHODS: Adults male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group Ⅰ: sham operation; Ⅱ: Prehepatic portal hypertension, produced by partial portal vein ligation; Ⅲ:Acetaminophen intoxication and Ⅳ: Prehepatic portal hypertension plus acetaminophen. Acetaminophen was administered to produce acute hepatic injury. Portal pressure, liver serum enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were determined. Brain cortex water content was registered and trypan blue was utilized to study blood brain barrier integrity. Reflexes and behavioral tests were recorded.RESULTS: Portal hypertension was significantly elevated in groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ. Liver enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were increased in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅳ. Prehepatic portal hypertension (group Ⅱ), acetaminophen intoxication (group Ⅲ) and both (group Ⅳ) had changes in the blood brain-barrier integrity (trypan blue) and hyperammonemia. Cortical edema was present in rats with acute hepatic injury in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Behavioral test (rota rod) was altered in group Ⅳ.CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of another pathway for cortical edema production because blood brain barrier was altered (vasogenic) and hyperammonemia was registered (cytotoxic). Group Ⅳ, with behavioral altered test, can be considered as a model for study at an early stage of portal-systemic encephalopathy.

  16. ALKYLTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of ATPase activities by triethyltin (TET), diethyltin (DET), monoethyltin (MET) and trimethyltin (TMT) was studied in homogenates of brain and liver from adult rats. MET did not produce significant inhibition. ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates from TET-t...

  17. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, GYEYEOP; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that p...

  18. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  19. Propofol Attenuates Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Song-sheng; Zhang, Hua-bin; Wang, Chun-hua; Yang, Wei-zhong; Liang, Ri-sheng; Chen, Ye; Tu, Xian-kun

    2015-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that propofol protects rat brain against focal cerebral ischemia. However, whether propofol attenuates early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats remains unknown until now. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of propofol on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats and further explore the potential mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by endovascular perforation then received treatment with propofol (10 or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle after 2 and 12 h of SAH. SAH grading, neurological scores, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, the myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured 24 h after SAH. Expression of nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in rat brain were detected by Western blot. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were assessed by ELISA. Neurological scores, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, the myeloperoxidase activity, and MDA content were significantly reduced by propofol. Furthermore, expression of Nrf2 in rat brain was upregulated by propofol, and expression of NF-κB p65, AQP4, COX-2, MMP-9, TNF-α, and IL-1β in rat brain were attenuated by propofol. Our results demonstrated that propofol improves neurological scores, reduces brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, inflammatory reaction, and lipid peroxidation in rats of SAH. Propofol exerts neuroprotection against SAH-induced early brain injury, which might be associated with the inhibition of inflammation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:26342279

  20. Exercise induces mitochondrial biogenesis after brain ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Wu, Y; Zhang, P; Sha, H; Jia, J; Hu, Y; Zhu, J

    2012-03-15

    Stroke is a major cause of death worldwide. Previous studies have suggested both exercise and mitochondrial biogenesis contribute to improved post-ischemic recovery of brain function. However, the exact mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. On the other hand, the benefit of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in brain has been confirmed. In this study, we attempted to determine whether treadmill exercise induces functional improvement through regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis after brain ischemia. We subjected adult male rats to ischemia, followed by either treadmill exercise or non-exercise and analyzed the effect of exercise on the amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors, and mitochondrial protein. In the ischemia-exercise group, only peroxisome proliferator activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1) expression was increased significantly after 3 days of treadmill training. However, after 7 days of training, the levels of mtDNA, nuclear respiratory factor 1, NRF-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, TFAM, and the mitochondrial protein cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COXIV) and heat shock protein-60 (HSP60) also increased above levels observed in non-exercised ischemic animals. These changes followed with significant changes in behavioral scores and cerebral infarct volume. The results indicate that exercise can promote mitochondrial biogenesis after ischemic injury, which may serve as a novel component of exercise-induced repair mechanisms of the brain. Understanding the molecular basis for exercise-induced neuroprotection may be beneficial in the development of therapeutic approaches for brain recovery from the ischemic injury. Based upon our findings, stimulation or enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis may prove a novel neuroprotective strategy in the future. PMID:22266265

  1. Mild traumatic brain injuries in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is the commonest form of TBI. Though the name implies, it may not be mild in certain cases. There is a lot of heterogeneity in nomenclature, classification, evaluation and outcome of mTBI. We have reviewed the relevant articles on mTBI in adults, particularly its definition, evaluation and outcome, published in the last decade. The aspects of mTBI like pediatric age group, sports concussion, and postconcussion syndrome were not reviewed. There is general agreement that Glasgow coma score (GCS of 13 should not be considered as mTBI as the risk of intracranial lesion is higher than in patients with GCS 14-15. All patients with GCS of <15 should be evaluated with a computed tomography (CT scan. Patients with GCS 15 and risk factors or neurological symptoms should also be evaluated with CT scan. The outcome of mTBI depends on the combination of preinjury, injury and postinjury factors. Overall outcome of mTBI is good with mortality around 0.1% and disability around 10%.

  2. Synergistic effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and retinoic acid on inducing the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into neuron-like cells in adult rats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonghai Liu; Yucheng Song; Zunsheng Zhang; Xia Shen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND; Under induction of retinoic acid (RA), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can differentiate into nerve cells or neuron-like cells, which do not survive for a long time, so those are restricted to an application. Other neurotrophic factors can also differentiate into neuronal cells through inducing BMSCs; especially, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can delay natural death of neurons and play a key role in survival and growth of neurons. The combination of them is beneficial for differentiation of BMSCs.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of BDNF combining with RA on inducing differentiation of BMSCs to nerve cells of adult rats and compare the results between common medium group and single BDNF group.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING : Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Clinical Neurological Laboratory of Xuzhou MedicalCollege from September 2003 to April 2005. A total of 24 SD rats, of either gender, 2 months old,weighing 130-150 g, were provided by Experimental Animal Center of Xuzhou Medical College [certification: SYXK (su) 2002-0038]. Materials and reagents: low-glucose DMEM medium, bovine serum, BDNF,RA, trypsin, separating medium of lymphocyte, monoclonal antibody of mouse-anti-nestin, neuro-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibody, SABC kit, and diaminobenzidine (DAB) color agent. All these mentioned above were mainly provided by SIGMA Company, GIBCO Company and Boshide Company.METHODS: Bone marrow of SD rats was selected for density gradient centrifugation. BMSCs were undertaken primary culture and subculture; and then, those cells were induced respectively in various mediums in total of 3 groups, including control group (primary culture), BDNF group (20 μg/L BDNF) and BDNF+RA group (20 μg/L BDNF plus 20 μg/L RA). On the 3rd and the 7th days after induction, BMSCs were stained immunocytochemically with

  3. Ovariectomy-induced chronic abdominal hypernociception in rats: Relation with brain oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara B. Garrido-Suárez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ovarian hormone deficiency observed in menopausal women increases the production of reactive oxygen species, which could be implicated in central sensitization subjacent in chronic functional pain syndromes. Aims: To examine the hyperalgesic state induced by ovariectomy in adult rats and its relation to some oxidative stress outcomes. Methods: The female Wistar rats were divided into normal, sham ovariectomized (OVX and OVX groups, which were tested for mechanical and thermal hypernociception during 6 weeks and a single acetic acid-induced test 6 weeks after surgery. Redox biomarkers determinations of superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme activity, glutathione (GSH and nitrates/nitrites as an indicator of nitric oxide (NO concentrations were determined in the brain and cerebellum of 6 animals of each group. Results: Exclusivity OVX rats developed a robust state of mechanical hypernociception and allodynia in the abdomen, hindlimbs and proximal tail. Besides, thermal pain thresholds (hot plate decreased. That was established 3-4 weeks after OVX and lasted for the 6 weeks of the experiment. Increases in visceral sensitivity were also observed in OVX rats. SOD enzyme activity decreased in OVX rats, which showed major deficit for this enzymatic defense under visceral inflammatory injury. However GSH concentrations were increased in brain of OVX animals that allow the balance during acute inflammation. NO concentrations were raised only in OVX rats exposure to chemical inflammatory injury. Conclusions: OVX in rats provide a useful model, which mimics the functional pain in females that could be related with brain oxidative stress.

  4. Regulation and function of neurogenesis in the adult vertebrate brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendez-Otero R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most adult tissues retain a reservoir of self-renewing, multipotent stem cells that can generate differentiated tissue components. Until recently, the brain was thought to be an exception to this rule and for many years the pervasive dogma of neurobiology relegated neurogenesis to the embryonic and earlier postnatal stages of development. The discovery of constant neuronal replacement in the adult brain has changed the way we think about neurological diseases and about the exploration of new strategies for brain repair. In this review we will explore the potential of adult neural stem cells and we will present some of our own work on this subject. We will also discuss the possibility that adult neurogenesis and neuronal replacement may also play a role in therapies aimed at restoring impaired brain function. A better understanding of the various aspects of spontaneous neuronal replacement may also be used to increase the success of procedures with cell therapies.

  5. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert Tr; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. PMID:27300271

  6. GABA(A) receptor density is altered by cannabinoid treatment in the hippocampus of adult but not adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdurand, Mathieu; Dalton, Victoria Stephanie; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2010-09-10

    Cannabinoids are known to induce transient psychotic symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in healthy individuals and contribute to trigger schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals, particularly during adolescence. Converging preclinical evidence suggests important interactions between cannabinoid and GABAergic systems. In the present study, we compared the effects of cannabinoid treatment on GABA(A) receptor binding in the brain of adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (5 weeks old) and adult (10 weeks old) rats were treated with the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 (25, 50 or 100 microg/kg/day) or vehicle for 1, 4 or 14 days. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection and GABA(A) receptor density was measured in several brain regions using [(35)S]TBPS and in vitro autoradiography. Adolescent rats had higher numbers of GABA(A) receptors compared to adults. A 24% increase of binding in adult rats treated with 100 microg/kg HU210 for 14 days compared to controls was observed in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (16.1 versus 12.9 fmol/mg tissue equivalent, t=2.720, pHU210 did not affect GABA(A) receptors in adolescent rats in any treatment regimen and in adult rats treated with HU210 for 1 or 4 days. These data suggest that long-term, high-dose treatment with HU210 increases GABA(A) receptors in the hippocampus of adult rats, changes that may interfere with associated hippocampal cognitive functions such as learning and memory. In addition, our results suggest that the adolescent brain does not display the same compensatory mechanisms that are activated in the adult brain following cannabinoid treatment. PMID:20599838

  7. Ceftriaxone attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal brain injury is the leading cause of subsequent neurological disability in both term and preterm baby. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major factors involved in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Glutamate transporter GLT1, expressed mainly in mature astrocytes, is the major glutamate transporter in the brain. HIE induced excessive glutamate release which is not reuptaked by immature astrocytes may induce neuronal damage. Compounds, such as ceftriaxone, that enhance the expression of GLT1 may exert neuroprotective effect in HIE. Methods We used a neonatal rat model of HIE by unilateral ligation of carotid artery and subsequent exposure to 8% oxygen for 2 hrs on postnatal day 7 (P7 rats. Neonatal rats were administered three dosages of an antibiotic, ceftriaxone, 48 hrs prior to experimental HIE. Neurobehavioral tests of treated rats were assessed. Brain sections from P14 rats were examined with Nissl and immunohistochemical stain, and TUNEL assay. GLT1 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Pre-treatment with 200 mg/kg ceftriaxone significantly reduced the brain injury scores and apoptotic cells in the hippocampus, restored myelination in the external capsule of P14 rats, and improved the hypoxia-ischemia induced learning and memory deficit of P23-24 rats. GLT1 expression was observed in the cortical neurons of ceftriaxone treated rats. Conclusion These results suggest that pre-treatment of infants at risk for HIE with ceftriaxone may reduce subsequent brain injury.

  8. Transcriptional signature of an adult brain tumor in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loop Thomas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations and gene expression alterations in brain tumors have been extensively investigated, however the causes of brain tumorigenesis are largely unknown. Animal models are necessary to correlate altered transcriptional activity and tumor phenotype and to better understand how these alterations cause malignant growth. In order to gain insights into the in vivo transcriptional activity associated with a brain tumor, we carried out genome-wide microarray expression analyses of an adult brain tumor in Drosophila caused by homozygous mutation in the tumor suppressor gene brain tumor (brat. Results Two independent genome-wide gene expression studies using two different oligonucleotide microarray platforms were used to compare the transcriptome of adult wildtype flies with mutants displaying the adult bratk06028 mutant brain tumor. Cross-validation and stringent statistical criteria identified a core transcriptional signature of bratk06028 neoplastic tissue. We find significant expression level changes for 321 annotated genes associated with the adult neoplastic bratk06028 tissue indicating elevated and aberrant metabolic and cell cycle activity, upregulation of the basal transcriptional machinery, as well as elevated and aberrant activity of ribosome synthesis and translation control. One fifth of these genes show homology to known mammalian genes involved in cancer formation. Conclusion Our results identify for the first time the genome-wide transcriptional alterations associated with an adult brain tumor in Drosophila and reveal insights into the possible mechanisms of tumor formation caused by homozygous mutation of the translational repressor brat.

  9. Correlation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to cognitive impairment following traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dezhi Kang; Zhang Guo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can promote survival and differentiation of cholinergic, dopaminergic and motor neurons, and axonal regeneration. BDNF has neuroprotective effects on the nervous system. OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in BDNF expression and cognitive function in rats after brain injury DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neuropathology experiment was performed at the Second Research Room, Department of Neurosurgery, Fujian Medical University (China) from July 2007 to July 2008. MATERIALS: A total of 72 healthy, male, Sprague Dawley, rats were selected for this study. METHODS: Rat models of mild and moderate traumatic brain injury were created by percussion, according to Feeney's method (n = 24, each group). A bone window was made in rats from the sham operation group (n = 24), but no attack was conducted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At days 1,2, 4 and 7 following injury, BDNF expression in the rat frontal lobe cortex, hippocampus and basal forebrain was examined by immunohistochemistry (streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method). Changes in rat cognitive function were assessed by the walking test, balance-beam test and memory function detection. RESULTS: Cognitive impairment was aggravated at day 2, and recovered to normal at days 3 and 7 in rats from the mild and moderate traumatic brain injury groups. BDNF expression in the rat frontal lobe cortex, hippocampus and basal forebrain was increased at 1 day, decreased at day 2, and then gradually increased in the mild and moderate traumatic brain injury groups. BDNF expression was greater in rats from the moderate traumatic brain injury group than in the sham operation and mild traumatic brain injury groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: BDNF expression in the rat frontal lobe cortex, hippocampus and basal forebrain is correlated to cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. BDNF has a protective effect on cognitive function in rats

  10. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawrylycz, M.J.; Beckmann, C.F.; et al., et al.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising

  11. Brain dysfunctions in Wistar rats exposed to municipal landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain damage induced by Olusosun and Aba-Eku municipal landfill leachates was investigated in Wistar rats. Male rats were orally exposed to 1–25% concentrations of the leachates for 30 days. Catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations in the brain and serum of rats were evaluated; body and brain weight gain and histopathology were examined. There was significant (p < 0.05 decrease in body weight gain and SOD activity but increase in absolute and relative brain weight gain, MDA concentration and CAT activity in both brain and serum of treated rats. The biochemical parameters, which were more altered in the brain than serum, corroborated the neurologic lesions; neurodegeneration of purkinje cells with loss of dendrites, perineural vacuolations of the neuronal cytoplasm (spongiosis and neuronal necrosis in the brain. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, sulphates, ammonia, chloride and phosphate in the leachate samples were above standard permissible limits. The interactions of the neurotoxic constituents of the leachates induced the observed brain damage in the rats via oxidative damage. This suggests health risk in wildlife and human populations.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor II messenger ribonucleic acids are synthesized in the choroid plexus of the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies demonstrating the presence of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their receptors in the brain suggest a role of the IGFs in the central nervous system. IGF-II has been implicated as the predominant IGF in brain of mature animals based on studies of immunoreactive peptide and of IGF-II mRNAs. To obtain information about the sites of synthesis of IGF-II in adult rat brain, a 32P-labeled 31 base long synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide complementary in sequence to trailer peptide coding sequences in rat IGF-II mRNA (IGF-II 31 mer) was hybridized with coronal sections of fixed rat brain. The IGF-II 31 mer showed specific hybridization with the choroid plexus throughout rat brain, whereas in other brain regions, structures or cells, hybridization was not discernibly above background. These findings suggest that the choroid plexus is a primary site of synthesis of IGF-II, a probable source of IGF-II in cerebrospinal fluid, and a potential source of IGF-II for actions on target cells within the adult rat brain

  13. Experience-dependent neural plasticity in the adult damaged brain

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Abigail L.; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Jones, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral experience is at work modifying the structure and function of the brain throughout the lifespan, but it has a particularly dramatic influence after brain injury. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of experience in reorganizing the adult damaged brain, with a focus on findings from rodent stroke models of chronic upper extremity (hand and arm) impairments. A prolonged and widespread process of repair and reorganization of surviving neural circuits is instigated by in...

  14. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as the nuclei of brain cells. (orig.)

  15. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  16. Brain catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujino,Kazuyuki

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT induced disappearance of catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, were measured in selected areas of the brainstem and hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. The catecholamine levels were measured by a sensitive radioenzymatic assay method combined with microdissection of the rat brain. The adrenaline concentration was higher in the area A1 of young SHR, but not in adult SHR, than in age-matched control rats. Noradrenaline concentrations and the alpha-MPT induced noradrenaline disappearance were less in the rostral part of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS and the nucleus hypothalamic anterior of young SHR, and in the rostral part of the NTS of adult SHR. On the other hand in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, the concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were the same as in control rats in the examined areas. The alpha-MPT induced noradrenaline disappearance was less in the rostral part of the NTS of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Dopamine concentrations and the alpha-MPT induced dopamine disappearance were the same in the examined areas of SHR and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. The results suggest that SHR have a change in adrenergic neural activity in the brainstem and a decrease in noradrenergic neural activity in the brainstem and hypothalamus while DOCA-salt hypertensive rats have a decrease in noradrenergic neural activity in the brainstem. Such changes in brain catecholaminergic neurons may have played an important role in the development of hypertension in these rats.

  17. Diversity of Neural Precursors in the Adult Mammalian Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaguidi, Michael A; Stadel, Ryan P; Berg, Daniel A; Sun, Jiaqi; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    Aided by advances in technology, recent studies of neural precursor identity and regulation have revealed various cell types as contributors to ongoing cell genesis in the adult mammalian brain. Here, we use stem-cell biology as a framework to highlight the diversity of adult neural precursor populations and emphasize their hierarchy, organization, and plasticity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26988967

  18. Dexmedetomidine Postconditioning Reduces Brain Injury after Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Neonatal Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoyan; Ma, Hong; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2016-06-01

    Perinatal asphyxia can lead to death and severe disability. Brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injury is the major pathophysiology contributing to death and severe disability after perinatal asphyxia. Here, seven-day old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left brain HI. Dexmedetomidine was given intraperitoneally after the brain HI. Yohimbine or atipamezole, two α2 adrenergic receptor antagonists, were given 10 min before the dexmedetomidine injection. Neurological outcome was evaluated 7 or 28 days after the brain HI. Frontal cerebral cortex was harvested 6 h after the brain HI. Left brain HI reduced the left cerebral hemisphere weight assessed 7 days after the brain HI. This brain tissue loss was dose-dependently attenuated by dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine applied within 1 h after the brain HI produced this effect. Dexmedetomidine attenuated the brain HI-induced brain tissue and cell loss as well as neurological and cognitive dysfunction assessed from 28 days after the brain HI. Dexmedetomidine postconditioning-induced neuroprotection was abolished by yohimbine or atipamezole. Brain HI increased tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β in the brain tissues. This increase was attenuated by dexmedetomidine. Atipamezole inhibited this dexmedetomidine effect. Our results suggest that dexmedetomidine postconditioning reduces HI-induced brain injury in the neonatal rats. This effect may be mediated by α2 adrenergic receptor activation that inhibits inflammation in the ischemic brain tissues. PMID:26932203

  19. Are soluble and membrane-bound rat brain acetylcholinesterase different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt-soluble and detergent-soluble acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from adult rat brain were purified to homogeneity and studied with the aim to establish the differences existing between these two forms. It was found that the enzymatic activities of the purified salt-soluble AChE as well as the detergent-soluble AChE were dependent on the Triton X-100 concentration. Moreover, the interaction of salt-soluble AChE with liposomes suggests amphiphilic behaviour of this enzyme. Serum cholinesterase (ChE) did not bind to liposomes but its activity was also detergent-dependent. Detergent-soluble AChE remained in solution below critical micellar concentrations of Triton X-100. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified, Biobeads-treated and iodinated detergent-soluble 11 S AChE showed, under non reducing conditions, bands of 69 kD, 130 kD and greater than 250 kD corresponding, respectively, to monomers, dimers and probably tetramers of the same polypeptide chain. Under reducing conditions, only a 69 kD band was detected. It is proposed that an amphiphilic environment stabilizes the salt-soluble forms of AChE in the brain in vivo and that detergent-soluble Biobeads-treated 11 S AChE possess hydrophobic domain(s) different from the 20 kD peptide already described

  20. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  1. A combined solenoid-surface RF coil for high-resolution whole-brain rat imaging on a 3.0 Tesla clinical MR scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Yuan, Chun; Hayes, Cecil E

    2010-09-01

    Rat brain models effectively simulate a multitude of human neurological disorders. Improvements in coil design have facilitated the wider utilization of rat brain models by enabling the utilization of clinical MR scanners for image acquisition. In this study, a novel coil design, subsequently referred to as the rat brain coil, is described that exploits and combines the strengths of both solenoids and surface coils into a simple, multichannel, receive-only coil dedicated to whole-brain rat imaging on a 3.0 T clinical MR scanner. Compared with a multiturn solenoid mouse body coil, a 3-cm surface coil, a modified Helmholtz coil, and a phased-array surface coil, the rat brain coil improved signal-to-noise ratio by approximately 72, 61, 78, and 242%, respectively. Effects of the rat brain coil on amplitudes of static field and radiofrequency field uniformity were similar to each of the other coils. In vivo, whole-brain images of an adult male rat were acquired with a T(2)-weighted spin-echo sequence using an isotropic acquisition resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.25 mm(3) in 60.6 min. Multiplanar images of the in vivo rat brain with identification of anatomic structures are presented. Improvement in signal-to-noise ratio afforded by the rat brain coil may broaden experiments that utilize clinical MR scanners for in vivo image acquisition. PMID:20535812

  2. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiong; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Early life adversity, such as postnatal maternal separation (MS), play a central role in the development of psychopathologies during individual ontogeny. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day (PND) 1–21) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21), adolescent (PND 35) and young adult (PND 56) Wistar rats...

  3. Responsiveness of fetal rat brain cells to glia maturation factor during neoplastic transformation in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, A; Laerum, O D; Bock, E

    1981-01-01

    The effect of partially purified extracts from adult pig brains containing a glia maturation protein factor (BE) has been investigated on neural cells during carcinogenesis. Pregnant BD IX-rats were given a single transplacental dose of the carcinogen ethylnitrosourea (EtNU) on the 18th day of...... gestation. The brains of the treated fetuses were transferred to cell culture and underwent neoplastic transformation with a characteristic sequence of phenotypic alterations which could be divided into five different stages. During the first 40 days after explantation (stage I & II) BE induced...... appreciable effect on GFA-content was seen any longer, although some few weakly GFA positive cells could be observed in all permanent cell lines. Fetal rat brain cells therefore seem to become less responsive to this differentiation inducer during neoplastic transformation in cell culture....

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation activates specific regions in rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive ther...

  5. Differential effects of magnetic field exposure from domestic power supply on loco motor and exploratory behavior of an adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we have examined the low intense magnetic field exposed on adult rats to understand effect of several behavioral parameters. The rats are tested in the open field and spontaneous alternation task after either a single or chronic exposure to the magnetic field. We found that magnetic field exposure had no effect on locomotor behavior in the adult. However, the exploratory behavior of adult rats in the open field was significantly affected. Indeed, we found a consistent increase in behavior performance viz. exploration time and number of exploration events in rats exposed to magnetic field. Our results demonstrate behavioral changes after magnetic field exposure in adult subjects. This also suggests possible deleterious effects of magnetic field exposure in the brain. (author)

  6. Histomorphological Phenotyping of the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaleva, Anna; Kannan, Meghna; Wagner, Christel; Yalcin, Binnaz

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a series of standard operating procedures for morphological phenotyping of the mouse brain using basic histology. Many histological studies of the mouse brain use qualitative approaches based on what the human eye can detect. Consequently, some phenotypic information may be missed. Here we describe a quantitative approach for the assessment of brain morphology that is simple and robust. A total of 78 measurements are made throughout the brain at specific and well-defined regions, including the cortex, the hippocampus, and the cerebellum. Experimental design and timeline considerations, including strain background effects, the importance of sectioning quality, measurement variability, and efforts to correct human errors are discussed. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584555

  7. Erythropoietin can promote survival of cerebral cells by downregulating Bax gene after traumatic brain injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an important cause of adult mortality and morbidity. Erythropoietin (Epo has been shown to promote the viability of cerebral cells by upregulating Bcl-2 gene; however, Epo may exert its antiapoptotic effect via the differential regulation of the expression of genes involved in the apoptotic process. Aim : The present study examined the neuroprotective effect of Epo as a survival factor through the regulation of the Bax. Materials and Methods : Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Recombinant human EPO treated (rhEPO TBI, vehicle-treated TBI, and sham-operated. Traumatic brain injury was induced by the Feeney free-falling model. Rats were killed 5, 12, 24, 72, 120, or 168 h after TBI. Regulation of Bcl-2 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. Results : Bax mRNA and protein levels were lower in the rhEPO-treated rat brains than in the vehicle-treated rat brains. Induction of Bax expression peaked at 24 h and remained stable for 72-120 h in vehicle-treated rat brains, whereas induction of Bax expression was only slightly elevated in rhEPO-treated rat brains. The number of TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling(TUNEL-positive cells in the rhEPO-treated rat brains was far fewer than in the vehicle-treated rat brains. Conclusions : Epo exerts neuroprotective effect against traumatic brain injury via reducing Bax gene expression involved in inhibiting TBI-induced neuronal cell death.

  8. Systemic physiology and neuroapoptotic profiles in young and adult rats exposed to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Rami Mossad; Krammer, Caspar Weel; Hansen, Tom Giedsing;

    2015-01-01

    experimental groups receiving dexmedetomidine, while propofol administration was associated with increased systemic lactate levels and metabolic acidosis. A substantial difference in anaesthesia/surgery-induced neuroapoptosis was found between young and adult rats in several brain regions. Combination of...... one of four anaesthetics regimens: (i) sevoflurane/dexmedetomidine, (ii) sevoflurane/fentanyl; (iii) propofol/dexmedetomidine, and (iv) propofol/fentanyl. Animals underwent a dorsal skin flap procedure while physiologic, metabolic and biochemical parameters were closely monitored. Neuroapoptotic...

  9. Alteration of Forebrain Neurogenesis after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    OpenAIRE

    ValeryAMatarazzo; PatrickGauthier

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers a complex cellular response at the injury site, leading to the formation of a dense scar tissue. Despite this local tissue remodeling, the consequences of SCI at the cellular level in distant rostral sites (i.e. brain), remain unknown. In this study, we asked whether cervical SCI could alter cell dynamics in neurogenic areas of the adult rat forebrain. To this aim, we quantified BrdU incorporation and determined the phenotypes of newly generated cells (neuron...

  10. Effects of Neonatal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure on Cognitive, Emotional, and Motor Function in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick A Forcelli; Kozlowski, Ryan; Snyder, Charles; Kondratyev, Alexei; Gale, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the potent proapoptotic effect of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in developmental rodent models, little is known about the long-term impact of exposure during brain development. Clinically, this is of growing concern. To determine the behavioral consequences of such exposure, we examined phenobarbital, phenytoin, and lamotrigine for their effects on adult behaviors after administration to neonatal rats throughout the second postnatal week. AED treatment from postnatal days 7 to 13...

  11. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  12. Does Inflammation after Stroke Affect the Developing Brain Differently than Adult Brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Vexler, Zinaida S.; Yenari, Midori A.

    2009-01-01

    The immature brain is prone to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and stroke. The incidence of arterial stroke in newborns is similar to that in the elderly. However, the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury is profoundly affected by age at the time of the insult. Necrosis is a dominant type of neuronal cell death in adult brain, whereas widespread neuronal apoptosis is unique for the early postnatal synaptogenesis period. The inflammatory response, in conjunction with excitotoxic and oxidative...

  13. 65zinc uptake from blood into brain and other tissues in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc is essential for normal growth, development and brain function although little is known about brain zinc homeostasis. Therefore, in this investigation we have studied 65Zn uptake from blood into brain and other tissues and have measured the blood-brain barrier permeability to 65Zn in the anaesthetized rat in vivo. Adult male Wistar rats within the weight range 500-600 g were used. 65ZnCl2 and [125I]albumin, the latter serving as a vascular marker, were injected in a bolus of normal saline I.V. Sequential arterial blood samples were taken during experiments that lasted between 5 min and 5 hr. At termination, samples from the liver, spleen, pancreas, lung, heart, muscle, kidney, bone, testis, ileum, blood cells, csf, and whole brain were taken and analysed for radio-isotope activity. Data have been analysed by Graphical Analysis which suggests 65Zn uptake from blood by all tissues sampled was unidirectional during this experimental period except brain, where at circulation times less than 30 min, 65Zn fluxes were bidirectional. In addition to the blood space, the brain appears to contain a rapidly exchanging compartment(s) for 65Zn of about 4 ml/100g which is not csf

  14. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Seki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organisation of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality, extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which generates high contrast images of fibre structures, can characterise unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography (CT were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualisation of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats.

  15. Supplementation of Adult Rats with Moderate Amounts of β-Carotene Modulates the Redox Status in Plasma without Exerting Pro-Oxidant Effects in the Brain: A Safer Alternative to Food Fortification with Vitamin A?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Schnorr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the antioxidant potential of vitamin A, recent studies reported that chronic retinol ester supplementation can also exert pro-oxidant effects and neurotoxicity in vivo and raises the mortality rates among healthy subjects. Our aim was to find evidence for a safer (i.e., less toxic molecule with provitamin A activity. Therefore, we investigated whether chronic supplementation of healthy Wistar rats with β-carotene (0.6, 3, and 6 mg/kg/day would demonstrate antioxidant characteristics without leading to pro-oxidant side effects in the brain. Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP, thiobarbituric reactive species level (TBARS, and total reduced thiol content (SH were evaluated in plasma. TBARS and SH were additionally evaluated in selected brain regions together with superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity. In the present study, we show that β-carotene is able to exert antioxidant activity in plasma without triggering pro-oxidant events in the brain, providing evidence that may justify its further evaluation as a safer nutritional supplement with provitamin A activity.

  16. Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Paul F.; Ozias, Marlies K.; Carlson, Susan E.; Reed, Gregory A.; Winter, Michelle K; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Levant, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long–Evans rats. An α-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 20–22% ...

  17. {sup 26}Al incorporation into the brain of rat fetuses through the placental barrier and subsequent metabolism in postnatal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, Sakae, E-mail: yumoto-s@viola.ocn.ne.j [Yumoto Institute of Neurology, Kawadacho 6-11, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0054 (Japan); Nagai, Hisao [College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Kakimi, Shigeo [Faculty of Medicine, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Aluminium (Al) inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain. We used {sup 26}Al as a tracer, and measured {sup 26}Al incorporation into rat fetuses through the placental barrier by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). From day 15 to day 18 of gestation, {sup 26}AlCl{sub 3} was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats. Considerable amounts of {sup 26}Al were measured in the tissues of newborn rats immediately after birth. The amounts of {sup 26}Al in the liver and kidneys decreased rapidly during postnatal development. However, approximately 15% of {sup 26}Al incorporated into the brain of fetuses remained in the brain of adult rats 730 days after birth.

  18. Transport of 3-hydroxybutyrate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies by a number of investigators have shown that 3-hydroxybutyrate is a preferred energy substrate for brain during early development. Since recent studies by the authors group suggest that the utilization of oxidizable substrates by brain may be regulated in part by transport across the plasma membrane, the authors investigated the transport of [3H] D- and L-3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxy-[3-14C] butyrate by primary cultures of rat brain astrocytes. The data is consistent with the hypothesis that 3-hydroxybutyrate is taken up into cultured rat brain astrocytes by both diffusion and a carrier mediated transport system, and further support the concept that transport at the cellular level contributes to the regulation of substrate utilization by brain cells

  19. Asymmetry of the Structural Brain Connectome in Healthy Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilha, Leonardo; Nesland, Travis; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is now possible to map neural connections in vivo across the whole brain (i.e., the brain connectome). This is a promising development in neuroscience since many health and disease processes are believed to arise from the architecture of neural networks. Objective: To describe the normal range of hemispheric asymmetry in structural connectivity in healthy older adults. Materials and Methods: We obtained high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) from 17 he...

  20. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C.; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M.; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P.; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of gene...

  1. Neuronal regeneration in a zebrafish model of adult brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihito Kishimoto

    2012-03-01

    Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the adult mammalian forebrain are a potential source of neurons for neural tissue repair after brain insults such as ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI. Recent studies show that neurogenesis in the ventricular zone (VZ of the adult zebrafish telencephalon has features in common with neurogenesis in the adult mammalian SVZ. Here, we established a zebrafish model to study injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult brain. We show that the adult zebrafish brain possesses a remarkable capacity for neuronal regeneration. Telencephalon injury prompted the proliferation of neuronal precursor cells (NPCs in the VZ of the injured hemisphere, compared with in the contralateral hemisphere. The distribution of NPCs, viewed by BrdU labeling and ngn1-promoter-driven GFP, suggested that they migrated laterally and reached the injury site via the subpallium and pallium. The number of NPCs reaching the injury site significantly decreased when the fish were treated with an inhibitor of γ-secretase, a component of the Notch signaling pathway, suggesting that injury-induced neurogenesis mechanisms are at least partly conserved between fish and mammals. The injury-induced NPCs differentiated into mature neurons in the regions surrounding the injury site within a week after the injury. Most of these cells expressed T-box brain protein (Tbr1, suggesting they had adopted the normal neuronal fate in this region. These results suggest that the telencephalic VZ contributes to neural tissue recovery following telencephalic injury in the adult zebrafish, and that the adult zebrafish is a useful model for regenerative medicine.

  2. Summary of high field diffusion MRI and microscopy data demonstrate microstructural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove; Kroenke, Christopher D; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2016-09-01

    This data article describes a large, high resolution diffusion MRI data set from fixed rat brain acquired at high field strength. The rat brain samples consist of 21 adult rat brain hemispheres from animals exposed to chronic mild stress (anhedonic and resilient) and controls. Histology from amygdala of the same brain hemispheres is also included with three different stains: DiI and Hoechst stained microscopic images (confocal microscopy) and ALDH1L1 antibody based immunohistochemistry. These stains may be used to evaluate neurite density (DiI), nuclear density (Hoechst) and astrocytic density (ALDH1L1). This combination of high field diffusion data and high resolution images from microscopy enables comparison of microstructural parameters derived from diffusion MRI to histological microstructure. The data provided here is used in the article (Jespersen, 2016) [1]. PMID:27508246

  3. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  4. Development of neural stem cell in the adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Xin; Kang, Eunchai; Liu, Cindy Y.; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2008-01-01

    New neurons are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus and in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles throughout life. The origin of these new neurons is believed to be from multipotent adult neural stem cells. Aided by new methodologies, significant progress has been made in the characterization of neural stem cells and their development in the adult brain. Recent studies have also begun to reveal essential extrinsic and intrinsic molecular mechani...

  5. Cocaine disposition in discrete regions of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Davis, J M

    1993-05-01

    It has been proposed that various effects of psychoactive drugs on the central nervous system may be related to the capacity of the drug to selectively concentrate in specific regions of the brain. In rat brain, cocaine effects on striatal and nucleus accumbens dopaminergic systems show quantitative differences. However, the disposition of cocaine in various brain regions has not been reported. In the present studies we examined the cocaine concentrations over time in serum and discrete brain regions of the rat after single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. At different time points (5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min) after i.p. injection of cocaine hydrochloride (10 mg kg-1, free base) the rats were decapitated and cocaine in serum and various brain regions was quantitated by a specific gas liquid chromatographic method. There was large inter-individual variability in different rats at each time-point. The disposition pattern of cocaine in rats after i.p. administration was similar to that observed in humans after intranasal administration. Initial absorption rate was rapid and, on average, the peak levels of cocaine were achieved in 10 min. The cocaine levels remained relatively high over the next 50 min indicating continual absorption, and then declined with a rate such that the levels 4 h after cocaine administration were undetectable in most of the animals. The overall changes in cocaine levels in various brain regions paralleled the serum concentrations. The area under the cocaine concentration-time curve (AUC) revealed more than three-fold differences in cocaine accumulation in various brain regions. This unequal disposition of cocaine may be responsible in part for differential biochemical effects in different brain regions. PMID:8499585

  6. Detection of neural stem cells function in rats with traumatic brain injury by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hai-liang; SUN Hua-ping; WU Xing; SHA Hong-ying; FENG Xiao-yuan; ZHU Jian-hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Previously we had successfully tracked adult human neural stem cells (NSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) in host human brain after transplantation In vivo non-invasively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the function of the transplanted NSCs could not be evaluated by the method. In the study, we applied manganese-enhanced MRI (ME-MRI) to detect NSCs function after implantation in brain of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI) In vivo.Methods Totally 40 TBI rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group. In group 1, the TBI rats did not receive NSCs transplantation. MnCl2-4H2O was intravenously injected, hyperosmolar mannitol was delivered to disrupt rightside blood brain barrier, and its contralateral forepaw was electrically stimulated. In group 2, the TBI rats received NSCs (labeled with SPIO) transplantation, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1. In group 3, the TBI rats received NSCs (labeled with SPIO) transplantation, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1, but diltiazem was introduced during the electrical stimulation period. In group 4, the TBI rats received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injection, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1.Results Hyperintense signals were detected by ME-MRI in the cortex areas associated with somatosensory in TBI rats of group 2. These signals, which could not be induced in TBI rats of groups 1 and 4, disappeared when diltiazem was introduced in TBI rats of group 3.Conclusion In this initial study, we mapped implanted NSCs activity and its functional participation within local brain area in TBI rats by ME-MRI technique, paving the way for further pre-clinical research.

  7. Establishment of rat model of opening blood-brain barrier with conventional whole-brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a rat model of opening blood-brain barrier with conventional whole-brain irradiation. Methods: According to different dosage of irradiation, a hundred Sprague-Dowley rats were randomly assigned into five groups, the control group (no irradiation), and four irradiated groups at 10 grays, 20 grays, 30 grays and 40 grays. The rats were administered to conventional fraction irradiation (2 Gy/day and 5 days a week) with routine 60Co gamma-rays. The intake of feed and autonomic activities were observed every day. Changes in skin and hair in the irradiated field, body weight, and center nervous system symptoms and signs were examined and recorded every week during irradiation. The neurological status was ranked on a scale based on the Mickley's Scale. Ultrastructure changes of blood-brain barrier at 16 hours after the last irradiation were examined with electron microscope using lanthanum trace labeling. Results: Neither abnormal nervous sign, nor change of feed intake, skin and hair was observed in all the rats. No statistically significant difference of body weight was observed among the five groups (P>0.05). The effect that radiation can directly damage the function and structure of blood-brain barrier was proportional to irradiation doses. Conclusion: This rat model is a suitable for study on blood-brain barrier pathophysiology and molecular biology after conventional whole-brain irradiation. (authors)

  8. Fatigue in adults with traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Kendzerska, Tetyana; Mollayeva, Shirin;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite strong indications that fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom after traumatic brain injury, little is known about its frequency, natural history, or relation to other factors. The current protocol outlines a strategy for a systematic review that will identify......, assess, and critically appraise studies that assessed predictors for fatigue and the consequences of fatigue on at least two separate time points following traumatic brain injury. METHODS/DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, and PsycINFO will be systematically...... quality appraisal. Randomized control trial data will be treated as a cohort. The quality will be assessed using the criteria defined by Hayden and colleagues. The review will be conducted and reported in compliance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...

  9. TRIMETHYLTIN DISRUPTS ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONDING IN ADULT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a limbic-system toxicant which also produces sensory dysfunction in adult animals. In the present experiment, the authors examined the effects of TMT on the acoustic startle response. Adult male, Long-Evans rats (N=12/dose) received a single i.p. injection o...

  10. Adult Brain Plasticity Elicited by Anomia Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Katri; Laine, Matti; Tarkiainen, Antti; Järvensivu, Tiina; Martin, Nadine; Salmelin, Riitta

    2003-01-01

    We describe a study where a specific treatment method for word-finding difficulty (so-called contextual priming technique, which combines massive repetition priming with semantic priming) was applied with three chronic left hemisphere-damaged aphasics. Both before and after treatment, which focused on naming of a series of pictures, naming-related brain activity was measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Due to its excellent temporal resolution and good spatial resolution, we were able to ...

  11. [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapy has become a third major treatment option for patients with brain tumors, in addition to surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gliomas is no longer limited to recurrent disease. Temozolomide has become the standard of care in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Several ongoing trials seek to define the role of chemotherapy in the primary care of other gliomas. Some of these studies are no longer only based on histological diagnoses, but take into consideration molecular markers such as MGMT promoter methylation and loss of genetic material on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas. In contrast, there is no established role for chemotherapy in other tumors such as ependymomas, meningiomas or neurinomas. Primary cerebral lymphomas are probably the only brain tumors which can be cured by chemotherapy alone and only by chemotherapy. The chemotherapy of brain metastases follows the recommendations for the respective primary tumors. Further, strategies of combined radiochemotherapy using mainly temozolomide or topotecan are currently explored. Leptomeningeal metastases are treated by radiotherapy or systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy depending on their pattern of growth. PMID:18253773

  12. Naoxintong dose effects on inflammatory factor expression in the rat brain following focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjian Zhang; Li Xü; Zuoran Chen; Shuchao Hu; Liying Zhang; Haiyan Li; Ruichun Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Certain components of tetramethylpyrazine, a traditional Chinese medicine, exhibit protective effects against brain injury.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different Naoxintong doses on expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (κ B), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and complement 3 in rats following focal cerebral ischemia.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Neurology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from June 2004 to June 2006. MATERIAIS: A total of 150 adult, healthy, male, Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 280-320 g, were selected. Naoxintong powder (mainly comprising szechwan lovage rhizome, milkvetch root, danshen root, and radix angelicae sinensis) was obtained from Buchang Pharmacy Co., Ltd. in Xianyang City of Shanxi Province of China, lot number 040608.METHODS: The rats were randomly assigned into sham operation, saline, high-dose Naoxintong, moderate-dose Naoxintong, and low-dose Naoxintong groups, with 30 rats in each group. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were established using the suture method, with the exception of the sham operation group. Rats in the high-dose, moderate-dose and low-dose Naoxintong groups received 4, 2, and 1 glkg Naoxintong respectively, by gavage. Rats in the saline group were treated with 1 mL saline by gavage. All rats were administered by garage at 5 and 23 hours following surgery, and subsequently, once per day.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 6, 24, 48, 72 hours, and 7 days following model establishment, brain water content was measured. Histopathological changes in brain tissues were detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expression of nuclear factor- κB, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and complement 3 was examined by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: A total of 150 rats were included in the final analysis with no loss. Brain water content was significantly increased in the ischemic hemisphere of rats from the saline, as

  13. Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioral deficits including memory. Recently, accumulating lines of evidence showed that dietary enrichment with nutritional antioxidants could reduce brain damage and improve cognitive function. In this study, possible protective effect of Zingiber officinale, a medicinal plant reputed for neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-related brain damage, on brain damage and memory deficit induced by focal cerebral ischemia was elucidated. Male adult Wistar rats were administrated an alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome orally 14 days before and 21 days after the permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (MCAO. Cognitive function assessment was performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after MCAO using the Morris water maze test. The brain infarct volume and density of neurons in hippocampus were also determined. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus was also quantified at the end of experiment. The results showed that cognitive function and neurons density in hippocampus of rats receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved while the brain infarct volume was decreased. The cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect occurred partly via the antioxidant activity of the extract. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome to protect against focal cerebral ischemia.

  14. Fetal hypothalamic transplants into brain irradiated rats: Graft morphometry and host behavioral responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that neural implants can ameliorate or prevent some of the long-term changes associated with CNS irradiation. Using a rat model, the initial study focused on establishing motor, regulatory, and morphological changes associated with brain radiation treatments. Secondly, fetal hypothalamic tissue grafts were placed into the third ventricle of rats which had been previously irradiated. Adult male Long Evans rats received one of three radiation doses (15, 22.5, ampersand 30 Gy) or no radiation. Three days after irradiation, 7 animals in each dose group received an embryonic day 17 hypothalamic graft into the third ventricle while the remaining 8-9 animals in each group received injections of vehicle solution (sham). Few changes were observed in the 15 and 22.5 Gy animals, however rats in the 30 Gy treatment group showed stereotypic and ambulatory behavioral hyperactivity 32 weeks after irradiation. Regulatory changes in the high dose group included decreased growth rate and decreased urine osmolalities, but these measures were extremely variable among animals. Morphological results demonstrated that 30 Gy irradiated animals showed extensive necrosis primarily in the fimbria, which extended into the internal capsule, optic nerve, hippocampus, and thalamus. Hemorrhages were found in the hippocampus, thalamus, and fimbria. Defects in the blood-brain barrier also were evident by entry of intravascularly injected horseradish peroxidase into the parenchyma of the brain. Animals in the 30 Gy grafted group showed fewer behavioral changes and less brain damage than their sham grafted counterparts. Specifically, activity measures were comparable to normal levels, and a dilute urine was not found in the 30 Gy implanted rats. Morphological changes support these behavioral results since only two 30 Gy implanted rats showed necrosis

  15. Fetal hypothalamic transplants into brain irradiated rats: Graft morphometry and host behavioral responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlman, S.H.; Rubin, P.; White, H.C.; Wiegand, S.J.; Gash, D.M. (Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that neural implants can ameliorate or prevent some of the long-term changes associated with CNS irradiation. Using a rat model, the initial study focused on establishing motor, regulatory, and morphological changes associated with brain radiation treatments. Secondly, fetal hypothalamic tissue grafts were placed into the third ventricle of rats which had been previously irradiated. Adult male Long Evans rats received one of three radiation doses (15, 22.5, 30 Gy) or no radiation. Three days after irradiation, 7 animals in each dose group received an embryonic day 17 hypothalamic graft into the third ventricle while the remaining 8-9 animals in each group received injections of vehicle solution (sham). Few changes were observed in the 15 and 22.5 Gy animals, however rats in the 30 Gy treatment group showed stereotypic and ambulatory behavioral hyperactivity 32 weeks after irradiation. Regulatory changes in the high dose group included decreased growth rate and decreased urine osmolalities, but these measures were extremely variable among animals. Morphological results demonstrated that 30 Gy irradiated animals showed extensive necrosis primarily in the fimbria, which extended into the internal capsule, optic nerve, hippocampus, and thalamus. Hemorrhages were found in the hippocampus, thalamus, and fimbria. Defects in the blood-brain barrier also were evident by entry of intravascularly injected horseradish peroxidase into the parenchyma of the brain. Animals in the 30 Gy grafted group showed fewer behavioral changes and less brain damage than their sham grafted counterparts. Specifically, activity measures were comparable to normal levels, and a dilute urine was not found in the 30 Gy implanted rats. Morphological changes support these behavioral results since only two 30 Gy implanted rats showed necrosis.

  16. Hydrophilic solute transport across the rat blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain capillary permeability-surface area products (PS) of hydrophilic solutes ranging in size from 180 to 5,500 Daltons were measured in rats according to the method of Ohno, Pettigrew and Rapoport. The distribution volume of 70 KD dextran at 10 minutes after i.v. injection was also measured to determine the residual volume of blood in brain tissue at the time of sacrifice. Small test solutes were injected in pairs in order to elucidate whether their transfer into the brain proceeds by diffusion through water- or lipid-filled channels or by vesicular transport. This issue was examined in rats whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) was presumed to be intact (untreated) and in rats that received intracarotid infusions to open the BBB (isosmotic salt (ISS) and hyperosmolar arabinose). Ohno PS values of 3H-inulin and 14C-L-glucose in untreated rats were found to decrease as the labelling time was lengthened. This was evidence that a rapidly equilibrating compartment exists between blood and brain that renders the Ohno two-compartment model inadequate for computing true transfer rate constants. When the data were reanalyzed using a multi-compartment graphical analysis, solutes with different molecular radii were found to enter the brain at approximately equal rates. Furthermore, unidirectional transport is likely to be initiated by solute adsorption to a glycocalyx coat on the luminal surface of brain capillary endothelium. Apparently, more inulin than L-glucose was adsorbed, which may account for its slightly faster transfer across the BBB. After rats were treated with intracarotid infusions of ISS or hyperosmolar arabinose, solute PS values were significantly increased, but the ratio of PS for each of the solute pairs approached that of their free-diffusion coefficients

  17. Alterations in substance P binding in brain nuclei of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substance P binding sites were characterized in brain nuclei of young (4-wk-old) and adult (16-wk-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats by quantitative autoradiography. Young SHR presented higher affinity constants (K/sub A/) than young WKY. The changes were restricted to locus coeruleus, the area postrema, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and to discrete areas located in lobes 9 and 10 of the vermis cerebelli of SHR. There were no differences in the maximal binding capacity (B/sub max/) except in the nucleus ambiguus where the B/sub max/ was lower than WKY. Conversely, the number of substance P binding sites was higher in the locus coeruleus, the nucleus tegmentalis dorsalis, the nucleus ambiguus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the hypoglossal nucleus, the inferior olivary nucleus, and lobes 9 and 10 of the vermis cerebelli of adult SHR when compared with adult WKY. The results support the hypothesis of a role for brain substance P in blood pressure regulation and in genetic hypertension in rats

  18. Effect of a water-maze procedure on the redox mechanisms in brain parts of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andreevna Krivova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze (MWM is a tool for assessment of age-related cognitive deficits. In our work, MWM was used for appraisal of cognitive deficits in 11-month-old rats and investigation of the effect exerted by training in the Morris water maze on the redox mechanisms in rat brain parts. Young adult (3-month-old and aged (11-month-old male rats were trained in the water maze. Intact animals of the corresponding age were used as the reference groups. The level of pro- and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue homogenates was assessed using the chemiluminescence method.Cognitive deficits were found in 11-month-old rats: at the first day of training they showed only 30% of successful MWM trials. However, at the last training day the percentage of successful trials was equal for young adult and aged animals. This indicates that cognitive deficits in aged rats can be reversed by MWM training. Therewith, the MWM spatial learning procedure itself produces changes in different processes of redox homeostasis in 11-month-old and 3-month-old rats as compared to intact animals. Young adult rats showed a decrease in prooxidant capacity in all brain parts, while 11-month-old rats demonstrated an increase in antioxidant capacity in the olfactory bulb, pons + medulla oblongata and frontal lobe cortex. Hence, the MWM procedure activates the mechanisms that restrict the oxidative stress in brain parts. The obtained results may be an argument for further development of the animal training procedures aimed to activate the mechanisms responsible for age-related cognitive deficits. This may be useful not only for the development of training procedures applicable to human patients with age-related cognitive impairments, but also for their rehabilitation.

  19. Isoflurane preconditioning increases B-cell lymphoma-2 expression and reduces cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the ischemic penumbra of rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liaoliao; Peng, Longyun; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2008-01-01

    We and others have shown that prior exposure to the volatile anesthetic isoflurane induces ischemic tolerance in the brain. Our results also suggest that isoflurane preconditioning reduces cell apoptosis in the penumbral region of rat brain. We designed this study to determine whether isoflurane preconditioning decreased mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to or not exposed to 2% isoflurane for 30 min at 24 h before the permanent middle cerebral ...

  20. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Expression of a Novel Intergenic Long Noncoding RNA in Adult rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-02-01

    Around 90% of the mammalian genome undergoes pervasive transcription into various types of small and long regulatory noncoding RNAs, whereas only ∼ 1.5% codes for proteins. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute diverse classes of sense- and antisense transcripts that are abundantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) in cell type- and developmental stage-specific manners. They are implicated in brain development, differentiation, neuronal plasticity, and other cognitive functions. Mammalian brain requires the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) for its normal development, differentiation, and cell-fate determination. However, its role in adult brain function is less understood. Here, we report atRA-mediated transcriptional upregulation of endogenous expression of a novel long intergenic noncoding RNA-rat brain expressed (LINC-RBE) in cultured primary hippocampal neurons from adult rat. We have previously reported LINC-RBE as an intergenic, simple repeat sequence containing lncRNA highly expressed in the rat brain. This is a first-time report of involvement of atRA in transcriptional upregulation of lncRNA expression in rat hippocampal neurons. Therefore, it may be involved in regulation of brain function and disease. PMID:26572536

  1. Late functional changes in the vasculature of the rat brain after local X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brains of young adult rats were irradiated with doses of 500 to 4000 rad. At intervals of 3 to 15 months after irradiation regional changes in the functional vasculature were investigated using the iodoantipyrine extraction technique. Modifications in vascular function were restricted to animals locally irradiated with doses of 2000 and 3000 rad. The first change was observed three months after irradiation and was characterized by a reduction in antipyrine extraction in the mid-brain and brain stem of animals irradiated with 2000 rad. At six and nine months after exposure to both 2000 and 3000 rad significant increases in antipyrine extraction were found in the four brain regions examined, although the effect was greatest in the mid-brain. These results are compared and contrasted with functional changes reported in other normal tissues; the link between these functional changes in the brain vasculature and the appearance of gross vascular lesions after a latent period of one year is discussed. It is suggested that the increase in iodoantipyrine extraction represents a regulatory reaction by the vasculature of the brain to tissue hypoxia and that focal vascular lesions in the brain occur as a consequence of the failure of this reaction to hypoxia. (author)

  2. DNA synthesis and cell division in the adult primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that the adult human brain is incapable of producing new neuron. Even cursory examination of neurologic, neuropathologic, or neurobiological textbooks published during the past 50 years will testify that this belief is deeply entrenched. In his classification of cell populations on the basis of their proliferative behavior, Leblond regarded neurons of the central nervous system as belonging to a category of static, nonrenewing epithelial tissue incapable of expanding or replenishing itself. This belief, however needs to re reexamined for two major reasons: First, as reviewed below, a number of reports have provided evidence of neurogenesis in adult brain of several vertebrate species. Second, the capacity for neurogenesis in the adult primate central nervous system has never been examined by modern methods. In this article the author described recent results from an extensive autoradiographic analysis performed on twelve rhesus monkeys injected with the specific DNA precursor [3H] thymidine at ages ranging from 6 postnatal months to 17 years

  3. Pedophilic brain potential responses to adult erotic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner; Impey, Danielle; Fisher, Derek; Delpero, Emily; Fedoroff, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive mechanisms associated with the relative lack of sexual interest in adults by pedophiles are poorly understood and may benefit from investigations examining how the brain processes adult erotic stimuli. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to investigate the time course of the explicit processing of erotic, emotional, and neutral pictures in 22 pedophilic patients and 22 healthy controls. Consistent with previous studies, early latency anterior ERP components were highly selective for erotic pictures. Although the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli were similar in patients and controls, an early frontal positive (P2) component starting as early as 185 ms was significantly attenuated and slow to onset in pedophilia, and correlated with a clinical measure of cognitive distortions. Failure of rapid attentional capture by erotic stimuli suggests a relative reduction in early processing in pedophilic patients which may be associated with relatively diminished sexual interest in adults. PMID:26683083

  4. Electrical stimulation of cerebellar fastigial nucleus protects rat brain, in vitro, from staurosporine-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, P; Qian, L; Glickstein, S B; Golanov, E V; Pickel, V M; Reis, D J

    2001-10-01

    Electrical stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) elicits a prolonged ( approximately 10 days) and substantial (50-80%) protection against ischemic and excitotoxic injuries. The mechanism(s) of protection are unknown. We investigated whether FN stimulation directly protects brain cells against apoptotic cell death in an in vitro rat brain slice culture model. Rats were electrically stimulated in FN or, as control, the cerebellar dentate nucleus (DN). Coronal slices through the forebrain were explanted, exposed to staurosporine, harvested, and analyzed for caspase-3 activity by a fluorescence assay. FN, but not DN, stimulation significantly reduced staurosporine-induced caspase-3 activity by 39 +/- 7% at 3 h, 31 +/- 3% at 6 h and 26 +/- 4% at 10 h of incubation. Immunocytochemistry revealed FN-specific reductions in activated caspase-3 mainly in glial-like cells throughout the forebrain. FN stimulation also results in a 56.5% reduction in cytochrome c release upon staurosporine incubation. We conclude that neuroprotection elicited from FN stimulation can directly modify the sensitivity of brain cells to apoptotic stimuli and thereby suppress staurosporine induced apoptosis in adult rat brain slices. This model indicates that neuroprotection can be studied in vitro and provides new insight into the potential role of glial cells in ischemic protection of neurons induced by FN stimulation. PMID:11677261

  5. Near-infrared oxymeter prototype for noninvasive analysis of rat brain oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Francesco; Donini, Maurizio; Bandera, Andrea; Heidbreder, Christian; Salvatori, Giorgia; Rovati, Luigi

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive analysis of brain activities was studied in the attempt to overcome the major limitation of actual in vivo methodologies i.e. invasiveness. Optic fibre probes were used as optical head of a novel, highly sensitive near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (CW-NIR) instrument. This prototype was designed for non-invasive analysis of the two main forms of haemoglobin: oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-haemoglobin (Hb), chromophores present in biological tissues. It was tested in peripheral tissue (human gastrocnemius muscle) and then reset to perform measurement on rat brain. In animal studies, the optical head was firmly placed using stereotaxic apparatus upon the sagittal line of anaesthetised adult rat's head, without any surgery. Then pharmacological treatments with saline (300μl s.c.) amphetamine (2mg/kg) or nicotine (0.4mg/kg) were performed. Within 10-20 min amphetamine substantially increased HbO2 and reduced Hb control levels. Nicotine produced a rapid initial increase followed by a decrease of HbO2. In contrast to amphetamine, nicotine treatment also reduced Hb and blood volume. These results support the capacity of our CW-NIR prototype to measure non-invasively HbO2 and Hb levels in the rat brain, markers of the degree of tissue oxygenation, index of blood level then of the state of brain metabolism.

  6. Postnatal Age Influences Hypoglycemia-induced Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 Activation in the Brain Regions of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Raghavendra; Sperr, Dustin; Ennis, Kathleen; Tran, Phu

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation plays a significant role in hypoglycemia-induced brain injury in adult rats. To determine the influence of postnatal age on PARP-1 activation, developing and adult male rats were subjected to acute hypoglycemia of equivalent severity and duration. The expression of PARP-1 and its downstream effectors, apoptosis inducing factor (Aifm1), caspase 3 (Casp3), NF-κB (Nfkb1) and bcl-2 (Bcl2), and cellular poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer expression...

  7. The effects of sex on brain iron status in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Qian; CHANG Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Iron plays essential roles in the human body. Studies have shown that iron is dis-tributed differently in male and female Rats in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, heart. However, the effects of sex on iron distribution in central nervous system are not well established. Methods:To explore the effects of the above mentioned, in this study, female and male Sprague Dawley rats were used at 4 months of age. The synthesis of ferritin light chain (FTL), transferrin receptor1 (TfR1), ferroportin 1 (FPN1), divalent metal transporter 1 ( DMT1) in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb was determined by Western blot a-nalysis. Results:The results showed that the levels of FTL protein in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebel-lum, and olfactory bulb were higher in female rats than in male rats, but the levels of TfR1 protein were lower in female rats than in male rats. There was no significant change in FPN1 and DMT1 expression in brain. Conclu-sions:These data suggest that sex have effects on brain iron status. Iron is distributed differently in central nervous system in male and female rats. However, the precise mechanisms need further study.

  8. Glucocorticoids aggravate retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Li; Yang, Shu-Yuan; Dong, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Ning

    2009-02-11

    Administration of glucocorticoid to patients with head injury has previously been demonstrated to impair memory. We hypothesize that glucocorticoids promote post-traumatic hippocampal apoptosis, resulting in retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring spatial memory deficiency in rats subjected to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and receiving dexamethasone (DXM at 0.5-10 mg/kg) or methylprednisolone (MP at 5-30 mg/kg); we also examined neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were trained for the acquisition of spatial memory, then subjected to FPI and tested for spatial reference memory on post-injury days 7 and 14 using the Morris Water Maze. Brain tissue from injured rats was examined 24 h to 2 weeks after injury. The percent time in the goal quadrant, which measures spatial reference memory, was significantly lower in injured rats receiving either high-dose DXM or MP than in control groups. TUNEL-positive cells in hippocampus were first detected 24 h post-injury, plateauing at 48h. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in injured rats treated with either DXM or MP. The data suggest that glucocorticoid therapy for TBI may increase neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and, as a result, aggravate retrograde memory deficits induced by TBI. PMID:19236166

  9. The Brain Metabolome of Male Rats across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaojiao; Chen, Tianlu; Zhao, Aihua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Guoxiang; Huang, Fengjie; Liu, Jiajian; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Shouli; Wang, Chongchong; Zhou, Mingmei; Panee, Jun; He, Zhigang; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive and accurate characterization of brain metabolome is fundamental to brain science, but has been hindered by technical limitations. We profiled the brain metabolome in male Wistar rats at different ages (day 1 to week 111) using high-sensitivity and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Totally 380 metabolites were identified and 232 of them were quantitated. Compared with anatomical regions, age had a greater effect on variations in the brain metabolome. Lipids, fatty acids and amino acids accounted for the largest proportions of the brain metabolome, and their concentrations varied across the lifespan. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids were higher in infancy (week 1 to week 3) compared with later ages, and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids increased in the aged brain (week 56 to week 111). Importantly, a panel of 20 bile acids were quantitatively measured, most of which have not previously been documented in the brain metabolome. This study extends the breadth of the mammalian brain metabolome as well as our knowledge of functional brain development, both of which are critically important to move the brain science forward. PMID:27063670

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  1. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  4. The in vivo phosphorylation sites of rat brain dynamin I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark E; Anggono, Victor; Bache, Nicolai; Larsen, Martin R; Craft, George E; Robinson, Phillip J

    2007-01-01

    resolve the discrepancy and to better understand the biological roles of dynI phosphorylation, we undertook a systematic identification of all phosphorylation sites in rat brain nerve terminal dynI. Using phosphoamino acid analysis, exclusively phospho-serine residues were found. Thr(780) phosphorylation...

  5. Brain tumors induced in rats by human adenovirus type 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murao,Tsuyoshi

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenesis of human adenovirus type 12 in the brain of rats was examined. Newborn rats of Sprague-Dawley and Donryu strains were injected intracranially with human adenovirus type 12. The incidence of intracranial tumors was 91% (30/33 in SpragueDawley and 56% (14/25 in Donryu rats. Except for one tumor nodule located in the parietal cortex of a Sprague.Dawley rat, all tumors developed in the paraventricular areas or in the meninges. Tumors were quite similar histologically to those induced in hamsters and mice resembling the undifferentiated human brain tumors such as medulloblastoma, ependymoblastoma and embryonic gliomas. From the histological features and primary sites of tumor development, it is suggested that the tumors in the brain of rats induced by adenovirus type 12 originate from the embryonic cells in the paraventricular area and also from the undifferentiated supporting cells of the peripheral nerves in the leptomeninges.

  6. Effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯东福; 朱志安; 卢亦成

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema and explore its possible mechanism.Methods: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control, Trauma and Treatment groups. In Treatment group, magnesium sulfate was intraperitoneally administered immediately after the induction of brain trauma. At 24 h after trauma, total tissue water content and Na + , K + , Ca2 + , Mg2+ contents were measured. Permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB)was assessed quantitatively by Evans Blue (EB) dye technique. The pathological changes were also studied.Results: Water, Na + , Ca2 + and EB contents in Treatment group were significantly lower than those in Trauma group ( P < 0. 05 ). Results of light microscopy and electron microscopy confirmed that magnesium sulfate can attenuate traumatic brain injury and relieve BBB injury.Conclusions: Treatment with MgSO4 in the early stage can attenuate traumatic brain edema and prevent BBB injury.

  7. Reorganization of auditory map and pitch discrimination in adult rats chronically exposed to low-level ambient noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adaption to a changing environment is critical for an animal’s survival. How well the brain can modify its functional properties based on experience essentially defines the limits of behavioral adaptation. In adult animals the extent to which experience shapes brain function has not been fully explored. Moreover, the perceptual consequences of experience-induced changes in the brains of adults remain unknown. Here we show that the tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats living with low-level ambient noise underwent a dramatic reorganization. Behaviorally, chronic noise-exposure impaired fine, but not coarse pitch discrimination. When tested in a noisy environment, the noise-exposed rats performed as well as in a quiet environment whereas the control rats performed poorly. This suggests that noise-exposed animals had adapted to living in a noisy environment. Behavioral pattern analyses revealed that stress or distraction engendered by the noisy background could not account for the poor performance of the control rats in a noisy environment. A reorganized auditory map may therefore have served as the neural substrate for the consistent performance of the noise-exposed rats in a noisy environment.

  8. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klomp

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+ cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+, revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  9. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  10. Glial response to 17β-estradiol in neonatal rats with excitotoxic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansiot, Julien; Pham, Hoa; Dalous, Jeremie; Chevenne, Didier; Colella, Marina; Schwendimann, Leslie; Fafouri, Assia; Mairesse, Jérôme; Moretti, Raffaella; Schang, Anne-Laure; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Gressens, Pierre; Baud, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    White-matter injury is the most common cause of the adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes observed in preterm infants. Only few options exist to prevent perinatal brain injury associated to preterm delivery. 17β-estradiol (E2) is the predominant estrogen in circulation and has been shown to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. However, while E2 has been found to modulate inflammation in adult models of brain damage, how estrogens influence glial cells response in the developing brain needs further investigations. Using a model of ibotenate-induced brain injury, we have refined the effects of E2 in the developing brain. E2 provides significant neuroprotection both in the cortical plate and the white matter in neonatal rats subjected to excitotoxic insult mimicking white matter and cortical damages frequently observed in very preterm infants. E2 promotes significant changes in microglial phenotypes balance in response to brain injury and the acceleration of oligodendrocyte maturation. Maturational effects of E2 on myelination process were observed both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, these data demonstrate that response of glial cells to E2 could be responsible for its neuroprotective properties in neonatal excitotoxic brain injury. PMID:27222132

  11. Changes in intracellular calcium in brain cells of aged rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Li; Yunpeng Cao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that voltage-dependent calcium influx, and enhancement of certain calcium-dependent processes in neurons, is related to aging. OBJECTIVE: To observe changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in neurons of aged rats, and to compare with young rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized control experiment of neurophysiology was performed at the Central Laboratory of School of Pharmaceutical Science, China Medical University from June to August 2004. MATERIALS: Ten male, healthy, Wistar rats, 19 months old, were selected for the aged group. Ten male, 3-month-old, Wistar rats were selected for the young control group. Fura-2/AM was provided by the Institute of Pharmaceutical Research of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and the F-2000 fluorospectrophotometer was a product of Hitachi, Japan. METHODS: Fluorescence Fura-2 spectrophotometer was used to measure [Ca2+]i in acutely dissociated brain cells of aged and young rats. The concentration of extracellular potassium was controlled by adding different volumes of chloridated potassium solution of high concentration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: [Ca2+]i in neurons of young and aged rats in the presence of 1 mmol/L extracellular calcium concentration and 0 mmol/L (resting state), 5, 10, 20, and 40 mmol/L extracellular potassium. Absolute increase of [Ca2+]i in neurons of young and aged rats when extraceUular potassium was 5,10,20, 40 mmol/L. RESULTS: In the presence of 1 mmol/L extracellular Ca2+ and 0 mmol/L (resting state), 5, 10, 20, and 40 mmol/L extracellular potassium, [Ca2+]i in the neurons of aged rats was significantly less than that in young rats (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: The overload of [Ca2+]i in neurons of aged rats is greater than that of young rats under the same circumstances.

  12. Phospholipase C I and II brain isozymes: immunohistochemical localization in neuronal systems in rat brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerfen, C R; Choi, W C; Suh, P G; Rhee, S G

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC; phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.3) isozymes, PLC-I and PLC-II, have been purified and characterized from bovine brain. Monoclonal antibodies that distinguish between these isozymes are used in the present study to map isozyme distribution in the rat brain with immunohistochemical techniques. Both isozymes are localized in neurons, and, whereas PLC-II is rather ubiquitous--being expressed in most neurons, PLC-...

  13. Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Kim, Ronald; Delis, Foteini; Ananth, Mala; Chachati, George; Rocco, Mark J.; Masad, Ihssan; Muniz, Jose A.; Grant, Samuel C.; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment. Rats were randomly split into three distinct treatment groups and treated daily for four months, via i.p. injection, with saline (controls), or low dose (LD) MA (4 mg/kg), or high dose (HD) MA (8 mg/kg). Sixteen weeks into the treatment period, rats were injected with a glucose analog, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and their brains were scanned with micro-PET to assess regional BGluM. At the end of MA treatment, magnetic resonance imaging at 21T was performed on perfused rats to determine regional brain volume and in vitro [3H]PK 11195 autoradiography was performed on fresh-frozen brain tissue to measure microglia activation. When compared with controls, chronic HD MA-treated rats had enlarged striatal volumes and increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding in striatum, the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortical areas, the rhinal cortices, and the cerebellar nuclei. FDG microPET imaging showed that LD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in insular and somatosensory cortices, face sensory nucleus of the thalamus, and brainstem reticular formation, while HD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in primary and higher order somatosensory and the retrosplenial cortices, compared with controls. HD and LD MA-treated rats had lower BGluM in the tail of the striatum, rhinal cortex, and subiculum and HD MA also had lower BGluM in hippocampus than controls. These results corroborate clinical findings and help further examine the mechanisms behind MA

  14. Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis K Thanos

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment. Rats were randomly split into three distinct treatment groups and treated daily for four months, via i.p. injection, with saline (controls, or low dose (LD MA (4 mg/kg, or high dose (HD MA (8 mg/kg. Sixteen weeks into the treatment period, rats were injected with a glucose analog, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG, and their brains were scanned with micro-PET to assess regional BGluM. At the end of MA treatment, magnetic resonance imaging at 21T was performed on perfused rats to determine regional brain volume and in vitro [3H]PK 11195 autoradiography was performed on fresh-frozen brain tissue to measure microglia activation. When compared with controls, chronic HD MA-treated rats had enlarged striatal volumes and increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding in striatum, the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortical areas, the rhinal cortices, and the cerebellar nuclei. FDG microPET imaging showed that LD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in insular and somatosensory cortices, face sensory nucleus of the thalamus, and brainstem reticular formation, while HD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in primary and higher order somatosensory and the retrosplenial cortices, compared with controls. HD and LD MA-treated rats had lower BGluM in the tail of the striatum, rhinal cortex, and subiculum and HD MA also had lower BGluM in hippocampus than controls. These results corroborate clinical findings and help further examine the mechanisms behind MA

  15. Decreased resting functional connectivity after traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asht Mangal Mishra

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI contributes to about 10% of acquired epilepsy. Even though the mechanisms of post-traumatic epileptogenesis are poorly known, a disruption of neuronal networks predisposing to altered neuronal synchrony remains a viable candidate mechanism. We tested a hypothesis that resting state BOLD-fMRI functional connectivity can reveal network abnormalities in brain regions that are connected to the lesioned cortex, and that these changes associate with functional impairment, particularly epileptogenesis. TBI was induced using lateral fluid-percussion injury in seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats followed by functional imaging at 9.4T 4 months later. As controls we used six sham-operated animals that underwent all surgical operations but were not injured. Electroencephalogram (EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed to measure resting functional connectivity. A week after functional imaging, rats were implanted with bipolar skull electrodes. After recovery, rats underwent pentyleneterazol (PTZ seizure-susceptibility test under EEG. For image analysis, four pairs of regions of interests were analyzed in each hemisphere: ipsilateral and contralateral frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. High-pass and low-pass filters were applied to functional imaging data. Group statistics comparing injured and sham-operated rats and correlations over time between each region were calculated. In the end, rats were perfused for histology. None of the rats had epileptiform discharges during functional imaging. PTZ-test, however revealed increased seizure susceptibility in injured rats as compared to controls. Group statistics revealed decreased connectivity between the ipsilateral and contralateral parietal cortex and between the parietal cortex and hippocampus on the side of injury as compared to sham-operated animals. Injured animals also had abnormal negative connectivity between the ipsilateral and

  16. Wnts in adult brain: from synaptic plasticity to cognitive deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina A. Oliva; Vargas, Jessica Y.; Nibaldo C Inestrosa

    2013-01-01

    During development of the central nervous system the Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in a wide spectrum of physiological processes, including neuronal connectivity and synapse formation. Despite Wnt proteins and components of the Wnt pathway are expressed in the brain since early development to the adult life, little is known about its role in mature synapses. Here, we review evidences indicating that Wnt proteins participate in the remodeling of pre- and postsynaptic regions, thus ...

  17. In Utero Exposure to Diethylhexyl Phthalate Affects Rat Brain Development: A Behavioral and Genomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is one of the most widely utilized phthalate plasticizers. Previous studies have demonstrated that gestational or postnatal DEHP exposure induced adverse effects on rat brain development and function. In this study, we investigated the effects of gestational DEHP exposure on gene expression profiling in neonatal rat brain and cognitive function change at adulthood. Adult Sprague Dawley dams were orally treated with 10 or 750 mg/kg DEHP from gestational day 12 to 21. Some male pups were euthanized at postnatal day 1 for gene expression profiling, and the rest males were retained for water maze testing on postnatal day (PND 56. DEHP showed dose-dependent impairment of learning and spatial memory from PND 56 to 63. Genome-wide microarray analysis showed that 10 and 750 mg/kg DEHP altered the gene expression in the neonatal rat brain. Ccnd1 and Cdc2, two critical genes for neuron proliferation, were significantly down-regulated by DEHP. Interestingly, 750 mg/kg DEHP significantly increased Pmch level. Our study demonstrated the changed gene expression patterns after in utero DEHP exposure might partially contribute to the deficit of cognitive function at adulthood.

  18. The effect of hypothermia on the expression of TIMP-3 after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feng; Mao, Qing; Liang, Yu-Min; Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2014-02-15

    Here we investigate the effect of hypothermia on the expression of apoptosis-regulating protein TIMP-3 after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. We began with 210 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and randomly assigned them to three groups: TBI with hypothermia treatment (32°C), TBI with normothermia (37°C), and sham-injured controls. TBI was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. Mild hypothermia (32°C) was achieved by partial immersion in a water bath (0°C) under general anesthesia for 4 h. The rats were killed at 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h and 1 week after TBI. The mRNA and protein level of TIMP-3 in both the injured and uninjured hemispheres of the brains from each group were measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting. In the normothermic group, TIMP-3 levels in both the injured and uninjured hemispheres were significantly increased after TBI compared with those of sham-injured animals (p percussion brain injury significantly upregulates TIMP-3 expression, and that this increase may be suppressed by hypothermia treatment. PMID:23256480

  19. N-sulphation of desipramine in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K O; Wong, K P

    1996-01-01

    1. Amine N-sulphotransferase (NST) activity with desipramine (DMI) as substrate was assayed in vitro in various areas of the rat brain. Biosynthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phospho35sulphate (PAPS) from sodium 35sulphate and ATP was also measured by coupling it to the sulphation of minoxidil by minoxidil sulphotransferase (MST). 2. For the DMI-NST reaction, an apparent Km = 0.5 mM was obtained for DMI and two apparent Kms = 0.3 and 1.7 microM for PAPS, whereas in the PAPS-generating reactions, Km for sodium 35sulphate = 20 microM. 3. Both the enzyme activities were widely distributed in rat brain. The rate of NST activity was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of PAPS generation. N-sulphoconjugation of DMI, which is proposed as a possible biotransformation pathway of DMI in the rat brain, could conceivably be supported adequately by the 'active sulphate' generated within the same areas of the brain. PMID:8851818

  20. Transient and persistent expression of NT-3/HDNF mRNA in the rat brain during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, W J; Ernfors, P; Persson, H

    1991-06-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is closely related to two known neurotrophic agents, NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and acts upon overlapping, yet distinct, populations of peripheral ganglia. NT-3 mRNA expression in the adult rat brain is largely confined to the hippocampus. In this study, we have used in situ hybridization to examine expression of this novel neurotrophic factor during postnatal development. The striking observation was made that NT-3 mRNA was transiently expressed at high levels in the cingulate cortex during the first 2 weeks of age. In the hippocampus, the adult pattern of expression, in the CA2, medial CA1, and granule layer of the dentate gyrus, was detected at all ages examined. However, there were two major differences in NT-3 mRNA expression in the developing hippocampus: Labeled cells were detected in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus at postnatal day 1 (P1) and 1 week that were absent by 2 weeks of age. Further, the caudal hippocampus, which has a lower intensity of labeling than the rostral region in the adult, was devoid of NT-3-expressing cells in the P1 and 1-week-old rat brain. These data indicate a substantial plasticity in NT-3 mRNA expression and suggest that the spectrum of neurons supported by NT-3 during development is partially different from that in the mature rat brain. PMID:2045877

  1. Abdominal surgery activates nesfatin-1 immunoreactive brain nuclei in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2010-02-01

    Abdominal surgery-induced postoperative gastric ileus is well established to induce Fos expression in specific brain nuclei in rats within 2-h after surgery. However, the phenotype of activated neurons has not been thoroughly characterized. Nesfatin-1 was recently discovered in the rat hypothalamus as a new anorexigenic peptide that also inhibits gastric emptying and is widely distributed in rat brain autonomic nuclei suggesting an involvement in stress responses. Therefore, we investigated whether abdominal surgery activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Two hours after abdominal surgery with cecal palpation under short isoflurane anesthesia or anesthesia alone, rats were transcardially perfused and brains processed for double immunohistochemical labeling of Fos and nesfatin-1. Abdominal surgery, compared to anesthesia alone, induced Fos expression in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and ventrolateral medulla (VLM). Double Fos/nesfatin-1 labeling showed that of the activated cells, 99% were nesfatin-1-immunoreactive in the SON, 91% in the LC, 82% in the rRPa, 74% in the EW and VLM, 71% in the anterior parvicellular PVN, 47% in the lateral magnocellular PVN, 41% in the medial magnocellular PVN, 14% in the NTS and 9% in the medial parvicellular PVN. These data established nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and brainstem as part of the neuronal response to abdominal surgery and suggest a possible implication of nesfatin-1 in the alterations of food intake and gastric transit associated with such a stressor. PMID:19944727

  2. Temporal Alterations in Cellular Bax:Bcl-2 Ratio following Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Raghupathi, Ramesh; Strauss, Kenneth I.; Zhang, Chen; Krajewski, Stanislaw; Reed, John C.; McIntosh, Tracy K.

    2003-01-01

    Cell death/survival following CNS injury may be a result of alterations in the intracellular ratio of death and survival factors. Using immunohistochemistry, Western analysis and in situ hybridization, the expression of the anti-cell death protein, Bcl-2, and the pro-cell death protein, Bax, was evaluated following lateral fluid-percussion (FP) brain injury of moderate severity (2.3–2.6 atm) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. By 2 h post-injury, a marked reduction of cellular Bcl-2-immunoreac...

  3. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit;

    2006-01-01

    Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain......, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression...... the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes...

  4. Repeated BOLD-fMRI imaging of deep brain stimulation responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tzu-Hao Harry; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a picture of the global spatial activation pattern of the brain. Interest is growing regarding the application of fMRI to rodent models to investigate adult brain plasticity. To date, most rodent studies used an electrical forepaw stimulation model to acquire fMRI data, with α-chloralose as the anesthetic. However, α-chloralose is harmful to animals, and not suitable for longitudinal studies. Moreover, peripheral stimulation models enable only a limited number of brain regions to be studied. Processing between peripheral regions and the brain is multisynaptic, and renders interpretation difficult and uncertain. In the present study, we combined the medetomidine-based fMRI protocol (a noninvasive rodent fMRI protocol) with chronic implantation of an MRI-compatible stimulation electrode in the ventroposterior (VP) thalamus to repetitively sample thalamocortical responses in the rat brain. Using this model, we scanned the forebrain responses evoked by the VP stimulation repeatedly of individual rats over 1 week. Cortical BOLD responses were compared between the 2 profiles obtained at day1 and day8. We discovered reproducible frequency- and amplitude-dependent BOLD responses in the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1). The S1 BOLD responses during the 2 sessions were conserved in maximal response amplitude, area size (size ratio from 0.88 to 0.91), and location (overlap ratio from 0.61 to 0.67). The present study provides a long-term chronic brain stimulation protocol for studying the plasticity of specific neural circuits in the rodent brain by BOLD-fMRI. PMID:24825464

  5. Repeated BOLD-fMRI imaging of deep brain stimulation responses in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hao Harry Chao

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI provides a picture of the global spatial activation pattern of the brain. Interest is growing regarding the application of fMRI to rodent models to investigate adult brain plasticity. To date, most rodent studies used an electrical forepaw stimulation model to acquire fMRI data, with α-chloralose as the anesthetic. However, α-chloralose is harmful to animals, and not suitable for longitudinal studies. Moreover, peripheral stimulation models enable only a limited number of brain regions to be studied. Processing between peripheral regions and the brain is multisynaptic, and renders interpretation difficult and uncertain. In the present study, we combined the medetomidine-based fMRI protocol (a noninvasive rodent fMRI protocol with chronic implantation of an MRI-compatible stimulation electrode in the ventroposterior (VP thalamus to repetitively sample thalamocortical responses in the rat brain. Using this model, we scanned the forebrain responses evoked by the VP stimulation repeatedly of individual rats over 1 week. Cortical BOLD responses were compared between the 2 profiles obtained at day1 and day8. We discovered reproducible frequency- and amplitude-dependent BOLD responses in the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1. The S1 BOLD responses during the 2 sessions were conserved in maximal response amplitude, area size (size ratio from 0.88 to 0.91, and location (overlap ratio from 0.61 to 0.67. The present study provides a long-term chronic brain stimulation protocol for studying the plasticity of specific neural circuits in the rodent brain by BOLD-fMRI.

  6. Assessment of MRI Parameters as Imaging Biomarkers for Radiation Necrosis in the Rat Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation necrosis is a major complication of radiation therapy. We explore the features of radiation-induced brain necrosis in the rat, using multiple MRI approaches, including T1, T2, apparent diffusion constant (ADC), cerebral blood flow (CBF), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), and amide proton transfer (APT) of endogenous mobile proteins and peptides. Methods and Materials: Adult rats (Fischer 344; n = 15) were irradiated with a single, well-collimated X-ray beam (40 Gy; 10 × 10 mm2) in the left brain hemisphere. MRI was acquired on a 4.7-T animal scanner at ∼25 weeks’ postradiation. The MRI signals of necrotic cores and perinecrotic regions were assessed with a one-way analysis of variance. Histological evaluation was accomplished with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: ADC and CBF MRI could separate perinecrotic and contralateral normal brain tissue (p 1, T2, MTR, and APT could not. MRI signal intensities were significantly lower in the necrotic core than in normal brain for CBF (p 1, T2, MTR, and ADC. Histological results demonstrated coagulative necrosis within the necrotic core and reactive astrogliosis and vascular damage within the perinecrotic region. Conclusion: ADC and CBF are promising imaging biomarkers for identifying perinecrotic regions, whereas CBF and APT are promising for identifying necrotic cores.

  7. Measurement of blood-brain barrier permeation in rats during exposure to 2450-MHz microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult rats anesthesized with pentobarbital and injected intravenously with a mixture of [14C] sucrose and [3H] inulin were exposed for 30 min to an environment at an ambient temperature of 22, 30, or 40 degrees C, or were exposed at 22 degrees C to 2450-MHz CW microwave radiation at power densities of 0, 10, 20, or 30 mW/cm2. Following exposure, the brain was perfused and sectioned into eight regions, and the radioactivity in each region was counted. The data were analyzed by two methods. First, the data for each of the eight regions and for each of the two radioactive tracers were analyzed by regression analysis for a total of 16 analyses and Bonferroni's Inequality was applied to prevent false positive results from numerous analyses. By this conservative test, no statistically significant increase in permeation was found for either tracer in any brain region of rats exposed to microwaves. Second, a profile analysis was used for a general change in tracer uptake across all brain regions. Using this statistical method, a significant increase in permeation was found for sucrose but not for inulin. A correction factor was then derived from the warm-air experiments to correct for the increase in permeation of the brain associated with change in body temperature. This correction factor was applied to the data for the irradiated animals. After correcting the data for thermal effects of the microwave radiation, no significant increase in permeation was found

  8. Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB153 or PCB126 impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrafita, Blanca; Erceg, Slaven; Cauli, Omar; Monfort, Pilar; Felipo, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants present in the food chain and in human blood and milk. Exposure to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment in children. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Some PCBs are endocrine disrupters. The aim of this work was to assess whether exposure of rats to PCB126 (dioxin-like) or PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) during pregnancy and lactation affects the ability of the pups to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task and/or the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo when the rats are young (3 months) or adult (7-8 months). After finishing the learning experiments, the function of the pathway was analysed in the same rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. The results obtained show that perinatal exposure to PCB153 or PCB126: (1) impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats, (2) impairs the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in cerebellum in vivo in young but not in adult rats and (3) affect these parameters in males and females similarly. PCB126 is around 10 000-fold more potent than PCB153. In control rats the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and learning ability are lower in adult than in young rats. These age-related differences are not present in rats exposed to PCBs. The impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function induced at young age by developmental exposure to the PCBs could be one of the mechanisms contributing to the cognitive impairment found in children whose mothers ingested PCB-contaminated food during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:18093177

  9. Impairment in Spatial Memory in adult Rats following developmental Low Lead Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar Rao Barkur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of environmentally relevant levels of lead exposure during gestational and early postnatal period on hippocampal dependent spatial memory in rats during adulthood. The pregnant rats were allowed to drink either normal water (control group or 0.2% lead acetate solution (Leadtreated group during pregnancy and lactation. Thus rats pups of lead treated group where exposed to lead indirectly through their mothers during this period. At weaning pups of lead treated group were allowed to drink normal water till they attain the adult hood. Blood lead level was estimated on postnatal day 22 and 120. Birth weight and weight gain of the rat pups as they grew were measured at regular intervals. Both the control and lead treated groups of rats were subjected to water maze test on postnatal day 30 and 120. Results showed that lead treatment had no effect on birth weight or weight gain. Blood lead level on postnatal day 22 was significantly high in treated group compared to the control group and it was normalized by end of four months. The rats born to lead treated mothers showed impaired in spatial memory during water maze test both on postnatal day 36 and 126. These data suggests that exposure to environmentally relevant levels of lead during intrauterine and early postnatal period of brain development causes impairment in spatial memory not only during infancy but also lasts till adulthood.

  10. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... adults using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Antibodies against claudin-11, BLBP, collagen 1, SSEA-4, MAP2, YKL-40, and its receptor IL-13Rα2 and EAAT1 were used to describe morphological characteristics and functional aspects of the outer brain barriers. Claudin-11 was a reliable marker of...... the arachnoid blood-CSF barrier. Collagen 1 delineated the subarachnoid space and stained pial surface layer. BLBP defined radial glial end feet layer and SSEA-4 and YKL-40 were present in both leptomeningeal cells and end feet layer, which transformed into glial limitans. IL-13Rα2 and EAAT1 were...

  11. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J; Lein, Ed S; Jones, Allan R; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of genes in the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). The AGEA includes three discovery tools for examining neuroanatomical relationships and boundaries: (1) three-dimensional expression-based correlation maps, (2) a hierarchical transcriptome-based parcellation of the brain and (3) a facility to retrieve from the ABA specific genes showing enriched expression in local correlated domains. The utility of this atlas is illustrated by analysis of genetic organization in the thalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex. The AGEA is a publicly accessible online computational tool integrated with the ABA (http://mouse.brain-map.org/agea). PMID:19219037

  12. C-Phycocyanin protects against acute tributyltin chloride neurotoxicity by modulating glial cell activity along with its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory property: A comparative efficacy evaluation with N-acetyl cysteine in adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2015-08-01

    Spirulina is a widely used health supplement and is a dietary source of C-Phycocyanin (CPC), a potent anti-oxidant. We have previously reported the neurotoxic potential of tributyltin chloride (TBTC), an environmental pollutant and potent biocide. In this study, we have evaluated the protective efficacy of CPC against TBTC induced neurotoxicity. To evaluate the extent of neuroprotection offered by CPC, its efficacy was compared with the degree of protection offered by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (a well known neuroprotective drug, taken as a positive control). Male Wistar rats (28 day old) were administered with 20mg/kg TBTC (oral) and 50mg/kg CPC or 50mg/kg NAC (i.p.), alone or in combination, and various parameters were evaluated. These include blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage; redox parameters (ROS, GSH, redox pathway associated enzymes, oxidative stress markers); inflammatory, cellular, and stress markers; apoptotic proteins and in situ cell death assay (TUNEL). We observed increased CPC availability in cortical tissue following its administration. Although BBB associated proteins like claudin-5, p-glycoprotein and ZO-1 were restored, CPC/NAC failed to protect against TBTC induced overall BBB permeability (Evans blue extravasation). Both CPC and NAC remarkably reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. NAC effectively modulated redox pathway associated enzymes whereas CPC countered ROS levels efficiently. Interestingly, CPC and NAC were equivalently capable of reducing apoptotic markers, astroglial activation and cell death. This study illustrates the various pathways involved in CPC mediated neuroprotection against this environmental neurotoxicant and highlights its capability to modulate glial cell activity. PMID:26079211

  13. Extracellular space diffusion analysis in the infant and adult rat striatum using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuangfeng; Wang, Yan; Li, Kai; Tang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Kuo; Shi, Chunyan; Han, Hongbin; Peng, Yun

    2016-10-01

    The extracellular space (ECS) in the brain provides an extrasynaptic transfer channel among neurons, axons and glial cells. It is particularly important in the early stage after birth, when angiogenesis is not yet complete and the ECS may provide the main pathway for metabolite transport. However, the characteristics of extracellular transport remain unclear. In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was used to perform real-time visualization and quantification of diffusion in the brain ECS of infant (postnatal day 10 (P10)) and adult rats. Using a modified diffusion equation and the linear relationship between the signal intensity and the gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) concentration, diffusion parameters were obtained; these parameters include the effective diffusion coefficient (D*), clearance rate (k'), tortuosity (λ) and the volume fraction of distribution (Vd%). There were significant differences in the diffusion parameters between P10 and adult rats. This finding provides a reference for future treatment of brain diseases using drugs administered via interstitial pathways. PMID:27296518

  14. Risperidone treatment increases CB1 receptor binding in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna; Husum, Henriette; Holst, Birgitte;

    2010-01-01

    showed that risperidone treatment altered CB(1) receptor binding in the rat brain. Risperidone-induced adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in the clinic may be explained by increased CB(1) receptor density in brain regions involved in appetite and regulation of metabolic function....... positively correlated with visceral fat mass. Risperidone treatment increased CB(1) receptor binding in the arcuate nucleus (40%), hippocampus (25-30%) and amygdala (35%) without concurrent alterations in the CB(1) receptor mRNA. Risperidone treatment increased adiponectin mRNA. CONCLUSION: The present study...

  15. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

  16. Regional genome transcriptional response of adult mouse brain to hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Aigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since normal brain function depends upon continuous oxygen delivery and short periods of hypoxia can precondition the brain against subsequent ischemia, this study examined the effects of brief hypoxia on the whole genome transcriptional response in adult mouse brain. Result Pronounced changes of gene expression occurred after 3 hours of hypoxia (8% O2 and after 1 hour of re-oxygenation in all brain regions. The hypoxia-responsive genes were predominantly up-regulated in hindbrain and predominantly down-regulated in forebrain - possibly to support hindbrain survival functions at the expense of forebrain cognitive functions. The up-regulated genes had a significant role in cell survival and involved both shared and unshared signaling pathways among different brain regions. Up-regulation of transcriptional signaling including hypoxia inducible factor, insulin growth factor (IGF, the vitamin D3 receptor/retinoid X nuclear receptor, and glucocorticoid signaling was common to many brain regions. However, many of the hypoxia-regulated target genes were specific for one or a few brain regions. Cerebellum, for example, had 1241 transcripts regulated by hypoxia only in cerebellum but not in hippocampus; and, 642 (54% had at least one hepatic nuclear receptor 4A (HNF4A binding site and 381 had at least two HNF4A binding sites in their promoters. The data point to HNF4A as a major hypoxia-responsive transcription factor in cerebellum in addition to its known role in regulating erythropoietin transcription. The genes unique to hindbrain may play critical roles in survival during hypoxia. Conclusion Differences of forebrain and hindbrain hypoxia-responsive genes may relate to suppression of forebrain cognitive functions and activation of hindbrain survival functions, which may coordinately mediate the neuroprotection afforded by hypoxia preconditioning.

  17. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation. PMID:22300952

  18. [Effect of phenibut on interhemispheric transmission in the rat brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkina, L E; Molodavkin, G M; Tiurenkov, I N

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the nootropic drug phenibut on the transcallosal potential amplitude in the sensomotor brain cortex have been studied in rats. It is established that a single administration of phenibut in a dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.) increases the transcallosal response amplitude, thus improving the interhemispheric transmission. This effect, being an objective evidence of the nootrope activity, confirms the drug status and corroborates the positive action of phenibut on the learning and memory processes. PMID:19334513

  19. Brain plasticity of rats exposed to prenatal immobilization stress

    OpenAIRE

    Badalyan B. Yu.; Tumasyan N. V.; Meliksetyan I. B.; Sahakyan I. K.; Abrahamyan S. S.; Galoyan A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. This histochemical and immunohistochemical study was aimed at examining the brain cellular structures of newborn rats exposed to prenatal immobilization (IMO) stress. Methods. Histochemical method on detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity and ABC immunohistochemical technique. Results. Cell structures with radial astrocytes marker GFAP, neuroepithelial stem cell marker gene nestin, stem-cells marker and the hypothalamic neuroprotective proline-rich polypeptide PRP-1 (Galar...

  20. Regional distribution of SGLT activity in rat brain in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Amy S.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Wright, Ernest M.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2012-01-01

    Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) mRNAs have been detected in many organs of the body, but, apart from kidney and intestine, transporter expression, localization, and functional activity, as well as physiological significance, remain elusive. Using a SGLT-specific molecular imaging probe, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me-4-FDG) with ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we mapped in vivo the regional distribution of functional SGLTs in rat brain. Since Me-4-FDG ...

  1. Effects of magnesium sulfate on brain mitochondrial respiratory function in rats after experimental traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许民辉; 代文光; 邓洵鼎

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of magnesium sulfate on brain mitochondrial respiratory function in rats after experimental traumatic brain injury and the possible mechanism.Methods: The middle degree brain injury in rats was made by BIM-III multi-function impacting machine. The brain mitochondrial respiratory function was measured with oxygen electrode and the ultra-structural changes were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM).Results: 1. The brain mitochondrial respiratory stage III and respiration control rate reduced significantly in the untreated groups within 24 and 72 hours. But treated Group A showed certain degree of recovery of respiratory function; treated Group B showed further improvement. 2. Untreated Group, treated Groups A and B had different degrees of mitochondrial ultra-structural damage respectively, which could be attenuated after the treatment with magnesium sulfate.Conclusions: The mitochondrial respiratory function decreases significantly after traumatic brain injury. But it can be apparently improved after magnesium sulfate management along with the attenuated damage of mitochondria discovered by TEM. The longer course of treatment can obtain a better improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function.

  2. Marrow stromal cells administrated intracisternally to rats after traumatic brain injury migrate into the brain and improve neurological function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德志; 周良辅; 朱剑虹

    2004-01-01

    @@ Marrow stromal cells(MSCs) have been reported to transplant into injured brain via intravenous or intraarterial or direct intracerebral administration.1-3 In the present study, we observed that MSCs migrated into the brain, survived and diffeneriated into neural cells after they were injected into the cisterna magna of rats, and that the behavior of the rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was improved.

  3. Etanercept Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats by Reducing Brain TNF-α Contents and by Stimulating Newly Formed Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Un Cheong; Ching-Ping Chang; Chien-Ming Chao; Bor-Chih Cheng; Chung-Zhing Yang; Chung-Ching Chio

    2013-01-01

    It remains unclear whether etanercept penetrates directly into the contused brain and improves the outcomes of TBI by attenuating brain contents of TNF- α and/or stimulating newly formed neurogenesis. Rats that sustained TBI are immediately treated with etanercept. Acute neurological and motor injury is assessed in all rats the day prior to and 7 days after surgery. The numbers of the colocalizations of 5-bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin specific markers in the contused brain injury that oc...

  4. Pathological and MRI study on experimental heroin-induced brain damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the pathological characteristics of the heroin-induced brain damage in rats, and to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Methods: A total of 40 adult Wistar rats were studied, 32 rats were used for injecting heroin as heroin group and 8 were used for injecting saline as control group. The heroin dependent rat model was established by administering heroin (ip) in the ascending dosage schedule (0.5 mg/kg), three times a day (at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00). The control group was established by the same way by injection with saline. The withdrawal scores were evaluated with imp roved criterion in order to estimate the degree of addiction after administering naloxone. Based on the rat model of heroin dependence, the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established by the same way with increasing heroin dosage everyday. Two groups were examined by using MRI, light microscope, and electron microscope, respectively in different heroin accumulated dosage (918, 1580, 2686, 3064, 4336, and 4336 mg/kg withdrawal after 2 weeks). Results: There was statistically significant difference (t=9.737, P<0.01) of the withdrawal scores between the heroin dependent group and the saline group (23.0 ± 4.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively). It suggested that the heroin dependent rat model be established successfully. In different accumulated dosage ( from 1580 mg/kg to 4336 mg/kg), there were degeneration and death of nerve cells in cerebrum and cerebellum of heroin intoxicated rats, and it suggested that the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established successfully. The light microscope and electron microscope features of heroin-induced brain damage in rats included: (1) The nerve cells of cerebral cortex degenerated and died. According to the heroin accumulated dosage, there were statistically significant difference of the nerve cell deaths between 4336 mg/kg group and 1580 mg/kg group or control group (P=0.024 and P=0.032, respectively); (2) The main

  5. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  6. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings

  7. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänggi Jürgen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurophysiological and neuroanatomical foundations of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS are still a matter of dispute. A main argument is that stutterers show atypical anatomical asymmetries of speech-relevant brain areas, which possibly affect speech fluency. The major aim of this study was to determine whether adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy in cortical speech-language areas. Methods Adults with PDS (n = 10 and controls (n = 10 matched for age, sex, hand preference, and education were studied using high-resolution MRI scans. Using a new variant of the voxel-based morphometry technique (augmented VBM the brains of stutterers and non-stutterers were compared with respect to white matter (WM and grey matter (GM differences. Results We found increased WM volumes in a right-hemispheric network comprising the superior temporal gyrus (including the planum temporale, the inferior frontal gyrus (including the pars triangularis, the precentral gyrus in the vicinity of the face and mouth representation, and the anterior middle frontal gyrus. In addition, we detected a leftward WM asymmetry in the auditory cortex in non-stutterers, while stutterers showed symmetric WM volumes. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence that adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy not only in perisylvian speech and language areas but also in prefrontal and sensorimotor areas. Whether this atypical asymmetry of WM is the cause or the consequence of stuttering is still an unanswered question.

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neural plasticity in a rat model of spinal cord transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruxin Xing; Jia Liu; Hua Jin; Ping Dai; Tinghua Wang

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed a rat model of T10 spinal cord transection. Western blot analyses revealed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in spinal cord segments caudal to the transection site following injection of replication incompetent herpes simplex virus vector (HSV-BDNF) into the subarachnoid space. In addition, hindlimb locomotor functions were improved. In contrast, BDNF levels decreased following treatment with replication defective herpes simplex virus vector construct small interference BDNF (HSV-siBDNF). Moreover, hindlimb locomotor functions gradually worsened. Compared with the replication incompetent herpes simplex virus vector control group, extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 expression increased in the HSV-BDNF group on days 14 and 28 after spinal cord transection, but expression was reduced in the HSV-siBDNF group. These results suggested that BDNF plays an important role in neural plasticity via extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 signaling pathway in a rat model of adult spinal cord transection.

  9. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells markedly attenuate brain infarct size and improve neurological function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheuk-Kwan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs on brain infarction area (BIA and neurological status in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke (IS was investigated. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 30 were divided into IS plus intra-venous 1 mL saline (at 0, 12 and 24 h after IS induction (control group and IS plus intra-venous ADMSCs (2.0 × 106 (treated interval as controls (treatment group after occlusion of distal left internal carotid artery. The rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were harvested on day 21 after the procedure. Results The results showed that BIA was larger in control group than in treatment group (p Conclusions ADMSC therapy significantly limited BIA and improved sensorimotor dysfunction after acute IS.

  10. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  11. Magnetic micelles for DNA delivery to rat brains after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mahasweta; Wang, Chunyan; Bedi, Raminder; Mohapatra, Shyam S; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes significant mortality, long term disability and psychological symptoms. Gene therapy is a promising approach for treatment of different pathological conditions. Here we tested chitosan and polyethyleneimine (PEI)-coated magnetic micelles (CP-mag micelles or CPMMs), a potential MRI contrast agent, to deliver a reporter DNA to the brain after mild TBI (mTBI). CPMM-tomato plasmid (ptd) conjugate expressing a red-fluorescent protein (RFP) was administered intranasally immediately after mTBI or sham surgery in male SD rats. Evans blue extravasation following mTBI suggested CPMM-ptd entry into the brain via the compromised blood-brain barrier. Magnetofection increased the concentration of CPMMs in the brain. RFP expression was observed in the brain (cortex and hippocampus), lung and liver 48 h after mTBI. CPMM did not evoke any inflammatory response by themselves and were excreted from the body. These results indicate the possibility of using intranasally administered CPMM as a theranostic vehicle for mTBI. From the clinical editor: In this study, chitosan and PEI-coated magnetic micelles (CPMM) were demonstrated as potentially useful vehicles in traumatic brain injury in a rodent model. Magnetofection increased the concentration of CPMMs in the brain and, after intranasal delivery, CPMM did not evoke any inflammatory response and were excreted from the body. PMID:24486465

  12. Transport of 3-hydroxy(3-/sup 14/C)butyrate by dissociated cells from rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tildon, J.T.; Roeder, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the utilization of oxidizable substrates by the brain may be regulated in part by transport across the plasma membrane. Dissociated brain cells obtained by mechanical disruption of rat brain were used to measure the uptake of 3-hydroxy(3-14C)butyrate. Total uptake revealed two mechanisms (diffusion and a carrier-mediated system). A Lineweaver-Burk plot of the latter component yielded an apparent Km of 1.47 mM and a maximal velocity (Vmax) of 5 nmol.min-1.mg protein-1. The rates of uptake were temperature dependent and were significantly higher at pH 6.2 than at pH 7.4 or 8.2. Preloading the cells and increasing the intracellular concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate using 12.5 and 25 mM increased the rate of uptake 143 and 206%, respectively, indicative of an accelerative exchange mechanism. Uptake was inhibited approximately 50% by (in mM) 10 phenylpyruvate, 10 alpha-ketoisocaproate, 10 KCN, and 1.5 NaAsO/sub 2/. Uptake was also decreased by (in mM) 5 lactate, 5 methyl malonic acid, 1 alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, and 1 mersalyl. Dissociated brain cells from 14- to 16-day-old rats accumulated 3-hydroxybutyrate at a rate more than two-fold greater than cells from either younger (2-day-old) or older (28-day-old and adult) animals. These data are consistent with the proposal that 3-hydroxybutyrate is taken up by the brain by both diffusion and a carrier-mediated transport system, and they support the hypothesis that transport at the cellular level contributes to the regulation of substrate utilization by the brain.

  13. Total anesthesia, rats brain surgery, nitric oxide (NO and free radicals

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    Jelenković Ankica V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that clinical recovery after surgically induced brain trauma is followed by molecular and biochemical restitution. Seven days after surgery, we investigated whether the plastic cannula implanted in the left brain ventricle of adult Wistar rats (n = 6-7, performed in pentobarbital anesthesia, could influence oxidative stress elements (superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation, as well as the antioxidative system (superoxide dismuthase-SOD. Also, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO is involved in these processes. Biochemical analyses was performed in the forebrain cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Clinical recovery was complete seven days after surgery. Thereafter, thirty minutes before decapitation, through the cannula, one group of rats received saline intracerebroventricularly (control group, and the treated group received Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. The third group was left unoperated and untreated. Before and after the treatments, rectal body temperature was measured. Compared to the untreated group the index of lipid peroxidation was increased in all three brain structures in the group that received saline (p<0.05 to 0.01. Application of L-NAME deteriorated it in the striatum and hippocampus (p<0.01 compared to the both other groups, but the value in the forebrain cortex was similar to the untreated group. Supeoxide anion level was decreased in the L-NAME treated group only in the striatum (p<0.01 compared to control and untreated groups, but SOD was increased in the hippocampus compared to the saline treated group (p<0.05. Seven days after brain surgery in pentobarbital anesthesia, recovery of biochemical disturbances was not parallel to clinical recovery. Long lasting biochemical changes are rather the consequence of brain injury than to pentobarbital anesthesia. In this experimental model, NO had protective effects, acting against lipid per oxidation in the striatum and hippocampus, but not in the

  14. Influence of histidine on zinc transport into rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain of rats injected intravenously with 65Zn-His or 65ZnCl2 was subjected to autoradiography to study the role of histidine on zinc transport into the brain. One hour after injection, the radioactivity from 65Zn-His was largely concentrated in the choroid plexus in the ventricles. Six days after injection, the radioactivity from 65Zn-His was relatively concentrated in the hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus and the amygdala. The relative distribution of 65Zn-His in the brain was similar to that of 65ZnCl2 group at both 1 h and 6 days, suggesting that histidine may participate in zinc uptake in the brain. On the other hand, the clearance of the 65Zn-His group from the blood was higher than that of the 65ZnCl2 group. Brain uptake of the former was lower than that of the latter both 1 h and 6 days after injection. These results suggest that zinc uptake in the brain is influenced by histidine levels in the bloodstream. (author)

  15. Blood-brain barrier permeation in the rat during exposure to low-power 1.7-GHz microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of the blood-brain barrier to high-and low-molecular-weight compounds has been measured as a function of continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed-microwave radiation. Adult rats, anesthetized with pentobarbital and injected intravenously with a mixture of [14C] sucrose and [3H] inulin, were exposed for 30 min at a specific absorption rate of 0.1 W/kg to 1.7-GHz CW and pulsed (0.5-microseconds pulse width, 1,000 pps) microwaves. After exposure, the brain was perfused and sectioned into nine regions, and the radioactivity in each region was counted. During identical exposure conditions, temperatures of rats were measured in eight of the brain regions by a thermistor probe that did not perturb the field. No change in uptake of either tracer was found in any of the eight regions as compared with those of sham-exposed animals

  16. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  17. Isolation of inflammatory cells from rat brain tissue after stroke

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    Möller Karoline

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathophysiology of sterile inflammation following focal ischemic stroke is complex and not fully understood, but there is growing evidence that it offers several therapeutic options beyond the hitherto existing treatment strategies. The identification and quantification of infiltrating inflammatory cells in animal models of stroke is crucial both for understanding post-stroke inflammation and for drug target identification. Multicolor flow cytometry plays an important role in determining subtypes and quantity of leukocytes that infiltrate the brain tissue after stroke. Until now, most investigations have been performed in mice, most likely due to a significantly broader spectrum of disposable antibodies and available knockout models. Here, we introduce a specific and reproducible method to isolate leukocytes from rat brain specimen in the context of brain ischemia to ultimately allow multi-dimensional flow cytometric characterization and further downstream methods such as cell-subtype sorting and molecular biological approaches.

  18. Detecting Behavioral Deficits Post Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hibah O

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), ranging from mild to severe, almost always elicits an array of behavioral deficits in injured subjects. Some of these TBI-induced behavioral deficits include cognitive and vestibulomotor deficits as well as anxiety and other consequences. Rodent models of TBI have been (and still are) fundamental in establishing many of the pathophysiological mechanisms of TBI. Animal models are also utilized in screening and testing pharmacological effects of potential therapeutic agents for brain injury treatment. This chapter details validated protocols for each of these behavioral deficits post traumatic brain injury in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The elevated plus maze (EPM) protocol is described for assessing anxiety-like behavior; the Morris water maze protocol for assessing cognitive deficits in learning memory and spatial working memory and the rotarod test for assessing vestibulomotor deficits. PMID:27604739

  19. Brain micro-ecologies: neural stem cell niches in the adult mammalian brain

    OpenAIRE

    Riquelme, Patricio A; Drapeau, Elodie; Doetsch, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in two germinal regions in the adult mammalian brain, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the hippocampal formation. Within these two neurogenic niches, specialized astrocytes are neural stem cells, capable of self-renewing and generating neurons and glia. Cues within the niche, from cell–cell interactions to diffusible factors, are spatially and temporally coordinated to regulate proliferation and neurogenesis, ultimately affect...

  20. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED50) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  1. Neurogenesis in the adult brain: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Veronica; Bredesen, Dale E

    2007-10-01

    The function of neurogenesis in the adult brain is still unknown. Interventions such as environmental enrichment and exercise impinge on neurogenesis, suggesting that the process is regulated by experience. Conversely, a role for neurogenesis in learning has been proposed through 'cellular plasticity', a process akin to synaptic plasticity but operating at the network level. Although neurogenesis is stimulated by acute injury, and possibly by neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), it does not suffice to restore function. While the role and direction of change in the neurogenic response at different stages of AD is still a matter of debate, it is possible that a deficit in neurogenesis may contribute to AD pathogenesis since at least one of the two regions ostensibly neurogenic in the adult human brain (the subgranular zone of the dentage gyrus and the ventriculo-olfactory neurogenic system) support high-level functions affected in early AD (associative memory and olfaction respectively). The age of onset and the rate of progression of sporadic forms of AD are highly variable. Sporadic AD may have a component of insufficient neurogenic replacement or insufficient neurogenic stimulation that is correlated with traits of personal history; the rate of neurogenesis and the survival of replicating progenitors is strongly modified by behavioral interventions known to impinge on the rate of neurogenesis and the probability of survival of newly born neurons--exercise, enriched experience, and learning. This view is consistent with epidemiological data suggesting that higher education and increased participation in intellectual, social and physical aspects of daily life are associated with slower cognitive decline in healthy elderly ("cognitive reserve") and may reduce the risk of AD. Although neurogenesis can be modulated exogenously by growth factors, stimulation of neurogenesis as a mean to treat neurodegeneration is still for the most part

  2. Light-sheet microscopy imaging of a whole cleared rat brain with Thy1-GFP transgene

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Stefaniuk; Gualda, Emilio J.; Monika Pawlowska; Diana Legutko; Paweł Matryba; Paulina Koza; Witold Konopka; Dorota Owczarek; Marcin Wawrzyniak; Pablo Loza-Alvarez; Leszek Kaczmarek

    2016-01-01

    Whole-brain imaging with light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and optically cleared tissue is a new, rapidly developing research field. Whereas successful attempts to clear and image mouse brain have been reported, a similar result for rats has proven difficult to achieve. Herein, we report on creating novel transgenic rat harboring fluorescent reporter GFP under control of neuronal gene promoter. We then present data on clearing the rat brain, showing that FluoClearBABB was found superior ove...

  3. Dichlorvos and lindane induced oxidative stress in rat brain: Protective effects of ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dichlorvos and lindane pesticide causes toxicity in animals including humans. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is widely used as a culinary medicine in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, possessing a number of pharmacological properties. Objective: This study was designed to assess ameliorating effects of ginger juice in dichlorvos and lindane induced neurotoxicity in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Dichlorvos (8.8 mg/kg bw and lindane (8.8 mg/kg bw were orally administered alone as well as in combination to adult male and female wistar rats for 14 days followed by the post-treatment of ginger juice (100 mg/kg bw for 14 days. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione reductase (GR, quinine reductase (QR, and protein level were measured to evaluate the toxicity of these pesticides in brain. Results: Dichlorvos and lindane administration alone and in combination increased LPO and decreased the GSH level, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity, and protein. Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is believed to be involved in the toxicities induced by these pesticides. Post-treatment of ginger juice decreased LPO and increased the level of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity and protein in the brain of rats. Conclusions: The results indicated that dichlorovos and lindane induced tissue damage was ameliorated by ginger juice.

  4. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) Waterhouse, 1840).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Chikera S; Onyeanusi, Barth I; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2014-01-01

    A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840) was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats' brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat. PMID:24832847

  5. Changes in myelinisation of neurons in different brain regions in progesterone-treated rats

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    Đelić Dijana J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of progesterone on myelin of the brain in adult male Wistar rats was investigated by labelling the myelin of neurons in 5 mm thick brain sections with Nile blue stain. The following nuclei were analysed hypothalamic nucleus arcuatus (ARC and nucleus paraventricularis (NPV claustrum (CL, nuclei of the corticomedial part of amygdala: nucleus medialis (NM, nucleus corticalis (NCO and nucleus centralis (NCE and in the basolateral part of amygdala, nucleus basolateralis (NBL, nucleus basomedialis (NBM and nucleus lateralis posterior (NLP. In control male rats sacrificed at 62 days of age a great number of neurons labelled with Nile blue for myelin were detected by stereological analysis.They were observed in; ARC and NPV, in the corticomedial amygdaloid nuclei (NM, NCE NCO as well as in the basolateral nuclei (NBL, NBM and NLP. In CL there was a smaller number of neurons with labelled myelin than in the other investigated regions. In comparison to the controls, the number of neurons labelled with Nile blue for myelin in progesterone treated male rats was significantly reduced in ARC of hypothalamus and in NCO of amygdala. A significant increase was observed in NPV of hypothalamus, and in NM, NCE NBL and NBM of amygdala. On the other hand, in CL the number of neurons labelled with Nile blue for myelin was not changed.

  6. Long-term reproducibility of in vivo measures of specific binding of radioligands in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term reproducibility of measures of in vivo specific binding of radiolabeled forms of (+)-α-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) and d-threo-methylphenidate (MPH) in rat brain was examined. All studies were done using a consistent bolus plus infusion protocol and calculation of equilibrium distribution volume ratios (DVR). Over a period of eight years striatal DVR values for DTBZ binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in young adult (8-10 wks old) rats showed very good reproducibility (3.62±0.33, N=35). Equivalent values were obtained using either tritiated or carbon-11 labeled DTBZ, and were irrespective of sex of animals. Older animals (78 wks old) showed losses (-45%) of specific binding. Striatal binding of MPH to the dopamine transporter (DAT) showed a similar reproducibility over a five year period (DVR=2.17±0.39, N=52), again irrespective of radionuclide or sex. These studies demonstrate that use of a consistent in vivo technique can provide reliable measures of specific binding of radioligands to high affinity sites in the rat brain

  7. Long-term reproducibility of in vivo measures of specific binding of radioligands in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael R. E-mail: mkilbour@umich.edu

    2004-07-01

    The long-term reproducibility of measures of in vivo specific binding of radiolabeled forms of (+)-{alpha}-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) and d-threo-methylphenidate (MPH) in rat brain was examined. All studies were done using a consistent bolus plus infusion protocol and calculation of equilibrium distribution volume ratios (DVR). Over a period of eight years striatal DVR values for DTBZ binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in young adult (8-10 wks old) rats showed very good reproducibility (3.62{+-}0.33, N=35). Equivalent values were obtained using either tritiated or carbon-11 labeled DTBZ, and were irrespective of sex of animals. Older animals (78 wks old) showed losses (-45%) of specific binding. Striatal binding of MPH to the dopamine transporter (DAT) showed a similar reproducibility over a five year period (DVR=2.17{+-}0.39, N=52), again irrespective of radionuclide or sex. These studies demonstrate that use of a consistent in vivo technique can provide reliable measures of specific binding of radioligands to high affinity sites in the rat brain.

  8. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Cholinergic System in Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Marković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated an association between early stressful life events and adult life psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In rodents, early life exposure to stressors such as maternal deprivation (MD produces numerous hormonal, neurochemical, and behavioral changes and is accepted as one of the animal models of schizophrenia. The stress induces acetylcholine (Ach release in the forebrain and the alterations in cholinergic neurotransmitter system are reported in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine long-term effects of maternal separation on acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in different brain structures and the density of cholinergic fibers in hippocampus and retrosplenial (RS cortex. Wistar rats were separated from their mothers on the postnatal day (P 9 for 24 h and sacrificed on P60. Control group of rats was bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Brain regions were collected for AChE activity measurements and morphometric analysis. Obtained results showed significant decrease of the AChE activity in cortex and increase in the hippocampus of MD rats. Density of cholinergic fibers was significantly increased in CA1 region of hippocampus and decreased in RS cortex. Our results indicate that MD causes long-term structure specific changes in the cholinergic system.

  9. Inner ring monodeiodination of thyroxine and 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the metabolism of thyroid hormone in the central nervous system (CNS), 5-monodeiodinating activities were studied by incubating T4 or T3 with an aliquot of the P2 fraction of the rat brain in the presence of dithiothreitol and measuring the amounts of rT3 or 3,3'-T2 was dependent upon duration of the incubation, amount of tissue used, temperature, and pH (the optimal pH was 8.0). These findings show that these reactions are enzymic in nature. For the conversion of T4 to rT3, the K/sub m/ was estimated to be 1.33 μM, and the V/sub max/ was 173 fmol/mg protein-min. For the conversion of T3 to 3,3'-T2, the K/sub m/ was estimated to be 2.31 μM, and the V/sub max/ was 94 fmol/mg protein-min. Both the conversion of T4 or rT3 and that of T3 to 3,3'-T2 were dependent on the concentration of dithiothreitol, but were not inhibited by propylthiouracil, the well known inhibitor of 5'-deiodinating activity. Both activities were mainly found in the synaptosomal fractions. The P2 fraction from fetal and neonatal rat brains had significantly higher activity than that from the adult brain. These findings demonstrate the presence of 5-monodeiodinating activities in the rat brain

  10. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a sing...

  11. Immunohistochemical distribution of Plexin A4 in the adult rat central nervous system

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    Claire-Anne Gutekunst

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available PlexinA4 is the latest member to be identified of the plexin A subfamily, critical transducers of class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilins 1 and 2. Despite functional information regarding the role of PlexinA4 in development and guidance of specific neuronal pathways, little is known about its distribution in the adult central nervous system (CNS. Here we report an in depth immunohistochemical analysis of PlexinA4 expression in the adult rat CNS. PlexinA4 staining was present in neurons and fibers throughout the brain and spinal cord, including neocortex, hippocampus, lateral hypothalamus, red nucleus, facial nucleus and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. PlexinA4 antibodies labeled fibers in the lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, several thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, pontine reticular region, as well as in several cranial nerve nuclei. This constitutes the first detailed description of the topographic distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult CNS and will set the basis for future studies on the functional implications of PlexinA4 in adult brain physiology.

  12. Effect of Dietary Kaempferia parviflora on Ischemic Brain Injury in the rat

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    Wathita Phachonpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Stroke often causes irreversible neuronal damage and related behavioral deficits. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional plant medicines. We investigated the ability of consuming Kaempferia parviflora extract, a Thai medicinal plant reputed for neuroprotective effects against brain damage, reduced infarct volume and improve neurological outcome in rats with permanent right Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO. Approach: Male adult Wistar rats were administrated an alcoholic extract of KP orally once daily at a period of 14 days before and 7 days after MCAO. Neurological function assessment was performed at 7 days after MCAO using the 6-points postural reflex test. The brain infarct volume and the densities of survival neurons in hippocampus were also determined at the end of experiment. Results: Oral administration with KP at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 BW significantly improved the neurological behavior performances and reduced the infarct volume when compared to the vehicle treated group. The reductions of survival neurons densities were also mitigated. Conclusion: The consumption of KP extract may have the possibility of protective effect against neurological disorders such as brain ischemia, while further investigations about precise underlying the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia are still required.

  13. Noncanonical Sites of Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, David M; Bordey, Angélique; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery that neural stem cells (NSCs) populate some regions of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), deep knowledge has been accumulated on their capacity to generate new neurons in the adult brain. This constitutive adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life primarily within remnants of the embryonic germinal layers known as "neurogenic sites." Nevertheless, some processes of neurogliogenesis also occur in the CNS parenchyma commonly considered as "nonneurogenic." This "noncanonical" cell genesis has been the object of many claims, some of which turned out to be not true. Indeed, it is often an "incomplete" process as to its final outcome, heterogeneous by several measures, including regional location, progenitor identity, and fate of the progeny. These aspects also strictly depend on the animal species, suggesting that persistent neurogenic processes have uniquely adapted to the brain anatomy of different mammals. Whereas some examples of noncanonical neurogenesis are strictly parenchymal, others also show stem cell niche-like features and a strong link with the ventricular cavities. This work will review results obtained in a research field that expanded from classic neurogenesis studies involving a variety of areas of the CNS outside of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ). It will be highlighted how knowledge concerning noncanonical neurogenic areas is still incomplete owing to its regional and species-specific heterogeneity, and to objective difficulties still hampering its full identification and characterization. PMID:26384869

  14. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

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    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  15. Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Bertil R.; Leif G Salford; Brun, Arne

    1997-01-01

    iological effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been studied in Fischer 344 rats of both sexes. The rats were not anaesthetised during the exposure. All animals were sacrificed by perfusion–fixation of the brains under chloralhydrate anaesthesia after the exposure. The brains were perfused with saline for 3–4 minutes, and thereafter perfusion fixed with 4% formaldehyde for 5–6 minutes. Whole coronal sections of the brains were d...

  16. Calcium-activated potassium channels mediated blood-brain tumor barrier opening in a rat metastatic brain tumor model

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Background The blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) impedes the delivery of therapeutic agents to brain tumors. While adequate delivery of drugs occurs in systemic tumors, the BTB limits delivery of anti-tumor agents into brain metastases. Results In this study, we examined the function and regulation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels in a rat metastatic brain tumor model. We showed that intravenous infusion of NS1619, a KCa channel agonist, and bradykinin selectively enhanced BTB perm...

  17. Effects of intravenous administration of bone marrow stromal stem cells on cognitive impairment of the whole-brain irradiated rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effect of intravenous infusion of bone marrow stromal stem cells(MSCs) on cognitive function of rats after whole brain irradiation. Methods: MSCs were isolated and cultured from adult rats. After Sprague-Dawly female rats were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate, their whole cerebrum was irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy by 6 MV X-ray. Seven days after irradiation, 4 x 106 Hoechst33342-1abelled MSCs were intravenously injected into the tail vein of these rats. Four and 8 weeks after transplantation, the learning and memorizing ability was measured with the Y maze test. Immunohistochemical method was used to identify MSCs or ceils derived from MSCs in the brain. Results: The learning and memorizing ability of irradiation groups were significantly different from that of normal control group (P < 0.01). Significant improvement of cognitive impairment was observed in rats treated with MSCs at 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation as compared with the controll groups (P<0.05). This showed that the MSCs survived and were localized to the brain tissue. The number of Hoechst33342 immunohistofluorescence positive cells and double-immunostaining cells significantly decreased in 8 weeks group as compared with the 4 weeks group. Conclusion: Marrow stromal stem cells delivered to the irradiation brain tissue through intravenous route improve the cognitive impairment after whole brain irradiation. These cells may survive and differentiate in the brain tissue of irradiated rats. (authors)

  18. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and...... characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution of...... epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  19. Localization of histidine decarboxylase mRNA in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D A; Wang, Y M; Zahnow, C A; Joseph, D R; Millhorn, D E

    1990-08-01

    The recent cloning of a cDNA encoding fetal rat liver histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the synthesizing enzyme for histamine, allows the study of the central histaminergic system at the molecular level. To this end, Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses were used to determine the regional and cellular distribution of neurons which express HDC mRNA in rat brain. Three hybridizing species which migrate as 1.6-, 2.6-, and 3.5-kb RNA were identified with Northern blots. The major (2.6 kb) and minor (3.5 kb) species, characteristic of HDC mRNA in fetal liver, were expressed at high levels in diencephalon and at just detectable levels in hippocampus, but not in other brain regions. In contrast, the 1.6-kb species was present in all brain regions examined except the olfactory bulb. Cells which contain HDC mRNA were found by in situ hybridization in the hypothalamus; HDC mRNA-containing cells were not detected in other areas, including the hippocampus. Hypothalamic neurons which express HDC mRNA were localized to all aspects of the tuberomammillary nucleus, a result consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings. PMID:19912749

  20. 孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后酒精摄取行为及脑内小白蛋白表达的影响%Effects of prenatal stress on voluntary ethanol intake and brain parvalbumin expression in adult female rat offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫晓叶; 李政; 贺礼理; 杨赛花; 黄菊芳; 童建斌; 李昌琪

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of prenatal stress on voluntary ethanol intake(EI) and brain parvalbumin (PV) expression in adult female rat offspring. Methods Six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into prenatal stress (PS, n= 3) and control group (CON, n=3). During the late gestational periods, rats in PS were subjected to restraint stress for consecutive 3 days. The adult female offspring in PS were randomly divided into PS plus stress group(PS-S, n=6) and PS without stress group(PS-NS, n=6). The adult female offspring in CON were randomly divided into stress(CON-S, n = 6) and no stress group(CON-NS, n = 6). The rats in PS-S and CON-S were subjected to restraint stress, and 3 weeks later ice-water stress. All the rats in each group were of fered free choice between water and ethanol solution. Then EI of every rat was assessed every day. The PV expression in hippocampns and frontal cortex were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results The basal El of PS-NS at the 1st, 4th and 6th week were significantly less than that of CON-NS(P<0.05). The EI of PS-S at the 1st week after restraint stress was significantly higher than that of CON-S (P<0.05). But EI of PS-S at the 3rd week after ice-water stress was much less than that of CON-S (P<0.05). The PV expression of PS-S offspring in the hippocampal CA2 and frontal cortex M1 were obviously lower than that of CON-S(P<0.05). Conclusion Prenatal stress could affect on alcohol preference of adult female rat offspring, which possibly is related to the reduction of PV expression in brain.%目的 探讨孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后酒精摄取行为以及脑内小白蛋白表达的影响.方法 6只SD孕鼠随机分为孕期应激组(PS组,n=3)和对照组(CON组,n=3).PS组孕鼠在妊娠晚期接受限制性应激,CON组孕鼠不给予孕期应激.子代成年后,PS组和CON组雌性子代分别随机分为PS-S组(n=6)和PS-NS组(n=6),CON-S组(n=6)和CON-NS组(n=6).PS-S组和CON-S组动物先后接受限制性应

  1. Constraint-induced movement therapy enhanced neurogenesis and behavioral recovery after stroke in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuansheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Shanshan; Nie, Yingxue

    2009-08-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) has been extensively used for stroke rehabilitation. CIMT encourages use of the impaired limb along with restraint of the ipsilesional limb in daily life, and may promote behavioral recovery and induce structural changes in brain after stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CIMT enhances neurogenesis in rat brain after stroke that was generated by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult rats were divided into sham group, ischemia group and ischemia treated with CIMT group. Rats of CIMT group were treated with a plaster cast to restrain the healthy forelimb for 14 days beginning 1 week after ischemia. The proliferation of neuronal cells labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and behavioral recovery were analyzed at day 29 after ischemia. We also measured the tissue level of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) by ELISA. SDF-1 might be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis following stroke. In the subventricular zone of the animals treated with CIMT, there was a significant increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells (135 +/- 18, P behavioral performances and increased the SDF-1 protein levels in the cortex and dentate gyrus. In conclusion, CIMT treatment enhances neurogenesis and functional recovery after stroke. PMID:19638734

  2. The blood-brain barrier penetration and distribution of PEGylated fluorescein-doped magnetic silica nanoparticles in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEGylated PAMAM conjugated fluorescein-doped magnetic silica nanoparticles (PEGylated PFMSNs) have been synthesized for evaluating their ability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and distribution in rat brain. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA), zeta potential (ζ-potential) titration, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The BBB penetration and distribution of PEGylated PFMSNs and FMSNs in rat brain were investigated not only at the cellular level with Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), but also at the subcellular level with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results provide direct evidents that PEGylated PFMSNs could penetrate the BBB and spread into the brain parenchyma.

  3. Clinical Feature And Pathogeny Analysis Of Brain Hemorrhage In Young Adult Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianming; Zeng Xiaoyun

    2000-01-01

    Objection: The trend of brain hemorrhage cases of young adults have increased recently. In this article, We studied brain hemorrhage clinical feature and pathogenic causes of 72 young adults, Whose ages are all beneath 45Y. We found That the major pathogen reasons of young adult brain hemorrhage are blood system diseases、 arteriovenous malformation of cerebral blood vessel、 hypertension arteriosclerosis、 arteritis and rheumatic heart disease et. We also found that the trend can be related to hard work、 tense life、 drinking too much alcohol and eating high lipid food, and cercbral vascular disease family history. So in order to reduce the incidence of young adult brain hemorrhage, Young adults should not drink and smoke heavily, should not eat too much high lipid food. Young adults who have hypertension and brain vessel disease family history should be regularly measured blood pressure and blood lipid. If they had hypertension, should be treated regularly.

  4. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (pinfrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:21946944

  5. SU-E-I-34: Intermittent Low- and High-Dose Ethanol Exposure Alters Neurochemical Responses in Adult Rat Brain: An Ex Vivo 1H NMR Spectroscopy at 11.7 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The first goal of this study was to determine the influence of the dose-dependent effects of intermittent ethanol intoxication on cerebral neurochemical responses among sham controls and low- and high-dose-ethanol-exposed rats with ex vivo high-resolution spectra. The second goal of this study was to determine the correlations between the metabolite-metabolite levels (pairs-of-metabolite levels) from all of the individual data from the frontal cortex of the intermittent ethanol-intoxicated rats. Methods: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups. Twenty rats in the LDE (n = 10) and the HDE (n = 10) groups received ethanol doses of 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg, respectively, through oral gavage every 8-h for 4 days. At the end of the 4-day intermittent ethanol exposure, one-dimensional ex vivo 500-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from 30 samples of the frontal cortex region (from the 3 groups). Results: Normalized total-N-acetylaspartate (tNAA: NAA + NAAG [N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate]), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower in the frontal cortex of the HDE-exposed rats than that of the LDE-exposed rats. Moreover, compared to the CNTL group, the LDE rats exhibited significantly higher normalized GABA levels. The 6 pairs of normalized metabolite levels were positively (+) or negatively (−) correlated in the rat frontal cortex as follows: tNAA and GABA (+), tNAA and Aspartate (Asp) (−), myo-Inositol (mIns) and Asp (−), mIns and Alanine (+), mIns and Taurine (+), and mIns and tNAA (−). Conclusion: Our results suggested that repeated intermittent ethanol intoxication might result in neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, changes in the rate of GABA synthesis, and oxidative stress in the rat frontal cortex. Our ex vivo 1H high-resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results suggested some novel metabolic markers for the dose

  6. SU-E-I-34: Intermittent Low- and High-Dose Ethanol Exposure Alters Neurochemical Responses in Adult Rat Brain: An Ex Vivo 1H NMR Spectroscopy at 11.7 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do-Wan; Kim, Sang-Young; Song, Kyu-Ho; Choe, Bo-Young [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The first goal of this study was to determine the influence of the dose-dependent effects of intermittent ethanol intoxication on cerebral neurochemical responses among sham controls and low- and high-dose-ethanol-exposed rats with ex vivo high-resolution spectra. The second goal of this study was to determine the correlations between the metabolite-metabolite levels (pairs-of-metabolite levels) from all of the individual data from the frontal cortex of the intermittent ethanol-intoxicated rats. Methods: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups. Twenty rats in the LDE (n = 10) and the HDE (n = 10) groups received ethanol doses of 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg, respectively, through oral gavage every 8-h for 4 days. At the end of the 4-day intermittent ethanol exposure, one-dimensional ex vivo 500-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from 30 samples of the frontal cortex region (from the 3 groups). Results: Normalized total-N-acetylaspartate (tNAA: NAA + NAAG [N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate]), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower in the frontal cortex of the HDE-exposed rats than that of the LDE-exposed rats. Moreover, compared to the CNTL group, the LDE rats exhibited significantly higher normalized GABA levels. The 6 pairs of normalized metabolite levels were positively (+) or negatively (−) correlated in the rat frontal cortex as follows: tNAA and GABA (+), tNAA and Aspartate (Asp) (−), myo-Inositol (mIns) and Asp (−), mIns and Alanine (+), mIns and Taurine (+), and mIns and tNAA (−). Conclusion: Our results suggested that repeated intermittent ethanol intoxication might result in neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, changes in the rate of GABA synthesis, and oxidative stress in the rat frontal cortex. Our ex vivo 1H high-resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results suggested some novel metabolic markers for the dose

  7. Brain edema and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renlan Zhou; Peng Xie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) participates in brain edema. However, it is unclear whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is associated with TWEAK during the process of brain edema OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of TWEAK on BBB permeability in brain edema.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An immunohistochemical observation, randomized, controlled animal experiment was pertbrmed at the Laboratory of Neurosurgical Anatomy, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University & Central Laboratory, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University between January 2006 and December 2007.MATERIALS: A total of 48 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (n =8), sham-operated (n = 8), and ischemia/reperfusion (n = 32). Rats from the ischemia/reperfusion group were randomly assigned to four subgroups according to different time points, i.e., 2 hours of ischemia followed by 6 hours (n = 8), 12 hours {n = 8), 1 day (n = 8), or 12 days (n = 8) of reperfusion.METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the suture method in rats from the ischemia/reperfusion group. Thread was introduced at a depth of 17-19 mm. Rats in the sham-operated group were subjected to experimental procedures similar to the ischemia/reperfusion group; however, the introducing depth of thread was 10 mm. The normal control group was not given any intervention.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: TWEAK expression was examined by immunohistochemistry; brain water content on the ischemic side was calculated as the ratio of dry to wet tissue weight; BBB permeability was measured by Evans blue extravasation.RESULTS: A total of eight rats died prior to and after surgery and an additional eight rats were randomly entered into the study. Thus 48 rats were included in the final analysis. In the ischemia/reperfusion group,TWEAK-positive cells were

  8. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  9. Brain plasticity of rats exposed to prenatal immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badalyan B. Yu.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This histochemical and immunohistochemical study was aimed at examining the brain cellular structures of newborn rats exposed to prenatal immobilization (IMO stress. Methods. Histochemical method on detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity and ABC immunohistochemical technique. Results. Cell structures with radial astrocytes marker GFAP, neuroepithelial stem cell marker gene nestin, stem-cells marker and the hypothalamic neuroprotective proline-rich polypeptide PRP-1 (Galarmin, a natural cytokine of a common precursor to neurophysin vasopressin associated glycoprotein have been revealed in several brain regions. Conclusions. Our findings indicate the process of generation of new neurons in response to IMO and PRP-1 involvement in this recovery mechanism, as PRP-1-Ir was detected in the above mentioned cell structures, as well as in the neurons and nerve fibers.

  10. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mrdalj

    Full Text Available Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min or brief maternal separation (10 min. Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.

  11. Data for mitochondrial proteomic alterations in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Lance M; Stauch, Kelly L; Fox, Howard S

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are a critical organelle involved in many cellular processes, and due to the nature of the brain, neuronal cells are almost completely reliant on these organelles for energy generation. Due to the fact that biomedical research tends to investigate disease state pathogenesis, one area of mitochondrial research commonly overlooked is homeostatic responses to energy demands. Therefore, to elucidate mitochondrial alterations occurring during the developmentally important phase of E18 to P7 in the brain, we quantified the proteins in the mitochondrial proteome as well as proteins interacting with the mitochondria. We identified a large number of significantly altered proteins involved in a variety of pathways including glycolysis, mitochondrial trafficking, mitophagy, and the unfolded protein response. These results are important because we identified alterations thought to be homeostatic in nature occurring within mitochondria, and these results may be used to identify any abnormal deviations in the mitochondrial proteome occurring during this period of brain development. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article "Proteomic analysis of mitochondria from embryonic and postnatal rat brains reveals response to developmental changes in energy demands" in the Journal of Proteomics. PMID:26217684

  12. Immuno-localization of galanin receptor-1 (GALR1) in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Galanin is expressed in discrete areas throughout the central nervous system and has several putative physiological actions including effects on hormone secretion, reproduction and cognition, via actions at multiple G-protein-coupled receptors. Currently, three galanin receptors - GalR1, -R2, -R3 - have been identified that differ in pharmacology, signalling and distribution. The distribution of [125I]-galanin binding sites presumably represents multiple receptors and so the precise regional and cellular localization of each receptor subtype is unknown. This study examined the distribution in rat brain of GalR1 receptors by immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antibodies raised against short peptide sequences from the third intracellular loop and the proximal C-terminal. Adult rats were deeply anaesthetized (pentobarbitone 60 mg/kg, ip.) and perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. Specific GalR1 immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in neurons in various brain regions including cells within the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, dorsomedial thalamus, hypothalamus (PVN, SON, ARC), midbrain/pons (intense staining in ventrolateral/medial PAG) and medulla. The localization pattern was qualitatively similar with both antisera and was consistent with that observed for GalR1 mRNA in normal rat brain. Recent evidence also reveals that GalR1- mRNA and -IR levels are coordinately altered after neuronal stimulation. These studies demonstrate a method for the identification of GalR1-containing cells that should assist in better differentiating the phenotype of galanin-receptive neurons. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  13. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression in the postnatal rat brain following an excitotoxic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Maryam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the nervous system, as in other organs, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD is a key antioxidant enzyme involved in superoxide detoxification in normal cellular metabolism and after cell injury. Although it has been suggested that immature brain has a different susceptibility to oxidative damage than adult brain, the distribution and cell-specific expression of this enzyme in immature brain and after postnatal brain damage has not been documented. Methods In this study, we used immunohistochemistry and western blot to analyze the expression of Cu/Zn SOD in intact immature rat brain and in immature rat brain after an NMDA-induced excitotoxic cortical injury performed at postnatal day 9. Double immunofluorescence labelling was used to identify Cu/Zn SOD-expressing cell populations. Results In intact immature brain, Cu/Zn SOD enzyme was widely expressed at high levels in neurons mainly located in cortical layers II, III and V, in the sub-plate, in the pyriform cortex, in the hippocampus, and in the hypothalamus. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells only showed Cu/Zn SOD expression in the glia limitans and in scattered cells of the ventricle walls. No expression was detected in interfascicular oligodendroglia, microglia or endothelial cells. Following excitotoxic damage, neuronal Cu/Zn SOD was rapidly downregulated (over 2–4 hours at the injection site before neurodegeneration signals and TUNEL staining were observed. Later, from 1 day post-lesion onward, an upregulation of Cu/Zn SOD was found due to increased expression in astroglia. A further increase was observed at 3, 5 and 7 days that corresponded to extensive induction of Cu/Zn SOD in highly reactive astrocytes and in the astroglial scar. Conclusion We show here that, in the intact immature brain, the expression of Cu/Zn SOD was mainly found in neurons. When damage occurs, a strong and very rapid downregulation of this enzyme precedes neuronal degeneration

  14. Effect of low-dose methylprednisolone on peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells and its significance in rats after brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of low-dose methylprednisolone(MP treatment after traumatic brain injury(TBI in rats on the number of peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs and injury area of the brain.Methods One hundred and fifty-four adult male Wistar rats were involved in the present study,and they were randomly divided into normal control group(n=18,TBI control group(n=38,MP control group(n=30,MP+TBI group(n=30 and TBI+MP group(n=38.The TBI model was reproduced by fluid percussion injury(FPI.MP(5mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered once a day for 4 days.Peripheral venous blood samples were taken on day 1,3,7 and 14,and the counts of EPCs were determined by flow cytometry.The rats were sacrificed on day 1 and 3,brain edema was estimated by dry-wet weight method,and the blood-brain barrier(BBB permeability was determined by Evans-blue extravasation.Results The counts of peripheral blood EPCs were significantly higher in MP control group,MP+TBI group and TBI+MP group on day 1,3 and 7 than that in normal control and TBI control group,and it returned to the level of normal control group on day 14.The BBB permeability was improved and brain edema alleviated in MP+TBI and TBI+MP group on day 3.Conclusion The administration of low-dose MP may increase the count of peripheral blood EPCs in rats,decrease BBB damage,and alleviate brain edema.

  15. Wearable scanning photoacoustic brain imaging in behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianbo; Dai, Xianjin; Jiang, Huabei

    2016-06-01

    A wearable scanning photoacoustic imaging (wPAI) system is presented for noninvasive brain study in behaving rats. This miniaturized wPAI system consists of four pico linear servos and a single transducer-based PAI probe. It has a dimension of 50 mm × 35 mm × 40 mm, and a weight of 26 g excluding cablings. Phantom evaluation shows that wPAI achieves a lateral resolution of ∼0.5 mm and an axial resolution of ∼0.1 mm at a depth of up to 11 mm. Its imaging ability is also tested in a behaving rat, and the results indicate that wPAI is able to image blood vessels at a depth of up to 5 mm with intact scalp and skull. With its noninvasive, deep penetration, and functional imaging ability in behaving animals, wPAI can be used for behavior, cognition, and preclinical brain disease studies. PMID:26777064

  16. Hypobaric Hypoxia Imbalances Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Brain Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain is predominantly susceptible to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction during hypobaric hypoxia, and therefore undergoes neurodegeneration due to energy crisis. Evidences illustrate a high degree of association for mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is a recently reported dynamic mechanism which frequently occurs among cellular mitochondrial network. Hence, the study investigated the temporal alteration and involvement of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission along with disturbed mitochondrial functionality during chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH. The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 25000 ft for 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Mitochondrial morphology, distribution within neurons, enzyme activity of respiratory complexes, Δψm, ADP: ATP, and expression of fission/fusion key proteins were determined. Results demonstrated HH induced alteration in mitochondrial morphology by damaged, small mitochondria observed in neurons with disturbance of mitochondrial functionality and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes manifested by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation (fission and decreased mitochondrial fusion as compared to unexposed rat brain hippocampus. The study suggested that imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics is one of the noteworthy mechanisms occurring in hippocampal neurons during HH insult.

  17. Spontaneous Wheel Running Exercise Induces Brain Recovery via Neurotrophin-3 Expression Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Hyun Mo; Lee, Sun Min; Kim, Min Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) after applying spontaneous wheel running exercises (SWR) after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; 20 rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact for TBI, and then, animals were randomly collected from the SWR group and subjected to wheel running exercise for 3 weeks. Ten rats were not subjected to any...

  18. Wnts in adult brain: from synaptic plasticity to cognitive deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Carolina A.; Vargas, Jessica Y.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    During development of the central nervous system the Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in a wide spectrum of physiological processes, including neuronal connectivity and synapse formation. Wnt proteins and components of the Wnt pathway are expressed in the brain since early development to the adult life, however, little is known about its role in mature synapses. Here, we review evidences indicating that Wnt proteins participate in the remodeling of pre- and post-synaptic regions, thus modulating synaptic function. We include the most recent data in the literature showing that Wnts are constantly released in the brain to maintain the basal neural activity. Also, we review the evidences that involve components of the Wnt pathway in the development of neurological and mental disorders, including a special emphasis on in vivo studies that relate behavioral abnormalities to deficiencies in Wnt signaling. Finally, we include the evidences that support a neuroprotective role of Wnt proteins in Alzheimer’s disease. We postulate that deregulation in Wnt signaling might have a fundamental role in the origin of neurological diseases, by altering the synaptic function at stages where the phenotype is not yet established but when the cognitive decline starts. PMID:24348327

  19. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  20. Immunochemical method for quantitative evaluation of vasogenic brain edema following cold injury of rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodsch, W.; Huerter, T.; Hossmann, K.A. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Forschungsstelle fuer Hirnkreislauf-Forschung)

    1982-10-07

    An immunochemical method is described for quantitative assessment of serum proteins and hemoglobin content in brain tissue homogenates. Using a combination of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay, the sensitivity of the method is 50 ng hemoglobin and 100 ng serum protein per assay, respectively. The method was used to measure cerebral hematocrit, blood volume and serum protein extravasation in rat brain at various times following cold injury. In control rats cerebral blood volume was 6.88 +- 0.15 ml/100 g and cerebral hematocrit 26.4 +- 0.86% (means +- S.E.). Following cold injury blood volume did not significantly change, but there was a gradual increase of extravasated serum proteins, reaching a maximum of 21.54 +- 2.76 mg/g d.w. after 8 hours. Thereafter protein content gradually declined, but even after 64 h it was distinctly increased. Protein extravasation was partly dissociated from the increase of brain water and sodium which reached a maximum already after 2 h and which normalized within 32 and 64 h, respectively. It is concluded that edema fluid associated with cold injury is not simply an ultrafiltrate of blood serum but consists of cytotoxic and vasogenic components which follow a different time course both during formation and resolution of edema.

  1. Immunochemical method for quantitative evaluation of vasogenic brain edema following cold injury of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An immunochemical method is described for quantitative assessment of serum proteins and hemoglobin content in brain tissue homogenates. Using a combination of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay, the sensitivity of the method is 50 ng hemoglobin and 100 ng serum protein per assay, respectively. The method was used to measure cerebral hematocrit, blood volume and serum protein extravasation in rat brain at various times following cold injury. In control rats cerebral blood volume was 6.88 +- 0.15 ml/100 g and cerebral hematocrit 26.4 +- 0.86% (means +- S.E.). Following cold injury blood volume did not significantly change, but there was a gradual increase of extravasated serum proteins, reaching a maximum of 21.54 +- 2.76 mg/g d.w. after 8 hours. Thereafter protein content gradually declined, but even after 64 h it was distinctly increased. Protein extravasation was partly dissociated from the increase of brain water and sodium which reached a maximum already after 2 h and which normalized within 32 and 64 h, respectively. It is concluded that edema fluid associated with cold injury is not simply an ultrafiltrate of blood serum but consists of cytotoxic and vasogenic components which follow a different time course both during formation and resolution of edema. (Auth.)

  2. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840

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    Chikera S. Ibe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats’ brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat.

  3. The neuro-radiological anatomy of the normal and abnormal rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo and post mortem techniques for the radiological examination of normal brains have been developed, using 66 white adult rats. Aortic arch injections for survey angiograms (10 animals), selective catheterisation of the internal carotid artery (16 animals) and ventriculography by percutaneous needle puncture (20 animals) were performed in vivo; the animals survived and the examinations could be repeated. The techniques proved useful and accurate methods for the radiological demonstration of the topography and morphology of cerebral vessels and chambers; they also provided information on the function of the cerebral circulation and C.S.F. dynamics. The findings were checked and correlated by post mortem studies (20 animals) using contact radiography, micro-angiography and casts of the ventricles. As a result, extensive topographic and anatomic information concerning the cerebral vessels in the rat was obtained, including some microscopic-radiological findings. The combined use of these methods provided a basis for studying the growth of experimentally induced brain tumours and the effect of various types of treatment. (orig.)

  4. Functional MRI during Hippocampal Deep Brain Stimulation in the Healthy Rat Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Van Den Berge

    Full Text Available Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS is a promising treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action and the effects of electrical fields administered to the brain by means of an electrode remain to be elucidated. The effects of DBS have been investigated primarily by electrophysiological and neurochemical studies, which lack the ability to investigate DBS-related responses on a whole-brain scale. Visualization of whole-brain effects of DBS requires functional imaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, which reflects changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD responses throughout the entire brain volume. In order to visualize BOLD responses induced by DBS, we have developed an MRI-compatible electrode and an acquisition protocol to perform DBS during BOLD fMRI. In this study, we investigate whether DBS during fMRI is valuable to study local and whole-brain effects of hippocampal DBS and to investigate the changes induced by different stimulation intensities. Seven rats were stereotactically implanted with a custom-made MRI-compatible DBS-electrode in the right hippocampus. High frequency Poisson distributed stimulation was applied using a block-design paradigm. Data were processed by means of Independent Component Analysis. Clusters were considered significant when p-values were <0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Our data indicate that real-time hippocampal DBS evokes a bilateral BOLD response in hippocampal and other mesolimbic structures, depending on the applied stimulation intensity. We conclude that simultaneous DBS and fMRI can be used to detect local and whole-brain responses to circuit activation with different stimulation intensities, making this technique potentially powerful for exploration of cerebral changes in response to DBS for both preclinical and clinical DBS.

  5. Traumatic brain injury: endocrine consequences in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability in young adults with consequences ranging from physical disabilities to long-term cognitive, behavioral, psychological and social defects. Recent data suggest that pituitary hormone deficiency is not infrequent among TBI survivors; the prevalence of reported hypopituitarism following TBI varies widely among published studies. The most common cause of TBI is motor vehicle accidents, including pedestrian-car and bicycle car encounters, falls, child abuse, violence and sports injuries. Prevalence of hypopituitarism, from total to isolated pituitary deficiency, ranges from 5 to 90 %. The time interval between TBI and pituitary function evaluation is one of the major factors responsible for variations in the prevalence of hypopituitarism reported. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI in children and adolescents is common. Adolescence is a time of growth, freedom and adjustment, consequently TBI is also common in this group. Sports-related TBI is an important public health concern, but many cases are unrecognized and unreported. Sports that are associated with an increased risk of TBI include those involving contact and/or collisions such as boxing, football, soccer, ice hockey, rugby, and the martial arts, as well as high velocity sports such as cycling, motor racing, equestrian sports, skiing and roller skating. The aim of this paper is to summarize the best evidence of TBI as a cause of pituitary deficiency in children and adults. PMID:24030696

  6. Lithium modifies brain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic metabolism in rat lipopolysaccharide model of neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Basselin, Mireille; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Chen, Mei; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Robert C. Murphy; Farias, Santiago E.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroinflammation, caused by 6 days of intracerebroventricular infusion of a low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.5 ng/h), stimulates brain arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in rats, but 6 weeks of lithium pretreatment reduces this effect. To further understand this action of lithium, we measured concentrations of eicosanoids and docosanoids generated from AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, in high-energy microwaved rat brain using LC/MS/MS and two doses of LPS. In rats fed a l...

  7. Brain polyphosphoinositide metabolism during focal ischemia in rat cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a rat model of stroke, we examined the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the metabolism of polyphosphoinositides by injecting 32Pi into both the left and right cortices. After equilibration of the label for 2-3 hours, ischemia induced a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) in the concentrations of labeled phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphates (66-78%) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (64-67%) in the right middle cerebral artery cortex of four rats. The phospholipid labeling pattern in the left middle cerebral artery cortex, which sustained only mild ischemia and no permanent tissue damage, was not different from that of two sham-operated controls. However, when 32Pi was injected 1 hour after the ischemic insult, there was a significant decrease (p less than 0.01) in the incorporation of label into the phospholipids in both cortices of four ischemic rats compared with four sham-operated controls. Furthermore, differences in the phospholipid labeling pattern were observed in the left cortex compared with the sham-operated controls. The change in labeling pattern was attributed to the partial reduction in blood flow following ligation of the common carotid arteries. We provide a sensitive procedure for probing the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the polyphosphoinositide signaling pathway in the brain, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury

  8. Effects of conditioned running on plasma, liver and brain tryptophan and on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism of the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouloff, F; Elghozi, J. L.; Guezennec, Y.; Laude, D.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was made into the effects of conditioned running (1 h and 2 h at 20 m min-1), which accelerates lipolysis, on the concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) in plasma, liver and brain and on 5-hydroxytrptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in brain. Running caused time-dependent increases in plasma free Trp and brain Trp of the rat, leading to increased brain 5-HT turnover as revealed by higher amounts of its metabolite, 5-HIAA. The ratio of brain Trp to plasm...

  9. Biological role of sialosyl transferase activity in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this dissertation is to obtain new evidence that will support or refute the existence of an ecto sialosyltransferse activity (STase) that has been described in the synaptic plasma membrane (SPM). This STase has been proposed to transfer sialic acid (NANA) to endogenous SPM gangliosides. Preparations of rat brain synaptosomes were assayed for STase by incubation with CMP-(14C)NANA, and measuring radioactivity transferred to the endogenous gangliosides. The activity was found to be 0.84 pmoles NANA transferred per mg protein per hour. The product specificity for STase was determined by the incorporation of label into individual ganglioside species. Subfractions were produced from rat brain that were enriched in Golgi membranes, synaptosomes, and SPM as judged by EM morphology and marker enzymes. The Golgi fraction had over 3 fold greater STase activity than synaptosomes, while SPM were enriched 2.5 fold over the synaptosomes from which they came. The labeling pattern of endogenous gangliosides was quite different by the Golgi STase. An unknown compound in the ganglioside extracts was specifically labeled, but gangliosides were not labeled with specificity by the Golgi transferase. The synaptosomal and SPM labeling patterns were identical and were characterized by GD3 specificity. Therefore the STase of SPM is not due to Golgi contamination. Intact neurons were assayed for STase by the use of brain cortical slices. Slices incubated that labeled CMP-NANA (available for cell surface reactions) produced the GD3-specific labeling pattern. These results suggest that the GD3-specific sialosyltransferase is a cell surface ecto-enzyme

  10. Effects of Various Kynurenine Metabolites on Respiratory Parameters of Rat Brain, Liver and Heart Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Halina; Staniek, Katrin; Bertignol-Spörr, Melanie; Attam, Martin; Kronsteiner, Carina; Kepplinger, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid dose-dependently and significantly affected rat heart mitochondria. Now we have investigated the effects of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids on respiratory parameters (ie, state 2, state 3), respiratory control index (RC) and ADP/oxygen ratio in brain, liver and heart mitochondria of adult rats. Mitochondria were incubated with glutamate/malate (5 mM) or succinate (10 mM) and in the presence of L-tryptophan metabolites (1 mM) or in the absence, as control. Kynurenic and anthranilic acids significantly reduced RC values of heart mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Xanthurenic acid significantly reduced RC values of brain mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Furthermore, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid decreased RC values of brain, liver and heart mitochondria using glutamate/malate. In the presence of succinate, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid affected RC values of brain mitochondria, whereas in liver and heart mitochondria only 3-hydroxykynurenine lowered RC values significantly. Furthermore, lowered ADP/oxygen ratios were observed in brain mitochondria in the presence of succinate with 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and to a lesser extent with glutamate/malate. In addition, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid significantly lowered the ADP/oxygen ratio in heart mitochondria exposed to glutamate/malate, while in the liver mitochondria only a mild reduction was found. Tests of the influence of L-tryptophan and its metabolites on complex I in liver mitochondria showed that only 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and L-kynurenine led to a significant acceleration of NADH-driven complex I activities. The data indicate that L-tryptophan metabolites had different effects on brain, liver and heart

  11. Brain Function Differences in Language Processing in Children and Adults with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Diane L.; Vladimir L Cherkassky; Mason, Robert A.; Keller, Timothy A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children an...

  12. Gene expression profiles in rat brain disclose CNS signature genes and regional patterns of functional specialisation

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    Breilid Harald

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian brain is divided into distinct regions with structural and neurophysiological differences. As a result, gene expression is likely to vary between regions in relation to their cellular composition and neuronal function. In order to improve our knowledge and understanding of regional patterns of gene expression in the CNS, we have generated a global map of gene expression in selected regions of the adult rat brain (frontomedial-, temporal- and occipital cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum; both right and left sides as well as in three major non-neural tissues (spleen, liver and kidney using the Applied Biosystems Rat Genome Survey Microarray. Results By unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we found that the transcriptome within a region was highly conserved among individual rats and that there were no systematic differences between the two hemispheres (right versus left side. Further, we identified distinct sets of genes showing significant regional enrichment. Functional annotation of each of these gene sets clearly reflected several important physiological features of the region in question, including synaptic transmission within the cortex, neurogenesis in hippocampus and G-protein-mediated signalling in striatum. In addition, we were able to reveal potentially new regional features, such as mRNA transcription- and neurogenesis-annotated activities in cerebellum and differential use of glutamate signalling between regions. Finally, we determined a set of 'CNS-signature' genes that uncover characteristics of several common neuronal processes in the CNS, with marked over-representation of specific features of synaptic transmission, ion transport and cell communication, as well as numerous novel unclassified genes. Conclusion We have generated a global map of gene expression in the rat brain and used this to determine functional processes and pathways that have a regional preference or ubiquitous

  13. Environmental enrichment promotes neural remodeling in newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanjun Liu; Yankui Guo; Yalu Li; Zhenying Yang

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and treatment with early environmental enrichment intervention on development of newborn rats, as evaluated by light and electron microscopy and morphometry. Early intervention with environmental enrichment intelligence training attenuated brain edema and neuronal injury, promoted neuronal repair, and increased neuronal plasticity in the frontal lobe cortex of the newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  14. Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against γ-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 ± 2% (p-value <0.001) was observed in the rat brain-this may account for neurological and behavioural abnormalities found in mammals drinking highly deuterated water. In addition to characterizing the pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema, this report also estimates the impact of oedema on thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as ∼10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema)

  15. Application of Luxol Fast Blue staining in locating the corticospinal tract in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Guangyu Shen; Guangming Lü; Xiaosong Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many methods for myelin staining,mordant,or the special reaction of osmic acid with lipoid is used according to different principles.The commonly used methods are classic Well staining ,classic lithium carbonate-haematine staining,fast green staining,silver staining ,etc.Luxol Fast Blue can brightly stain myelin sheath,and has certain specificity .The background can be very clean if there is proper differentiation,whereas Luxol Fast Blue is cheap and convenient to operate,thus it is an ideal staining reagent for routine myelin sheath.OBJECTIVE: To show the coricospinal tract of normal adult rats with Luxol Fast Blue shaining method.DESIGN:A repetitive measurement design.SETTINGS: Institute of Nuerobiology,Nantong University;Department of Rehabilitation Medicine,Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University.MATERIALS: Six healthy adult male SD rats of clean dergree,weighing averagely 300 g.were provided by the experimental animal center of Nantong University.1 g/L Luxol Fast Blue solution was provided by Sigma Company;Leica CM1900 cryostat microtome by Leica Company;Leica DMR microscope by Leica Company.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Staff Room of Human Anatomy,Nantong University in May 2005.The rats were given intraperitoneal injection of combined anesthetic(2 mL/kg),then the chest was open for perfusing saline and phosphate buffer containing formamint via heart. Brain and spinal cord were removed after 1 hour then fixed,then changed to phosphate buffer(pH 7.4)containing 300 g/L saccharu at 4 ℃.and stayed overnight,tissue blocks at pyramid,decussation of pyramid and cervical,thoracic,lumbar and sacral segments of spinal cord were removed to prepare continuous horizontal frozen sections(30 μm) after sedimentation,the sections were dried at room temperature.The corticospinal tract of normal adult rats were shown with Luxol Fast Blue staining method,and observed under Leica DMR microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Positive fibers in

  16. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  17. Regional distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase in rat brain as measured by a rapid radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) in the CNS of the rat was studied by use of a rapid, sensitive and specific radiochemical method. The S-adenosyl-[methyl-14C]L-methionine ([14C]SAM) generated by adenosyl transfer from ATP to [methyl-14C]L-methionine is quantitated by use of a SAM-consuming transmethylation reaction. Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), prepared from rat liver, transfers the methyl-14C group of SAM to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The 14C-labelled methylation products, vanillic acid and isovanillic acid, are separated from unreacted methionine by solvent extraction and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. Compared to other methods of MAT determination, which include separation of generated SAM from methionine by ion-exchange chromatography, the assay described exhibited the same high degree of specificity and sensitivity but proved to be less time consuming. MAT activity was found to be uniformly distributed between various brain regions and the pituitary gland of adult male rats. In the pineal gland the enzyme activity was about tenfold higher. (author)

  18. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The κ-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other κ-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D[Ala]2-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of [3H]-IP's, whereas the μ-selective agonists [D-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Gly5-ol]-enkephalin and morphine and the δ-selective agonist [D-Pen2,5]-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the κ-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain κ- but neither μ- nor δ- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response

  19. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  20. Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel C.; Li, Xin; Springer, Charles S., Jr.

    2005-05-01

    In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against γ-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 ± 2% (p-value effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as ~10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema). All three authors have contributed equally to this work.

  1. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate, by means of internal light delivery, photoacoustic imaging of the deep brain of rats in vivo. With fiber illumination via the oral cavity, we delivered light directly into the bottom of the brain, much more than can be delivered by external illumination. The study was performed using a photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system equipped with a 512-element full-ring transducer array, providing a full two-dimensional view aperture. Using internal illumination, the PACT system provided clear cross sectional photoacoustic images from the palate to the middle brain of live rats, revealing deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  2. Gender and estrous cycle influences on behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adult rats neonatally administered ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célia Moreira Borella, Vládia; Seeman, Mary V; Carneiro Cordeiro, Rafaela; Vieira dos Santos, Júnia; Romário Matos de Souza, Marcos; Nunes de Sousa Fernandes, Ethel; Santos Monte, Aline; Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Silvânia; Quinn, John P; de Lucena, David F; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in rodents triggers schizophrenia (SCZ)-like alterations during adult life. SCZ is influenced by gender in age of onset, premorbid functioning, and course. Estrogen, the hormone potentially driving the gender differences in SCZ, is known to present neuroprotective effects such as regulate oxidative pathways and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, the aim of this study was to verify if differences in gender and/or estrous cycle phase during adulthood would influence the development of behavioral and neurochemical alterations in animals neonatally administered ketamine. The results showed that ketamine-treated male (KT-male) and female-in-diestrus (KTF-diestrus, the low estrogen phase) presented significant deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and spatial working memory, two behavioral SCZ endophenotypes. On the contrary, female ketamine-treated rats during proestrus (KTF-proestrus, the high estradiol phase) had no behavioral alterations. This correlated with an oxidative imbalance in the hippocampus (HC) of both male and KTF-diestrus female rats, that is, decreased levels of GSH and increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitrite. Similarly, BDNF was decreased in the KTF-diestrus rats while no alterations were observed in KTF-proestrus and male animals. The changes in the HC were in contrast to those in the prefrontal cortex in which only increased levels of nitrite in all groups studied were observed. Thus, there is a gender difference in the adult rat HC in response to ketamine neonatal administration, which is based on the estrous cycle. This is discussed in relation to neuropsychiatric conditions and in particular SCZ. PMID:26215537

  3. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain: same regulators, different roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia eUrban

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis persists in adult mammals in specific brain areas, known as neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis is highly dynamic and is modulated by multiple physiological stimuli and pathological states. There is a strong interest in understanding how this process is regulated, particularly since active neuronal production has been demonstrated in both the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of adult humans.The molecular mechanisms that control neurogenesis have been extensively studied during embryonic development. Therefore, we have a broad knowledge of the intrinsic factors and extracellular signalling pathways driving proliferation and differentiation of embryonic neural precursors. Many of these factors also play important roles during adult neurogenesis, but essential differences exist in the biological responses of neural precursors in the embryonic and adult contexts. Because adult neural stem cells are normally found in a quiescent state, regulatory pathways can affect adult neurogenesis in ways that have no clear counterpart during embryogenesis. BMP signalling, for instance, regulates neural stem cell behaviour both during embryonic and adult neurogenesis. However, this pathway maintains stem cell proliferation in the embryo, while it promotes quiescence to prevent stem cell exhaustion in the adult brain. In this review, we will compare and contrast the functions of transcription factors and other regulatory molecules in the embryonic brain and in adult neurogenic regions of the adult brain in the mouse, with a special focus on the hippocampal niche and on the regulation of the balance between quiescence and activation of adult neural stem cells in this region.

  4. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  5. Generation of primary cultures of bovine brain endothelial cells and setup of cocultures with rat astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans C; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    -brain barrier. The present protocol describes the setup of an in vitro coculture model based on primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The model displays a high electrical tightness and expresses blood-brain barrier marker proteins....

  6. Correlation of aquaporin-4 expression to blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengcheng Xu; Haorong Feng; Jinbu Xu; Yongping Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemic cerebrovascular disease causes injury to the blood-brain barrier. The occurrence of brain edema is associated with aquaporin expression following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of aquaporin-4 expression to brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability in brain tissues of rat models of ischemia/reperfusion. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized control experiment was performed at the Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Medical College, China from December 2006 to October 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 112 adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 220-250 g, were used to establish rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion by the suture method. Rabbit anti-aquaporin-4 (Santa Cruz, USA) and Evans blue (Sigma, USA) were used to analyze the tissue. METHODS: The rats were randomized into sham-operated (n = 16) and ischemia/reperfusion (n = 96) groups. There were 6 time points in the ischemia/reperfusion group, comprising 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after reperfusion, with 16 rats for each time point. Rat models in the sham-operated group at 4 hours after surgery and rat models in the ischemia/reperfusion group at different time points were equally and randomly assigned into 4 different subgroups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain water content on the ischemic side and the control side was measured using the dry-wet weight method. Blood-brain barrier function was determined by Evans Blue. Aquaporin-4 expression surrounding the ischemic focus, as well as the correlation of aquaporin-4 expression with brain water content and Evans blue staining, were measured using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Brain water content on the ischemic side significantly increased at 12 hours after reperfusion, reached a peak at 48 hours, and was still high at 72 hours. Brain water content was greater on the ischemic hemispheres, compared with the control hemispheres

  7. Continuous and simultaneous electrochemical measurements of glucose, lactate, and ascorbate in rat brain following brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqing; Yu, Ping; Hao, Jie; Wang, Yuexiang; Ohsaka, Takeo; Mao, Lanqun

    2014-04-15

    Developing new tools and technologies to enable recording the dynamic changes of multiple neurochemicals is the essence of better understanding of the molecular basis of brain functions. This study demonstrates a microfluidic chip-based online electrochemical system (OECS) for in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of glucose, lactate, and ascorbate in rat brain. To fabricate the microfluidic chip-based detecting system, a microfluidic chip with patterned channel is developed into an electrochemical flow cell by incorporating the chip with three surface-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as working electrodes, a Ag/AgCl wire as reference electrode, and a stainless steel tube as counter electrode. Selective detection of ascorbate is achieved by the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to largely facilitate the electrochemical oxidation of ascorbate, while a dehydrogenase-based biosensing mechanism with methylene green (MG) adsorbed onto SWNTs as an electrocatalyst for the oxidation of dihydronicotiamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is employed for biosensing of glucose and lactate. To avoid the crosstalk among three sensors, the sensor alignment is carefully designed with the SWNT-modified electrode in the upstream channel and paralleled glucose and lactate biosensors in the downstream channels. With the microfluidic chip-based electrochemical flow cell as the detector, an OECS is successfully established by directly integrating the microfluidic chip-based electrochemical flow cell with in vivo microdialysis. The OECS exhibits a good linear response toward glucose, lactate, and ascorbate with less crosstalk. This property, along with the high stability and selectivity, enables the OECS for continuously monitoring three species in rat brain following brain ischemia. PMID:24621127

  8. Altered blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension turns to normal when portal pressure is lowered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco Eizayaga; Camila Scorticati; Juan P Prestifilippo; Salvador Romay; Maria A Fernandez; José L Castro; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C Perazzo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats induced by partial portal vein ligation, at 14 and 40 d after ligation when portal pressure is spontaneously normalized.METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group Ⅰ: Sham14d, sham operated; Group Ⅱ: PH14d, portal vein stenosis; (both groups were used 14 days after surgery); Group Ⅲ: Sham40d, Sham operated and Group Ⅳ: PH40d Portal vein stenosis (Groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ used 40 d after surgery). Plasma ammonia,plasma and cerebrospinal fluid protein and liver enzymes concentrations were determined. Trypan and Evans blue dyes, systemically injected, were investigated in hippocampus to study blood-brain barrier integrity. Portal pressure was periodically recorded.RESULTS: Forty days after stricture, portal pressure was normalized, plasma ammonia was moderately high,and both dyes were absent in central nervous system parenchyma. All other parameters were reestablished.When portal pressure was normalized and ammonia level was lowered, but not normal, the altered integrity of blood-brain barrier becomes reestablished.CONCLUSION: The impairment of blood-brain barrier and subsequent normalization could be a mechanism involved in hepatic encephalopathy reversibility. Hemodynamic changes and ammonia could trigger blood-brain barrier alterations and its reestablishment.

  9. The establishment of brain radiation injury experimental model of SD rats with whole brain irradiation in wakefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish the brain radiation injury experimental model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat being irradiated in wakefulness so that the side effects from the anesthetics can be eliminated. Methods: Experiment animals were divided into 4 groups randomly according to the difference of radiation dose. Each group involved 25 rats. 'Thermoplastic material fixing cage' was used to keep rats in wakefulness during irradiation. The whole brains of SD rats were irradiated by 4 MeV electron beam at a single dose of 0 Gy, 2 Gy, 15 Gy and 30 Gy, which was measured by therapy beam analyser and dosimeter. The scores of gross neurological symptoms and changes in body weight were sequentially evaluated twice every week after irradiation. The examination of the head skin inside the field was performed as well. The changes of the nerve cell in the hippocampus region of rats with the Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining were observed at the time of 6 hours, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month after irradiation. Results: The peak dosage depth of 4 MeV electron beam was 14.3 mm, and the dosimetry homogeneity of the radiation field was within 5%. The dose attenuation rate was less than 2.57% because of the thermoplastic material fixing cage. Intra-portal alopecia was observed in all the rats exposed to radiation at the dose of 30 Gy and in some of the rats exposed to radiation at the dose of 15 Gy. There was no significant difference in increasing trend of body weight and the score changes of the gross neurological symptoms in all groups. The obvious lesion was observed in the hippocampus region of rats after 30 Gy irradiated. Conclusion: The brain radiation injury experimental model of SD rat in wakefulness with whole brain radiation eliminates the side effects from the anesthetic. It appears to be an excellent model for studying on the brain radiation injury in the early stage

  10. Preparation of Developing and Adult Drosophila Brains and Retinae for Live Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, W. Ryan; Hiesinger, P. Robin

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila brain and visual system are widely utilized model systems to study neuronal development, function and degeneration. Here we show three preparations of the brain and visual system that cover the range from the developing eye disc-brain complex in the developing pupae to individual eye and brain dissection from adult flies. All protocols are optimized for the live culture of the preparations. However, we also present the conditions for fixed tissue immunohistochemistry where appl...

  11. Penetration of Treosulfan and its Active Monoepoxide Transformation Product into Central Nervous System of Juvenile and Young Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Baumgart, Joachim; Böhm, Sonja; Główka, Franciszek K

    2015-12-01

    Treosulfan (TREO) is currently investigated as an alternative treatment of busulfan in conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The knowledge of the blood-brain barrier penetration of the drug is still scarce. In this paper, penetration of TREO and its active monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide (S,S-DEB) into the CNS was studied in juvenile (JR) and young adult rats (YAR) for the first time. CD rats of both sexes (n = 96) received an intravenous dose of TREO 500 mg/kg b.wt. Concentrations of TREO, S,S-EBDM, and S,S-DEB in rat plasma, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, in YAR only) were determined by validated bioanalytical methods. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed in WinNonlin using a noncompartmental analysis and statistical evaluation was done in Statistica software. In male JR, female JR, male YAR, and female YAR, the brain/plasma area under the curve (AUC) ratio for unbound TREO was 0.14, 0.17, 0.10, and 0.07 and for unbound S,S-EBDM, it was 0.52, 0.48, 0.28, and 0.22, respectively. The CSF/plasma AUC ratio in male and female YAR was 0.12 and 0.11 for TREO and 0.66 and 0.64 for S,S-EBDM, respectively. Elimination rate constants of TREO and S,S-EBDM in all the matrices were sex-independent with a tendency to be lower in the JR. No quantifiable levels of S,S-DEB were found in the studied samples. TREO and S,S-EBDM demonstrated poor and sex-independent penetration into CNS. However, the brain exposure was greater in juvenile rats, so very young children might potentially be more susceptible to high-dose TREO-related CNS exposure than young adults. PMID:26428246

  12. Effect of zinc supplementation on neuronal precursor proliferation in the rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Elise C; Morris, Deborah R; Gower-Winter, Shannon D; Brownstein, Naomi C; Levenson, Cathy W

    2016-05-01

    There is great deal of debate about the possible role of adult-born hippocampal cells in the prevention of depression and related mood disorders. We first showed that zinc supplementation prevents the development of the depression-like behavior anhedonia associated with an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This work then examined the effect of zinc supplementation on the proliferation of new cells in the hippocampus that have the potential to participate in neurogenesis. Rats were fed a zinc adequate (ZA, 30ppm) or zinc supplemented (ZS, 180ppm) diet for 4wk followed by TBI using controlled cortical impact. Stereological counts of EdU-positive cells showed that TBI doubled the density of proliferating cells 24h post-injury (p<0.05), and supplemental zinc significantly increased this by an additional 2-fold (p<0.0001). While the survival of these proliferating cells decreased at the same rate in ZA and in ZS rats after injury, the total density of newly born cells was approximately 60% higher in supplemented rats 1wk after TBI. Furthermore, chronic zinc supplementation resulted in significant increases in the density of new doublecortin-positive neurons one week post-TBI that were maintained for 4wk after injury (p<0.01). While the effect of zinc supplementation on neuronal precursor cells in the hippocampus was robust, use of targeted irradiation to eliminate these cells after zinc supplementation and TBI revealed that these cells are not the sole mechanism through which zinc acts to prevent depression associated with brain injury, and suggest that other zinc dependent mechanisms are needed for the anti-depressant effect of zinc in this model of TBI. PMID:26902472

  13. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of rufinamide following intravenous and oral administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáll, Zsolt; Vancea, Szende; Szilágyi, Tibor; Gáll, Orsolya; Kolcsár, Melinda

    2015-02-20

    Rufinamide is a third-generation antiepileptic drug, approved recently as an orphan drug for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Although extensive research was conducted, its pharmacokinetics in rats was not described. This work addresses that area by describing in a rapid pharmacokinetic study the main pharmacokinetic properties of rufinamide at three different doses of 1 mg/kg body weight (bw), 5 mg/kg bw, and 20 mg/kg bw. Furthermore, total brain concentrations of the drug were determined in order to characterize its brain-to-plasma partition coefficient. Adult Wistar male rats, weighing 200-450 g, were administered rufinamide by intravenous and oral routes. Rufinamide concentrations from plasma samples and brain tissue homogenate were determined using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The mean half-life was between 7 and 13 h, depending on route of administration--intravenously administered drug was eliminated faster than orally administered drug. Mean (S.E.M.) total plasma clearance was 84.01 ± 3.80 ml/h/kg for intravenous administration, while the apparent plasma clearance for oral administration was 95.52 ± 39.45 ml/h/kg. The mean (S.E.M.) maximum plasma concentration reached after oral administration of 1 mg/kg bw and 5 mg/kg bw was 0.89 ± 0.09 μg/ml and 3.188 ± 0.71 μg/ml, respectively. The median (range) time to reach maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was 4 (2-8)h. Mean (S.E.M.) brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of rufinamide was 0.514 ± 0.036, consistent with the brain-to-plasma ratio calculated from the area under curves (AUC(0-t)) of 0.441 ± 0.047. No influence of dose, route of administration, or post-dosing time was observed on brain-to-plasma ratio. PMID:25530452

  14. Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M D; Cadete-Leite, A; Andrade, J P; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1991-12-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism upon the structure of the central nervous system of adult rats are poorly understood in spite of evidence that the mature brain is vulnerable to this condition. Existing developmental studies show that the morphological changes induced by thyroid hormone deficiency are related to alterations in neurogenesis. We studied the granular layer of the dentate gyrus under different experimental conditions of hypothyroidism, because in rodents the neurogenesis of the granule cells continues during adulthood. The following groups of rats were analysed: 1) control; 2) hypothyroid from day 0 until day 180 (hypothyroid group); 3) hypothyroid until day 30 and henceforth maintained euthyroid (recovery group); and 4) hypothyroid since day 30 (adult hypothyroid group). Groups of 6 male rats and 6 female rats were analysed separately. The volume of the dentate gyrus granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were evaluated, so we were able to estimate the total number of granule cells. Because in the experimental groups the volume of the granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were reduced, the total number of granule cells was decreased. In the hypothyroid and recovery groups the alterations were identical and more striking than in the adult hypothyroid groups. The total number of granule cells displayed sexual differences in all groups studied except in the hypothyroid groups. The present results support the view that thyroid hormone deficiency interferes with the process of cell acquisition by reducing neuronal proliferation and that it also leads to increased cell death. These events underlie the irreversible morphological changes observed in the brain of hypothyroid rats, either during development or at maturity. The referred structural alterations are probably related to the functional deficits observed in this condition. PMID:1797872

  15. Reduction of intraspecific aggression in adult rats by neonatal treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhães de Castro R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory control on the aggression process. According to experimental evidence, this amine also influences growth and development of the nervous tissue including serotoninergic neurons. Thus, the possibility exists that increased serotonin availability in young animals facilitates a long-lasting effect on aggressive responses. The present study aimed to investigate the aggressive behavior of adult rats (90-120 days treated from the 1st to the 19th postnatal day with citalopram (CIT, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (20 mg/kg, sc, every 3 days. Aggressive behavior was induced by placing a pair of rats (matched by weight in a box (20 x 20 x 20 cm, and submitting them to a 20-min session of electric footshocks (five 1.6-mA - 2-s current pulses, separated by a 4-min intershock interval. When compared to the control group (rats treated for the same period with equivalent volumes of saline solution, the CIT group presented a 41.4% reduction in the duration of aggressive response. The results indicate that the repeated administration of CIT early in life reduces the aggressive behavior in adulthood and suggest that the increased brain serotoninergic activity could play a role in this effect.

  16. The effect of omega-3 on cognition in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Gomaa, Asmaa M S; Sayed, Manal M

    2014-09-01

    Thyroid hormones and omega-3 are essential for normal brain functions. Recent studies have suggested that omega-3 may protect against the risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats, the underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic value of omega-3 supplementation. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups; control, hypothyroid and omega-3 treated. Hypothyroidism induced significant deficits in working and reference memories in radial arm maze, retention deficits in passive avoidance test and impaired intermediate and long-term memories in novel object recognition test. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hippocampal serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were decreased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Moreover, the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats showed marked structural changes as diffuse vacuolar degeneration and distortion of the pyramidal cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of Cav1.2 (the voltage dependent LTCC alpha 1c subunit) protein was increased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Omega-3 supplementation ameliorated memory deficits, increased TAC, decreased the structural changes and decreased the expression of Cav1.2 protein. In conclusion omega-3 could be useful as a neuroprotective agent against hypothyroidism-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:25183510

  17. Sex Differences in Serotonin 1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischette, Christine T.; Biegon, Anat; McEwen, Bruce S.

    1983-10-01

    Male and female rats exhibit sex differences in binding by serotonin 1 receptors in discrete areas of the brain, some of which have been implicated in the control of ovulation and of gonadotropin release. The sex-specific changes in binding, which occur in response to the same hormonal (estrogenic) stimulus, are due to changes in the number of binding sites. Castration alone also affects the number of binding sites in certain areas. The results lead to the conclusion that peripheral hormones modulate binding by serotonin 1 receptors. The status of the serotonin receptor system may affect the reproductive capacity of an organism and may be related to sex-linked emotional disturbances in humans.

  18. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  19. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  20. Characterization of TLX Expression in Neural Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Adult Brains

    OpenAIRE

    Shengxiu Li; Guoqiang Sun; Kiyohito Murai; Peng Ye; Yanhong Shi

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analo...

  1. The quantitative analysis of S100 in the brain tissue and serum following diffuse brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qi; Huang Ping; Xing Bo; Tuo Ya; Zhang Yongpan; Tian Weiping; Wang Zhenyuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamics of the level of S100 in cerebrum, brainstem, and serum following the diffuse brain injury in rats and provide the experimental evidences for estimating injury time. Methods ELISA was used to determine whether S100 protein is changed after diffuse brain injury in rats. Forty rats were sacrificed at 0.5 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 3 d and 7 d after diffuse brain injury and normal rats as control. Results The level of S100 in cerebrum, brainstem, and serum increased, followed by a decrease, and then further increased. The level of S100 could be detected to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 4 hours after DBI. The level decreased gradually to the normal at 1d and till 3 d formed the second peak. The level returned to the normal at 7d following injury again. In the postmortem injury groups, there were no significant changes compared to the control group. Conclusion The present study showed that the time-dependent expression of S100 is obvious following diffuse brain injury in rats and suggested that S100 will be a suitable marker for diffuse brain injury age determination.

  2. Effect of MDMA (ecstasy) on activity and cocaine conditioned place preference in adult and adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Maria; Wade, Dean; Wall, Erin; Izenwasser, Sari

    2006-01-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is a drug commonly used in adolescence, and many users of MDMA also use other illicit drugs. It is not known whether MDMA during adolescence alters subsequent responses to cocaine differently than in adults. This study examined the effects of MDMA in adolescent and adult rats on cocaine conditioned reward. At the start of these experiments, adolescent rats were at postnatal day (PND) 33 and adult rats at PND 60. Each rat was treated for seven days with MDMA (2 or 5 mg/kg/day or...

  3. The primary structure of rat brain (cytoplasmic) dynein heavy chain, a cytoplasmic motor enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z.; Tanaka, Y.; Nonaka, S; Aizawa, H.; Kawasaki, H; Nakata, T; Hirokawa, N

    1993-01-01

    Overlapping cDNA clones encoding the heavy chain of rat brain cytoplasmic dynein have been isolated. The isolated cDNA clones contain an open reading frame of 13,932 bp encoding 4644 aa (M(r), 532,213). The deduced protein sequence of the heavy chain of rat brain dynein shows significant similarity to sea urchin flagellar beta-dynein (27.0% identical) and to Dictyostelium cytoplasmic dynein (53.5% identical) throughout the entire sequence. The heavy chain of rat brain (cytoplasmic) dynein con...

  4. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia has a key role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS) rapidly converts blood-borne ammonia into glutamine which in high concentrations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and osmolytic brain edema. In astrocyte-neuron cocultures and brains...... of healthy rats, inhibition of GS by methionine sulfoximine (MSO) reduced glutamine synthesis and increased alanine synthesis. Here, we investigate effects of MSO on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in sham and bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, alanine, and...... aspartate and incorporation of (15)NH4(+) into these amino acids in brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and plasma were similar in sham and BDL rats treated with saline. Methionine sulfoximine reduced glutamine concentrations in liver, kidney, and plasma but not in brain and muscle; MSO reduced incorporation of...

  5. Nicotine mediates expression of genes related to antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress response in HIV-1 transgenic rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guohua; Nesil, Tanseli; Cao, Junran; Yang, Zhongli; Chang, Sulie L; Li, Ming D

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of HIV-1 infection. Nicotine can either protect neurons from neurodegeneration or induce oxidative stress, depending on its dose and degree of oxidative stress impairment. However, the relationship between nicotine and oxidative stress in the HIV-1-infected individuals remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nicotine on expression of genes related to the glutathione (GSH)-centered antioxidant system and oxidative stress in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) and F344 control rats. Adult HIV-1Tg and F344 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base, s.c.) or saline injections once per day for 27 days. At the end of treatment, various brain regions including the NAc and VTA were collected from each rat. Following total RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis of each sample, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was performed for 43 oxidative-stress-related genes. Compared with F344 control rats, HIV-1Tg rats showed a significant downregulation of genes involved in ATPase and cyctochrome oxidase at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in both regions. Further, we found a significant downregulation of Gstm5 in the NAc and upregulation of Cox1, Cox3, and Gsta6 in the VTA of HIV-1Tg rats. HIV-1Tg rats showed brain-region-specific responses to chronic nicotine treatment. This response resulted in a change in the expression of genes involved in antioxidant mechanisms including the downregulation of genes such as Atp5h, Calml1, Gpx7, Gstm5, Gsr, and Gsta6 and upregulation of Sod1 in the NAc, as well as downregulation of genes like Cox5a, Gpx4, Gpx6, Gpx7, Gstm5, and Sod1 in the VTA of HIV-1Tg rats. Together, we conclude that chronic nicotine treatment has a dual effect on the antioxidant defense system and oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis signaling in HIV-1Tg rats. These findings suggest that

  6. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  7. Effects of maternal separation, early handling, and gonadal sex on regional metabolic capacity of the preweanling rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Spivey, Jaclyn M.; Padilla, Eimeira; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the effects of mother-infant separation on regional metabolic capacity in the preweanling rat brain. Mother-infant separation is generally known to be stressful for rat pups. Holtzman adolescent rats show a depressive-like behavioral phenotype after maternal separation during the preweanling period. However, information is lacking on the effects of maternal separation on the brains of rat pups. We addressed this issue by mapping the brains of preweanling Holt...

  8. Paradoxical effects of brain death and associated trauma on rat mesenteric microcirculation: an intravital microscopic study

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Simas; Paulina Sannomiya; José Walber M. C Cruz; Cristiano de Jesus Correia; Fernando Luiz Zanoni; Maurício Kase; Laura Menegat; Isaac Azevedo Silva; Moreira, Luiz Felipe P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental findings support clinical evidence that brain death impairs the viability of organs for transplantation, triggering hemodynamic, hormonal, and inflammatory responses. However, several of these events could be consequences of brain death–associated trauma. This study investigated microcirculatory alterations and systemic inflammatory markers in brain-dead rats and the influence of the associated trauma. METHOD: Brain death was induced using intracranial balloon inflatio...

  9. Graphene Functionalized Scaffolds Reduce the Inflammatory Response and Supports Endogenous Neuroblast Migration when Implanted in the Adult Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kun; Motamed, Sepideh; Thouas, George A.; Bernard, Claude C.; Li, Dan; Parkington, Helena C.; Coleman, Harold A.; Finkelstein, David I.; Forsythe, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Electroactive materials have been investigated as next-generation neuronal tissue engineering scaffolds to enhance neuronal regeneration and functional recovery after brain injury. Graphene, an emerging neuronal scaffold material with charge transfer properties, has shown promising results for neuronal cell survival and differentiation in vitro. In this in vivo work, electrospun microfiber scaffolds coated with self-assembled colloidal graphene, were implanted into the striatum or into the subventricular zone of adult rats. Microglia and astrocyte activation levels were suppressed with graphene functionalization. In addition, self-assembled graphene implants prevented glial scarring in the brain 7 weeks following implantation. Astrocyte guidance within the scaffold and redirection of neuroblasts from the subventricular zone along the implants was also demonstrated. These findings provide new functional evidence for the potential use of graphene scaffolds as a therapeutic platform to support central nervous system regeneration. PMID:26978268

  10. Cyclosporin safety in a simplified rat brain tumor implantation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. C. Felix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain cancer is the second neurological cause of death. A simplified animal brain tumor model using W256 (carcinoma 256, Walker cell line was developed to permit the testing of novel treatment modalities. Wistar rats had a cell tumor solution inoculated stereotactically in the basal ganglia (right subfrontal caudate. This model yielded tumor growth in 95% of the animals, and showed absence of extracranial metastasis and systemic infection. Survival median was 10 days. Estimated tumor volume was 17.08±6.7 mm³ on the 7th day and 67.25±19.8 mm³ on 9th day post-inoculation. Doubling time was 24.25 h. Tumor growth induced cachexia, but no hematological or biochemical alterations. This model behaved as an undifferentiated tumor and can be promising for studying tumor cell migration in the central nervous system. Dexamethasone 3.0 mg/kg/day diminished significantly survival in this model. Cyclosporine 10 mg/kg/day administration was safely tolerated.

  11. Encoding of mechanical nociception differs in the adult and infant brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Verriotis, Madeleine; Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Newborn human infants display robust pain behaviour and specific cortical activity following noxious skin stimulation, but it is not known whether brain processing of nociceptive information differs in infants and adults. Imaging studies have emphasised the overlap between infant and adult brain connectome architecture, but electrophysiological analysis of infant brain nociceptive networks can provide further understanding of the functional postnatal development of pain perception. Here we hypothesise that the human infant brain encodes noxious information with different neuronal patterns compared to adults. To test this we compared EEG responses to the same time-locked noxious skin lance in infants aged 0-19 days (n = 18, clinically required) and adults aged 23-48 years (n = 21). Time-frequency analysis revealed that while some features of adult nociceptive network activity are present in infants at longer latencies, including beta-gamma oscillations, infants display a distinct, long latency, noxious evoked 18-fold energy increase in the fast delta band (2-4 Hz) that is absent in adults. The differences in activity between infants and adults have a widespread topographic distribution across the brain. These data support our hypothesis and indicate important postnatal changes in the encoding of mechanical pain in the human brain. PMID:27345331

  12. Cerebral metabolism of plasma [14C]palmitate in awake, adult rat: subcellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following intravenous injection of [U-14C]palmitate in awake adult rats, whole brain radioactivity reached a broad maximum between 15-60 min, then declined rapidly to reach a relatively stable level between 4 hr and 20 hr. At 44 hr total radioactivity was 57% of the 4 hr value (p less than 0.05). About 50% of palmitate which entered the brain from the blood was oxidized rapidly, producing 14C-labeled water-soluble components which later left the cytosol. Radioactivity in the cytosolic fraction peaked at 45 min and then declined, coincident with the decline in total brain radioactivity. Membrane fractions were rapidly labeled to levels which remained relatively stable from 1 to 44 hr. Increases in the relative distributions of radioactivity were seen between 1 and 4 hr for the microsomal and mitochondrial fractions, and beyond 4 hr for the synaptic and myelin membrane fractions (p less than 0.05). Radioactivity in membrane fractions was 80-90% lipid, 5-13% water-soluble components and 3-17% protein. The proportion of label in membrane-associated protein increased with time. Proportions of radioactivity in the combined membrane fractions increased from 65% to 76% to 80% at 4, 20 and 44 hr, respectively. The results show that plasma-derived palmitate enters oxidative and synthetic pathways to an equal extent, immediately after entry into the brain. At and after 4 hr, the radiolabel resides predominantly in stable membrane lipids and protein. Brain radioactivity at 4 hr can be used therefore, to examine incorporation of palmitate into lipids in vivo, in different experimental conditions

  13. Effects of neonatal peripheral tissue injury on pain-related behaviors in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-meng LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of peripheraltissueinjury in the developmental stage of newborn rats on pain-related behaviors in adult rats. Methods SD rats 1,4,7,14,21 and 28days after birth were selected in thepresent study(4litters at each time point and 10 rats per litter.Each litter of rats was randomly divided intoinjury group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl bee venomand control group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl normal saline, with20 in each group, and then raised for 2 months to adulthood. The baseline pain threshold was observed by measuring spontaneous paw flinching reflex,paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTLand paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT, then 50μl 0.4% bee venom was subcutaneously injected to each rat, and the changesinpa in reaction and pain threshold were determined. Results The baseline thermal pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom or normal saline at different time points after birth was similar,but baseline mechanical pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom at1,4,7and14 days after birth was decreased significantly compared with the adult rats receiving normal saline at corresponding time points(P0.05.Mechanical hyperalgesia was not induced in rats injected with bee venom but induced in adult ratsinjected with normal saline4-21days after birth.Injection of bee venom 21 and 28 days after birth could obviously enhance the bee venom-induced hyperalgesiain adult rats compared with control group(P<0.01. Conclusions Bee venom stimuli at different time points after birth could affect the baseline PWMT and mechanical pain hypersensitivityin adult rats but not the baseline PWTL and thermal pain hypersensitivity. The 21st day maybe a key time point of nervous system development in rats.

  14. Subcellular localization and compartmentation of thiamine derivatives in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettendorff, L; Wins, P; Lesourd, M

    1994-05-26

    The subcellular distribution of thiamine derivatives in rat brain was studied. Thiamine diphosphate content was highest in the mitochondrial and synaptosomal fractions, and lowest in microsomal, myelin and cytosolic fractions. Only 3-5% of total thiamine diphosphate was bound to transketolase, a cytosolic enzyme. Thiamine triphosphate was barely detectable in the microsomal and cytosolic fraction, but synaptosomes were slightly enriched in this compound compared to the crude homogenate. Both myelin and mitochondrial fractions contained significant amounts of thiamine triphosphate. In order to estimate the relative turnover rates of these compounds, the animals received an intraperitoneal injection of either [14C]thiamine or [14C]sulbutiamine (isobutyrylthiamine disulfide) 1 h before decapitation. The specific radioactivities of thiamine compounds found in the brain decreased in the order: thiamine > thiamine triphosphate > thiamine monophosphate > thiamine diphosphate. Incorporation of radioactivity into thiamine triphosphate was more marked with [14C]sulbutiamine than with [14C]thiamine. The highest specific radioactivity of thiamine diphosphate was found in the cytosolic fraction of the brain, though this pool represents less than 10% of total thiamine diphosphate. Cytosolic thiamine diphosphate had a twice higher specific radioactivity when [14C]sulbutiamine was used as precursor compared with thiamine though no significant differences were found in the other cellular compartments. Our results suggest the existence of two thiamine diphosphate pools: the bound cofactor pool is essentially mitochondrial and has a low turnover; a much smaller cytosolic pool (6-7% of total TDP) of high turnover is the likely precursor of thiamine triphosphate. PMID:8186256

  15. Glucose and amino acid metabolism in rat brain during sustained hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of glucose in brains during sustained hypoglycemia was studied. [U-14C]Glucose (20 microCi) was injected into control rats, and into rats at 2.5 hr after a bolus injection of 2 units of insulin followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 units/100 g rat/hr. This regimen of insulin injection was found to result in steady-state plasma glucose levels between 2.5 and 3.5 mumol per ml. In the brains of control rats carbon was transferred rapidly from glucose to glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and aspartate and this carbon was retained in the amino acids for at least 60 min. In the brains of hypoglycemic rats, the conversion of carbon from glucose to amino acids was increased in the first 15 min after injection. After 15 min, the specific activity of the amino acids decreased in insulin-treated rats but not in the controls. The concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid decreased, and the concentration of aspartate increased, in the brains of the hypoglycemic rats. The concentration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a cofactor in many of the reactions whereby these amino acids are formed from tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, was less in the insulin-treated rats than in the controls. These data provide evidence that glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and GABA can serve as energy sources in brain during insulin-induced hypoglycemia

  16. Coexpression of N-methyl-D-aspartate and phencyclidine receptors in Xenopus oocytes injected with rat brain mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, L; Lerma, J.; Zukin, R S; Bennett, M V

    1988-01-01

    Recent evidence suggest that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (N-Me-D-Asp) channel is functionally and structurally associated with the phencyclidine (PCP) receptor, which mediates the psychotomimetic effects of PCP, sigma opioids, and dioxalanes. To investigate the relationship between N-Me-D-Asp and PCP receptors on a molecular level, we injected mRNA isolated from adult rat brain into Xenopus oocytes. In injected oocytes N-Me-D-Asp application (with glycine) evoked a partially desentizing inward c...

  17. Using laser confocal scanning microscope to study ischemia-hypoxia injury in rat brain slice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The level of lipid peroxidation and cellular necrosis in rat living brain slices during brain ischemia-hypoxia injury have been observed using a laser confocal scanning microscope (LCSM) with double labeling of fluorescent probes D-399 (2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) and propidium iodide (PI).The hypoxia and/or reoxygenation injury in rat brain slices is markedly decreased by pretreatment with L-NG-nitro-arginine (L-NNA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC),showing that the nitric oxide (NO) and other free radicals play an important role in brain ischemia-hypoxia injury.

  18. Irradiation of rat brain reduces P-glycoprotein expression and function

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, J; Nagengast, W B; Coppes, R P; Wegman, T D; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Groen, H J M; Vaalburg, W; de Vries, E G E; Hendrikse, N H

    2007-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) hampers delivery of several drugs including chemotherapeutics to the brain. The drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed on brain capillary endothelial cells, is part of the BBB. P-gp expression on capillary endothelium decreases 5 days after brain irradiation, which may reduce P-gp function and increase brain levels of P-gp substrates. To elucidate whether radiation therapy reduces P-gp expression and function in the brain, right hemispheres of rats wer...

  19. Brain ventricular dimensions and relationship to outcome in adult patients with bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporrborn, Janni L; Baunbæk-Knudsen, Gertrud Louise; Sølling, Mette; Seierøe, Karina; Farre, Annette; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ø; Benfield, Thomas; Brandt, Christian T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggest that changes in brain ventricle size are key events in bacterial meningitis. This study investigated the relationship between ventricle size, clinical condition and risk of poor outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed...

  20. A non-equilibrium 24-hour vasopressin radioimmunoassay: development and basal levels in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors report a highly-sensitive non-equilibrium RIA which can be performed within 24 h. To demonstrate the sensitivity of this RIA, brain regions from rat were examined for vasopressin content. (Auth.)

  1. EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA AND HYPERTHERMIA PLUS MICROWAVES ON RAT BRAIN ENERGY METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hyperthermia, alone and in conjunction with microwave exposure, on brain energetics were studied in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of temperature on adenosine triphosphate concentration (ATP) and creatine phosphate concentration (CP) was determi...

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  3. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  4. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  5. Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulraj, R. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Behari, J. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)]. E-mail: jbehari@hotmail.com

    2006-04-11

    This investigation concerns with the effect of low intensity microwave (2.45 and 16.5 GHz, SAR 1.0 and 2.01 W/kg, respectively) radiation on developing rat brain. Wistar rats (35 days old, male, six rats in each group) were selected for this study. These animals were exposed for 35 days at the above mentioned frequencies separately in two different exposure systems. After the exposure period, the rats were sacrificed and the whole brain tissue was dissected and used for study of single strand DNA breaks by micro gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Single strand DNA breaks were measured as tail length of comet. Fifty cells from each slide and two slides per animal were observed. One-way ANOVA method was adopted for statistical analysis. This study shows that the chronic exposure to these radiations cause statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in DNA single strand breaks in brain cells of rat.

  6. Effects of maternal rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress before pregnancy on the behaviors and brain monamine of their adult male offspring%母鼠孕前慢性应激对成年雄性子代行为学和脑区单胺递质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海红; 张磊; 方泽漫; 吴彩茹; 朱琴; 黄庆军

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究母鼠孕前慢性应激对成年雄性子代行为学和脑内单胺类神经递质的影响.方法 16只成年雌性SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组和慢性不可预见性应激组(CUS),CUS组大鼠每天接受一种应激,共21d,正常对照组不接受任何应激.应激结束后10 d,2组大鼠均与同种SD雄性大鼠合笼,以成年2月龄雄性子代作为研究对象.用糖水消耗实验测量快感缺失,Morris水迷宫检测空间记忆能力,高效液相色谱法测量海马、下丘脑和前额皮质单胺递质的含量.结果 糖水消耗实验示正常对照组子代的糖水消耗量和糖水消耗百分比均显著高于CUS组子代[糖水消耗量:(10.23±4.12)g,(6.48±3.19)g;糖水消耗百分比:(85.43±20.15)%,(60.98±24.65)%](P<0.05).Morris水迷宫检测示2组的逃避潜伏期无差异,但空间探索测试中正常对照组子代[(4.17±2.29)次]穿越平台的次数明显多CUS组子代[(1.64±1.69)次](P<0.05).CUS组子代[(500.17±80.94)ng/g脑组织]下丘脑5-羟色胺的含量低于正常对照组子代[(569.63±50.91)ng/g脑组织](P<0.05),而CUS组子代[(2315.01±1397.12)ng/g脑组织]海马去甲肾上腺素的含量却要高于正常对照组子代[(907.56±207.27)ng/g脑组织](P<0.05).结论 母鼠孕前慢性应激或抑郁会造成成年雄性子代的快感缺失和空间记忆力下降,以及脑内单胺类神经递质异常.%Objective To examine the effects of maternal rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress before pregnancy on the behaviors and brain monamine of their adult male offspring.Methods Sixteen SD rats were divided into chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) group and controls.CUS rats were exposed to 21 days chronic unpredictable stressors ,and the controls were stress-free.Ten days after the last stressor, all the female rats were caged with sexually experienced males of the same strain.Then we performed the following experiments on the two months male progeny, sucrose consumption

  7. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia are at...... increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  8. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND NEUROGENESIS IN THE ADULT MAMMALIAN BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis—the formation of new neurons in adulthood—has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. Most recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult-adult (e.g., mating, conspecific, and chemosensory signal exposure and adult-offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant-subordinate interactions on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed.

  9. High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulthinee Supaporn; Wyss J Michael; Jirakulsomchok Dusit; Roysommuti Sanya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine dep...

  10. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  11. Effects of Chronic Renal Failure on Brain Cytochrome P450 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Judith; Harding, Jessica; Lamarche, Caroline; Beauchemin, Stephanie; Leblond, Francois A; Pichette, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) impedes renal excretion of drugs and their metabolism by reducing the expression of liver cytochrome P450 (P450). Uremic serum contains factors, such as parathyroid hormone (PTH), that decrease liver P450s. The P450s are also involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the brain. This study investigates: 1) the effects of CRF on rat brain P450, 2) the role of PTH in the downregulation of brain P450s in CRF rats, and 3) the effects of PTH on P450s in astrocytes. Protein and mRNA expression of P450s were assessed in the brain of CRF and control (CTL) rats, as well as from CTL or CRF rats that underwent parathyroidectomy (PTX) 1 week before nephrectomy. CYP3A activity was measured using 3-[(3, 4-difluorobenzyl) oxy]-5, 5-dimethyl-4-[4-methylsulfonyl) phenyl] furan-2(5H)-1 metabolism in brain microsomal preparation. CYP3A protein expression was assessed in primary cultured astrocytes incubated with serum obtained from CRF or CTL rats or with PTH. Significant downregulations (≥40%) of CYP1A, CYP2C11, and CYP3A proteins were observed in microsomes from CRF rat brains. CYP3A activity reduction was also observed. CYP3A expression and activity were unaffected in PTX-pretreated CRF rats. Serum of PTX-treated CRF rats had no impact on CYP3A levels in astrocytes compared with that of untreated CRF rats. Finally, PTH addition to normal calf serum induced a reduction in CYP3A protein similar to CRF serum, suggesting that CRF-induced hyperparathyroidism is associated with a significant decrease in P450 drug-metabolizing enzymes in the brain, which may have implications in drug response. PMID:27271372

  12. High-sensitivity phase-contrast tomography of rat brain in phosphate buffered saline

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, F.; David, C.; Bunk, O.; Poitry-Yamate, C.; Grütter, R; B. Müller; Weitkamp, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report advances and complementary results concerning a recently developed method for high-sensitivity grating-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography. In particular we demonstrate how the soft tissue sensitivity of the technique can be used to obtain in-vitro tomographic images of rat brain specimens. Contrary to our previous experiments with fixated specimen (chemically modified or formalin fixed), the present results on the rat's brain are closer to the in-vivo situation. The findings are ...

  13. Upregulation of Bax and Bcl-2 following prenatal cocaine exposure induces apoptosis in fetal rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, DaLiao; Zhang, Lubo

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse perinatal outcomes. Aims: The present study was to determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure induced apoptosis and the possible role of Bcl-2 family genes in the programming cell death in fetal rat brain. Main methods: Pregnant rats were treated with cocaine subcutaneously (30 & 60 mg/kg/day) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Then the fetal and maternal brains were isolated. Key findings: Cocaine produced a dose-dependen...

  14. Upregulation of Bax and Bcl-2 following prenatal cocaine exposure induces apoptosis in fetal rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    DaLiao Xiao, Lubo Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse perinatal outcomes. Aims: The present study was to determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure induced apoptosis and the possible role of Bcl-2 family genes in the programming cell death in fetal rat brain. Main methods: Pregnant rats were treated with cocaine subcutaneously (30 & 60 mg/kg/day) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Then the fetal and maternal brains were isolated. Key findings: Cocaine produced a dose-depe...

  15. The dynamics of cysteine proteinase activity in brain structures of irrigated rat descendants during ontogenetic development

    OpenAIRE

    Чорна, Валентина Іванівна; Лянна, Ольга Леонідівна

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the kind of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L activity dependency in brain structures of irradiated rat descendants during ontogenetic development. It was shown that fractional x-ray radiation (25 cGy) of the female rats induced different changes of cathepsin L activity levels and their redistribution in brain structures of female rats’ descendants during postnatal development with the advantages of nonsedimentational activity that had maximum at the 6th da...

  16. Altered brain activation to colorectal distention in visceral hypersensitive maternal-separated rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Mira; van Wanrooy, Sander; Casteels, Cindy; Nemethova, A; de Vries, Annick; Van Oudenhove*, Lukas; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; Van Laere, Koen; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Background  Early life trauma can predispose to increased visceral pain perception. Human neuroimaging studies emphasize that altered brain processing may contribute to increased visceral sensitivity. The aim of our study was to evaluate brain responses to painful visceral stimuli in maternal-separated rats before and after acute stress exposure in vivo. Methods  H(2) (15) O microPET scanning was performed during colorectal distention in maternal-separated rats before and after water avoidanc...

  17. Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Previously Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wäljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu M; Julkunen, Juhani; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-04-15

    This prospective longitudinal study reports recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) across multiple domains in a carefully selected consecutive sample of 74 previously healthy adults. The patients with MTBI and 40 orthopedic controls (i.e., ankle injuries) completed assessments at 1, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome measures included cognition, post-concussion symptoms, depression, traumatic stress, quality of life, satisfaction with life, resilience, and return to work. Patients with MTBI reported more post-concussion symptoms and fatigue than the controls at the beginning of recovery, but by 6 months after injury, did not differ as a group from nonhead injury trauma controls on cognition, fatigue, or mental health, and by 12 months, their level of post-concussion symptoms and quality of life was similar to that of controls. Almost all (96%) patients with MTBI returned to work/normal activities (RTW) within the follow-up of 1 year. A subgroup of those with MTBIs and controls reported mild post-concussion-like symptoms at 1 year. A large percentage of the subgroup who had persistent symptoms had a modifiable psychological risk factor at 1 month (i.e., depression, traumatic stress, and/or low resilience), and at 6 months, they had greater post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depression, and worse quality of life. All of the control subjects who had mild post-concussion-like symptoms at 12 months also had a mental health problem (i.e., depression, traumatic stress, or both). This illustrates the importance of providing evidence-supported treatment and rehabilitation services early in the recovery period. PMID:26437675

  18. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  19. Effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on levels of neurosteroids in rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-zhen YAN; Yan-ning HOU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on the concentrations of neurosteroids in rat brain. METHODS: A method of simultaneous quantification of neurosteroids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) had been established. RESULTS: The chronic morphine administration (ip) resulted in a marked decrease in the brain concentrations of pregnenolone (PREG), progesterone (PROG), and pregenenolone sulfate (PREGS) in rats killed 6 h after the last treatment. In contrast, there were no significant effects of morphine dependence on the brain concentrations of allopregnanolone (AP), dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Naloxone-induced withdrawal produced a significant increase in the concentrations of PREG, PROG, AP, DHEA, PREGS, and DHEAS as compared with the control group.CONCLUSION: Morphine dependence and withdrawal affected the concentrations of neurosteroids in rat brain,which suggests that endogenous neurosteroids in brain might be related to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal.

  20. Characterization of Amino Acid Profile and Enzymatic Activity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Hansel, Gisele; Arús, Bernardo Assein; Bellaver, Gabriela; Longoni, Aline; Kolling, Janaina; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are multitasking players in brain complexity, possessing several receptors and mechanisms to detect, participate and modulate neuronal communication. The functionality of astrocytes has been mainly unraveled through the study of primary astrocyte cultures, and recently our research group characterized a model of astrocyte cultures derived from adult Wistar rats. We, herein, aim to characterize other basal functions of these cells to explore the potential of this model for studying the adult brain. To characterize the astrocytic phenotype, we determined the presence of GFAP, GLAST and GLT 1 proteins in cells by immunofluorescence. Next, we determined the concentrations of thirteen amino acids, ATP, ADP, adenosine and calcium in astrocyte cultures, as well as the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholine esterase. Furthermore, we assessed the presence of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1) in the astrocytes. Cells demonstrated the presence of glutamine, consistent with their role in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as glutamate and D-serine, amino acids classically known to act as gliotransmitters. ATP was produced and released by the cells and ADP was consumed. Calcium levels were in agreement with those reported in the literature, as were the enzymatic activities measured. The presence of GAT 1 was detected, but the presence of CB 1 was not, suggesting a decreased neuroprotective capacity in adult astrocytes under in vitro conditions. Taken together, our results show cellular functionality regarding the astrocytic role in gliotransmission and neurotransmitter management since they are able to produce and release gliotransmitters and to modulate the cholinergic and GABAergic systems. PMID:26915106

  1. Selective effects of carbamate pesticides on rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and rat brain acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of commonly used carbamate pesticides on rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes have been investigated using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. The potencies of these effects have been compared to the potencies of the carbamates to inhibit rat brain acetylcholinesterase. The potency order of six carbamates to inhibit α4β4 nicotinic receptors is fenoxycarb > EPTC > carbaryl, bendiocarb > propoxur > aldicarb with IC50 values ranging from 3 μM for fenoxycarb to 165 μM for propoxur and >1 mM for aldicarb. Conversely, the potency order of these carbamates to inhibit rat brain acetylcholinesterase is bendiocarb > propoxur, aldicarb > carbaryl >> EPTC, fenoxycarb with IC50 values ranging from 1 μM for bendiocarb to 17 μM for carbaryl and >>1 mM for EPTC and fenoxycarb. The α4β2, α3β4, and α3β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are inhibited by fenoxycarb, EPTC, and carbaryl with potency orders similar to that for α4β4 receptors. Comparing the potencies of inhibition of the distinct subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors shows that the α3β2 receptor is less sensitive to inhibition by fenoxycarb and EPTC. The potency of inhibition depends on the carbamate as well as on a combination of α and β subunit properties. It is concluded that carbamate pesticides affect different subtypes of neuronal nicotinic receptors independently of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. This implicates that neuronal nicotinic receptors are additional targets for some carbamate pesticides and that these receptors may contribute to carbamate pesticide toxicology, especially after long-term exposure

  2. Chronic ibuprofen administration worsens cognitive outcome following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Kevin D; Iwata, Akira; Putt, M E; Smith, Douglas H

    2006-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce progressive neurodegeneration in association with chronic inflammation. Since chronic treatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), ibuprofen, improves functional and histopathologic outcome in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated whether it would also improve long-term outcome following TBI. Anesthetized adult rats were subjected to fluid percussion brain injury. Over the following 4 months the injured animals received ibuprofen per os (formulated in feed) at the approximate doses of 20 mg/kg body wt/day (n=13), 40 mg/kg body wt/day (n=13), or control (feed only, n=12). Sham animals underwent surgery without injury or ibuprofen treatment (n=9). At 4 months post-injury, a Morris water maze task revealed a profound learning dysfunction in all three injured groups compared to the sham group. Surprisingly, the learning ability of injured animals treated with either chronic ibuprofen regimen was significantly worsened compared to non-treated injured animals. However, there was no difference in the extent of progressive atrophy of the cortex or hippocampus between treated and non-treated injured animals. These data may have important implications for TBI patients who are often prescribed NSAIDs for chronic pain. PMID:16764859

  3. Oxidative Stress in the Developing Rat Brain due to Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jiří; Vytášek, Richard; Uhlík, Jiří; Vajner, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress after birth led us to localize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) production in the developing rat brain. Brains were assessed a day prenatally and on postnatal days 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 30, and 60. Oxidation of dihydroethidium detected superoxide; 6-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate revealed hydrogen peroxide; immunohistochemical proof of nitrotyrosine and carboxyethyllysine detected peroxynitrite formation and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Blue autofluorescence detected protein oxidation. The foetuses showed moderate RONS production, which changed cyclically during further development. The periods and sites of peak production of individual RONS differed, suggesting independent generation. On day 1, neuronal/glial RONS production decreased indicating that increased oxygen concentration after birth did not cause oxidative stress. Dramatic changes in the amount and the sites of RONS production occurred on day 4. Nitrotyrosine detection reached its maximum. Day 14 represented other vast alterations in RONS generation. Superoxide production in arachnoidal membrane reached its peak. From this day on, the internal elastic laminae of blood vessels revealed the blue autofluorescence. The adult animals produced moderate levels of superoxide; all other markers reached their minimum. There was a strong correlation between detection of nitrotyrosine and carboxyethyllysine probably caused by lipid peroxidation initiated with RONS.

  4. Effect of MCI-186 on ischemia-induced changes in monoamine metabolism in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, R; Itoh, Y; Nishibori, M; Watanabe, T; Nishi, H; Saeki, K

    1989-11-01

    We examined the effects of MCI-186 (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a novel free radical scavenger and an inhibitor of ischemia-induced brain edema, on monoamine metabolism in the brains of both normal and ischemic rats. In normal rats, 3 mg/kg i.v. MCI-186, a dose that prevents ischemic brain edema, had no significant effect on brain concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or their metabolites. After the injection of 5 microliters of 3% polyvinyl acetate into the left internal carotid artery, concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid markedly increased, but that of norepinephrine decreased, in the left telencephalon of embolized rats compared with control rats injected with vehicle; the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid also increased slightly. These effects were maximal 2 hours after embolization. The turnover rate of dopamine between 6 and 8 hours after embolization was significantly higher but that of norepinephrine was slightly lower than that in vehicle-treated rats. When rats were treated with 3 mg/kg i.v. MCI-186 immediately after the injection of polyvinyl acetate, the embolization-induced changes in monoamine metabolism were less marked. Our results suggest that MCI-186 attenuates ischemia-induced changes in brain monoamine metabolism, probably due to its free radical scavenging action, although it has no marked effect in normal rats. PMID:2815191

  5. Expression of c-jun in brain stem following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of c-jun in brain stem following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats, and to observe the temporal patterns of its expressions following percussion.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control, sham operation control and injury groups. The rats of injury group subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (0.2 mPa), and then were subdivided into 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 12 h groups according to the time elapsed after injury. The expression of c-jun was studied by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. RESULTS: After percussion for 15 min, Jun positive neurons increased in brain stem progressively, and peaked at 12h. At 5min after percussion, the induction of c-jun mRNA was increased, and remained elevated up to 1h-2h after brain injury. CONCLUSION: The induction and expression of the c-jun in brain stem after fluid percussion brain injury were increased rapidly and lasted for a long time.

  6. Distribution of bisphenol A into tissues of adult, neonatal, and fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA metabolites in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure in the range of 0.02-0.2 μg/kg bw/d (25th-95th percentiles). The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure placental transfer and concentrations of aglycone (receptor-active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats administered deuterated BPA (100 μg/kg bw) by oral and IV routes. In adult female rat tissues, the tissue/serum concentration ratios for aglycone BPA ranged from 0.7 in liver to 5 in adipose tissue, reflecting differences in tissue perfusion, composition, and metabolic capacity. Following IV administration to dams, placental transfer was observed for aglycone BPA into fetuses at several gestational days (GD), with fetal/maternal serum ratios of 2.7 at GD 12, 1.2 at GD 16, and 0.4 at GD 20; the corresponding ratios for conjugated BPA were 0.43, 0.65, and 3.7. These ratios were within the ranges observed in adult tissues and were not indicative of preferential accumulation of aglycone BPA or hydrolysis of conjugates in fetal tissue in vivo. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in GD 20 fetal brain were higher than in liver or serum. Oral administration of the same dose did not produce measurable levels of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues. Amniotic fluid consistently contained levels of BPA at or below those in maternal serum. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in tissues of neonatal rats decreased with age in a manner consistent with the corresponding circulating levels. Phase II metabolism of BPA increased with fetal age such that near-term fetus was similar to early post-natal rats. These results show that concentrations of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues are similar to those in other maternal and neonatal tissues and that maternal Phase II metabolism, especially following oral

  7. Caffeine exposure during rat brain development causes memory impairment in a sex selective manner that is offset by caffeine consumption throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, Ana Paula; Rocha, Andréia S; Borges, Maurício Felisberto; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Sallaberry, Cássia; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Pagnussat, Natália; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Porciúncula, Lisiane de Oliveira

    2016-04-15

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. In moderate doses, it affords a beneficial effect in adults and upon aging, but has a deleterious effect during brain development. We now tested if caffeine consumption by rats (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 g/L in the drinking water, only during active cycle and weekdays) during adulthood could revert the potentially negative effects of caffeine during early life. Thus, we compared caffeine intake starting 15 days before mating and lasting either up to weaning (development) or up to adulthood, on behavior and synaptic proteins in male and female rats. Recognition memory was impaired only in female rats receiving caffeine (0.3 and 1.0 g/L) during development, coincident with increased proBDNF and unchanged BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Caffeine in both treatment regimens caused hyperlocomotion only in male rats, whereas anxiety-related behavior was attenuated in both sexes by caffeine (1.0 g/L) throughout life. Both caffeine treatment regimens decreased GFAP (as an astrocyte marker) and SNAP-25 (as a nerve terminals marker) in the hippocampus from male rats. TrkB receptor was decreased in the hippocampus from both sexes and treatment regimens. These findings revealed that caffeine intake during a specific time window of brain development promotes sex-dependent behavioral outcomes related to modification in BDNF signaling. Furthermore, caffeine throughout life can overcome the deleterious effects of caffeine on recognition memory during brain development in female rats. PMID:26774980

  8. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    With the increased use of mobile phones, their biological and health effects have become more important. Usage of mobile phones near the head increases the possibility of effects on brain tissue. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. In both male radio-frequency radiation exposed groups, the permeability of blood-brain barrier found to be increased with respect to the controls (pmale animals (pfemale groups; dye contents in the whole brains were 0.14±0.01mg% in the control, 0.24±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.14±0.02mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. No statistical variance found between the control and 1800MHz exposed animals (p>0.01). However 900MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency exposure was found effective on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of female animals. Results have shown that 20min pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure of 900MHz and 1800MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats. For females, 900MHz was found effective and it could be concluded that this result may due to the physiological differences between female and male animals. The results of this study suggest that mobile phone radation could lead to increase the permeability of blood-brain barrier under non-thermal exposure levels. More studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of that breakdown. PMID:26723545

  9. Mitochondrial monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that γ-irradiation of albino rats with a dose of 30 Gy leads to pronounced phase changes in monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain at early times after whole-body exposure. These is a similar direction of changes in the activity of the enzyme and in the content of the substrate adequate to the latter

  10. Expression and Localization of TRK-Fused Gene Products in the Rat Brain and Retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRK-fused gene (TFG in human, Tfg in rat) was originally identified in human papillary thyroid cancer as a chimeric form of the NTRK1 gene. It has been reported that the gene product (TFG) plays a role in regulating phosphotyrosine-specific phosphatase-1 activity. However, no information regarding the localization of Tfg in rat tissues is available. In this study, we investigated the expression of Tfg mRNA in normal rat tissues using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also produced an antibody against Tfg gene products and examined the localization of TFG in the rat brain and retina. The RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that two types of Tfg mRNA were expressed in rat tissues: the conventional form of Tfg (cTfg) and a novel variant form, retinal Tfg (rTfg). RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that cTfg was ubiquitously expressed in rat tissues, while rTfg was predominantly expressed in the brain and retina. Western blot analysis demonstrated two bands with molecular weights of about 30 kDa and 50 kDa in the rat brain. Immunohistochemistry indicated that TFG proteins were predominantly expressed by neurons in the brain. In the rat retina, intense TFG-immunoreactivity was detected in the layer of rods and cones and the outer plexiform layer

  11. Comparative proteomics of rat brain in the BCNU-induced model of cortical dysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭谊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen the differential proteins in the brain(neocortex and hippocampus)between the rats with cortical dysplasia(CD)and control ones,and investigate the role of their alteration in the development of epilepsy in CD.Methods Cortical dysplasia was induced in rat pups via in utero delivery of BCNU.A two-dimensional electrophoresis

  12. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  13. Association of chronic vascular changes with functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Nick M E A; Immonen, Riikka; Tuunanen, Pasi I; Ndode-Ekane, Xavier Ekolle; Gröhn, Olli; Pitkänen, Asla

    2010-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular remodeling in the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus is associated with long-term functional recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We induced TBI with lateral fluid-percussion (LFP) injury in adult rats. Animals were followed-up for 9 months, during which we tested motor performance using a neuroscore test, spatial learning and memory with a Morris water maze, and seizure susceptibility with a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) test. At 8 months, they underwent structural MRI, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. Then, rats were perfused for histology to assess the density of blood vessels. In the perilesional cortex, the CBF decreased by 56% (p water maze correlated with enhanced thalamic vessel density (r = -0.81, p < 0.01). Finally, enhanced seizure susceptibility was associated with reduced CBF in the ipsilateral hippocampus (r = 0.78, p < 0.05) and increased vascular density in the thalamus (r = 0.69, p < 0.05). There was little interaction between the behavioral measures. The present study demonstrates that each of the investigated brain areas has a unique pattern of vascular abnormalities. Chronic alterations in CBF could not be attributed to changes in vascular density. Association of thalamic hypervascularity to epileptogenesis warrants further studies. Finally, hippocampal hypoperfusion may predict later seizure susceptibility in the LFP injury model of TBI, which could be of value for pre-clinical antiepileptogenesis trials. PMID:20839948

  14. Amantadine improves cognitive outcome and increases neuronal survival after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Xian-Jian; Van, Ken C; Went, Gregory T; Nguyen, Jack T; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2014-02-15

    This study evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of amantadine (AMT) on cognitive outcome and hippocampal cell survival in adult rats after lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMT is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, blocks dopamine reuptake, and has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Currently, AMT is clinically used as an antiparkinsonian drug. Amantadine or saline control was administered intraperitoneally, starting at 1 h after TBI followed by dosing three times daily for 16 consecutive days at 15, 45, and 135 mg/kg/day. Terminal blood draws were obtained from TBI rats at the time of euthanasia at varying time points after the last amantadine dose. Pharmacokinetics analysis confirmed that the doses of AMT achieved serum concentrations similar to those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses (100-400 mg/day). Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 12-16 after TBI. Brain tissues were collected and stained with Cresyl-violet for long-term cell survival analysis. Treatment with 135mg/kg/day of AMT improved acquisition of learning and terminal cognitive performance on MWM. The 135-mg/kg/day dosing of AMT increased the numbers of surviving CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons at day 16 post-TBI. Overall, the data showed that clinically relevant dosing schedules of AMT affords neuroprotection and significantly improves cognitive outcome after experimental TBI, suggesting that it has the potential to be developed as a novel treatment of human TBI. PMID:23574258

  15. Beneficial influence of physical exercise following status epilepticus in the immature brain of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, F G Novaes; Gomes Da Silva, S; Cavalheiro, E A; Arida, R M

    2014-08-22

    Studies in adult animals have demonstrated a beneficial effect of physical exercise on epileptic insults. Although the effects of physical exercise on the mature nervous system are well documented, its influence on the developing nervous system subjected to injuries in childhood has been little explored. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a physical exercise program applied during brain development could influence the hippocampal plasticity of rats submitted to status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine model at two different ages of the postnatal period. Male Wistar rats aged 18 (P18) and 28 (P28) days were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CTRL), Exercise (EX), SE (SE) and SE Exercise (SE/EX) (n=17 per group). After the aerobic exercise program, histological and behavioral (water maze) analyses were performed. Our results showed that only animals subjected to pilocarpine-induced SE at P28 presented spontaneous seizures during the observational period. A significant reduction in seizure frequency was observed in the SE/EX group compared to the SE group. In adulthood, animals submitted to early-life SE displayed impairment in long-term memory in the water maze task, while the exercise program reversed this deficit. Reduced mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus was noted in animals that presented spontaneous seizures (SE/EX vs SE). Exercise increased cell proliferation (Ki-67 staining) and anti-apoptotic response (bcl-2 staining) and reduced pro-apoptotic response (Bax staining) in animals of both ages of SE induction (P18/28). Exercise also modified the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in EX and SE/EX animals. Our findings indicate that in animals subjected to SE in the postnatal period a physical exercise program brings about beneficial effects on seizure frequency and hippocampal plasticity in later stages of life. PMID:24857853

  16. Thyroid Hormone Homeostasis in Adult Mammalian Brain: A Novel Mechanism for Functional Preservation of Cerebral T3 Content During Initial Peripheral Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samita Kundu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available brain is well known. But the action of THs in the adult brain was not widely a focus of study by endocrinologists based on lack of increased energy metabolism and oxygen consumption with changing thyroid status and thus not widely acknowledged. Extensive research has, however, revealed interesting findings like sequestration of T3, possible release of T3 as a neurotransmitter in nerve terminals, identification of specific membrane binding sites of T3 in the synaptosomal fraction of adult rat brain and many non-genomic neurotransmitter-like actions of TH in the adult mammalian brain. Most importantly, thyroid dysfunction is associated with significant disruption of psychobehavioural system in the adult, which can however be reversed with therapeutic hormonal intervention. A complex regulatory network involving transfer of TH through the brain barriers, interactions between neurons and glial cells, and deiodinase expression works synchronously to deliver the appropriate amount of T3 to the neurons. Despite peripheral hypo- or hyper-thyroidism, brain can maintain a normal level of TH up to certain duration. Thus, presence of a novel homeostatic mechanism in the adult mammalian brain (‘central homeostasis for thyroid hormone’ to defend the adverse neuropsychological manifestations commonly associated with peripheral hypothyroidism has been known for a long time. Unfortunately, the exact time course and the mechanism of such central homeostasis were not determined, till we made a pioneering attempt to evaluate the same. The entire phenomenon appeared to be coupled with nuclear mediated genomic processes like mRNA and protein synthesis. Moreover, the effects of THs on some key enzymes and ions related to neurotransmission during the start and end days of this central homeostatic phenomenon point towards a dependency of the enzymes on TH and an involvement of TH in the neurobiochemical events

  17. Development of a Conceptual Model to Predict Physical Activity Participation in Adults with Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…

  18. New neurons in the adult brain : The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistiberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E.

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a ma

  19. A biexponential DWI study in rat brain intracellular oedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, Roy, E-mail: roy.steier@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine University of Pecs, H-7623 Pecs, Ret street 2 (Hungary); Pecs Diagnostic Center, Faculty of Medicine University of Pecs, H-7623 Pecs, Ret street 2 (Hungary); Aradi, Mihaly [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine University of Pecs, H-7623 Pecs, Ret street 2 (Hungary); Pecs Diagnostic Center, Faculty of Medicine University of Pecs, H-7623 Pecs, Ret street 2 (Hungary); Pal, Jozsef [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine University of Pecs, H-7623 Pecs, Ret street 2 (Hungary); Perlaki, Gabor; Orsi, Gergely; Bogner, Peter [Pecs Diagnostic Center, Faculty of Medicine University of Pecs, H-7623 Pecs, Ret street 2 (Hungary); Galyas, Ferenc [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine University of Pecs, H-7623 Pecs, Ret street 2 (Hungary); and others

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To examine the changes in MR parameters derived from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) biexponential analysis in an in vivo intracellular brain oedema model, and to apply electron microscopy (EM) to shed more light on the morphological background of MR-related observations. Materials and methods: Intracellular oedema was induced in ten male Wistar rats (380-450 g) by way of water load, using a 20% body weight intraperitoneal injection of 140 mmol/L dextrose solution. A 3T MRI instrument was used to perform serial DWI, and MR specroscopy (water signal) measurements. Following the MR examination the brains of the animals were analyzed for EM. Results: Following the water load induction, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values started declining from 724 {+-} 43 {mu}m{sup 2}/s to 682 {+-} 26 {mu}m{sup 2}/s (p < 0.0001). ADC-fast values dropped from 948 {+-} 122 to 840 {+-} 66 {mu}m{sup 2}/s (p < 0.001). ADC-slow showed a decrease from 226 {+-} 66 to 191 {+-} 74 {mu}m{sup 2}/s (p < 0.05). There was a shift from the slow to the fast component at 110 min time point. The percentage of the fast component demonstrated moderate, yet significant increase from 76.56 {+-} 7.79% to 81.2 {+-} 7.47% (p < 0.05). The water signal was increasing by 4.98 {+-} 3.52% compared to the base line (p < 0.01). The results of the E.M. revealed that water was detected intracellularly, within astrocytic preivascular end-feet and cell bodies. Conclusion: The unexpected volume fraction changes (i.e. increase in fast component) detected in hypotonic oedema appear to be substantially different from those observed in stroke. It may suggest that ADC decrease in stroke, in contrast to general presumptions, cannot be explained only by water shift from extra to intracellular space (i.e. intracellular oedema).

  20. A biexponential DWI study in rat brain intracellular oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the changes in MR parameters derived from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) biexponential analysis in an in vivo intracellular brain oedema model, and to apply electron microscopy (EM) to shed more light on the morphological background of MR-related observations. Materials and methods: Intracellular oedema was induced in ten male Wistar rats (380–450 g) by way of water load, using a 20% body weight intraperitoneal injection of 140 mmol/L dextrose solution. A 3T MRI instrument was used to perform serial DWI, and MR specroscopy (water signal) measurements. Following the MR examination the brains of the animals were analyzed for EM. Results: Following the water load induction, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values started declining from 724 ± 43 μm2/s to 682 ± 26 μm2/s (p 2/s (p 2/s (p < 0.05). There was a shift from the slow to the fast component at 110 min time point. The percentage of the fast component demonstrated moderate, yet significant increase from 76.56 ± 7.79% to 81.2 ± 7.47% (p < 0.05). The water signal was increasing by 4.98 ± 3.52% compared to the base line (p < 0.01). The results of the E.M. revealed that water was detected intracellularly, within astrocytic preivascular end-feet and cell bodies. Conclusion: The unexpected volume fraction changes (i.e. increase in fast component) detected in hypotonic oedema appear to be substantially different from those observed in stroke. It may suggest that ADC decrease in stroke, in contrast to general presumptions, cannot be explained only by water shift from extra to intracellular space (i.e. intracellular oedema).

  1. The effects of trypsin on rat brain astrocyte activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fereidoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are cells within the central nervous system which are activated in a wide spectrum of infections, and autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. In pathologic states, they produce inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide (NO, and sometimes they induce apoptosis. Their protease-activated receptors (PARs can be activated by proteases, e.g. thrombin and trypsin, which are important in brain inflammation. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of trypsin (1 to 100U/ml on cultured astrocytes.In the present study, two-day rat infants' brains were isolated and homogenized after meninges removal, then cultivated in DMEM + 10% FBS medium. 10 days later, astrocytes were harvested and recultivated for more purification (up to 95%, using Immunocytochemistry method, in order to be employed for tests. They were affected by different concentrations of trypsin (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 U/ml. To reveal the inflammation progress, NO concentrations (the Griess test were assessed after 24 and 48 hours.The results showed that trypsin concentration up to 20 U/ml caused a significant increase in NO, in a dose-dependent manner, on cultured astrocytes (P < 0.001. Trypsin 20 U/ml increased NO production fivefold the control group (P < 0.001. At higher concentrations than 20 U/ml, NO production diminished (P < 0.001. At 100 U/ml, NO production was less than the control group (P < 0.001.Inflammatory effects of trypsin 5-20 U/ml are probably due to the stimulation of astrocytes' PAR-2 receptors and the increasing of the activation of NF-κB, PKC, MAPKs. Stimulation of astrocytes' PAR-2 receptors causes an increase in iNOS activation which in turn leads to NO production. However, higher trypsin concentration possibly made astrocyte apoptosis; therefore, NO production diminished. These assumptions need to be further investigated.

  2. The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-[U-14C]malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain

  3. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  4. Brain catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Kazuyuki

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT) induced disappearance of catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, were measured in selected areas of the brainstem and hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. The catecholamine levels were measured by a sensitive radioenzymatic assay method combined with microdissection of the rat brain. The adrenaline concentration was higher in the area A1 of...

  5. Brain catalase in the streptozotocin-rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease treated with the iron chelator-monoamine oxidase inhibitor, M30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofic, E; Salkovic-Petrisic, M; Tahirovic, I; Sapcanin, A; Mandel, S; Youdim, M; Riederer, P

    2015-04-01

    Low intracerebroventricular (icv) doses of streptozotocin (STZ) produce regionally specific brain neurochemical changes in rats that are similar to those found in the brain of patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Since oxidative stress is thought to be one of the major pathologic processes in sAD, catalase (CAT) activity was estimated in the regional brain tissue of animals treated intracerebroventricularly with STZ and the multitarget iron chelator, antioxidant and MAO-inhibitor M30 [5-(N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline]. Five-day oral pre-treatment of adult male Wistar rats with 10 mg/kg/day M30 dose was followed by a single injection of STZ (1 mg/kg, icv). CAT activity was measured colorimetrically in the hippocampus (HPC), brain stem (BS) and cerebellum (CB) of the control, STZ-, M30- and STZ + M30-treated rats, respectively, 4 weeks after the STZ treatment. STZ-treated rats demonstrated significantly lower CAT activity in all three brain regions in comparison to the controls (p < 0.05 for BS and CB, p < 0.01 for HPC). M30 pre-treatment of the control rats did not influence the CAT activity in HPC and CB, but significantly increased it in BS (p < 0.05). M30 pre-treatment of STZ-treated rats significantly increased CAT activity in the HPC in comparison to the STZ treatment alone (p < 0.05) and normalized to the control values. These findings are in line with the assumption that reactive oxygen species contribute to the pathogenesis of STZ in a rat model of sAD and indicate that multifunctional iron chelators such as M30 might also have beneficial effects in this non-transgenic sAD model. PMID:25252744

  6. Effect of ethanol in utero on higher nervous activity and protein and lipid metabolism in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study parameters of protein phosphorylation and glycoprotein and phospholipid synthesis in the neocortex and hippocampus of adult rats and compare the findings with the results of an investigation of formation and preservation of defensive conditioned reflexes. The pattern of changes in these metabolic parameters are studied in response to stress. For the biochemical tests, the animals were lightly anesthetized with ether and injected with a mixture of (P 32)-orthophosphate and (H 3)-fucose. Phospholipids were identified with molybdate reagent and radioactivity of the protein digest and lipids was measured in Bray's scintillator. The study shows that the use of stress brought metabolic differences between the brain of the experimental and control rats more clearly to light

  7. Migrating neuroblasts in the adult human brain: a stream reduced to a trickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miriam E van Strien; Simone A van den Berge; Elly M Hol

    2011-01-01

    It has long been thought that neurogenesis (birth of neurons) in the mammalian brain only occurs while the central nervous system is still developing.Although the first indications to the contrary already appeared in the 1960s,it took more than 30 years for the neuroscience community to accept that the mammalian adult brain also generates new neurons.Today it is completely accepted that neurogenesis occurs in two mammalian adult brain areas,the subventricular zone (SVZ) near the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the hippocampus.

  8. Relationship between changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity and brain edema after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity and brain edema after injury in rats.   Methods: The brain injury models were made by using a free-falling body. The treatment model was induced by means of injecting AP5 into lateral ventricle before brain injury; water contents in brain cortex were measured with dry-wet method; and NMDA receptor activity was detected with a radio ligand binding assay.   Results: The water contents began to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 6 hours after brain injury. The maximal binding (Bmax) of NMDA receptor increased significantly at 15 minutes and reached the peak at 30 minutes, then decreased gradually and had the lowest value 6 hours after brain injury. Followed the treatment with AP5, NMDA receptor activity in the injured brain showed a normal value; and the water contents were lower than that of AP5-free injury group 24 hours after brain injury.   Conclusions: It suggests that excessive activation of NMDA receptor may be one of the most important factors to induce the secondary cerebral impairments, and AP5 may protect the brain from edema after brain injury.

  9. Early Exercise Protects the Blood-Brain Barrier from Ischemic Brain Injury via the Regulation of MMP-9 and Occludin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Early exercise within 24 h after stroke can reduce neurological deficits after ischemic brain injury. However, the mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection remain poorly understood. Ischemic brain injury disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB and then triggers a cascade of events, leading to secondary brain injury and poor long-term outcomes. This study verified the hypothesis that early exercise protected the BBB after ischemia. Adult rats were randomly assigned to sham, early exercise (EE or non-exercise (NE groups. The EE and NE groups were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. The EE group ran on a treadmill beginning 24 h after ischemia, 30 min per day for three days. After three-days’ exercise, EB extravasation and electron microscopy were used to evaluate the integrity of the BBB. Neurological deficits, cerebral infarct volume and the expression of MMP-9, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, and occludin were determined. The data indicated that early exercise significantly inhibited the ischemia-induced reduction of occludin, and an increase in MMP-9 promoted TIMP-1 expression (p < 0.01, attenuated the BBB disruption (p < 0.05 and neurological deficits (p < 0.01 and diminished the infarct volume (p < 0.01. Our results suggest that the neuroprotection conferred by early exercise was likely achieved by improving the function of the BBB via the regulation of MMP-9 and occludin.

  10. Postnatal expression of H1-receptor mRNA in the rat brain: correlation to L-histidine decarboxylase expression and local upregulation in limbic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, M; Sallmen, T; Karlstedt, K; Fukui, H; Eriksson, K S; Panula, P

    1998-07-01

    Histamine is implicated in the regulation of brain functions through three distinct receptors. Endogenous histamine in the brain is derived from mast cells and neurons, but the importance of these two pools during early postnatal development is still unknown. The expression of histamine H1-receptor in the rat brain was examined using in situ hybridization during postnatal development and in adults. For comparison, the expression of L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in the two pools was revealed. H1-receptor was evenly expressed throughout the brain on the first postnatal days, but resembled the adult, uneven pattern already on postnatal day 5 (P5). HDC was expressed in both mast cells and tuberomammillary neurons from birth until P5, after which the mast cell expression was no more detectable. In adult rat brain, high or moderate levels of H1-receptor expression were found in the hippocampus, zona incerta, medial amygdaloid nucleus and reticular thalamic nucleus. In most areas of the adult brain the expression of H1-receptor mRNA correlates well with binding data and histaminergic innervation. A notable exception is the hypothalamus, with high fibre density but moderate or low H1-receptor expression. Systemic kainic acid administration induced increased expression of H1-receptor mRNA in the caudate-putamen and dentate gyrus, whereas no change was seen in the hippocampal subfields CA1-CA3 or in the entorhinal cortex 6 h after kainic acid injections. This significant increase supports the concept that histaminergic transmission, through H1-receptor, is involved in the regulation of seizure activity in the brain. PMID:9749757

  11. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Anil G. Jegga; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological ann...

  12. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain: same regulators, different roles

    OpenAIRE

    Urbán, Noelia; Guillemot, François

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in adult mammals in specific brain areas, known as neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis is highly dynamic and is modulated by multiple physiological stimuli and pathological states. There is a strong interest in understanding how this process is regulated, particularly since active neuronal production has been demonstrated in both the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult humans. The molecular mechanisms that control neurogenesis have been extensively s...

  13. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain: same regulators, different roles.

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia eUrban; François eGuillemot

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in adult mammals in specific brain areas, known as neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis is highly dynamic and is modulated by multiple physiological stimuli and pathological states. There is a strong interest in understanding how this process is regulated, particularly since active neuronal production has been demonstrated in both the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of adult humans.The molecular mechanisms that control neurogenesis have been extensively studied ...

  14. Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shufei Yin; Xinyi Zhu; Rui Li; Yanan Niu; Baoxi Wang; Zhiwei Zheng; Xin Huang; Lijuan Huo; Juan Li

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a multimodal intervention on spontaneous brain activity in healthy older adults. Seventeen older adults received a six-week intervention that consisted of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, while 17 older adults in a control group attended health knowledge lectures. The intervention group demonstrated enhanced memory and social support compared to the control group. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the middle fro...

  15. The Effects of Exercise on Adolescent Hippocampal Neurogenesis in a Rat Model of Binge Alcohol Exposure During the Brain Growth Spurt

    OpenAIRE

    Helfer, Jennifer L.; Goodlett, Charles R.; Greenough, William T.; Klintsova, Anna Y.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during the brain growth spurt results in impaired cognition and learning in adulthood. This impairment is accompanied by permanent structural changes in the hippocampal formation. Exercise improves performance on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks and increases adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus. The present study examined the effects of wheel running during adolescence on dentate gyrus cell proliferation and neurogenesis after postnatal b...

  16. Congenital viral infections of the brain: lessons learned from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in the neonatal rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Bonthius

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The fetal brain is highly vulnerable to teratogens, including many infectious agents. As a consequence of prenatal infection, many children suffer severe and permanent brain injury and dysfunction. Because most animal models of congenital brain infection do not strongly mirror human disease, the models are highly limited in their abilities to shed light on the pathogenesis of these diseases. The animal model for congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV infection, however, does not suffer from this limitation. LCMV is a well-known human pathogen. When the infection occurs during pregnancy, the virus can infect the fetus, and the developing brain is particularly vulnerable. Children with congenital LCMV infection often have substantial neurological deficits. The neonatal rat inoculated with LCMV is a superb model system of human congenital LCMV infection. Virtually all of the neuropathologic changes observed in humans congenitally infected with LCMV, including microencephaly, encephalomalacia, chorioretinitis, porencephalic cysts, neuronal migration disturbances, periventricular infection, and cerebellar hypoplasia, are reproduced in the rat model. Within the developing rat brain, LCMV selectively targets mitotically active neuronal precursors. Thus, the targets of infection and sites of pathology depend on host age at the time of infection. The rat model has further shown that the pathogenic changes induced by LCMV infection are both virus-mediated and immune-mediated. Furthermore, different brain regions simultaneously infected with LCMV can undergo widely different pathologic changes, reflecting different brain region-virus-immune system interactions. Because the neonatal rat inoculated with LCMV so faithfully reproduces the diverse neuropathology observed in the human counterpart, the rat model system is a highly valuable tool for the study of congenital LCMV infection and of all prenatal brain infections In addition, because LCMV

  17. Felbamate increases [3H]glycine binding in rat brain and sections of human postmortem brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, R T; Sofia, R D; Layer, R T; Leiner, K A; Faull, R L; Narang, N; Wamsley, J K

    1998-08-01

    The anticonvulsant compound felbamate (2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; FBM) appears to inhibit the function of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex through an interaction with the strychnine-insensitive glycine recognition site. Since we have demonstrated previously that FBM inhibits the binding of [3H]5, 7-dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA), a competitive antagonist at the glycine site, we assessed the ability of FBM to modulate the binding of an agonist, [3H]glycine, to rat forebrain membranes and human brain sections. In contrast to its ability to inhibit [3H]5,7-DCKA binding, FBM increased [3H]glycine binding (20 nM; EC50 = 485 microM; Emax = 211% of control; nH = 1.8). FBM, but not carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproic acid or phenobarbital, also increased [3H]glycine binding (50 nM; EC50 = 142 microM; Emax = 157% of control; nH = 1.6) in human cortex sections. Autoradiographic analysis of human brain slices demonstrated that FBM produced the largest increases in [3H]glycine binding in the cortex, hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus. Because various ions can influence the binding of glycine-site ligands, we assessed their effects on FBM-modulation of [3H]glycine binding. FBM-enhanced [3H]glycine binding was attenuated by Zn++ and not inhibited by Mg++ in human brain. These results suggest that FBM increases [3H]glycine binding in a manner sensitive to ions which modulate the NMDA receptor. These data support the hypothesis that FBM produces anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting NMDA receptor function, likely through an allosteric modulation of the glycine site. PMID:9694960

  18. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  19. Traumatic brain injury impairs synaptic plasticity in hippocampus in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-liang; CHEN Xin; TAN Tao; YANG Zhuo; CARLOS Dayao; JIANG Rong-cai; ZHANG Jian-ning

    2011-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBl) often causes cognitive deficits and remote symptomatic epilepsy.Hippocampal regional excitability is associated with the cognitive function. However, little is known about injury-induced neuronal loss and subsequent alterations of hippocampal regional excitability. The present study was designed to determine whether TBl may impair the cellular circuit in the hippocampus.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into control (n=20) and TBl groups (n=20). Long-term potentiation,extracellular input/output curves, and hippocampal parvalbumin-immunoreactive and cholecystokinin-immunoreactive interneurons were compared between the two groups.Results TBI resulted in a significantly increased excitability in the dentate gyrus (DG), but a significantly decreased excitability in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) area. Using design-based stereological injury procedures, we induced interneuronal loss in the DG and CA3 subregions in the hippocampus, but not in the CA1 area.Conclusions TBl leads to the impairment of hippocampus synaptic plasticity due to the changing of interneuronal interaction. The injury-induced disruption of synaptic efficacy within the hippocampal circuit may underlie the observed cognitive deficits and symptomatic epilepsy.

  20. 1H homonuclear editing of rat brain using semiselective pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have used a semiselective Hahn spin-echo sequence of the form (1331)-tau-(2662)-tau-AQ, delivered by a surface coil to obtain high-resolution 1H NMR spectra from the brains of intact dead rats. This sequence gave suppression of the tissue water resonance by a factor of 80,000 when tau = 68 ms. Delivery of a frequency-selective Dante pulse train to the alpha-CH resonance of lactate at 4.11 ppm, simultaneously with the 2662 refocusing pulse, altered the j-modulation in the spin-coupled beta-CH3 protons. Subtraction of this spectrum from one in which the Dante was ineffective gave an edited spectrum containing only the beta-CH3 resonance of lactate at 1.31 ppm. When the position of the Dante was shifted to 3.78 ppm to selectively invert the alpha-CH protons of alanine, an edited spectrum of alanine was obtained

  1. Wearable 3-D Photoacoustic Tomography for Functional Brain Imaging in Behaving Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jianbo; Jason E. Coleman; DAI, XIANJIN; Jiang, Huabei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between brain function and behavior remains a major challenge in neuroscience. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging technique that allows for noninvasive in vivo brain imaging at micrometer-millisecond spatiotemporal resolution. In this article, a novel, miniaturized 3D wearable PAT (3D-wPAT) technique is described for brain imaging in behaving rats. 3D-wPAT has three layers of fully functional acoustic transducer arrays. Phantom imaging experiments rev...

  2. The effect of Quinpirol and Sulpiride on the brain activity waves in conscious and aneasthetized rat

    OpenAIRE

    Komaki AR; Alaie H

    1998-01-01

    Brain's waves are produced by spontaneous activity of neurons. These waves are changed by neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). Concentration of these neurotransmitters can be changed by various drugs and total power of brain waves also increase or decrease by these drugs. In this research effect of Quinpirol and Sulpiride on the brain waves was investigated. Male wistar rats (weight 190-230) were aneasthetized with thiopental and two holes were made into the frontal and...

  3. Protective effects and time course of Huangqion early-stage free radical injury following brain trauma in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjie Wang; Xingbo Liu; Xun Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Huangqi (Astragalus mongholicus), a Chinese herb, has already been included in the "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Secondary injury following brain injury is associated with free radical production, and Huangqi possesses the ability to ameliorate free radical-mediated injury. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to observe the correlation between anti-free-radical properties of Huangqi and early histological changes of brain tissues following traumatic brain injury. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This study, a randomized, controlled, animal experiment, was performed from May 2006 to June 2007 at the Experimental Center of Science and Technology, School of Basic Science, Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou City, Liaoning Province, China. MATERIALS: Healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats of either gender were included. Huangqi injection was purchased from Heilongjiang Provincial Zhenbaodao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., China (National License Medical Number: Z23020781). Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Ca2+-ATPase, and Mg2+-ATPase, as well as kits to measure superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, were purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng Biological Reagent Company, China. METHODS: Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 24 rats in each group: (1) sham-operated group: rats were only exposed, but not injured; (2) model group: brain focal laceration rat models were established by free-falling. These groups were intraperitoneally injected with saline, once every 10 hours; (3) Huangqi group: rats were intraperitoneally injected with 4 mL/kg Huangqi (2 g/mL), once every 10 hours, following brain focal laceration by free-falling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrastructural changes in brain tissue were observed under an electron microscope 24 hours after injury. The water content of brain tissue was measured using the dry-wet weight method. In addition, the activity of ATPase

  4. Alteration of forebrain neurogenesis after cervical spinal cord injury in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Solenne eFELIX

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI triggers a complex cellular response at the injury site, leading to the formation of a dense scar tissue. Despite this local tissue remodeling, the consequences of SCI at the cellular level in distant rostral sites (i.e. brain, remain unknown. In this study, we asked whether cervical SCI could alter cell dynamics in neurogenic areas of the adult rat forebrain. To this aim, we quantified BrdU incorporation and determined the phenotypes of newly generated cells (neurons, astrocytes, or microglia during the subchronic and chronic phases of injury. We find that subchronic SCI leads to a reduction of BrdU incorporation and neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. By contrast, subchronic SCI triggers an increased BrdU incorporation in the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain, where most of the newly generated cells are identified as microglia. In chronic condition 90 days after SCI, BrdU incorporation returns to control levels in all regions examined, except in the hippocampus, where SCI produces a long-term reduction of neurogenesis, indicating that this structure is particularly sensitive to SCI. Finally, we observe that SCI triggers an acute inflammatory response in all brain regions examined, as well as a hippocampal-specific decline in BDNF levels, which could explain the SCI-mediated distant effects on forebrain neurogenesis. This study provides the first demonstration that forebrain neurogenesis is vulnerable to a distal SCI.

  5. In vivo imaging of brain androgen receptors in rats: a [18F]FDHT PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Steroid hormones like androgens play an important role in the development and maintenance of several brain functions. Androgens can act through androgen receptors (AR) in the brain. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of positron emission tomography (PET) with 16β-[18F]fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone ([18F]FDHT) to image AR expression in the brain. Methods: Male Wistar rats were either orchiectomized to inhibit endogenous androgen production or underwent sham-surgery. Fifteen days after surgery, rats were subjected to a 90-min dynamic [18F]FDHT PET scan with arterial blood sampling. In a subset of orchiectomized rats, 1 mg/kg dihydrotestosterone was co-injected with the tracer in order to saturate the AR. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of radioactive metabolites by radio-TLC. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed to quantify brain kinetics of the tracer. After the PET scan, the animals were terminated for ex-vivo biodistribution. Results: PET imaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies showed low [18F]FDHT uptake in all brain regions, except pituitary. [18F]FDHT uptake in the surrounding cranial bones was high and increased over time. [18F]FDHT was rapidly metabolized in rats. Metabolism was significantly faster in orchiectomized rats than in sham-orchiectomized rats. Quantitative analysis of PET data indicated substantial spill-over of activity from cranial bones into peripheral brain regions, which prevented further analysis of peripheral brain regions. Logan graphical analysis and kinetic modeling using 1- and 2-tissue compartment models showed reversible and homogenously distributed tracer uptake in central brain regions. [18F]FDHT uptake in the brain could not be blocked by endogenous androgens or administration of dihydrotestosterone. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that imaging of AR availability in rat brain with [18F]FDHT PET is not feasible. The low AR expression in the brain, the rapid metabolism of

  6. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Gaylia; Kraft Andrew; Chen Mei; Greenstein Dede; Kellom Matthew; Kim Hyung-Wook; Rao Jagadeesh; Rapoport Stanley; Basselin Mireille

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cognitive impairment has been reported in human immune deficiency virus-1- (HIV-1-) infected patients as well as in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. This impairment has been linked to neuroinflammation, disturbed brain arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, and synapto-dendritic injury. We recently reported upregulated brain AA metabolism in 7- to 9-month-old HIV-1 Tg rats. We hypothesized that these HIV-1 Tg rats also would show upregulated brain inflammatory and AA cascade markers...

  7. Utilization of 14C-tyrosine in brain and peripheral tissues of developmentally protein malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior studies of developmentally protein malnourished rats have reported substantial changes in brain and peripheral utilization of 14C-leucine, 14C-phenylalanine, and 14C-tryptophan. In the present study rats born to dams fed a low protein diet (8% casein) compared to the offspring of control rats fed a normal diet (25% casein) showed few significant differences in the uptake and incorporation of 14C-tyrosine into brain and peripheral tissues from birth to age 21 days. At birth, the 8% casein pups exhibited significant decreases in brain and peripheral tissue incorporation of tracer only at short post-injection times (10 and 20 min), but not at longer intervals (90 and 180 min). During ontogenetic development (Days 5-21), the 8% casein rats showed significant increases in uptake of 14C-tyrosine into the brain and peripheral tissues on Day 11 and a significantly higher percent incorporation of tracer into brain protein on Day 21 as compared to the 25% casein rats. For the most part, there were no significant changes in incorporation of radioactivity in peripheral tissues for the 2 diet groups on these post-birth days. Overall, the data indicates that developmental protein malnutrition causes relatively fewer changes in brain and peripheral utilization of the semi-essential amino acid tyrosine than those observed in previous studies with essential amino acids

  8. The effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on the electrical activity of the brain in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oytun Erbaş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antipsychotic drugs are known to have strongeffect on the bioelectric activity in the brain. However,some studies addressing the changes on electroencephalography(EEG caused by typical and atypical antipsychoticdrugs are conflicting. We aimed to compare the effectsof typical and atypical antipsychotics on the electricalactivity in the brain via EEG recordings in a rat model.Methods: Thirty-two Sprague Dawley adult male ratswere used in the study. The rats were divided into fivegroups, randomly (n=7, for each group. The first groupwas used as control group and administered 1 ml/kg salineintraperitoneally (IP. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg (group 2,chlorpromazine (5 mg/kg (group 3, olanzapine (1 mg/kg(group 4, ziprasidone (1 mg/ kg (group 5 were injectedIP for five consecutive days. Then, EEG recordings ofeach group were taken for 30 minutes.Results: The percentages of delta and theta waves inhaloperidol, chlorpromazine, olanzapine and ziprasidonegroups were found to have a highly significant differencecompared with the saline administration group (p<0.001.The theta waves in the olanzapine and ziprasidonegroups were increased compared with haloperidol andchlorpromazine groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The typical and atypical antipsychotic drugsmay be risk factor for EEG abnormalities. This studyshows that antipsychotic drugs should be used with caution.J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 279-284Key words: Haloperidol, chlorpromazine, olanzapine,ziprasidone, EEG, rat

  9. Cerebrovascular and blood-brain barrier morphology in spontaneously hypertensive rats: effect of treatment with choline alphoscerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Amenta, Francesco; Tomassoni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic precursors increasing choline availability and acetylcholine synthesis/release may represent a therapeutic approach for countering cognitive impairment occurring in adult-onset dementia disorders. Choline alphoscerate (alpha-gliceryl-phosphoryl-choline, GPC) is among cholinergic precursors the most effective in enhancing acetylcholine biosynthesis and release in animal models. This study was designed to assess if a long-term treatment with GPC modify cerebrovascular components [perivascular astrocytes, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and microvessels] and endothelial inflammatory markers expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) used as a model of brain vascular injury. Male SHR aged 32 weeks and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated for 4 weeks with GPC (150 mg/kg/day) or a vehicle. Intracerebral arteries of different brain areas, perivascular astrocytes, BBB and endothelial inflammatory markers were assessed by quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical techniques. No significant changes in the size of perivascular astrocytes were observed in SHR versus normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, whereas the expression of the BBB marker aquaporin-4 increased in SHR. This phenomenon was countered by GPC treatment. On the contrary, GPC has no vasodilator effect on brain micro-vessels. Endothelial markers and vascular adhesion molecules expression were not homogeneously affected by hypertension and GPC treatment in intracerebral vessels. The observation that treatment with GPC reversed BBB changes and countered to some extent micro-vessels changes occurring in SHR could explain data of clinical trials reporting an improvement of cognitive function in subjects suffering from cerebrovascular disorders and treated with GPC. These preclinical data suggest that the compound could have a cerebrovascular protective effect deserving a further characterization. PMID:25714975

  10. Hydroalcoholic seed extract of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) alleviates lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Williams, Dale; Rajanna, Sharada; Bettaiya, Rajanna

    2014-06-01

    Lead exposure is known to cause apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral abnormalities in developing and adult brain by impairing cognition and memory. Coriandrum sativum is an herb belonging to Umbelliferae and is reported to have a protective effect against lead toxicity. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control group: 1,000 mg/L of sodium acetate; exposed group: 1,000 mg/L lead acetate for 4 weeks; C. sativum treated 1 (CST1) group: 250 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure; C. sativum treated 2 (CST2) group: 500 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After the exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the whole brain was immediately isolated and separated into four regions: cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem along with the control group. After sacrifice, blood was immediately collected into heparinized vials and stored at 4 °C. In all the tissues, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) were estimated following standard protocols. An indicator enzyme for lead toxicity namely delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was determined in the blood. A significant (p<0.05) increase in ROS, LPP, and TPCC levels was observed in exposed rat brain regions, while δ-ALAD showed a decrease indicating lead-induced oxidative stress. Treatment with the hydroalcoholic seed extract of C. sativum resulted in a tissue-specific amelioration of oxidative stress produced by lead. PMID:24793421

  11. Acute hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation is associated with increased extracellular brain adenosine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Dale, Nicholas; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) can lead to brain edema, cerebral hyperperfusion and intracranial hypertension. These complications are thought to be mediated by hyperammonemia and inflammation leading to altered brain metabolism. As increased levels of adenosine degradation products have been found in...... cerebral blood flow (CBF). We measured the adenosine concentration with biosensors in rat brain slices exposed to ammonia and in a rat model with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation. Exposure to ammonia in concentrations from 0.15-10 mM led to increases in the cortical adenosine concentration up to 18...... µM in brain slices. In vivo recordings showed a tendency towards increased adenosine levels in rats with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation compared to a control group (3.7 ± 0.7 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 µM, P = 0.06). This was associated with a significant increase in ICP and CBF. Intervention with the...

  12. Schwann Cells Transplantation Promoted and the Repair of Brain Stem Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG WAN; YI-HUA AN; MEI-ZHEN SUN; YA-ZHUO ZHANG; ZHONG-CHENG WANG

    2003-01-01

    To explore the possibility of Schwann cells transplantation to promote the repair of injured brain stem reticular structure in rats. Methods Schwann cells originated from sciatic nerves of 1 to 2-day-old rats were expanded and labelled by BrdU in vitro, transplanted into rat brain stem reticular structure that was pre-injured by electric needle stimulus. Immunohistochemistry and myelin-staining were used to investigate the expression of BrdU, GAP-43 and new myelination respectively. Results BrdU positive cells could be identified for up to 8 months and their number increased by about 23%, which mainly migrated toward injured ipsilateral cortex. The GAP-43expression reached its peak in 1 month after transplantation and was significantly higher than that in the control group. New myelination could be seen in destructed brain stem areas. Conclusion The transplantation of Schwann cells can promote the restoration of injured brain stem reticular structure.

  13. Glucose metabolism of fetal rat brain in utero, measured with labeled deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammals have low cerebral metabolic rates immediately after birth and, by inference, also before birth. In this study, we extended the deoxyglucose method to the fetal rat brain in utero. Rate constants for deoxyglucose transfer across the maternal placental and fetal blood-brain barriers, and lumped constant, have not been reported. Therefore, we applied a new method of determining the lumped constant regionally to the fetal rat brain in utero. The lumped constant averaged 0.55 ± 0.15 relative to the maternal circulation. On this basis, we determined the glucose metabolic rate of the fetal rat brain to be one third of the corresponding maternal value, or 19 ± 2 μmol hg-1 min-1. (author)

  14. Contrasting regional Fos expression in adolescent and young adult rats following acute administration of the antidepressant paroxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanges, Emily A; Ramos, Linnet; Dampney, Bruno; Suraev, Anastasia S; Li, Kong M; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg). Paroxetine induced widespread Fos expression in both adolescent and young adult rats. Commonly affected areas include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dorsolateral), medial preoptic area, paraventricular hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala. Fos expression was generally lower in adolescents with significantly greater Fos expression observed in young adults in the prelimbic cortex, supraoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. However, a small subset of regions showed greater adolescent Fos expression including the nucleus accumbens shell, lateral habenula and dorsal raphe. Paroxetine increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in young adults, but not adolescents. Plasma paroxetine levels were not significantly different between the age groups. These results indicate a different c-Fos signature of acute paroxetine in adolescent rats, with greater activation in key mesolimbic and serotonergic regions, but a more subdued cortical, brainstem and hypothalamic response. This suggests that the atypical response of adolescents to paroxetine may be related to a blunted neuroendocrine response, combined with insufficient top-down regulation of limbic regions involved in reward and impulsivity. PMID:26876759

  15. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and reverse triiodothyronine processing in the cerebellum: Autoradiographic studies in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well confirmed evidence has demonstrated that the cerebellum is an important target of thyroid hormone action during development. Moreover, the presence of nuclear receptors and strong 5'-deiodinase activity in cerebella of adult rats have suggested that this region may continue to respond to thyroid hormones during maturity. Recent autoradiographic observations have focused attention on the cerebellar granular layer, in that [125I]T3 administered iv to adult rats was found to be selectively and saturably concentrated there. To determine the specificity of iodothyronine localization in the granular layer, we have now compared film autoradiographic observations made after iv [125I]T4 and iv [125I]rT3 with those found after iv [125I]T3. The results demonstrated that, as in the case of the latter hormone, labeling within the cerebellar cortex after iv [125I]T4 was both selective and saturable. Moreover, except for a lag in time to resolution and a longer retention time, the distribution of cerebellar radioactivity after iv labeled T4 was qualitatively similar to that seen after iv [125I]T3. However, the ability of T4 to become differentially concentrated in the granular layer of cerebellum was absolutely dependent on its ability to be converted intracerebrally to T3. Thus, pretreatment with ipodate, which blocks brain 5'-deiodinase activity and, therefore, the intracerebral formation of T3 from T4, completely prevented cerebellar granular layer labeling after iv [125I]T4 even though it did not interfere with differential labeling of this region by iv delivered [125I]T3. In the same experiments, propylthiouracil, a potent peripheral, but not central, 5'-deiodinase inhibitor, had no qualitative effect on the distribution of either T4 or T3 in cerebellum

  16. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR. PMID:24676564

  17. Brain Aging and AD-Like Pathology in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Numerous epidemiological studies have linked diabetes mellitus (DM with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether or not diabetic encephalopathy shows AD-like pathology remains unclear. Research Design and Methods. Forebrain and hippocampal volumes were measured using stereology in serial coronal sections of the brain in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced rats. Neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus was evaluated using Fluoro-Jade C (FJC. Aβ aggregation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was tested using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Dendritic spine density in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was measured using Golgi staining, and western blot was conducted to detect the levels of synaptophysin. Cognitive ability was evaluated through the Morris water maze and inhibitory avoidant box. Results. Rats are characterized by insulin deficiency accompanied with polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss after STZ injection. The number of FJC-positive cells significantly increased in discrete brain regions of the diabetic rats compared with the age-matched control rats. Hippocampal atrophy, Aβ aggregation, and synapse loss were observed in the diabetic rats compared with the control rats. The learning and memory of the diabetic rats decreased compared with those of the age-matched control rats. Conclusions. Our results suggested that aberrant metabolism induced brain aging as characterized by AD-like pathologies.

  18. Protection of GBE50 on brain mitochondria in rats with hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaiSUN; GangLIU; Yun-xuanZHANG; Ghen-liangYIN; Gaj-junTIAN; Jia-huPAN

    2005-01-01

    AIM To study the protective effects of the new standardized preparation of Ginkgo biloba extracts(GBE50) anainst brain mitochondrial damages induced by hyperlipemia in rats. METHODS Rat model with hyperlipemia was established by feeding the young male SD rats (3 weeks after born) with high lipid food for 3 months. Then the rats were treated with different dosage of GBE50(ig) for 4 weeks. The prophylaxis rat group were fed with the mixture of high lipid food and GBE50 (50mg/kg/d). The brain mitochondria was separated for determination of the R3, R4 and RCR of the respiration function with the method of Clark's electrode. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential(Δψm) was derected by the Rho123 assay and the cytochrome c release was checked by spectrography. In addition, the parameters of oxidative stress (the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and the MDA leve) and the activities of ATPase were assayed.

  19. Donepezil markedly potentiates memantine neurotoxicity in the adult rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Creeley, Catherine E.; Wozniak, David F.; Nardi, Anthony; Farber, Nuri B.; Olney, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The NMDA antagonist, memantine (Namenda), and the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil (Aricept), are currently being used widely, either individually or in combination, for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). NMDA antagonists have both neuroprotective and neurotoxic properties; the latter is augmented by drugs, such as pilocarpine, that increase cholinergic activity. Whether donepezil, by increasing cholinergic activity, might augment memantine’s neurotoxic potential has not been investiga...

  20. The neurotoxic effects of artemether on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum of adult male wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 70kg adult man, artemether is given at a total dosage of 480mg for five days in the treatment of malarial. Using t-test analysis technique at 95% confidence interval i.e t < 0.05 and P - value = 2.26, no significant difference was observed between the average brain and cerebellar weight, the average width of cerebellar cortical layers, the density and the average size of Purkinje Cells in the control groups C1 and C2 and the experimental group E. In the present study, there were no gross or morphological differences between the two groups of animals (control and experimental groups) on day 7 at the completion of experimental procedure. A significant statistical increase in average body weight was observed in the control groups C1 (which received only standard diet and water) and C2 (which received 1.23mg/kg body weight of normal saline intramuscularly in addition to standard diet and water) from 140 + 19.65g on day 1 to 146 + 19.90g on day 7 and 151 + 12.0g on day 1 to 156.2 + 12.2g on Day 7 respectively. There was a non-statistically significant apparent reduction in body weight in the experimental group E, (which received intramuscular injection of 1.23mg/kg body weight of artemether), from 160 + 9.0g on day 1 to 157.4 + 8.0g on day 7. The rats in the control groups CI and C2 displayed normal balance and co-ordination, while rats in the experimental group E, showed abnormalities of balance and co-ordination. This study investigated the effects of corresponding 1.23mg/kg body weight of artemether for a period of seven days on the functions of rats after drug administration. (author)

  1. In vivo study about specific captation of 125 I-insulin by rat brain structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific captation of 125 I-insulin was evaluated by brain structures, as olfactory bulbous, hypothalamus and cerebellum in rats, from in vivo experiences that including two different aspects: captation measure of 125 I-insulin after the intravenous injection of the labelled hormone, in fed rats and in rats with 48 h of fast or convulsion, procedure by the pentylene tetrazole; captation measure of 125 I-insulin after intra-cerebral-ventricular injection of the labelled hormone in fed rats. (C.G.C.)

  2. Increased plasma levels and blunted effects of brain natriuretic peptide in rats with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A; Grossman, E; Keiser, H R

    1991-07-01

    The hemodynamic and renal effects of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were studied in conscious rats with experimental congestive heart failure (CHF) produced by an aortocaval fistula. The peptide had potent hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic effects in control rats, all of which were abolished in CHF. Plasma levels of BNP increased time-dependently during the development of CHF, and were more than four-fold higher in sodium retaining rats than in control rats. The data suggest that BNP secretion from the atria is increased in CHF, and that resistance to BNP, in addition to the relative resistance to atrial natriuretic factor, may contribute to sodium retention in CHF. PMID:1831369

  3. Environmental neurotoxin interaction with proteins: Dose-dependent increase of free and protein-associated BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Jiang, Liying; Ersson, Lisa; Malmström, Tim; Ilag, Leopold L; Brittebo, Eva B

    2015-01-01

    β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is implicated in the aetiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Neonatal exposure to BMAA induces cognitive impairments and progressive neurodegenerative changes including intracellular fibril formation in the hippocampus of adult rats. It is unclear why the neonatal hippocampus is especially vulnerable and the critical cellular perturbations preceding BMAA-induced toxicity remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare the level of free and protein-associated BMAA in neonatal rat brain and peripheral tissues after different exposures to BMAA. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that BMAA passed the neonatal blood-brain barrier and was distributed to all studied brain areas. BMAA was also associated to proteins in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. The level in the brain was, however, considerably lower compared to the liver that is not a target organ for BMAA. In contrast to the liver there was a significantly increased level of protein-association of BMAA in the hippocampus and other brain areas following repeated administration suggesting that the degradation of BMAA-associated proteins may be lower in neonatal brain than in the liver. Additional evidence is needed in support of a role for protein misincorporation in the neonatal hippocampus for long-term effects of BMAA. PMID:26498001

  4. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia are at...... increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid.......2-3.1) for brain cancer, and 3.3 (95% CI, 2.5-4.4) for NHL. Corresponding hazard ratios after childhood leukemia were 10.4 (95% CI, 0.4-223) for thyroid cancer, 7.2 (95% CI, 2.0-26) for brain cancer, and 6.5 (95% CI, 0.4-110) for NHL. Patients with adult leukemia have excess risk of thyroid cancer, brain...

  5. No increases in biomarkers of genetic damage or pathological changes in heart and brain tissues in male rats administered methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) for 28 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Kristine L; Malarkey, David E; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Davis, Jeffrey P; Kissling, Grace E; Caspary, William; Travlos, Gregory; Recio, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Following a 2005 report of chromosomal damage in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were treated with the commonly prescribed medication methylphenidate (MPH), numerous studies have been conducted to clarify the risk for MPH-induced genetic damage. Although most of these studies reported no changes in genetic damage endpoints associated with exposure to MPH, one recent study (Andreazza et al. [2007]: Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31:1282-1288) reported an increase in DNA damage detected by the Comet assay in blood and brain cells of Wistar rats treated by intraperitoneal injection with 1, 2, or 10 mg/kg MPH; no increases in micronucleated lymphocyte frequencies were observed in these rats. To clarify these findings, we treated adult male Wistar Han rats with 0, 2, 10, or 25 mg/kg MPH by gavage once daily for 28 consecutive days and measured micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequencies in blood, and DNA damage in blood, brain, and liver cells 4 hr after final dosing. Flow cytometric evaluation of blood revealed no significant increases in MN-RET. Comet assay evaluations of blood leukocytes and cells of the liver, as well as of the striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of the brain showed no increases in DNA damage in MPH-treated rats in any of the three treatment groups. Thus, the previously reported observations of DNA damage in blood and brain tissue of rats exposed to MPH for 28 days were not confirmed in this study. Additionally, no histopathological changes in brain or heart, or elevated serum biomarkers of cardiac injury were observed in these MPH-exposed rats. PMID:19634155

  6. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  7. Influences of olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 陈燕涛; 程志安

    2002-01-01

    To observe whether olfactory ensheathing cells could be used to promote axonal regeneration in a spontaneously nonregenerating system. Methods: After laminectomy at the lower thoracic level, the spinal cords of adult rats were exposed and completely transected at T10. A suspension of ensheathing cells was injected into the lesion site in 12 adult rats, and control D/F-12 (1∶1 mixture of DMEM and Hams F-12) was injected in 12 adult rats. Six weeks and ten weeks after cell transplantation, the rats were evaluated by climbing test and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring. The samples were procured and studied with histologicl and immunohistochemical methods. Results: At the 6th week after cell transplantation, all the rats in both the transplanted and control groups were paraplegic and the MEPs could not be recorded. At the 10th week after cell transplantation, of 7 rats in the control group, 2 rats had muscles contraction of the lower extremities, 2 rats had hips and/or knees active movement; and 5 rats MEPs could be recorded in the hind limbs in the transplanted group (n=7). None of the rats in the control group had functional improvement and no MEPs recorded (n=7). Numerous regenerating axons were observed through the transplantation and continued to regenerate into the denervated host tract. Cell labelling using anti-Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (anti-NGFR) indicated that the regenerated axons were derived from the appropriate neuronal source and that donor cells migrated into the denervated host tract. But axonal degeneration existed and regenerating axons were not observed within the spinal cords of the adult rats with only D/F-12 injection. Conclusions: The axonal regeneration in the transected adult rat spinal cord is possible after ensheathing cells transplantation.

  8. Effect of ketamine on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues following brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zangong Zhou; Xiangyu Ji; Li Song; Jianfang Song; Shiduan Wang; Yanwei Yin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is closely related to the formation of brain edema. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important part in the conversion of swelled neuron following traumatic brain injury. At present, the studies on the protective effect of ketamine on brain have involved in its effect on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissues following brain injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ketamine on AQP-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue following rat brain injury, and analyze the time-dependence of ketamine in the treatment of brain injury.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design, controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 150 rats of clean grade, aged 3 months, were involved and randomized into control group and ketamine-treated group, with 75 rats in each. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups separately at 6,12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury, with 15 rats at each time point. Main instruments and reagents:homemade beat machine, ketamine hydrochloride (Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu), rabbit anti-rat AQP-4 polyclonal antibody, SABC immunohistochemical reagent kit and TUNEL reagent kit (Boster Co.,Ltd.,Wuhan).METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University during March 2005 to February 2006. A weight-dropping rat model of brain injury was created with Feeney method. The rats in the ketamine-treated group were intraperitoneally administered with 50 g/L ketamine (120 mg/kg) one hour after injury, but ketamine was replaced by normal saline in the control group. In each subgroup, the water content of cerebral hemisphere was measured in 5 rats chosen randomly. The left 10 rats in each subgroup were transcardiacally perfused with ketamine, then the brain tissue was made into paraffin sections and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal

  9. An empirical EEG analysis in brain death diagnosis for adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhe; Cao, Jianting; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Yue; Gu, Fanji; Zhu, Guoxian; Zhen HONG; Wang, Bin; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is often used in the confirmatory test for brain death diagnosis in clinical practice. Because EEG recording and monitoring is relatively safe for the patients in deep coma, it is believed to be valuable for either reducing the risk of brain death diagnosis (while comparing other tests such as the apnea) or preventing mistaken diagnosis. The objective of this paper is to study several statistical methods for quantitative EEG analysis in order to help bedside or ambu...

  10. Does acute caffeine ingestion alter brain metabolism in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pekar, James J; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-04-15

    Caffeine, as the most commonly used stimulant drug, improves vigilance and, in some cases, cognition. However, the exact effect of caffeine on brain activity has not been fully elucidated. Because caffeine has a pronounced vascular effect which is independent of any neural effects, many hemodynamics-based methods such as fMRI cannot be readily applied without a proper calibration. The scope of the present work is two-fold. In Study 1, we used a recently developed MRI technique to examine the time-dependent changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) following the ingestion of 200mg caffeine. It was found that, despite a pronounced decrease in CBF (pextraction fraction (OEF) was significantly elevated (p=0.002) to fully compensate for the reduced blood supply. Using the whole-brain finding as a reference, we aim to investigate whether there are any regional differences in the brain's response to caffeine. Therefore, in Study 2, we examined regional heterogeneities in CBF changes following the same amount of caffeine ingestion. We found that posterior brain regions such as posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal regions manifested a slower CBF reduction, whereas anterior brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial frontal cortex showed a faster rate of decline. These findings have a few possible explanations. One is that caffeine may result in a region-dependent increase or decrease in brain activity, resulting in an unaltered average brain metabolic rate. The other is that caffeine's effect on vasculature may be region-specific. Plausibility of these explanations is discussed in the context of spatial distribution of the adenosine receptors. PMID:25644657

  11. Regeneration, Plasticity, and Induced Molecular Programs in Adult Zebrafish Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ilyas Cosacak; Christos Papadimitriou; Caghan Kizil

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative capacity of the brain is a variable trait within animals. Aquatic vertebrates such as zebrafish have widespread ability to renew their brains upon damage, while mammals have—if not none—very limited overall regenerative competence. Underlying cause of such a disparity is not fully evident; however, one of the reasons could be activation of peculiar molecular programs, which might have specific roles after injury or damage, by the organisms that regenerate. If this hypothesis is c...

  12. A brain sexual dimorphism controlled by adult circulating androgens

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Bradley M.; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Breedlove, S. Marc

    1999-01-01

    Reports of structural differences between the brains of men and women, heterosexual and homosexual men, and male-to-female transsexuals and other men have been offered as evidence that the behavioral differences between these groups are likely caused by differences in the early development of the brain. However, a possible confounding variable is the concentration of circulating hormones seen in these groups in adulthood. Evaluation of this possibility hinges on the extent to which circulatin...

  13. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  14. Expression of GFAP MRNA in rat hippocampus after whole-brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the role of GFAP in brain irradiation injury by observing the expression changes of GFAPmRNA in the hippocampus region of rat after whole-brain irradiation. Methods: The model was established in the rat after whole-brain irradiation with the single dose of 4 MeV electron beam. The dynamic expression of GFAPmRNA in the hippocampus was analyzed semi-quantitatively at different times (1 and 30 days) and doses (2 Gy, 10 Gy and 30 Gy) points with RT-PCR. Results: The level of GFAPmRNA was elevated significantly 1 day after whole-brain irradiation in 10 Gy and 30 Gy groups (P0.05). Conclusions: the up-regulation of GFAPmRNA is time and radiation dose dependent. GFAP plays an important role in protective and imparative mechanism of brain irradiation injury. (authors)

  15. Expression of PHB2 in Rat Brain Cortex Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prohibitin2 (PHB2 is a ubiquitous, evolutionarily strongly conserved protein. It is one of the components of the prohibitin complex, which comprises two highly homologous subunits, PHB1 and PHB2. PHB2 is present in various cellular compartments including the nucleus and mitochondria. Recent studies have identified PHB2 as a multifunctional protein that controls cell proliferation, apoptosis, cristae morphogenesis and the functional integrity of mitochondria. However its distribution and function in the central nervous system (CNS are not well understood. In this study, we examined PHB2 expression and cellular localization in rats after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI. Western Blot analysis showed PHB2 level was significantly enhanced at five days after injury compared to control, and then declined during the following days. The protein expression of PHB2 was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In comparison to contralateral cerebral cortex, we observed a highly significant accumulation of PHB2 at the ipsilateral brain. Immunofluorescence double-labeling showed that PHB2 was co-expressed with NeuN, GFAP. Besides, PHB2 also colocalized with activated caspase-3 and PCNA. To further investigate the function of PHB2, primary cultured astrocytes and the neuronal cell line PC12 were employed to establish a proliferation model and an apoptosis model, respectively, to simulate the cell activity after TBI to a certain degree. Knocking down PHB2 by siRNA partly increased the apoptosis level of PC12 stimulated by H2O2. While the PHB2 was interrupted by siRNA, the proliferation level of primary cultured astrocytes was inhibited notably than that in the control group. Together with our data, we hypothesized that PHB2 might play an important role in CNS pathophysiology after TBI.

  16. Protective Effect of Calendula officinalis L. Flowers Against Monosodium Glutamate Induced Oxidative Stress and Excitotoxic Brain Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, P; Thippeswamy, B S; Veerapur, V P

    2013-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a popular flavour enhancer used in food industries; however, excess MSG is neurotoxic. Oxidative stress is well documented in MSG induced neurotoxicity. The compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties reportedly possess beneficial effects against various neurotoxic insults. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Hence, this present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Adult Wistar rats were administered systemically for 7 days with MSG and after one h of MSG injection, rats were treated with COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) orally. At the end the treatment period, animals were assessed for locomotor activity and were sacrificed; brains were isolated for estimation of LPO, GSH, CAT, TT, GST, Nitrite and histopathological studies. MSG caused a significant alteration in animal behavior, oxidative defense (raised levels of LPO, nitrite concentration, depletion of antioxidant levels) and hippocampal neuronal histology. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, and hippocampal damage in MSG-treated animals. Hence, this study demonstrates that COE protects against MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of COE may be responsible for its observed neuroprotective action. PMID:24426226

  17. Effect of post-traumatic mild hypothermia on hippocampal cell death after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feng; Mao, Qing; Liang, Yu-Min; Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2009-02-11

    In this investigation, we evaluated the effect of post-traumatic mild hypothermia on cell death in the hippocampus after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40/group): TBI with hypothermia treatment (32 degrees C), TBI with normothermia (37 degrees C), and sham injury. The TBI model was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. Mild hypothermia (32 degrees C) was achieved by partial immersion in a water bath (0 degrees C) under general anesthesia for 4h. All rats were killed at 24 or 72h after TBI. The ipsilateral hippocampal CA1 in all rats were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining for determining cell death. Caspase-3 expression was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. At 24h, based on TUNEL and DAPI results, the cell death index was 28.80 +/- 2.60% and 32.10 +/- 1.40% in the normothermia TBI group, while reaching only 14.30 +/- 2.70% and 18.40 +/- 2.10% in the hypothermic TBI group (p percussion injury. Taken together with other studies, these observations support the premise that post-traumatic mild hypothermia can provide cerebral protection for patients with TBI. PMID:19236165

  18. Isolation and characterization of progenitor cells in uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatos, Marie A; Haugaard-Kedstrom, Linda; Hodges, Robin R;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). METHODS: The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and α-smooth muscle actin...

  19. Adult brain abscess associated with patent foramen ovale: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathopoulos Georgios T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brain abscess results from local or metastatic septic spread to the brain. The primary infectious site is often undetected, more commonly so when it is distant. Unlike pediatric congenital heart disease, minor intracardiac right-to-left shunting due to patent foramen ovale has not been appreciated as a cause of brain abscess in adults. Here we present a case of brain abscess associated with a patent foramen ovale in a 53-year old man with dental-gingival sepsis treated in the intensive care unit. Based on this case and the relevant literature we suggest a link between a silent patent foramen ovale, paradoxic pathogen dissemination to the brain, and development of brain abscess.

  20. Influence of neonatally administered capsaicin on baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes in the adult rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, S. M.; Cervero, F; McQueen, D S

    1982-01-01

    1 Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex activity was studied in anaesthetized adult rats which had been treated neonatally with a single injection of capsaicin (50 mg/kg s.c.). 2 Pressor responses to bilateral carotid artery occlusion were significantly lower in capsaicin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Pressor responses to intravenously injected noradrenaline were similar in the two groups of rats. 3 Resting respiratory minute volume and tidal volume were lower in anaest...

  1. Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Malila, Pisamai; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery (fetal period; TDF or TSF) or from delivery until weaning (lactation period; TDL or TSL). I...

  2. Standardized environmental enrichment supports enhanced brain plasticity in healthy rats and prevents cognitive impairment in epileptic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat P Fares

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage, which offers: (1 minimally stressful social interactions; (2 increased voluntary exercise; (3 multiple entertaining activities; (4 cognitive stimulation (maze exploration, and (5 novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week. The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories.

  3. Nerve growth factor antibody exacerbates neuropathological signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in adult lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, A; Properzi, F; Triaca, V; Aloe, L

    2000-05-01

    In this study, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats and rats exhibiting EAE expressing high circulating anti-nerve growth factor antibody were daily monitored for clinical signs and chronic relapses. Eighty-five days after EAE induction, blood, spinal cord and brain stem were used for histological examination, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) evaluation. The results showed that NGF-deprived rats display more severe clinical signs of disease. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of NGF in the brain stem and spinal cord but not of BDNF, which decreased only in spinal cord. These observations provide additional support to the hypothesis of a protective NGF role in rats exhibiting EAE. PMID:10713350

  4. Neuroanatomy-based matrix-guided trimming protocol for the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defazio, Rossella; Criado, Ana; Zantedeschi, Valentina; Scanziani, Eugenio

    2015-02-01

    Brain trimming through defined neuroanatomical landmarks is recommended to obtain consistent sections in rat toxicity studies. In this article, we describe a matrix-guided trimming protocol that uses channels to reproduce coronal levels of anatomical landmarks. Both setup phase and validation study were performed on Han Wistar male rats (Crl:WI(Han)), 10-week-old, with bodyweight of 298 ± 29 (SD) g, using a matrix (ASI-Instruments(®), Houston, TX) fitted for brains of rats with 200 to 400 g bodyweight. In the setup phase, we identified eight channels, that is, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 19, and 21, matching the recommended landmarks midway to the optic chiasm, frontal pole, optic chiasm, infundibulum, mamillary bodies, midbrain, middle cerebellum, and posterior cerebellum, respectively. In the validation study, we trimmed the immersion-fixed brains of 60 rats using the selected channels to determine how consistently the channels reproduced anatomical landmarks. Percentage of success (i.e., presence of expected targets for each level) ranged from 89 to 100%. Where 100% success was not achieved, it was noted that the shift in brain trimming was toward the caudal pole. In conclusion, we developed and validated a trimming protocol for the rat brain that allow comparable extensiveness, homology, and relevance of coronal sections as the landmark-guided trimming with the advantage of being quickly learned by technicians. PMID:24947989

  5. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Teresa E; Brooks, Leah R; Gilligan, Lori J; Burghardt, Paul R; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained) exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA) levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min) or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min). During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines. PMID:23028992

  6. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa E Foley

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively. The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min. During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines.

  7. INFLUENCE OF ACUPUNCTURE ON BRAIN-TAXIS OF TETRAMETHYLPYRAZINE IN ACUTE CEREBRAL INFARCTION RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔荣秀; 陈以国; 谷雨

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the effect of acupuncture on the brain-taxis of tetrarmethylpyrazine (TMP) and toexplore into the underlying mechanisms of combined action of acupuncture and medicine in the treatment of acute cere-bral ischemia. Methods: 37 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n= 10), sham-operationgroup (n= 10), acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) + drug group (model group, n=8)and ACl+drug+acupuncture group(acupuncture group, n=9). Rat ACl model was established by using photochemical method. "Neiguan"(PC 6) and"Shuigou"(GV 26) were punctured and stimulated with both hand manipulation and electroacupuncture, 30 min and16hrs after ACI. TMP was given to the rats of the later 2 groups using gastric perfusion method. High pressure chro-matography (HPLC) was used to detect the target absorption level of TMP in the brain. Results: The content of TMP inthe brain in acupuncture group was significantly higher than that in model group (P<0.01), suggesting that acupunc-ture can strengthen the brain-taxis of TMP in ACl rats, and combined administration of acupuncture and Chinese drugmaybe work better for treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Conclusion: Acupuncture can strengthen the chano-taxisof TMP to the brain in ACl rats.

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and blood brain barrier permeability in the rat brain after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifang Lei; Xiaohong Zi; Qiuyun Tu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in the patho-physiological process of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. It has been recently observed that metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is closely related to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injuryOBJECTIVE: This study was designed to observe MMP-9 expression in the rat brain after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and to investigate its correlation to BBB permeability.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This study, a randomized controlled animal experiment, was performed at the Institute of Neurobiology, Central South University between September 2005 and March 2006.MATERIALS: Ninety healthy male SD rats, aged 3-4 months, weighing 200-280g, were used in the present study. Rabbit anti-rat MMP-9 polyclonal antibody (Boster, Wuhan, China) and Evans blue (Sigma, USA) were also used.METHODS: All rats were randomly divided into 9 groups with 10 rats in each group: normal control group, sham-operated group, and ischemia for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 3,6,12 hours, 1,2,4 and 7 days groups. In the ischemia/reperfusion groups, rats were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury by suture occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. In the sham-operated group, rats were merely subjected to vessel dissociation. In the normal control group, rats were not modeled.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BBB permeability was assessed by determining the level of effusion of Evans blue. MMP-9 expression was detected by an immunohistochemical method.RESULTS: All 90 rats were included in the final analysis. BBB permeability alteration was closely correlated to ischemia/reperfusion time. BBB permeability began to increase at ischemia/reperfusion for 3 hours, then it gradually reached a peak level at ischemia/reperfusion for 1 day, and thereafter it gradually decreased. MMP-9 expression began to increase at ischemia/reperfusion for 3 hours, then gradually reached its peak level 2 days after perfusion, and thereafter

  9. The nitrone free radical scavenger NXY-059 is neuroprotective when administered after traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Fredrik; Marklund, Niklas; Lewén, Anders; Hillered, Lars

    2008-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important contributors to the secondary injury cascade following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ROS inhibition has consistently been shown to be neuroprotective following experimental TBI. NXY-059, a nitrone free radical trapping compound, has been shown to be neuroprotective in models of ischemic stroke but has not been evaluated in experimental TBI. In the present study, a continuous 24-h intravenous infusion of NXY-059 or vehicle was initiated 30 min following a severe lateral fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) in adult rats (n=22), and histological and behavioral outcomes were evaluated. Sham-injured animals (n=22) receiving identical drug infusion were used as controls. Visuospatial learning was evaluated in the Morris water maze at post-injury days 11-14, followed by a probe trial (memory test) at day 18. The animals were sacrificed at day 18, and loss of hemispheric brain tissue was measured in microtubule-associated protein (MAP)-2 stained sections. Brain-injured, NXY-059-treated animals showed a significant reduction of visuospatial learning deficits when compared to the brain-injured, vehicle-treated control animals (p < 0.05). NXY-059-treated animals significantly reduced the loss of hemispheric tissue compared to brain-injured controls (43.0 +/- 11 mm3 versus 74.4 +/- 19 mm3, respectively; p < 0.01). The results show that post-injury treatment with NXY-059 significantly attenuated the loss of injured brain tissue and improved cognitive outcome, suggesting a major role for ROS in the pathophysiology of TBI. PMID:19118455

  10. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability. PMID:26498936

  11. Brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: The role of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiangjian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH results in secondary brain edema and injury that may lead to death and disability. ICH also causes inflammation. It is unclear whether inflammation contributes to brain edema and neuron injury or functions in repairing the brain tissue. Aims: To understand the effect of inflammation in ICH, we have carried out an investigation on the various aspects and the dynamic changes of inflammation. Settings and Design: An ICH model was generated by injecting 50 ml autologous tail artery blood stereotactically into the right caudate nucleus of 30 rats, which were randomly divided into five ICH groups. Similarly, five Sham control groups were generated by inserting the needle to the right caudate nucleus of rats. Materials and Methods: Rat behavior was evaluated over the time course (6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d in each group. The rats were then killed by administering an overdose of pentobarbital. Following the euthanasia, the brain water content, neuronal loss, glia proliferation, inflammatory infiltration and brain morphology of the rats were measured. Additionally, the expression of TNF-a,IL-6, ICAM-1, VEGF, NF-kB, C3 and CR2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by student′s t test. Results: Rat brain water content increased progressively over the time course and reached its peak at 48h followed ICH. The maximum of inflammatory infiltrate (especially neutrophils and immunopositive cells of TNF-a, IL-6 and NF-kB, were at 48h. The expression of C3 and CR2 reached their peaks at 48-72h, while the expression ICAM-1 and VEGF were at maximum at 72h followed ICH. Conclusions: The results suggested that the inflammatory cytokines, complement system and VEGF may have a function in the development of the brain edema and neuron injury followed ICH.

  12. Cannabinoid administration increases 5HT1A receptor binding and mRNA expression in the hippocampus of adult but not adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavitsanou, K; Wang, H; Dalton, V S; Nguyen, V

    2010-08-11

    The endocannabinoid and serotonin systems share a high level of overlap in terms of the physiological processes that they regulate, however, little is known about their functional interactions particularly during adolescence, a vulnerable period for both the development of psychosis and for initiation to substance use. In the present study, the effects of cannabinoid treatment on serotonin 5HT1A receptor density and mRNA expression were investigated in two age groups: Adolescent (postnatal day 35) and adult (postnatal day 70) rats were injected with the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 (25, 50 or 100 microg/kg) or vehicle for 1, 4 or 14 days and sacrificed 24 h after the last injection. 5HT1A receptor density was measured in different brain regions using [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT quantitative autoradiography whereas mRNA expression was measured in adjacent brain sections. Higher levels of both serotonin 5HT1A receptor binding and mRNA expression were observed in limbic regions in adolescent control animals compared to adults. 5HT1A receptor density was increased by 23% in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of adult rats treated with 100 microg/kg HU210 for 4 days compared to vehicle treated controls. The same treatment increased mRNA expression by 27% and by 14% in the CA1 region and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus respectively. 5HT1A receptor density was increased by 22% in the CA1 of adult animals treated with 50 microg HU210, by 26% in the dentate gurus of adult rats treated with 100 microg for 14 days. By contrast, 5HT1A receptor density or mRNA expression was not affected in the brain of adolescent animals in any of the brain regions examined. These results suggest that cannabinoid treatment has differential effects on serotonin-related neurochemistry in adolescent compared to adult rats. The effects in the adult brain may compromise hippocampal function and could account for the cognitive deficits seen in habitual heavy cannabis users. PMID:20438810

  13. Relationship between AQP4 expression and structural damage to the blood-brain barrier at early stages of traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; LEI Xiao-yan; HU Hui; HE Zhan-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Although some studies have reported that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays an important role in the brain edema after traumatic brain injury (TBI),little is known about the AQP4 expression in the early stage of TBI,or about the correlation between the structural damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and angioedema.The aim of this project was to investigate the relationship between AQP4 expression and damage to the BBB at early stages of TBI.Methods One hundred and twenty healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into two greups:sham operation group (SO) and TBI group.The TBI group was divided into five sub-groups according to the different time intervals:1,3,6,12,and 24 hours.The brains of the animals were taken out at different time points after TBI to measure brain water content.The cerebral edema and BBB changes in structure were examined with an optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM),and the IgG content and AQP4 protein expression in traumatic brain tissue were determined by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.The data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0statistical software.Results In the SO greup,tissue was negative for IgG,and there were no abnormalities in brain water content or AQP4 expression.In the TBI group,brain water content significantly increased at 6 hours and peaked at 24 hours following injury.IgG expression significantly increased from 1 to 6 hours following injury,and remained at a high level at 24 hours.Pathological observation revealed BBB damage at 1 hour following injury.Angioedema appeared at 1 hour,was gradually aggravated,and became obvious at 6 hours.Intracellular edema occurred at 3 hours,with the presence of large glial cell bodies and mitochondrial swelling.These phenomena were aggravated with time and became obvious at 12 hours.In addition,microglial proliferation was visible at 24 hours.AQP4 protein expression were reduced at 1 hour,lowest at 6 hours,and began to increase at 12 hours

  14. An autoradiographic map of (3H)diprenorphine binding in rat brain: effects of social interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (3H)Diprenorphine binding was analyzed autoradiographically in the brains of 33 day old rat pups. A photographic atlas of diprenorphine binding in the coronal plane is provided to highlight the dispersion of opioid receptor systems through the brain. To determine whether brain opioid release may be induced by social interactions, half the animals were sacrificed following a 30 min period of social interaction while the other half were sacrificed following 30 min of social isolation. Opioid binding was higher in isolate-tested animals than socially-tested ones, suggesting that social interaction may promote endogenous brain opioid release

  15. Stereological brain volume changes in post-weaned socially isolated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Steiniger-Brach, Björn;

    2010-01-01

    have evaluated the neuroanatomical changes in this animal model in comparison to changes seen in schizophrenia. In this study, we applied stereological volume estimates to evaluate the total brain, the ventricular system, and the pyramidal and granular cell layers of the hippocampus in male and female...... Lister Hooded rats isolated from postnatal day 25 for 15 weeks. We observed the expected gender differences in total brain volume with males having larger brains than females. Further, we found that isolated males had significantly smaller brains than group-housed controls and larger lateral ventricles...

  16. Brain trace element concentration of rats treated with the plant alkaloid, vincamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Abdel-Hasseb A

    2010-09-01

    Trace elements are essential for normal brain functions. Tiny amounts of these elements help in the formation of neurotransmitters and involved in the antioxidant defense and intracellular redox regulation and modulation of neural cells. Vincamine is a plant alkaloid used clinically as a peripheral vasodilator that increases cerebral blood flow and oxygen and glucose utilization by neural tissue to combat the effect of aging. Neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging characterized by a disturbance in trace element levels in the brain. The objective of this study was to determine the level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Selenium (Se), and chromium (Cr) in the brain of rats treated with vincamine. Vincamine was injected i.m. to rats at a dose of 15 mg/Kg bodyweight daily for 14 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, rats were killed, and brains were ashed and digested by concentrated acids and analyzed for trace elements concentrations by flame emission atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that Zn was the highest trace element in the brain of control rats (3.134 +/- 0.072 ppm) and Cr was the lowest (0.386 +/- 0.027 ppm). Vincamine administration significantly (p Vincamine administration resulted in approximately 50% reduction in brain Fe concentration which suggests its beneficial effect to prevent the oxidative stress of Fe in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. PMID:19902161

  17. Exploration and visualization of gene expression with neuroanatomy in the adult mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak Sayan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatially mapped large scale gene expression databases enable quantitative comparison of data measurements across genes, anatomy, and phenotype. In most ongoing efforts to study gene expression in the mammalian brain, significant resources are applied to the mapping and visualization of data. This paper describes the implementation and utility of Brain Explorer, a 3D visualization tool for studying in situ hybridization-based (ISH expression patterns in the Allen Brain Atlas, a genome-wide survey of 21,000 expression patterns in the C57BL6J adult mouse brain. Results Brain Explorer enables users to visualize gene expression data from the C57Bl/6J mouse brain in 3D at a resolution of 100 μm3, allowing co-display of several experiments as well as 179 reference neuro-anatomical structures. Brain Explorer also allows viewing of the original ISH images referenced from any point in a 3D data set. Anatomic and spatial homology searches can be performed from the application to find data sets with expression in specific structures and with similar expression patterns. This latter feature allows for anatomy independent queries and genome wide expression correlation studies. Conclusion These tools offer convenient access to detailed expression information in the adult mouse brain and the ability to perform data mining and visualization of gene expression and neuroanatomy in an integrated manner.

  18. Guipi decoction effects on brain somatostatin levels and receptor mRNA expression in rats with spleen deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huinan Qian; Le Wang; Libo Shen; Xueqin Hu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Somatostatin is abundant in the hypothalamus,cerebral cortex,limbic system,and mesencephalon.Somatostatin mRNA expression in the brain of rats with spleen deficiency is noticeably reduced,as well as attenuation of cognitive function. OBJECTIVE:To observe the interventional effect of Guipi decoction on somatostatin level and somatostatin receptor 1(SSTRI)mRNA expression in different encephalic regions of rats with spleen deficiency,and to compare the interventional effects of Guipi decoction,Chaihu Shugan powder,and Tianwang Buxin pellet. DESIGN:A randomized controlled observation. SETTING:Basic Medical College,Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS:Fifty adult Wistar male rats,of clean grade,weighing(160 ± 10)g,were provided by Beijing Weitong Lihua Laboratory Animal Technology Co.,Ltd.The protocol was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals.Somatostatin 1 polyclonal anti-rabbit antibody and SSTR1 in situ hybridization kit were provided by Department of Neuroanatomy,Shanghai Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.The drug for developing rat models of spleen deficiency was composed of Dahuang,Houpu and Zhishi,and prepared at 2:1:1.Guipi decoction,Chaihu Shugan powder,and Tianwang Buxin pellet recipes were made according to previous studies.METHODS:This study was performed at the Basic Medical College,Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from March 2002 to March 2005.The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups,with 10 rats in each group:normal,model,Guipi decoction,Chaihu Shugan powder,and Tianwang Buxin pelletgroups.Rat models of the latter 4 groups were developed by methods of purgation with bitter and cold nature drugs,improper diet,and overstrain.The rats received 7.5 g/kg of the drugs each morning and were fasted every other day,but were allowed free access to water at all times,The rats were forced to swim in 25℃ water until fatigued.Rats in the normal group

  19. Eph Receptor and Ephrin Signaling in Developing and Adult Brain of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ h...

  20. Neurobiological markers of exercise-related brain plasticity in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S; Alves, Heloisa; Szabo, Amanda; White, Siobhan M.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Mailey, Emily L; Olson, Erin A.; Gothe, Neha; Potter, Vicki V.; Martin, Stephen A.; Pence, Brandt D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined how a randomized one-year aerobic exercise program for healthy older adults would affect serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - putative markers of exercise-induced benefits on brain function. The study also examined whether (a) change in the concentration of these growth factors was associated with alterations in functional connectivity following exercise, ...

  1. Cranial irradiation induces bone marrow-derived microglia in adult mouse brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnatal hematopoietic progenitor cells do not contribute to microglial homeostasis in adult mice under normal conditions. However, previous studies using whole-body irradiation and bone marrow (BM) transplantation models have shown that adult BM cells migrate into the brain tissue and differentiate into microglia (BM-derived microglia; BMDM). Here, we investigated whether cranial irradiation alone was sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse brain. Transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter (MSCV-GFP mice) were used. MSCV-GFP mice express GFP in BM cells but not in the resident microglia in the brain. Therefore, these mice allowed us to detect BM-derived cells in the brain without BM reconstitution. MSCV-GFP mice, aged 8-12 weeks, received 13.0 Gy irradiation only to the cranium, and BM-derived cells in the brain were quantified at 3 and 8 weeks after irradiation. No BM-derived cells were detected in control non-irradiated MSCV-GFP mouse brains, but numerous GFP-labeled BM-derived cells were present in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex of the irradiated MSCV-GFP mice. These BM-derived cells were positive for Iba1, a marker for microglia, indicating that GFP-positive BM-derived cells were microglial in nature. The population of BMDM was significantly greater at 8 weeks post-irradiation than at 3 weeks post-irradiation in all brain regions examined. Our results clearly show that cranial irradiation alone is sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse. (author)

  2. Acute neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ling; Wang, Yan-Gang; Fei, Zhou; Zhong, Jun; Wei, Li-Zhou; Long, Qian-Fa; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2012-05-10

    Traumatic brain injury commonly has a result of a short window of opportunity between the period of initial brain injury and secondary brain injury, which provides protective strategies and can reduce damages of brain due to secondary brain injury. Previous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. However, the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neural damage after traumatic brain injury have not been reported yet. The present study aims to investigate effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the model of lateral fluid percussion injury, which were placed in non-electromagnetic fields and 15 Hz (Hertz) electromagnetic fields with intensities of 1 G (Gauss), 3 G and 5 G. At various time points (ranging from 0.5 to 30 h) after lateral fluid percussion injury, rats were treated with kainic acid (administered by intraperitoneal injection) to induce apoptosis in hippocampal cells. The results were as follows: (1) the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was dramatically decreased during the neuroprotective time window. (2) The kainic acid-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields. (3) Electromagnetic fields exposure shortened the escape time in water maze test. (4) Electromagnetic fields exposure accelerated the recovery of the blood-brain barrier after brain injury. These findings revealed that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields significantly prolong the window of opportunity for brain protection and enhance the intensity of neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury. PMID:22484017

  3. Strain-related differences after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Wendy Murdock; Rolfe, Andrew; Register, David; Levasseur, Joseph E; Churn, Severn B; Sun, Dong

    2010-07-01

    The present study directly compares the effects of experimental brain injury in two commonly used rat strains: Fisher 344 and Sprague-Dawley. We previously found that Fisher rats have a higher mortality rate and more frequent seizure attacks at the same injury level than Sprague-Dawley rats. Although strain differences in rats are commonly accepted as contributing to variability among studies, there is a paucity of literature addressing strain influence in experimental neurotrauma. Therefore this study compares outcome measures in two rat strains following lateral fluid percussion injury. Fisher 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats were monitored for changes in physiological measurements, intracranial pressure, and electroencephalographic activity. We further analyzed neuronal degeneration and cell death in the injured brain using Fluoro-Jade-B (FJB) histochemistry and caspase-3 immunostaining. Behavioral studies using the beam walk and Morris water maze were conducted to characterize strain differences in both motor and cognitive functional recovery following injury. We found that Fisher rats had significantly higher intracranial pressure, prolonged seizure activity, increased FJB-positive staining in the injured cortex and thalamus, and increased caspase-3 expression than Sprague-Dawley rats. On average, Fisher rats displayed a greater amount of total recording time in seizure activity and had longer ictal durations. The Fisher rats also had increased motor deficits, correlating with the above results. In spite of these results, Fisher rats performed better on cognitive tests following injury. The results demonstrate that different rat strains respond to injury differently, and thus in preclinical neurotrauma studies strain influence is an important consideration when evaluating outcomes. PMID:20392137

  4. Bi-parental care contributes to sexually dimorphic neural cell genesis in the adult mammalian brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria K Mak

    Full Text Available Early life events can modulate brain development to produce persistent physiological and behavioural phenotypes that are transmissible across generations. However, whether neural precursor cells are altered by early life events, to produce persistent and transmissible behavioural changes, is unknown. Here, we show that bi-parental care, in early life, increases neural cell genesis in the adult rodent brain in a sexually dimorphic manner. Bi-parentally raised male mice display enhanced adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis, which improves hippocampal neurogenesis-dependent learning and memory. Female mice display enhanced adult white matter oligodendrocyte production, which increases proficiency in bilateral motor coordination and preference for social investigation. Surprisingly, single parent-raised male and female offspring, whose fathers and mothers received bi-parental care, respectively, display a similar enhancement in adult neural cell genesis and phenotypic behaviour. Therefore, neural plasticity and behavioural effects due to bi-parental care persist throughout life and are transmitted to the next generation.

  5. Effect of borneol and electroacupuncture on the distribution of hyperforin in the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yu; Ming Ruan; Yong Sun; Xiaobing Cui; Yun Yu; Lingling Wang; Taihui Fang

    2011-01-01

    Hyperforin is an antidepressant drug that has unstable therapeutic effects, due to its poor ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Borneol and electroacupuncture have both been found to increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. As such, the current study examined the distribution of hyperforin in the rat brain, and the effects on the brain distribution of hyperforin of borneol alone (orally administered), and borneol combined with electroacupuncture treatment. High-performance liquid chromatography technology and pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that treatment with borneol alone (300, 600 mg/kg) increased peak concentration and the area under the curve for hyperforin in the brain. In addition, the bioavailability of hyperforin in rat brain increased by 42.7%. However, increasing the dose of borneol dose did not appear to increase the distribution of hyperforin in the brain. Importantly, applying electroacupuncture at Baihui (GV 20) or Yamen (GV 15) appeared to enhance the brain-delivery effects of borneol, although this effect was weak. Overall, our results indicated that borneol alone or combined with electroacupuncture can provide promising strategies for brain-targeted delivery in central nervous system therapy.

  6. Experimental and numerical study on the mechanical behavior of rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Yousefi, H; Haghi, A Motevalli; Sadati, Sja

    2014-02-01

    Brain tissue is a very soft tissue in which the mechanical properties depend on the loading direction. While few studies have characterized these biomechanical properties, it is worth knowing that accurate characterization of the mechanical properties of brain tissue at different loading directions is a key asset for neuronavigation and surgery simulation through haptic devices. In this study, the hyperelastic mechanical properties of rat brain tissue were measured experimentally and computationally. Prepared cylindrical samples were excised from the parietal lobes of rats' brains and experimentally tested by a tensile testing machine. The effects of loading direction on the mechanical properties of brain tissue were measured by applying load on both longitudinal and circumferential directions. The general prediction ability of the proposed hyperelastic model was verified using finite element (FE) simulations of brain tissue tension experiments. The uniaxial experimental results compared well with those predicted by the FE models. The results revealed the influence of loading direction on the mechanical properties of brain tissue. The Ogden hyperelastic material model was suitably represented by the non-linear behavior of the brain tissue, which can be used in future biomechanical simulations. The hyperelastic properties of brain tissue provided here have interest to the medical research community as there are several applications where accurate characterization of these properties are crucial for an accurate outcome, such as neurosurgery, robotic surgery, haptic device design or car manufacturing to evaluate possible trauma due to an impact. PMID:24519528

  7. Zingiber Officinale Alters 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The spice Zingiber officinale or ginger possesses antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this traditional herbal medicine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA induced neurotoxicity have not yet been studied. The present study considers the effects of Zingiber officinale on MDMA-induced spatial memory impairment and apoptosis in the hippocampus of male rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 21 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g were classified into three groups (control, MDMA, and MDMA plus ginger. The groups were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg MDMA, 10 mg/kg MDMA plus 100 mg/kg ginger extract, or 1 cc/kg normal saline as the control solution for one week (n=7 per group. Learning memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM after the last administration. Finally, the brains were removed to study the cell number in the cornu ammonis (CA1 hippocampus by light microscope, Bcl-2 by immunoblotting, and Bax expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16 software and a one-way ANOVA test.Results: Escape latency and traveled distances decreased significantly in the MDMA plus ginger group relative to the MDMA group (p<0.001. Cell number increased in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax were observed in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to an improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.

  8. In Vivo Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Rodent Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain have a significant level of neurogenesis plasticity. In vivo monitoring of adult endogenous NSCs would be of great benefit to the understanding of the neurogenesis plasticity under normal and pathological conditions. Here we show the feasibility of in vivo targeted MR imaging of endogenous NSCs in adult mouse brain by intraventricular delivery of monoclonal anti-CD15 antibody conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. After intraventricular administration of these nanoparticles, the subpopulation of NSCs in the anterior subventricular zone and the beginning of the rostral migratory stream could be in situ labeled and were in vivo visualized with 7.0-T MR imaging during a period from 1 day to 7 days after the injection. Histology confirmed that the injected targeted nanoparticles were specifically bound to CD15 positive cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix. Our results suggest that in vivo targeted MR imaging of endogenous neural stem cells in adult rodent brain could be achieved by using anti-CD15-SPIONs as the molecular probe; and this targeting imaging strategy has the advantage of a rapid in vivo monitoring of the subpopulation of endogenous NSCs in adult brains.

  9. Using network science to evaluate exercise-associated brain changes in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Burdette

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature has shown that exercise is beneficial for cognitive function in older adults and that aerobic fitness is associated with increased hippocampal tissue and blood volumes. The current study used novel network science methods to shed light on the neurophysiological implications of exercise-induced changes in the hippocampus of older adults. Participants represented a volunteer subgroup of older adults that were part of either the exercise training (ET or healthy aging educational control (HAC treatment arms from the Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P trial. Following the four-month interventions, MRI measures of resting brain blood flow and connectivity were performed. The ET group’s hippocampal CBF exhibited statistically significant increases compared to the HAC group. Novel whole-brain network connectivity analyses showed greater connectivity in the hippocampi of the ET participants compared to HAC. Furthermore, the hippocampus was consistently shown to be within the same network neighborhood (module as the anterior cingulate cortex only within the ET group. Thus, within the ET group, the hippocampus and anterior cingulate were highly interconnected and localized to the same network neighborhood. This project shows the power of network science to investigate potential mechanisms for exercise-induced benefits to the brain in older adults. We show a link between neurological network features and cerebral blood flow, and it is possible that this alteration of functional brain networks may lead to the known improvement in cognitive function among older adults following exercise.

  10. Imaging of aromatase distribution in rat and rhesus monkey brains with [{sup 11}C]vorozole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kayo [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)]. E-mail: kayo.takahashi@uppsala.imanet.se; Bergstroem, Mats [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Fraendberg, Pernilla [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Vesstroem, Eva-Lotta [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Watanabe, Yasuyoshi [Department of Physiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Langstroem, Bengt [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens and may play a role in mood and mental status. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that brain aromatase distribution could be evaluated with a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [{sup 11}C]vorozole. Vorozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that reversibly binds to the heme domain of aromatase. In vitro experiments in rat brain, using frozen section autoradiography, illustrated specific binding in the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and the preoptic area (POA) of male rat brain. Specific binding in female rat brain was found in the MA and the BST; however, the signals were lower than those of males. The K {sub d} of [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding to aromatase in MA was determined to be 0.60{+-}0.06 nM by Scatchard plot analysis using homogenates. An in vivo PET study in female rhesus monkey brain demonstrated the uptake of [{sup 11}C]vorozole in the amygdala, where the uptake was blocked by the presence of excess amounts of unlabeled vorozole. Thus, this tracer has a high affinity for brain aromatase and could have a potential for in vivo aromatase imaging. This technique might enable the investigation of human brain aromatase in healthy and diseased persons.

  11. Melanocortin MC4 receptor agonists alleviate brain damage in abdominal compartment syndrome in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Hong-Guang; Zhao, Zi-Ai; Chang, Ming-Tao; Li, Yang; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lian-Yang

    2015-02-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is accompanied by high morbidity and mortality in surgical departments and ICUs. However, its specific pathophysiology is unclear. IAH not only leads to intra-abdominal tissue damage but also causes dysfunction in distal organs, such as the brain. In this study, we explore the protective effects of melanocortin 4 receptor agonists in IAH-induced brain injury. The IAH rat models were induced by hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (with the mean arterial pressure (MAP) maintained at 30 mm Hg for 90 min followed by the reinfusion of the withdrawn blood with lactated Ringer's solution). Then, air was injected into the peritoneal cavity of the rats to maintain an intra-abdominal pressure of 20 mm Hg for 4 h. The effects of the melanocortin 4 receptor agonist RO27-3225 in alleviating the rats' IAH brain injuries were observed, which indicated that RO27-3225 could reduce brain edema, the expressions of the IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory cytokines, the blood-brain barrier's permeability and the aquaporin4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) levels. Moreover, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist chlorisondamine and the selective melanocortin 4 receptor antagonist HS024 can negate the protective effects of the RO27-3225. The MC4R agonist can effectively reduce the intracerebral proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and alleviate the brain injury caused by blood-brain barrier damage following IAH. PMID:25616531

  12. Imaging of aromatase distribution in rat and rhesus monkey brains with [11C]vorozole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens and may play a role in mood and mental status. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that brain aromatase distribution could be evaluated with a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [11C]vorozole. Vorozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that reversibly binds to the heme domain of aromatase. In vitro experiments in rat brain, using frozen section autoradiography, illustrated specific binding in the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and the preoptic area (POA) of male rat brain. Specific binding in female rat brain was found in the MA and the BST; however, the signals were lower than those of males. The K d of [11C]vorozole binding to aromatase in MA was determined to be 0.60±0.06 nM by Scatchard plot analysis using homogenates. An in vivo PET study in female rhesus monkey brain demonstrated the uptake of [11C]vorozole in the amygdala, where the uptake was blocked by the presence of excess amounts of unlabeled vorozole. Thus, this tracer has a high affinity for brain aromatase and could have a potential for in vivo aromatase imaging. This technique might enable the investigation of human brain aromatase in healthy and diseased persons

  13. Brain pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir in rats with orthotopic BT4C glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynther, Mikko; Kääriäinen, Tiina M; Hakkarainen, Jenni J; Jalkanen, Aaro J; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Lehtonen, Marko; Peura, Lauri; Kurkipuro, Jere; Samaranayake, Haritha; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Rautio, Jarkko; Forsberg, Markus M

    2015-01-01

    Ganciclovir (GCV) is an essential part of the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene therapy of malignant gliomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain pharmacokinetics and tumor uptake of GCV in the BT4C rat glioma model. GCV's brain and tumor uptakes were investigated by in vivo microdialysis in rats with orthotopic BT4C glioma. In addition, the ability of GCV to cross the blood-brain barrier and tumor vasculature was assessed with in situ rat brain perfusion. Finally, the extent to which GCV could permeate across the BT4C glioma cell membrane was assessed in vitro. The areas under the concentration curve of unbound GCV in blood, brain extracellular fluid (ECF), and tumor ECF were 6157, 1658, and 4834 μM⋅min, respectively. The apparent maximum unbound concentrations achieved within 60 minutes were 46.9, 11.8, and 25.8 μM in blood, brain, and tumor, respectively. The unbound GCV concentrations in brain and tumor after in situ rat brain perfusion were 0.41 and 1.39 nmol/g, respectively. The highly polar GCV likely crosses the fenestrated tumor vasculature by paracellular diffusion. Thus, GCV is able to reach the extracellular space around the tumor at higher concentrations than that in healthy brain. However, GCV uptake into BT4C cells at 100 μM was only 2.1 pmol/mg of protein, and no active transporter-mediated disposition of GCV could be detected in vitro. In conclusion, the limited efficacy of HSV-tk/GCV gene therapy may be due to the poor cellular uptake and rapid elimination of GCV. PMID:25349125

  14. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ortiz-Avila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm, besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  15. Acute low-intensity microwave exposure increases DNA single-strand breaks in rat brain cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.; Singh, N.P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Levels of DNA single-strand break were assayed in brain cells from rats acutely exposed to low-intensity 2,450 MHz microwaves using an alkaline microgel electrophoresis method. Immediately after 2 h of exposure to pulsed (2 {mu}s width, 500 pulses/s) microwaves, no significant effect was observed, whereas a dose rate-dependent [0.6 and 1.2 W/kg whole body specific absorption rate (SAR)] increase in DNA single-strand breaks was found in brain cells of rats at 4 h postexposure. Furthermore, in rats exposed for 2 h to continuous-wave 2,450 MHz microwaves (SAR 1.2 W/kg), increases in brain cell DNA single-strand breaks were observed immediately as well as at 4 h postexposure.

  16. Effect of pineapple peel extract on total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erukainure OL; Ajiboye JA; Adejobi RO; Okafor OY; Kosoko SB; Owolabi FO

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to attenuate alcohol-induced changes in total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues. Methods:Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20%w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Brain tissues were assayed for total phospholipid (TP) content and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results:Administration of alcohol significantly caused a reduction in TP content. Treatment with pineapple peel extract significantly increased the TP content. Significant high levels of MDA was observed in alcohol-fed rats, treatment with pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA levels. Conclusions:Results obtained from this study indicates that pineapple peel extract protects against alcohol-induced changes in total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues.

  17. Features of microelement maintenance in rat's brain tissues at experimental hypoxia of different degree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasova I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of microelement maintenance (iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and cobalt, conditionally toxic chrome and toxic lead were studied in newborn rat's brain tissues at experimental hypoxia of different degree. Tissues of newborn rat’s brain are characterized by high level of saturation and considerable dynamism of microelement maintenance. Till the end of the first week of life, the maintenance of these microelements decreases in 1,5 – 10 times. The level of the toxic lead decreases more than in 2,5 times. The hypoxia of easy degree of newborn rats invokes reduction cobalt level 3 times, iron level 2 times, manganese – on 27,65 %, chrome – on 25,84%, zinc – on 16,43%. It means that considerable deficiency and disbalance of microelement maintenance rat's brain tissues. The heavy degree of hypoxia is characterized by further increase of deficiency and disbalance of microelements.

  18. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  19. Effect of mealing on plasma and brain amino acid, and brain monoamine in rats after oral aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, K; Mimura, T; Takasaki, Y; Ichimura, M

    1986-01-01

    Aspartame (APM; L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) was investigated for its ability to alter brain amino acids and monoamines in overnight fasted rats allowed to consume commercial diets for 60 minutes. In addition, the effects of mealing on the changes in plasma and brain amino acids and brain monoamines induced by glucose and/or insulin, and known pharmacologically active compounds, were studied. The consumption of the commercial chow largely prevented changes in blood glucose and amino acids, and brain amino acids and the monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin that might be expected to occur following glucose with or without insulin. Feeding failed to prevent changes in the above parameters when 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, p-chlorophenylalanine and reserpine were administered. The oral administration of up to 250 mg/kg BW APM with water or glucose followed by free feeding failed to alter brain monoamines. These studies demonstrate the potent ability of food to normalize biochemical parameters in blood and brain that otherwise might occur, and clearly show the lack of effect on brain monoamine levels of abuse doses of APM when administered with food. PMID:2940610

  20. Brain Swelling and Mannitol Therapy in Adult Cerebral Malaria: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj Kanti; Patnaik, Rajyabardhan; Dutt, Anil Kumar; Pradhan, Sudhir; Das, Bhabanisankar; Patnaik, Jayakrushna; Mohanty, Akshaya Kumar; Lee, Sue J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background.  Coma is a frequent presentation of severe malaria in adults and an important cause of death. The role of cerebral swelling in its pathogenesis, and the possible benefit of intravenous mannitol therapy to treat this, is uncertain. Methods.  A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the cerebrum and lumbar puncture with measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure were performed on admission for 126 consecutive adult Indian patients with cerebral malaria. Patients with brain swellin...