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Sample records for adult male drosophila

  1. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eLebreton; Peter eWitzgall; Marie eOlsson; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies ...

  2. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eLebreton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males.

  3. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  4. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  5. Adult Neurogenesis in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Fernández-Hernández; Christa Rhiner; Eduardo Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been linked to several cognitive functions and neurological disorders. Description of adult neurogenesis in a model organism like Drosophila could facilitate the genetic study of normal and abnormal neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, formation of new neurons has not been detected in adult fly brains and hence has been thought to be absent in Drosophila. Here, we used an improved lineage-labeling method to show that, surprisingly, adult neurogenesis occurs in the m...

  6. Gene structure of Drosophila diaphorase-1: diversity of transcripts in adult males and females, in different organs and at different stages of development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavlina M. Ivanova; Boris H. Dunkov; Kiril H. Ralchev

    2008-08-01

    The gene EG:22E5.5 or CG4199 (accession number O77266, Q9W529) from Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) was found using the partial amino acid sequences of three tryptic peptides obtained from purified Drosophila virilis diaphorase-1. This gene is located on the X chromosome at position 2C9–2C10. The structure of the gene reveals three exons and two long introns. Using BDGP, we found six transcripts in this gene. The difference between these transcripts is in their 5′ ends; the 3′ ends of the six transcripts are identical. Thirty-four ESTs from different cDNA libraries were found, most of them from Schneider L2 cell culture (SH) cDNA library. The transcripts are represented at very low level in the cells of different organs and at different stages of Drosophila development. Using RT-PCR, we obtained five of these transcripts in cDNA samples from female adult flies. However, we could not find any of them in cDNA samples from male adult flies. Moreover, we obtained only the third transcript (CG4199-RC) in the sample of testis from adult flies and the fourth transcript (CG4199-RD) in an embryo sample. None of the other five transcripts were found in the samples of different organs and in the samples obtained at different stages of Drosophila development.

  7. Higher dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On May 21 2008, Journal of Neuroscience published an online paper from the Institute of Neuroscience, the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, entitled "Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila." This work was done by Mr. LIU Tong, a doctoral candidate, and colleagues under the supervision of Dr. GUO Aike, and in collaboration with Dr. Jean-Francois Ferveur from France.

  8. Adult sex ratio effects on male survivorship of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae Efeito da razão sexual de adultos na curva de sobrevivência de machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral biology has a central role in evolutionary biology mainly because the antagonistic relations that occur in the sexual reproduction. One involves the effect of reproduction on the future life expectation. In this scenario, changes in male operational sex ratio could lead to an increase in mortality due to costs associated with excessive courtship and mating displays. Thus, this work experimentally altered the male sex ratio of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, to determine its impact on mortality. The results indicated that mortality increases as the sex ratio changes, including modifications in the survivorship curve type and in the curve concavity, measured by entropy.A biologia comportamental tem um papel central na biologia evolutiva principalmente pelas relações antagônicas que ocorrem na reprodução sexuada. Uma destas relações envolve o efeito da reprodução sobre a expectativa de vida futura. Neste cenário, alterações na razão sexual operacional de machos podem levar a um aumento na mortalidade por causa dos custos associados com o excesso de displays de corte e cópulas. Neste sentido este trabalho alterou experimentalmente a razão sexual em machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, para determinar os efeitos em termos de mortalidade. Os resultados indicam que a mortalidade aumenta a medida que a razão sexual se enviesa incluindo alterações no tipo de curva de sobrevivência e da concavidade da curva, medida pela entropia.

  9. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: ► The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. ► Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). ► EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. ► Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  10. Sensory integration regulating male courtship behavior in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    D Krstic; Boll, W; M. Noll

    2009-01-01

    The courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster serves as an excellent model system to study how complex innate behaviors are controlled by the nervous system. To understand how the underlying neural network controls this behavior, it is not sufficient to unravel its architecture, but also crucial to decipher its logic. By systematic analysis of how variations in sensory inputs alter the courtship behavior of a naïve male in the single-choice courtship paradigm, we derive a model describing...

  11. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A Edward

    Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  12. EGFR signaling regulates the proliferation of Drosophila adult midgut progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Huaqi; Edgar, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In holometabolous insects, the adult appendages and internal organs form anew from larval progenitor cells during metamorphosis. As described here, the adult Drosophila midgut, including intestinal stem cells (ISCs), develops from adult midgut progenitor cells (AMPs) that proliferate during larval development in two phases. Dividing AMPs first disperse, but later proliferate within distinct islands, forming large cell clusters that eventually fuse during metamorphosis ...

  13. Developmental Environment Effects on Sexual Selection in Male and Female Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Juliano; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes-high (low) densities for small (large) adults-and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities. Overall, large adult females (those reared at low larval density) had more matings, more mates and produced more offspring than small females (those reared at high larval density). The number of offspring produced by females was positively associated with their number of mates (i.e. there was a positive female Bateman gradient) in social groups where female size was experimentally varied, likely due to the covariance between female productivity and mating rate. For males, we found evidence that the larval environment affected the relative importance of sexual selection via mate number (Bateman gradients), mate productivity, paternity share, and their covariances. Mate number and mate productivity were significantly reduced for small males in social environments where males were of mixed sizes, versus social environments where all males were small, suggesting that social heterogeneity altered selection on this subset of males. Males are commonly assumed to benefit from mating with large females, but in contrast to expectations we found that in groups where both the male and female size varied, males did not gain more offspring per mating with large females. Collectively, our results indicate sex-specific effects of the developmental environment on the operation of sexual selection, via both the phenotype of individuals, and the phenotype of their competitors and mates. PMID:27167120

  14. Sensory integration regulating male courtship behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Krstic

    Full Text Available The courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster serves as an excellent model system to study how complex innate behaviors are controlled by the nervous system. To understand how the underlying neural network controls this behavior, it is not sufficient to unravel its architecture, but also crucial to decipher its logic. By systematic analysis of how variations in sensory inputs alter the courtship behavior of a naïve male in the single-choice courtship paradigm, we derive a model describing the logic of the network that integrates the various sensory stimuli and elicits this complex innate behavior. This approach and the model derived from it distinguish (i between initiation and maintenance of courtship, (ii between courtship in daylight and in the dark, where the male uses a scanning strategy to retrieve the decamping female, and (iii between courtship towards receptive virgin females and mature males. The last distinction demonstrates that sexual orientation of the courting male, in the absence of discriminatory visual cues, depends on the integration of gustatory and behavioral feedback inputs, but not on olfactory signals from the courted animal. The model will complement studies on the connectivity and intrinsic properties of the neurons forming the circuitry that regulates male courtship behavior.

  15. Selectivity and Plasticity in a Sound-Evoked Male-Male Interaction in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Jeonghyeon Yoon; Eriko Matsuo; Daichi Yamada; Hiroshi Mizuno; Takako Morimoto; Hiroyoshi Miyakawa; Setsuo Kinoshita; Hiroshi Ishimoto; Azusa Kamikouchi

    2013-01-01

    During courtship, many animals, including insects, birds, fish, and mammals, utilize acoustic signals to transmit information about species identity. Although auditory communication is crucial across phyla, the neuronal and physiologic processes are poorly understood. Sound-evoked chaining behavior, a display of homosexual courtship behavior in Drosophila males, has long been used as an excellent model for analyzing auditory behavior responses, outcomes of acoustic perception and higher-order...

  16. Selectivity and plasticity in a sound-evoked male-male interaction in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Yoon

    Full Text Available During courtship, many animals, including insects, birds, fish, and mammals, utilize acoustic signals to transmit information about species identity. Although auditory communication is crucial across phyla, the neuronal and physiologic processes are poorly understood. Sound-evoked chaining behavior, a display of homosexual courtship behavior in Drosophila males, has long been used as an excellent model for analyzing auditory behavior responses, outcomes of acoustic perception and higher-order brain functions. Here we developed a new method, termed ChaIN (Chain Index Numerator, in which we use a computer-based auto detection system for chaining behavior. The ChaIN system can systematically detect the chaining behavior induced by a series of modified courtship song playbacks. Two evolutionarily related Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans, exhibited dramatic selective increases in chaining behavior when exposed to specific auditory cues, suggesting that auditory discrimination processes are involved in the acceleration of chaining behavior. Prolonged monotonous pulse sounds containing courtship song components also induced high intense chaining behavior. Interestingly, the chaining behavior was gradually suppressed over time when song playback continued. This behavioral change is likely to be a plastic behavior and not a simple sensory adaptation or fatigue, because the suppression was released by applying a different pulse pattern. This behavioral plasticity is not a form of habituation because different modality stimuli did not recover the behavioral suppression. Intriguingly, this plastic behavior partially depended on the cAMP signaling pathway controlled by the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase gene that is important for learning and memory. Taken together, this study demonstrates the selectivity and behavioral kinetics of the sound-induced interacting behavior of Drosophila males, and provides a basis for the

  17. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaqi, E-mail: Huaqi.Jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu [Department of Developmental Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX, 75235 (United States); Edgar, Bruce A., E-mail: b.edgar@dkfz.de [ZMBH-DKFZ Alliance, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave. N., Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  18. Modification of radiation-induced genetic damage in Drosophila melanogaster male germ cells by butylated hydroxytoluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation were studied in post-meiotic male cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Prior to submitting Samarkand males to 2 krad of X-rays, BHT was administered (a) with the food (0.2 per cent final concentration) from emergence of the imago for 7 days or (b) by intra-abdominal injection (0.05 per cent) to 7-day-old adults. Dominant lethality (embryonic and total), II-III translocations and sex-linked recessive lethals were recorded. The only effect of BHT observed was a decrease in the frequency of recessive lethals induced, detected in early spermatids. Since oxygen plays an important role in the high radiosensitivity of these cells, it is suggested that the sparing action of BHT was due to its antioxidative and radical scavenging properties. (U.K.)

  19. Hybrid sterility and evolution in Hawaiian Drosophila: differential gene and allele-specific expression analysis of backcross males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, E; Kang, L; Michalak, K; Michalak, P; Price, D K

    2016-08-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila are an iconic example of sequential colonization, adaptive radiation and speciation on islands. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of closely related species pairs that exhibit incomplete reproductive isolation can provide insights into the mechanisms of speciation. Drosophila silvestris from Hawai'i Island and Drosophila planitibia from Maui are two closely related allopatric Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila that produce sterile F1 males but fertile F1 females, a pattern consistent with Haldane's rule. Backcrossing F1 hybrid females between these two species to parental species gives rise to recombinant males with three distinct sperm phenotypes despite a similar genomic background: motile sperm, no sperm (sterile), and immotile sperm. We found that these three reproductive morphologies of backcross hybrid males produce divergent gene expression profiles in testes, as measured with RNA sequencing. There were a total of 71 genes significantly differentially expressed between backcross males with no sperm compared with those backcross males with motile sperm and immotile sperm, but no significant differential gene expression between backcross males with motile sperm and backcross males with immotile sperm. All of these genes were underexpressed in males with no sperm, including a number of genes with previously known activities in adult testis. An allele-specific expression analysis showed overwhelmingly more cis-divergent than trans-divergent genes, with no significant difference in the ratio of cis- and trans-divergent genes among the sperm phenotypes. Overall, the results indicate that the regulation of gene expression involved in sperm production likely diverged relatively rapidly between these two closely related species. PMID:27220308

  20. Effects of the isoflavone prunetin on gut health and stress response in male Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Piegholdt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Asian diet is rich in fruits, vegetables and soy, the latter representing a significant source of dietary isoflavones. The isoflavone prunetin was recently identified to improve intestinal epithelial barrier function in vitro and to ameliorate general survival and overall health state in vivo in male Drosophila melanogaster. However, the prunetin-mediated health benefits in the fruit fly were ascertained under standard living conditions. As the loss of intestinal integrity is closely related to a reduction in Drosophila lifespan and barrier dysfunction increases with age, effects on prunetin-modulated gut health under oxidative or pathogenic stress provocation remain to be elucidated. In this study, male adult D. melanogaster were administered either a prunetin or a control diet. Gut-derived junction protein expression and pathogen-induced antimicrobial peptide expressions as well as the stem cell proliferation in the gut were evaluated. Furthermore, survival following exposure to hydrogen peroxide was assessed. Prunetin ingestion did not attenuate bacterial infection and did not protect flies from oxidative stress. Intestinal mRNA expression levels of adherence and septate junction proteins as well as the stem cell proliferation were not altered by prunetin intake. Prunetin does not improve the resistance of flies against severe injuring, exogenous stress and therefore seems to function in a preventive rather than a therapeutic approach since the health-promoting benefits appear to be exclusively restricted to normal living circumstances.

  1. Effects of the isoflavone prunetin on gut health and stress response in male Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegholdt, Stefanie; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-08-01

    The traditional Asian diet is rich in fruits, vegetables and soy, the latter representing a significant source of dietary isoflavones. The isoflavone prunetin was recently identified to improve intestinal epithelial barrier function in vitro and to ameliorate general survival and overall health state in vivo in male Drosophila melanogaster. However, the prunetin-mediated health benefits in the fruit fly were ascertained under standard living conditions. As the loss of intestinal integrity is closely related to a reduction in Drosophila lifespan and barrier dysfunction increases with age, effects on prunetin-modulated gut health under oxidative or pathogenic stress provocation remain to be elucidated. In this study, male adult D. melanogaster were administered either a prunetin or a control diet. Gut-derived junction protein expression and pathogen-induced antimicrobial peptide expressions as well as the stem cell proliferation in the gut were evaluated. Furthermore, survival following exposure to hydrogen peroxide was assessed. Prunetin ingestion did not attenuate bacterial infection and did not protect flies from oxidative stress. Intestinal mRNA expression levels of adherence and septate junction proteins as well as the stem cell proliferation were not altered by prunetin intake. Prunetin does not improve the resistance of flies against severe injuring, exogenous stress and therefore seems to function in a preventive rather than a therapeutic approach since the health-promoting benefits appear to be exclusively restricted to normal living circumstances. PMID:26774080

  2. Female contact modulates male aggression via a sexually dimorphic GABAergic circuit in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Song, Yuanquan; Yang, Chung-Hui; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific male-male aggression, which is important for sexual selection, is regulated by environment, experience and internal states through largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. To understand the basic neural pathway underlying the modulation of this innate behavior, we established a behavioral assay in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated the relationship between sexual experience and aggression. In the presence of mating partners, adult male flies exhibited elevated levels of aggression, which was largely suppressed by prior exposure to females via a sexually dimorphic neural mechanism. The suppression involved the ability of male flies to detect females by contact chemosensation through the pheromone-sensing ion channel ppk29 and was mediated by male-specific GABAergic neurons acting on the GABAA receptor RDL in target cells. Silencing or activating this circuit led to dis-inhibition or elimination of sex-related aggression, respectively. We propose that the GABAergic inhibition represents a critical cellular mechanism that enables prior experience to modulate aggression. PMID:24241395

  3. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    OpenAIRE

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S.; Grewal, Savraj S.

    2015-01-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expre...

  4. Transcriptional signature of an adult brain tumor in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loop Thomas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations and gene expression alterations in brain tumors have been extensively investigated, however the causes of brain tumorigenesis are largely unknown. Animal models are necessary to correlate altered transcriptional activity and tumor phenotype and to better understand how these alterations cause malignant growth. In order to gain insights into the in vivo transcriptional activity associated with a brain tumor, we carried out genome-wide microarray expression analyses of an adult brain tumor in Drosophila caused by homozygous mutation in the tumor suppressor gene brain tumor (brat. Results Two independent genome-wide gene expression studies using two different oligonucleotide microarray platforms were used to compare the transcriptome of adult wildtype flies with mutants displaying the adult bratk06028 mutant brain tumor. Cross-validation and stringent statistical criteria identified a core transcriptional signature of bratk06028 neoplastic tissue. We find significant expression level changes for 321 annotated genes associated with the adult neoplastic bratk06028 tissue indicating elevated and aberrant metabolic and cell cycle activity, upregulation of the basal transcriptional machinery, as well as elevated and aberrant activity of ribosome synthesis and translation control. One fifth of these genes show homology to known mammalian genes involved in cancer formation. Conclusion Our results identify for the first time the genome-wide transcriptional alterations associated with an adult brain tumor in Drosophila and reveal insights into the possible mechanisms of tumor formation caused by homozygous mutation of the translational repressor brat.

  5. Differential roles of HOW in male and female Drosophila germline differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C Monk

    Full Text Available The adult gonads in both male and female Drosophila melanogaster produce gametes that originate from a regenerative pool of germline stem cells (GSCs. The differentiation programme that produces gametes must be co-ordinated with GSC maintenance and proliferation in order to regulate tissue regeneration. The HOW RNA-binding protein has been shown to maintain mitotic progression of male GSCs and their daughters by maintenance of Cyclin B expression as well as suppressing accumulation of the differentiation factor Bam. Loss of HOW function in the male germline results in loss of GSCs due to a delay in G2 and subsequent apoptosis. Here we show that female how mutant GSCs do not have any cell cycle defects although HOW continues to bind bam mRNA and suppress Bam expression. The role of HOW in suppressing germ cell Bam expression appears to be conserved between sexes, leading to different cellular outcomes in how mutants due to the different functions of Bam. In addition the role in maintaining Cyclin B expression has not been conserved so female how GSCs differentiate rather than arrest.

  6. Little qualitative RNA misexpression in sterile male F1 hybrids of Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohamed AF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the genetics of hybrid sterility has been the subject of evolutionary studies for over sixty years, no one has shown the reason(s why alleles that operate normally within species fail to function in another genetic background. Several lines of evidence suggest that failures in normal gene transcription contribute to hybrid dysfunctions, but genome-wide studies of gene expression in pure-species and hybrids have not been undertaken. Here, we study genome-wide patterns of expression in Drosophila pseudoobscura, D. persimilis, and their sterile F1 hybrid males using differential display. Results Over five thousand amplifications were analyzed, and 3312 were present in amplifications from both of the pure species. Of these, 28 (0.5% were not present in amplifications from adult F1 hybrid males. Using product-specific primers, we were able to confirm one of nine of the transcripts putatively misexpressed in hybrids. This transcript was shown to be male-specific, but without detectable homology to D. melanogaster sequence. Conclusion We tentatively conclude that hybrid sterility can evolve without widespread, qualitative misexpression of transcripts in species hybrids. We suggest that, if more misexpression exists in sterile hybrids, it is likely to be quantitative, tissue-specific, and/ or limited to earlier developmental stages. Although several caveats apply, this study was a first attempt to determine the mechanistic basis of hybrid sterility, and one potential candidate gene has been identified for further study.

  7. Pleiotropic actions of the male pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Ejima, Aki

    2015-01-01

    The male-specific lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) has multiple functions in intra-species communication in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA in a male suppresses courtship motivation of other males and averts male–male courtship. Meanwhile, aggression behaviors between males are promoted by a high amount of cVA caused by increased densities of male flies. cVA also works as a modifier of courtship memory, which is suppressed courtship motivation driven by previous unsuccessful cou...

  8. Comparison of the Attraction Index of Male and Female Drosophila. Melanogaster to Varying Odorant Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the differences if any, in the olfactory discrematory ability of wild type drosophila and mutated Or83b type and also if these differences exists between male and females of both species. Insect and mammalian olfactory systems are strikingly similar. Therefore, Drosophila can be used as a simple model for olfaction. The olfactory system has evolved the capacity to recognize and discriminate an inordinate number of chemically distinct odors that signal the presence of food, predators, or mating partners. Most organisms including humans rely on their olfactory system to detect and analyze olfactory cues in the environment, cues that are subsequently utilized in the context of behavior. Several works have been done on the olfactory system of the insect drosophila, attraction of various strain of drosophila to different odors but no work has been done to investigate sexual differences in this attraction to odorants. In this research we try investigating differences in the sensitivity of the olfactory receptors of male and female drosophila by measuring their attraction index to odors (yeast. O83b mutants and ORR wild type flies were used. By behavioral analysis, using the attraction index as a measure of sensitivity of the olfactory receptors, we were able to show that the female flies have a higher attraction index to odorant than the males but this difference is not significant statistically as indicated by the p value.

  9. Male-specific expression of the fruitless protein is not common to all Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Usui-Aoki, Kazue; Shima, Seigo

    2004-03-01

    Sex-specific behavioral patterns must be a result of sexual differences in the structure and/or function of the central nervous system (CNS). Male Drosophila melanogaster mutants for the fruitless (fru) locus exhibit enhanced male-to-male courtship. The fru mutant males are accompanied by malformation of the male-specific muscle of Lawrence (MOL), which, in wild-type males, is induced by male motoneurons innervating it. These two phenotypes are the consequences of impaired sex determination of CNS neurons. In D. melanogaster, although the fru mRNAs are transcribed in the CNS of both the male and female, the Fru protein is only translated in the male CNS. This male-specific translation of Fru was also observed in D. simulans, D. yakuba, D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis; however, in D. suzukii, the Fru protein expression was detected even in the female CNS. PMID:15088665

  10. The pathology of embryo death caused by the male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium in Drosophila nebulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraty Joseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited bacteria that kill male offspring, male-killers, are known to be common in insects, but little is understood about the mechanisms used by male-killing bacteria to kill males. In this paper we describe the tempo and changes that occur during male-killing by Spiroplasma bacteria in the host Drosophila nebulosa. Results Spiroplasma infected D. nebulosa males were developmentally retarded from 6–8 h into embryonic development at 25°C, and arrested at between stages 12 and 13 of embryogenesis (10–12 h. Dying males were characterized by a failure to form segments, and ultimately disintegration of the normal oval embryonic shape. Prior to death, dying males exhibited widespread apoptosis, as testified by TUNEL staining. Conclusion The Spiroplasma kills male Drosophila in a narrow developmental period, shortly after the formation of the host dosage compensation complex that is required for male-killing. Male death is preceded by widespread apoptosis, but it is uncertain if this is primary or secondary apoptosis.

  11. No accelerated rate of protein evolution in male-biased Drosophila pseudoobscura genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Metta, Muralidhar; Gudavalli, Rambabu; Gibert, Jean-Michel; Schlotterer, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic traits are often subject to diversifying selection. Genes with a male-biased gene expression also are probably affected by sexual selection and have a high rate of protein evolution. We used SAGE to measure sex-biased gene expression in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Consistent with previous results from D. melanogaster, a larger number of genes were male biased (402 genes) than female biased (138 genes). About 34% of the genes changed the sex-related expression pattern between ...

  12. Impact of floral feeding on adult Drosophila suzukii survival and nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, is a serious pest of small fruits and cherries in many regions of the world. While host usage has been well studied at the ovipositional and larval feeding stages, little is known about the feeding ecology of adults. This study addressed the impact of fee...

  13. Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid can protect the sperm of other males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    #  1. Many internally-fertilizing animals produce seminal fluid which is transferred along with sperm during mating. Seminal fluid typically contains a diverse range of chemicals that coordinate sperm storage, moderate sperm motility, provide advantages in sexual selection and influence female...... physiology. # 2. Seminal fluid is well-studied in Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which it has been suggested to 'incapacitate' the sperm of rival males (e.g. by killing them) and thereby provide an advantage in sperm competition. This hypothesis has been tested several times over many years, but...... different male. This study therefore provides strong evidence that seminal fluid does not kill rival sperm, and instead can actually protect them. This study also tested whether chemicals in the female reproductive tract harm sperm as in another Drosophila species, but found no evidence of this. # 3. These...

  14. Green Tea Polyphenols Extend the Lifespan of Male Drosophila melanogaster While Impairing Reproductive Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E.; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T.; Huey, Jocelyn; Jafari, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was ...

  15. Effects of the isoflavone prunetin on gut health and stress response in male Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Piegholdt; Gerald Rimbach; Anika E. Wagner

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Asian diet is rich in fruits, vegetables and soy, the latter representing a significant source of dietary isoflavones. The isoflavone prunetin was recently identified to improve intestinal epithelial barrier function in vitro and to ameliorate general survival and overall health state in vivo in male Drosophila melanogaster. However, the prunetin-mediated health benefits in the fruit fly were ascertained under standard living conditions. As the loss of intestinal integrity is ...

  16. Parasite-induced risk of mortality elevates reproductive effort in male Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, M.; Starmer, W T

    1998-01-01

    A trade-off between sex and somatic maintenance is fundamental to life-history theory. Tests of this trade-off usually emphasize deleterious consequences of increased reproduction on life span. Here we show the reverse effect, that reductions in the expected life span elevate sexual activity. Experimentally parasitized male Drosophila nigrospiracula lived shorter lives, but before dying, they courted females significantly more than unparasitized controls. This greater courtship resulted in in...

  17. Whole-animal genome-wide RNAi screen identifies networks regulating male germline stem cells in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ge, Qinglan; Chan, Brian; Liu, Hanhan; Singh, Shree Ram; Manley, Jacob; Lee, Jae; Weideman, Ann Marie; Hou, Gerald; Hou, Steven X

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are regulated both intrinsically and externally, including by signals from the local environment and distant organs. To identify genes and pathways that regulate stem-cell fates in the whole organism, we perform a genome-wide transgenic RNAi screen through ubiquitous gene knockdowns, focusing on regulators of adult Drosophila testis germline stem cells (GSCs). Here we identify 530 genes that regulate GSC maintenance and differentiation. Of these, we further knock down 113 selected genes using cell-type-specific Gal4s and find that more than half were external regulators, that is, from the local microenvironment or more distal sources. Some genes, for example, versatile (vers), encoding a heterochromatin protein, regulates GSC fates differentially in different cell types and through multiple pathways. We also find that mitosis/cytokinesis proteins are especially important for male GSC maintenance. Our findings provide valuable insights and resources for studying stem cell regulation at the organismal level. PMID:27484291

  18. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility is associated with decreased Hira expression in male Drosophila.

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    Ya Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria that infect numerous species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia can induce several reproductive phenotypes in their insect hosts including feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. CI is the most common phenotype and occurs when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females resulting in no or very low numbers of viable offspring. However, matings between males and females infected with the same strain of Wolbachia result in viable progeny. Despite substantial scientific effort, the molecular mechanisms underlying CI are currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression studies were undertaken in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans which display differential levels of CI using quantitative RT-PCR. We show that Hira expression is correlated with the induction of CI and occurs in a sex-specific manner. Hira expression is significantly lower in males which induce strong CI when compared to males inducing no CI or Wolbachia-uninfected males. A reduction in Hira expression is also observed in 1-day-old males that induce stronger CI compared to 5-day-old males that induce weak or no CI. In addition, Hira mutated D. melanogaster males mated to uninfected females result in significantly decreased hatch rates comparing with uninfected crosses. Interestingly, wMel-infected females may rescue the hatch rates. An obvious CI phenotype with chromatin bridges are observed in the early embryo resulting from Hira mutant fertilization, which strongly mimics the defects associated with CI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest Wolbachia-induced CI in Drosophila occurs due to a reduction in Hira expression in Wolbachia-infected males leading to detrimental effects on sperm fertility resulting in embryo lethality. These results may help determine the underlying mechanism of CI and provide further insight in to the important role

  19. Injuries can prolong lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henten, Anne Marie Vestergaard; Loeschcke, Volker; Pedersen, Jørgen Granfeldt; Leisner, Jørgen J; Sarup, Pernille

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that a range of different stresses can increase mean lifespan. Here we investigated the effect of injuries and bacterial inoculation on mean lifespan in lines selected for increased longevity and their controls. The three lines from each selection regime were subjected to one of five treatments ranging from control, over perforating the cuticle with a sterile needle, to inoculating with peptidoglycan or one of two strains of live bacteria. The flies were subjected to the infection stress at two ages and the experiment was conducted on both males and females of replicate lines of each selection regime. The individual lines and sexes differed in response to the treatment. However, overall the sterile injury of young males resulted in prolonged mean lifespan from both selection regimes, whereas inoculating had no additional effect to stabbing with a sterile needle. In middle-aged males only treatment with peptidoglycan had a significant hormetic effect and this was only in longevity-selected flies. In females only one of the tested contrasts was significant and here the effect of the treatment was to reduce average lifespan. As could be expected, the results showed a significant interaction between the effects of sex and infection on survival. PMID:26564163

  20. Circadian Modulation of Alcohol-Induced Sedation and Recovery in Male and Female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nobrega, Aliza K; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-04-01

    Delineating the factors that affect behavioral and neurological responses to alcohol is critical to facilitate measures for preventing or treating alcohol abuse. The high degree of conserved molecular and physiological processes makes Drosophila melanogaster a valuable model for investigating circadian interactions with alcohol-induced behaviors and examining sex-specific differences in alcohol sensitivity. We found that wild-type Drosophila exhibited rhythms in alcohol-induced sedation under light-dark and constant dark conditions with considerably greater alcohol exposure necessary to induce sedation during the late (subjective) day and peak sensitivity to alcohol occurring during the late (subjective) night. The circadian clock also modulated the recovery from alcohol-induced sedation with flies regaining motor control significantly faster during the late (subjective) day. As predicted, the circadian rhythms in sedation and recovery were absent in flies with a mutation in the circadian gene period or arrhythmic flies housed in constant light conditions. Flies lacking a functional circadian clock were more sensitive to the effects of alcohol with significantly longer recovery times. Similar to other animals and humans, Drosophila exhibit sex-specific differences in alcohol sensitivity. We investigated whether the circadian clock modulated the rhythms in the loss-of-righting reflex, alcohol-induced sedation, and recovery differently in males and females. We found that both sexes demonstrated circadian rhythms in the loss-of-righting reflex and sedation with the differences in alcohol sensitivity between males and females most pronounced during the late subjective day. Recovery of motor reflexes following alcohol sedation also exhibited circadian modulation in male and female flies, although the circadian clock did not modulate the difference in recovery times between the sexes. These studies provide a framework outlining how the circadian clock modulates alcohol

  1. Peripheral, central and behavioral responses to the cuticular pheromone bouquet in Drosophila melanogaster males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Inoshita

    Full Text Available Pheromonal communication is crucial with regard to mate choice in many animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster flies produce a pheromonal bouquet with many cuticular hydrocarbons some of which diverge between the sexes and differently affect male courtship behavior. Cuticular pheromones have a relatively high weight and are thought to be -- mostly but not only -- detected by gustatory contact. However, the response of the peripheral and central gustatory systems to these substances remains poorly explored. We measured the effect induced by pheromonal cuticular mixtures on (i the electrophysiological response of peripheral gustatory receptor neurons, (ii the calcium variation in brain centers receiving these gustatory inputs and (iii the behavioral reaction induced in control males and in mutant desat1 males, which show abnormal pheromone production and perception. While male and female pheromones induced inhibitory-like effects on taste receptor neurons, the contact of male pheromones on male fore-tarsi elicits a long-lasting response of higher intensity in the dedicated gustatory brain center. We found that the behavior of control males was more strongly inhibited by male pheromones than by female pheromones, but this difference disappeared in anosmic males. Mutant desat1 males showed an increased sensitivity of their peripheral gustatory neurons to contact pheromones and a behavioral incapacity to discriminate sex pheromones. Together our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbons induce long-lasting inhibitory effects on the relevant taste pathway which may interact with the olfactory pathway to modulate pheromonal perception.

  2. [Male reproductive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster strains with different alleles of the flamenco gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Karpova, N N; Iuneva, A O; Kim, A I

    2003-05-01

    The allelic state of gene flamenco has been determined in a number of Drosophila melanogaster strains using the ovoD test. The presence of an active copy of gypsy in these strains was detected by restriction analysis. Then male reproduction behavior was studied in the strains carrying a mutation in gene flamenco. In these experiments mating success has been experimentally estimated in groups of flies. It has been demonstrated that the presence of mutant allele flamMS decreases male mating activity irrespective of the presence or absence of mutation white. The active copy of gypsy does not affect mating activity in the absence of the mutation in gene flamenco. Individual analysis has demonstrated that that mutation flamMS results in characteristic changes in courtship: flamMS males exhibit a delay in the transition from the orientation stage to the vibration stage (the so-called vibration delay). The role of locus flamenco in the formation of male mating behavior in Drosophila is discussed. PMID:12838614

  3. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beika Lu

    2014-01-01

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment. However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster. We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions.

  4. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Meiklejohn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  5. Cold Hardiness of Winter-Acclimated Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, A R; Asplen, M K; Hutchison, W D; Venette, R C

    2015-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, often called spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic vinegar fly that is native to Southeast Asia and was first detected in the continental United States in 2008. Previous modeling studies have suggested that D. suzukii might not survive in portions of the northern United States or southern Canada due to the effects of cold. As a result, we measured two aspects of insect cold tolerance, the supercooling point and lower lethal temperature, for D. suzukii summer-morph pupae and adults and winter-morph adults. Supercooling points were compared to adults of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. The lower lethal temperature of D. suzukii winter-morph adults was significantly colder than that for D. suzukii summer-morph adults, while supercooling points of D. suzukii winter-morph adults were actually warmer than that for D. suzukii summer-morph adults and pupae. D. suzukii summer-morph adult supercooling points were not significantly different than those for D. melanogaster adults. These measures indicate that D. suzukii is a chill intolerant insect, and winter-morph adults are the most cold-tolerant life stage. These results can be used to improve predictions of where D. suzukii might be able to establish overwintering populations and cause extensive damage to spring fruit crops. PMID:26317777

  6. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway. PMID:26710087

  7. Ancient Male Recombination Shaped Genetic Diversity of Neo-Y Chromosome in Drosophila albomicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Koichiro

    2016-02-01

    Researchers studying Y chromosome evolution have drawn attention to neo-Y chromosomes in Drosophila species due to their resembling the initial stage of Y chromosome evolution. In the studies of neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila miranda, the extremely low genetic diversity observed suggested various modes of natural selection acting on the nonrecombining genome. However, alternative possibility may come from its peculiar origin from a single chromosomal fusion event with male achiasmy, which potentially caused and maintained the low genetic diversity of the neo-Y chromosome. Here, we report a real case where a neo-Y chromosome is in transition from an autosome to a typical Y chromosome. The neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila albomicans harbored a rich genetic diversity comparable to its gametologous neo-X chromosome and an autosome in the same genome. Analyzing sequence variations in 53 genes and measuring recombination rates between pairs of loci by cross experiments, we elucidated the evolutionary scenario of the neo-Y chromosome of D. albomicans having high genetic diversity without assuming selective force, i.e., it originated from a single chromosomal fusion event, experienced meiotic recombination during the initial stage of evolution and diverged from neo-X chromosome by the suppression of recombination tens or a few hundreds of thousand years ago. Consequently, the observed high genetic diversity on the neo-Y chromosome suggested a strong effect of meiotic recombination to introduce genetic variations into the newly arisen sex chromosome. PMID:26494844

  8. The Drosophila hindgut lacks constitutively active adult stem cells but proliferates in response to tissue damage

    OpenAIRE

    D.T., Fox; Spradling, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The adult Drosophila hindgut was recently reported to contain active, tissue-replenishing stem cells, like those of the midgut, but located within an anterior ring so as to comprise a single giant crypt. In contrast to this view, we observed no active stem cells and little cell turnover in adult hindgut tissue based on clonal marking and BrdU incorporation studies. Again contradicting the previous proposal, we showed that the adult hindgut is not generated by anterior stem cells during larval...

  9. Induced overexpression of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase extends the life span of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jingtao; Folk, Donna; Bradley, Timothy J.; Tower, John

    2002-01-01

    A transgenic system ("FLP-out") based on yeast FLP recombinase allowed induced overexpression of MnSOD enzyme in adult Drosophila melanogaster. With FLP-out a brief heat pulse (HP) of young, adult flies triggered the rearrangement and subsequent expression of a MnSOD transgene throughout the adult life span. Control (no HP) and overexpressing (HP) flies had identical genetic backgrounds. The amount of MnSOD enzyme overexpression achieved varied among six independent transgenic lines, with inc...

  10. Adult plasticity of cold tolerance in a continental-temperate population of Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobs, Ruth; Gariepy, Tara D; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a worldwide emerging pest of soft fruits, but its cold tolerance has not been thoroughly explored. We determined the cold tolerance strategy, low temperature thermal limits, and plasticity of cold tolerance in both male and female adult D. suzukii. We reared flies under common conditions (long days, 21°C; control) and induced plasticity by rapid cold-hardening (RCH, 1h at 0°C followed by 1h recovery), cold acclimation (CA, 5 days at 6°C) or acclimation under fluctuating temperatures (FA). D. suzukii had supercooling points (SCPs) between -16 and -23°C, and were chill-susceptible. 80% of control flies were killed after 1h at -7.2°C (males) or -7.5°C (females); CA and FA improved survival of this temperature in both sexes, but RCH did not. 80% of control flies were killed after 70 h (male) or 92 h (female) at 0°C, and FA shifted this to 112 h (males) and 165 h (females). FA flies entered chill coma (CTmin) at approximately -1.7°C, which was ca. 0.5°C colder than control flies; RCH and CA increased the CTmin compared to controls. Control and RCH flies exposed to 0°C for 8h took 30-40 min to recover movement, but this was reduced to suzukii to overwinter in temperate habitats, and suggest that flies could overwinter in association with built structures, or that there may be additional cold tolerance imparted by developmental plasticity. PMID:25982520

  11. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila sulfurigaster neonasuta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Ravi Ram; S. R. Ramesh

    2007-12-01

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different populations from southern India. A total of 25 and 18 variant protein phenotypes were identified in D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta, respectively. Protein fractions of group III were more polymorphic than those from groups I and II. The results show that accessory gland secretory proteins show high levels of polymorphism, irrespective of species or habitat. Moreover, we have used the variation in the accessory gland proteins to assess the extent of divergence between the species and to infer their population structure. The study suggests that though both D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta belong to the same subgroup, they differ in population structure, as far as accessory gland protein polymorphism is concerned.

  12. [Study of male mating behavior in some Drosophila melanogaster strains in experiments with fertilized females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2004-07-01

    Male courtship ritual is among the main behavioral characteristics of Drosophila. This is a complex, genetically determined process consisting of four general stages: orientation, vibration, licking, and attempts at copulation (or successful copulation). Several genes are known that control some stages of this behavior. Most of them have pleiotropic effects and are involved in other biological processes. Earlier, we have shown that a mutation in locus flamenco (20A1-3), which controls transposition and infectivity of retrotransposon gypsy (MDG4), is involved in the genetic control of behavior. In strains mutant for this locus, the male mating activity is decreased and the structure of courtship ritual is changed. To understand the mechanisms of these changes, it is important to study all behavioral stages in genetically identical strains. For this purpose, the normal allele of gene flamenco from the X chromosome of the wild-type strain (stock) Canton S was introduced into strain SS carrying flamMS. This offers new opportunities in studying the role of gene flamenco in the control of mating behavior in Drosophila. PMID:15458200

  13. Non-Nutritive Polyol Sweeteners Differ in Insecticidal Activity When Ingested by Adult Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean; Baudier, Kaitlin; Marenda, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Previous work showed the non-nutritive polyol sweetener Erythritol was toxic when ingested by Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1930). This study assessed whether insect toxicity is a general property of polyols. Among tested compounds, toxicity was highest for erythritol. Adult fruit flies (D. melanogaster) fed erythritol had reduced longevity relative to controls. Other polyols did not reduce longevity; the only exception was a weaker but significant reduction of female (but not male) longevity when flies were fed D-mannitol. We conclude at least some non-nutritive polyols are not toxic to adult D. melanogaster when ingested for 17 days. The longer time course (relative to erythritol) and female specificity of D-mannitol mortality suggests different mechanisms for D-mannitol and erythritol toxicity to D. melanogaster. PMID:27271968

  14. Rapid male-specific regulatory divergence and down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila species hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ferguson

    Full Text Available In most crosses between closely related species of Drosophila, the male hybrids are sterile and show postmeiotic abnormalities. A series of gene expression studies using genomic approaches have found significant down regulation of postmeiotic spermatogenesis genes in sterile male hybrids. These results have led some to suggest a direct relationship between down regulation in gene expression and hybrid sterility. An alternative explanation to a cause-and-effect relationship between misregulation of gene expression and male sterility is rapid divergence of male sex regulatory elements leading to incompatible interactions in an interspecies hybrid genome. To test the effect of regulatory divergence in spermatogenesis gene expression, we isolated 35 fertile D. simulans strains with D. mauritiana introgressions in either the X, second or third chromosome. We analyzed gene expression in these fertile hybrid strains for a subset of spermatogenesis genes previously reported as significantly under expressed in sterile hybrids relative to D. simulans. We found that fertile autosomal introgressions can cause levels of gene down regulation similar to that of sterile hybrids. We also found that X chromosome heterospecific introgressions cause significantly less gene down regulation than autosomal introgressions. Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids.

  15. Reduction of germ cells in the Odysseus null mutant causes male fertility defect in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Jen; Fang, Shu; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Chen, Yi-Ling; Fu, Hua-Wen; Patel, Nipam H; Ting, Chau-Ti

    2012-01-01

    Odysseus (OdsH) has been identified as a hybrid male sterility gene between Drosophila mauritiana and D. simulans with accelerated evolutionary rate in both expression and DNA sequence. Loss of a testis-specific expression of OdsH causes male fertility defect in D. melanogaster. Yet, the underlying mechanisms at the cellular level are unknown. In an attempt to identify the possible mechanisms and functional roles of OdsH in spermatogenesis, the cell numbers at different developmental stages during spermatogenesis between the OdsH null mutant and wild-type flies were compared. The results showed that the early developing germ cells, including spermatogonia and spermatocytes, were reduced in the OdsH mutant males. In addition, the number of germline stem cells in aged males was also reduced, presumably due to the disruption of germline stem cell maintenance, which resulted in more severe fertility defect. These results suggest that the function of the enhancement of sperm production by OdsH acted across males of all ages. PMID:23229314

  16. A mating plug and male mate choice in Drosophila hibisci Bock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak; Starmer; Barker

    1998-10-01

    The functional significance of mating plugs and their relation to male mating behaviour in insects are obscure. In Drosophila hibisci, we describe a firm, gelatinous, mating plug that fills the entire uterus at copulation, and evaluate two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses for the plug's function: (1) retention of sperm near the openings of the sperm storage organs and (2) inhibition of further matings. Unlike full-sized plugs, smaller plugs produced by previously mated males failed to retain sperm at the anterior end of the uterus, indicating that full-sized plugs prevent sperm backflow away from female storage organs. Sexually mature males failed to copulate with previously mated, young females, suggesting that the plug may also deter rival matings. In newly emerged females, the plug remains within the uterus for up to 4 days after copulation, but in mature females, the plug and ejaculate are expelled whenever the next mature oocyte descends into the uterus from the common oviduct, which may be soon after copulation. Males remained in copula significantly longer with mature females, perhaps to compensate for this greater likelihood of ejaculate expulsion. Males showed a mating preference for young virgins over older virgin and nonvirgin females. This unusual mating preference may confer fertility benefits made available through the effectiveness of the plug in reducing sperm competition. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790703

  17. Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Pavković-Lučić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature? Sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster, related to body size and fluctuating asymmetry in wing length and number of sex comb teeth in males, was tested in natural conditions. Males collected in copula were significantly larger than those collected as a single, while no difference in mean number of sex comb teeth between copulating and single males was observed. On the other hand, single males had greater asymmetry both for wing length and number of sex comb teeth than their mating counterparts. It looks like that symmetry of these bilateral traits also may play a role in sexual selection in this dipteran species in nature.

  18. Debra-Mediated Ci Degradation Controls Tissue Homeostasis in Drosophila Adult Midgut

    OpenAIRE

    Zhouhua Li; Yueqin Guo; Lili Han; Yan Zhang; Lai Shi; Xudong Huang; Xinhua Lin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adult tissue homeostasis is maintained by resident stem cells and their progeny. However, the underlying mechanisms that control tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Debra-mediated Ci degradation is important for intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in Drosophila adult midgut. Debra inhibition leads to increased ISC activity and tissue homeostasis loss, phenocopying defects observed in aging flies. These defects can be suppressed by depleting Ci, ...

  19. Genetic architecture of autosome-mediated hybrid male sterility in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, I. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Several estimators have been developed for assesing the number of sterility factors in a chromosome based on the sizes of fertile and sterile introgressed fragments. Assuming that two factors are required for producing sterility, simulations show that one of these, twice the inverse of the relative size of the largest fertile fragment, provides good average approximations when as few as five fertile fragments are analyzed. The estimators have been used for deducing the number of factors from previous data on several pairs of species. A particular result contrasts with the authors` interpretations: instead of the high number of sterility factors suggested, only a few per autosome are estimated in both reciprocal crosses involving Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae. It has been possible to map these factors, between three and six per chromosome, in the autosomes 3 and 4 of these species. Out of 203 introgressions of different fragments or combinations of fragments, the outcome of at least 192 is explained by the mapped zones. These results suggest that autosome-mediated sterility in the male hybrids of these species is mediated by a few epistatic factors, similarly to X-mediated sterility in the hybrids of other Drosophila species. 48 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. No severe and global X chromosome inactivation in meiotic male germline of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylova Lyudmila M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a response to Vibranovski et al. See correspondence article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/49 and the original research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/29 We have previously reported a high propensity of testis-expressed X-linked genes to activation in meiotic cells, a similarity in global gene expression between the X chromosome and autosomes in meiotic germline, and under-representation of various types of tissue-specific genes on the X chromosome. Based on our findings and a critical review of the current literature, we believe that there is no global and severe silencing of the X chromosome in the meiotic male germline of Drosophila. The term 'meiotic sex chromosome inactivation' (MSCI therefore seems misleading when used to describe the minor underexpression of the X chromosome in the testis of Drosophila, because this term erroneously implies a profound and widespread silencing of the X-linked genes, by analogy to the well-studied MSCI system in mammals, and therefore distracts from identification and analysis of the real mechanisms that orchestrate gene expression and evolution in this species.

  1. The Drosophila BTB domain protein Jim Lovell has roles in multiple larval and adult behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Bjorum

    Full Text Available Innate behaviors have their origins in the specification of neural fates during development. Within Drosophila, BTB (Bric-a-brac,Tramtrack, Broad domain proteins such as Fruitless are known to play key roles in the neural differentiation underlying such responses. We previously identified a gene, which we have termed jim lovell (lov, encoding a BTB protein with a role in gravity responses. To understand more fully the behavioral roles of this gene we have investigated its function through several approaches. Transcript and protein expression patterns have been examined and behavioral phenotypes of new lov mutations have been characterized. Lov is a nuclear protein, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator, as for other BTB proteins. In late embryogenesis, Lov is expressed in many CNS and PNS neurons. An examination of the PNS expression indicates that lov functions in the late specification of several classes of sensory neurons. In particular, only two of the five abdominal lateral chordotonal neurons express Lov, predicting functional variation within this highly similar group. Surprisingly, Lov is also expressed very early in embryogenesis in ways that suggests roles in morphogenetic movements, amnioserosa function and head neurogenesis. The phenotypes of two new lov mutations that delete adjacent non-coding DNA regions are strikingly different suggesting removal of different regulatory elements. In lov(47 , Lov expression is lost in many embryonic neurons including the two lateral chordotonal neurons. lov(47 mutant larvae show feeding and locomotor defects including spontaneous backward movement. Adult lov(47 males perform aberrant courtship behavior distinguished by courtship displays that are not directed at the female. lov(47 adults also show more defective negative gravitaxis than the previously isolated lov(91Y mutant. In contrast, lov(66 produces largely normal behavior but severe female sterility associated with ectopic lov

  2. An integrated hybrid microfluidic device for oviposition-based chemical screening of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacob C K; Hilliker, Arthur J; Rezai, Pouya

    2016-02-21

    Chemical screening using Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) is vital in drug discovery, agricultural, and toxicological applications. Oviposition (egg laying) on chemically-doped agar plates is an important read-out metric used to quantitatively assess the biological fitness and behavioral responses of Drosophila. Current oviposition-based chemical screening studies are inaccurate, labor-intensive, time-consuming, and inflexible due to the manual chemical doping of agar. In this paper, we have developed a novel hybrid agar-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for single- and multi-concentration chemical dosing and on-chip oviposition screening of free-flying adult stage Drosophila. To achieve this, we have devised a novel technique to integrate agar with PDMS channels using ice as a sacrificial layer. Subsequently, we have conducted single-chemical toxicity and multiple choice chemical preference assays on adult Drosophila melanogaster using zinc and acetic acid at various concentrations. Our device has enabled us to 1) demonstrate that Drosophila is capable of sensing the concentration of different chemicals on a PDMS-agar microfluidic device, which plays significant roles in determining oviposition site selection and 2) investigate whether oviposition preference differs between single- and multi-concentration chemical environments. This device may be used to study fundamental and applied biological questions in Drosophila and other egg laying insects. It can also be extended in design to develop sophisticated and dynamic chemical dosing and high-throughput screening platforms in the future that are not easily achievable with the existing oviposition screening techniques. PMID:26768402

  3. Re-evaluation of the function of the male specific lethal complex in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Birchler; Lin Sun; Harvey Fernandez; Ryan Donohue; Weiwu Xie; Abhijit Sanyal

    2011-01-01

    A set of proteins and noncoding RNAs,referred to as the male specific lethal (MSL) complex,is present on the male X chromosome in Drosophila and has been postulated to be responsible for dosage compensation of this chromosome - the up-regulation of its expression to be equal to that of two X chromosomes in females.This hypothesis is evaluated in view of lesser known aspects of dosage compensation such as the fact that metafemales with three X chromosomes also have equal expression to normal females,which would require a down-regulation of each gene copy.Moreover,when this complex is ectopically expressed in females or specifically targeted to a reporter in males,there is no increase in expression of the genes or targets with which it is associated.These observations are not consistent with the hypothesis that the MSL complex conditions dosage compensation.A synthesis is described that can account for these observations.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study on Male Genital Shape and Size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baku Takahara

    Full Text Available Male genital morphology of animals with internal fertilization and promiscuous mating systems have been one of the most diverse and rapidly evolving morphological traits. The male genital morphology in general is known to have low phenotypic and genetic variations, but the genetic basis of the male genital variation remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster and its closely related species are morphologically very similar, but the shapes of the posterior lobe, a cuticular projection on the male genital arch are distinct from each other, representing a model system for studying the genetic basis of male genital morphology. In this study, we used highly inbred whole genome sequenced strains of D. melanogaster to perform genome wide association analysis on posterior lobe morphology. We quantified the outline shape of posterior lobes with Fourier coefficients obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis and performed principal component analysis, and posterior lobe size. The first and second principal components (PC1 and PC2 explained approximately 88% of the total variation of the posterior lobe shape. We then examined the association between the principal component scores and posterior lobe size and 1902142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. As a result, we obtained 15, 14 and 15 SNPs for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size with P-values smaller than 10(-5. Based on the location of the SNPs, 13, 13 and six protein coding genes were identified as potential candidates for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size, respectively. In addition to the previous findings showing that the intraspecific posterior shape variation are regulated by multiple QTL with strong effects, the present study suggests that the intraspecific variation may be under polygenic regulation with a number of loci with small effects. Further studies are required for investigating whether these candidate genes are responsible for the intraspecific posterior lobe shape variation.

  5. The effects of inbreeding and heat stress on male sterility in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Bijlsma, Kuke; Bundgaard, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    sterility indicates an interaction between the effects of inbreeding and high-temperature stress on male sterility. In addition, the stress-induced temporary and permanent sterility showed significant positive correlation, as did stress-induced sterility and the decrease in egg-to-adult viability. This...

  6. Conserved mechanisms of tumorigenesis in the Drosophila adult midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Òscar Martorell

    Full Text Available Whereas the series of genetic events leading to colorectal cancer (CRC have been well established, the precise functions that these alterations play in tumor progression and how they disrupt intestinal homeostasis remain poorly characterized. Activation of the Wnt/Wg signaling pathway by a mutation in the gene APC is the most common trigger for CRC, inducing benign lesions that progress to carcinomas due to the accumulation of other genetic alterations. Among those, Ras mutations drive tumour progression in CRC, as well as in most epithelial cancers. As mammalian and Drosophila's intestines share many similarities, we decided to explore the alterations induced in the Drosophila midgut by the combined activation of the Wnt signaling pathway with gain of function of Ras signaling in the intestinal stem cells. Here we show that compound Apc-Ras clones, but not clones bearing the individual mutations, expand as aggressive intestinal tumor-like outgrowths. These lesions reproduce many of the human CRC hallmarks such as increased proliferation, blockade of cell differentiation and cell polarity and disrupted organ architecture. This process is followed by expression of tumoral markers present in human lesions. Finally, a metabolic behavioral assay shows that these flies suffer a progressive deterioration in intestinal homeostasis, providing a simple readout that could be used in screens for tumor modifiers or therapeutic compounds. Taken together, our results illustrate the conservation of the mechanisms of CRC tumorigenesis in Drosophila, providing an excellent model system to unravel the events that, upon mutation in Apc and Ras, lead to CRC initiation and progression.

  7. Incomplete urethral duplication in an adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-09-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly with less than 200 cases reported. It predominantly occurs in males and is nearly always diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. It is defined as a complete second passage from the bladder to the dorsum of the penis or as an accessory pathway that ends blindly on the dorsal or ventral surface.

  8. Neurons That Underlie Drosophila melanogaster Reproductive Behaviors: Detection of a Large Male-Bias in Gene Expression in fruitless-Expressing Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Nicole R.; New, Felicia N.; Dalton, Justin E.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Arbeitman, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1) underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2–5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons, allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay. We find four times more male-biased than female-biased genes in TRAP mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons. This suggests a potential mechanism to generate dimorphism in behavior. The male-biased genes may direct male behaviors by establishing cell fate in a similar context of gene expression observed in females. These results suggest a possible global mechanism for how distinct behaviors can arise from a shared set of neurons. PMID:27247289

  9. Neurons That Underlie Drosophila melanogaster Reproductive Behaviors: Detection of a Large Male-Bias in Gene Expression in fruitless-Expressing Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Nicole R; New, Felicia N; Dalton, Justin E; McIntyre, Lauren M; Arbeitman, Michelle N

    2016-01-01

    Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1) underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2-5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons, allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay. We find four times more male-biased than female-biased genes in TRAP mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons. This suggests a potential mechanism to generate dimorphism in behavior. The male-biased genes may direct male behaviors by establishing cell fate in a similar context of gene expression observed in females. These results suggest a possible global mechanism for how distinct behaviors can arise from a shared set of neurons. PMID:27247289

  10. Neurons That Underlie Drosophila melanogaster Reproductive Behaviors: Detection of a Large Male-Bias in Gene Expression in fruitless-Expressing Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R. Newell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1 underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2–5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons, allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay. We find four times more male-biased than female-biased genes in TRAP mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons. This suggests a potential mechanism to generate dimorphism in behavior. The male-biased genes may direct male behaviors by establishing cell fate in a similar context of gene expression observed in females. These results suggest a possible global mechanism for how distinct behaviors can arise from a shared set of neurons.

  11. A mighty small heart: the cardiac proteome of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Cammarato

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a powerful model system for the study of cardiac disease. Establishing peptide and protein maps of the Drosophila heart is central to implementation of protein network studies that will allow us to assess the hallmarks of Drosophila heart pathogenesis and gauge the degree of conservation with human disease mechanisms on a systems level. Using a gel-LC-MS/MS approach, we identified 1228 protein clusters from 145 dissected adult fly hearts. Contractile, cytostructural and mitochondrial proteins were most abundant consistent with electron micrographs of the Drosophila cardiac tube. Functional/Ontological enrichment analysis further showed that proteins involved in glycolysis, Ca(2+-binding, redox, and G-protein signaling, among other processes, are also over-represented. Comparison with a mouse heart proteome revealed conservation at the level of molecular function, biological processes and cellular components. The subsisting peptidome encompassed 5169 distinct heart-associated peptides, of which 1293 (25% had not been identified in a recent Drosophila peptide compendium. PeptideClassifier analysis was further used to map peptides to specific gene-models. 1872 peptides provide valuable information about protein isoform groups whereas a further 3112 uniquely identify specific protein isoforms and may be used as a heart-associated peptide resource for quantitative proteomic approaches based on multiple-reaction monitoring. In summary, identification of excitation-contraction protein landmarks, orthologues of proteins associated with cardiovascular defects, and conservation of protein ontologies, provides testimony to the heart-like character of the Drosophila cardiac tube and to the utility of proteomics as a complement to the power of genetics in this growing model of human heart disease.

  12. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey S Chang

    Full Text Available The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  13. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  14. Affecting Rhomboid-3 function causes a dilated heart in adult Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila is a well recognized model of several human diseases, and recent investigations have demonstrated that Drosophila can be used as a model of human heart failure. Previously, we described that optical coherence tomography (OCT can be used to rapidly examine the cardiac function in adult, awake flies. This technique provides images that are similar to echocardiography in humans, and therefore we postulated that this approach could be combined with the vast resources that are available in the fly community to identify new mutants that have abnormal heart function, a hallmark of certain cardiovascular diseases. Using OCT to examine the cardiac function in adult Drosophila from a set of molecularly-defined genomic deficiencies from the DrosDel and Exelixis collections, we identified an abnormally enlarged cardiac chamber in a series of deficiency mutants spanning the rhomboid 3 locus. Rhomboid 3 is a member of a highly conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases and processes Spitz, an epidermal growth factor (EGF-like ligand. Using multiple approaches based on the examination of deficiency stocks, a series of mutants in the rhomboid-Spitz-EGF receptor pathway, and cardiac-specific transgenic rescue or dominant-negative repression of EGFR, we demonstrate that rhomboid 3 mediated activation of the EGF receptor pathway is necessary for proper adult cardiac function. The importance of EGF receptor signaling in the adult Drosophila heart underscores the concept that evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms are required to maintain normal myocardial function. Interestingly, prior work showing the inhibition of ErbB2, a member of the EGF receptor family, in transgenic knock-out mice or individuals that received herceptin chemotherapy is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our results, in conjunction with the demonstration that altered ErbB2 signaling underlies certain forms of mammalian cardiomyopathy, suggest

  15. Comparison of Larval and Adult Drosophila Astrocytes Reveals Stage-Specific Gene Expression Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yanmei; Ng, Fanny S.; Jackson, F. Rob

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of adult astrocyte glial cells has revealed a remarkable heterogeneity with regard to morphology, molecular signature, and physiology. A key question in glial biology is how such heterogeneity arises during brain development. One approach to this question is to identify genes with differential astrocyte expression during development; certain genes expressed later in neural development may contribute to astrocyte differentiation. We have utilized the Drosophila model and Translati...

  16. Cell proliferation in the Drosophila adult brain revealed by clonal analysis and bromodeoxyuridine labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Brand Andrea H; Egger Boris; von Trotha Jakob W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The production of new neurons during adulthood and their subsequent integration into a mature central nervous system have been shown to occur in all vertebrate species examined to date. However, the situation in insects is less clear and, in particular, it has been reported that there is no proliferation in the Drosophila adult brain. Results We report here, using clonal analysis and 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling, that cell proliferation does occur in the Droso...

  17. Preparation of Developing and Adult Drosophila Brains and Retinae for Live Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, W. Ryan; Hiesinger, P. Robin

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila brain and visual system are widely utilized model systems to study neuronal development, function and degeneration. Here we show three preparations of the brain and visual system that cover the range from the developing eye disc-brain complex in the developing pupae to individual eye and brain dissection from adult flies. All protocols are optimized for the live culture of the preparations. However, we also present the conditions for fixed tissue immunohistochemistry where appl...

  18. Crossveinless and the TGFβ pathway regulate fiber number in the Drosophila adult jump muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, MaryAnn S.; Lovato, Candice V.; Baca, Erica M.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are readily characterized by their location within the body and by the number and composition of their constituent muscle fibers. Here, we characterize a mutation that causes a severe reduction in the number of fibers comprising the tergal depressor of the trochanter muscle (TDT, or jump muscle), which functions in the escape response of the Drosophila adult. The wild-type TDT comprises over 20 large muscle fibers and four small fibers. In crossveinless (cv) mutants, the numb...

  19. Psychological Distress in Young Adult Males with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Si-Heon; Hur, Jae; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hae-Sim; Hong, Chang Hyung; Son, Sang Joon; Chang, Ki Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD) and psychological distress has been well established for children and adolescents. However, it is unclear whether this relationship exists in young adults. This study aimed to assess the relationship between AD and psychological distress in young male adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional study was conducted using regional conscription data from 2008 to 2012. A dermatologist diagnosed AD based on historical and clinical features, and...

  20. Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E.; Shirras, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success r...

  1. Evolution of Multiple Additive Loci Caused Divergence between Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea in Wing Rowing during Male Courtship

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Cande; Peter Andolfatto; Benjamin Prud'homme; Stern, David L.; Nicolas Gompel

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila, male flies perform innate, stereotyped courtship behavior. This innate behavior evolves rapidly between fly species, and is likely to have contributed to reproductive isolation and species divergence. We currently understand little about the neurobiological and genetic mechanisms that contributed to the evolution of courtship behavior. Here we describe a novel behavioral difference between the two closely related species D. yakuba and D. santomea: the frequency of wing rowing d...

  2. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  3. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  4. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  5. The behaviour of Drosophila adult hindgut stem cells is controlled by Wnt and Hh signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Shigeo; Mkrtchyan, Marianna; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Merriam, John R; Hartenstein, Volker

    2008-07-31

    The intestinal tract maintains proper function by replacing aged cells with freshly produced cells that arise from a population of self-renewing intestinal stem cells (ISCs). In the mammalian intestine, ISC self renewal, amplification and differentiation take place along the crypt-villus axis, and are controlled by the Wnt and hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathways. However, little is known about the mechanisms that specify ISCs within the developing intestinal epithelium, or about the signalling centres that help maintain them in their self-renewing stem cell state. Here we show that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, ISCs of the posterior intestine (hindgut) are confined to an anterior narrow segment, which we name the hindgut proliferation zone (HPZ). Within the HPZ, self renewal of ISCs, as well as subsequent proliferation and differentiation of ISC descendants, are controlled by locally emanating Wingless (Wg, a Drosophila Wnt homologue) and Hh signals. The anteriorly restricted expression of Wg in the HPZ acts as a niche signal that maintains cells in a slow-cycling, self-renewing mode. As cells divide and move posteriorly away from the Wg source, they enter a phase of rapid proliferation. During this phase, Hh signal is required for exiting the cell cycle and the onset of differentiation. The HPZ, with its characteristic proliferation dynamics and signalling properties, is set up during the embryonic phase and becomes active in the larva, where it generates all adult hindgut cells including ISCs. The mechanism and genetic control of cell renewal in the Drosophila HPZ exhibits a large degree of similarity with what is seen in the mammalian intestine. Our analysis of the Drosophila HPZ provides an insight into the specification and control of stem cells, highlighting the way in which the spatial pattern of signals that promote self renewal, growth and differentiation is set up within a genetically tractable model system. PMID:18633350

  6. The sexually dimorphic behaviour of adult Drosophila suzukii: elevated female locomotor activity and loss of siesta is a post-mating response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Calum T J; O'Neill, Tara L; Audsley, Neil; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2015-12-01

    The polyphagous Drosophila suzukii is a highly invasive species that causes extensive damage to a wide range of berry and stone fruit crops. A better understanding of its biology and especially its behaviour will aid the development of new control strategies. We investigated the locomotor behaviour of D. suzukii in a semi-natural environment resembling a typical summer in northern England and show that adult female D. suzukii are at least 4-fold more active during daylight hours than adult males. This result was reproduced in several laboratory environments and was shown to be a robust feature of mated, but not virgin, female flies. Both males and virgin females kept on a 12 h light:12 h dark (12LD) cycle and constant temperature displayed night-time inactivity (sleep) followed by weak activity in the morning, an afternoon period of quiescence (siesta) and then a prominent evening peak of activity. Both the siesta and the sharp evening peak at lights off were severely reduced in females after mating. Flies of either sex entrained in 12LD displayed a circadian pattern of activity in constant darkness confirming the importance of an endogenous clock in regulating adult activity. This response of females to mating is similar to that elicited in female Drosophila melanogaster by the male sex peptide (SP). We used mass spectrometry to identify a molecular ion (m/z, 5145) corresponding to the poly-hydroxylated SP of D. suzukii and to show that this molecule is transferred to the female reproductive tract during copulation. We propose that the siesta experienced by male and virgin female D. suzukii is an adaptation to avoid unnecessary exposure to the afternoon sun, but that mated females faced with the challenge of obtaining resources for egg production and finding oviposition sites take greater risks, and we suggest that the change in female behaviour is induced by the male SP. PMID:26486360

  7. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male dm3 Histone Adult Adult male SRX013084,SRX013033,SRX013...032,SRX013013 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. Aging and Autophagic Function Influences the Progressive Decline of Adult Drosophila Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Ratliff

    Full Text Available Multiple neurological disorders are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of protein aggregates and the progressive impairment of complex behaviors. Our Drosophila studies demonstrate that middle-aged wild-type flies (WT, ~4-weeks exhibit a marked accumulation of neural aggregates that is commensurate with the decline of the autophagy pathway. However, enhancing autophagy via neuronal over-expression of Atg8a (Atg8a-OE reduces the age-dependent accumulation of aggregates. Here we assess basal locomotor activity profiles for single- and group-housed male and female WT flies and observed that only modest behavioral changes occurred by 4-weeks of age, with the noted exception of group-housed male flies. Male flies in same-sex social groups exhibit a progressive increase in nighttime activity. Infrared videos show aged group-housed males (4-weeks are engaged in extensive bouts of courtship during periods of darkness, which is partly repressed during lighted conditions. Together, these nighttime courtship behaviors were nearly absent in young WT flies and aged Atg8a-OE flies. Previous studies have indicated a regulatory role for olfaction in male courtship partner choice. Coincidently, the mRNA expression profiles of several olfactory genes decline with age in WT flies; however, they are maintained in age-matched Atg8a-OE flies. Together, these results suggest that middle-aged male flies develop impairments in olfaction, which could contribute to the dysregulation of courtship behaviors during dark time periods. Combined, our results demonstrate that as Drosophila age, they develop early behavior defects that are coordinate with protein aggregate accumulation in the nervous system. In addition, the nighttime activity behavior is preserved when neuronal autophagy is maintained (Atg8a-OE flies. Thus, environmental or genetic factors that modify autophagic capacity could have a positive impact on neuronal aging and complex behaviors.

  11. Adult Heat Tolerance Variation in Drosophila melanogaster is Not Related to Hsp70 Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Toft; Cockerell, Fiona Elizabeth; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Rako, Lea; Loeschcke, Volker; McKechnie, Stephen William; Hoffmann, Ary

    Expression of heat-inducible Hsp70 is considered closely linked to thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and other ectotherms. However, intra-specific variation of Hsp70 expression levels and its relationship to heat resistance has only been investigated in a few studies. Although in...... Drosophila larvae Hsp70 expression may be a key determinant of heat tolerance, the evidence for this in adults is equivocal. We therefore examined heat-induced Hsp70 expression and several measurements of adult heat tolerance in three independent collections of D. melanogaster, measured in three laboratories...... correlation between Hsp70 expression and laboratory assays of adult heat tolerance commonly used in Drosophila. When combining data across three studies we had high power to detect associations but the results showed that variation in Hsp70 expression is only likely to explain a small proportion of variation...

  12. Significance of constraints on genital coevolution: Why do female Drosophila appear to cooperate with males by accepting harmful matings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms driving the coevolution of male and female genital morphologies are still debated. Female genitalia in Drosophila species bear membranous "pouches" or hardened "shields," which the male genital armature contact during copulation. Although shield-like structures likely serve to mitigate the effects of harmful mating, some authors have suggested that soft pouches, which do not prevent male genitalia from inflicting wounds, represent a congruent sensory organ. To elucidate the evolutionary forces responsible for the development of such organs, I examined the effects of artificial damage to various genital parts of female Drosophila erecta on reproductive success. Despite a high survival rate among females, damage to the ovipositor plate resulted in frequent failure of insemination and in the embedment of eggs into the substrate. Damage to the vaginal shield resulted in increased mortality and frequent failure of egg embedment, with an egg blocking the vagina under the damaged shield in some females. Wounding of the pouch had less of an effect on both mating and oviposition success, suggesting that the structure "lures" the male trauma-causing organs to areas where the resultant wounds do not interfere with insemination or oviposition. These data show that the dual functions of female genitalia (mating and oviposition) mediate genital coevolution. PMID:27174423

  13. Male non-coding RNA genes identified by comparative genomic analysis of the Drosophila genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG ManYuan; ZHU ZuoYan

    2007-01-01

    @@ This issue published a research article by Yang et al.[1] of Peking University "Significant divergence of sex-related non-coding RNA expression patterns among closely related species in Drosophila".

  14. Sexual activity increases resistance against Pseudomonas entomophila in male Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vanika; Ali, Zeeshan S; Prasad, Nagaraj G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Maintenance and deployment cost of immunity is high, therefore, it is expected to trade-off with other high cost traits like sexual activity. Previous studies with Drosophila melanogaster show that male’s ability to clear bacteria decreases with increase in sexual activity. We subjected this idea to test using two pathogens (Pseudomonas entomophila and Staphylococcus succinus) and three different populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Results We found that sexual activity enhanced...

  15. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    OpenAIRE

    Ukoha Ukoha Ukoha; Onochie Okwudili Udemezue; Chidi Kingsley Oranusi; Azuoma Lasbrey Asomugha; Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Lynda Chinenye Nzeukwu

    2012-01-01

    Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of ...

  16. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  17. Male sterility associated with overexpression of the noncoding $hsr\\omega$ gene in cyst cells of testis of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. K. Rajendra; K. V. Prasanth; S. C. Lakhotia

    2001-08-01

    Of the several noncoding transcripts produced by the $hsr\\omega$ gene of Drosophila melanogaster, the nucleus-limited > 10-kb hsr-n transcript colocalizes with heterogeneous nuclear RNA binding proteins (hnRNPs) to form fine nucleoplasmic omega speckles. Our earlier studies suggested that the noncoding hsr-n transcripts dynamically regulate the distribution of hnRNPs in active (chromatin bound) and inactive (in omega speckles) compartments. Here we show that a P transposon insertion in this gene’s promoter (at – 130 bp) in the $hsr\\omega^{05241}$ enhancer-trap line had no effect on viability or phenotype of males or females, but the insertion-homozygous males were sterile. Testes of $hsr\\omega^{05241}$ homozygous flies contained nonmotile sperms while their seminal vesicles were empty. RNA : RNA in situ hybridization showed that the somatic cyst cells in testes of the mutant male flies contained significantly higher amounts of hsr-n transcripts, and unlike the characteristic fine omega speckles in other cell types they displayed large clusters of omega speckles as typically seen after heat shock. Two of the hnRNPs, viz. HRB87F and Hrp57A, which are expressed in cyst cells, also formed large clusters in these cells in parallel with the hsr-n transcripts. A complete excision of the P transposon insertion restored male fertility as well as the fine-speckled pattern of omega speckles in the cyst cells. The in situ distribution patterns of these two hnRNPs and several other RNA-binding proteins (Hrp40, Hrb57A, S5, Sxl, SRp55 and Rb97D) were not affected by $hsr\\omega$ mutation in any of the meiotic stages in adult testes. The present studies, however, revealed an unexpected presence (in wild-type as well as mutant) of the functional form of Sxl in primary spermatocytes and an unusual distribution of HRB87F along the retracting spindle during anaphase-telophase of the first meiotic division. It appears that the P transposon insertion in the promoter region causes

  18. Debra-Mediated Ci Degradation Controls Tissue Homeostasis in Drosophila Adult Midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouhua Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adult tissue homeostasis is maintained by resident stem cells and their progeny. However, the underlying mechanisms that control tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Debra-mediated Ci degradation is important for intestinal stem cell (ISC proliferation in Drosophila adult midgut. Debra inhibition leads to increased ISC activity and tissue homeostasis loss, phenocopying defects observed in aging flies. These defects can be suppressed by depleting Ci, suggesting that increased Hedgehog (Hh signaling contributes to ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Consistently, Hh signaling activation causes the same defects, whereas depletion of Hh signaling suppresses these defects. Furthermore, the Hh ligand from multiple sources is involved in ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we show that the JNK pathway acts downstream of Hh signaling to regulate ISC proliferation. Together, our results provide insights into the mechanisms of stem cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis control.

  19. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  20. Requirement of matrix metalloproteinase-1 for intestinal homeostasis in the adult Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Park, Joung-Sun [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Science, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Shin [Research Institute of Genetic Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hae-Young [Molecular Inflammation Research Center for Aging Intervention (MRCA), College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Mi-Ae, E-mail: mayoo@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Science, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-10

    Stem cells are tightly regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), proteolytic enzymes, modulate the turnover of numerous substrates, including cytokine precursors, growth factors, and ECM molecules. However, the roles of MMPs in the regulation of adult stem cells are poorly understood. In the present study, we utilize the Drosophila midgut, which is an excellent model system for studying stem cell biology, to show that Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The results showed that Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut and that its expression increases with age and with exposure to oxidative stress. Mmp1 knockdown or Timp-overexpressing flies and flies heterozygous for a viable, hypomorphic Mmp1 allele increased ISC proliferation in the gut, as shown by staining with an anti-phospho-histone H3 antibody and BrdU incorporation assays. Reduced Mmp1 levels induced intestinal hyperplasia, and the Mmp1depletion-induced ISC proliferation was rescued by the suppression of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that Mmp1 regulates ISC proliferation through the EGFR signaling pathway. Furthermore, adult gut-specific knockdown and whole-animal heterozygotes of Mmp1 increased additively sensitivity to paraquat-induced oxidative stress and shortened lifespan. Our data suggest that Drosophila Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation for maintenance of gut homeostasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1-related ISC proliferation is associated with EGFR signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 in the gut is required for the intestinal homeostasis and longevity.

  1. Requirement of matrix metalloproteinase-1 for intestinal homeostasis in the adult Drosophila midgut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cells are tightly regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), proteolytic enzymes, modulate the turnover of numerous substrates, including cytokine precursors, growth factors, and ECM molecules. However, the roles of MMPs in the regulation of adult stem cells are poorly understood. In the present study, we utilize the Drosophila midgut, which is an excellent model system for studying stem cell biology, to show that Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The results showed that Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut and that its expression increases with age and with exposure to oxidative stress. Mmp1 knockdown or Timp-overexpressing flies and flies heterozygous for a viable, hypomorphic Mmp1 allele increased ISC proliferation in the gut, as shown by staining with an anti-phospho-histone H3 antibody and BrdU incorporation assays. Reduced Mmp1 levels induced intestinal hyperplasia, and the Mmp1depletion-induced ISC proliferation was rescued by the suppression of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that Mmp1 regulates ISC proliferation through the EGFR signaling pathway. Furthermore, adult gut-specific knockdown and whole-animal heterozygotes of Mmp1 increased additively sensitivity to paraquat-induced oxidative stress and shortened lifespan. Our data suggest that Drosophila Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation for maintenance of gut homeostasis. -- Highlights: ► Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut. ► Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation activity. ► Mmp1-related ISC proliferation is associated with EGFR signaling. ► Mmp1 in the gut is required for the intestinal homeostasis and longevity.

  2. Variation in adult life history and stress resistance across five species of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Sharmila Bharathi; N. G. Prasad; Mallikarjun Shakarad; Amitabh Joshi

    2003-12-01

    Dry weight at eclosion, adult lifespan, lifetime fecundity, lipid and carbohydrate content at eclosion, and starvation and desiccation resistance at eclosion were assayed on a long-term laboratory population of Drosophila melanogaster, and one recently wild-caught population each of four other species of Drosophila, two from the melanogaster and two from the immigrans species group. The relationships among trait means across the five species did not conform to expectations based on correlations among these traits inferred from selection studies on D. melanogaster. In particular, the expected positive relationships between fecundity and size/lipid content, lipid content and starvation resistance, carbohydrate (glycogen) content and desiccation resistance, and the expected negative relationship between lifespan and fecundity were not observed. Most traits were strongly positively correlated between sexes across species, except for fractional lipid content and starvation resistance per microgram lipid. For most traits, there was evidence for significant sexual dimorphism but the degree of dimorphism did not vary across species except in the case of adult lifespan, starvation resistance per microgram lipid, and desiccation resistance per microgram carbohydrate. Overall, D. nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta (immigrans group) were heavier at eclosion than the melanogaster group species, and tended to have somewhat higher absolute lipid content and starvation resistance. Yet, these two immigrans group species were shorter-lived and had lower average daily fecundity than the melanogaster group species. The smallest species, D. malerkotliana (melanogaster group), had relatively high daily fecundity, intermediate lifespan and high fractional lipid content, especially in females. D. ananassae (melanogaster group) had the highest absolute and fractional carbohydrate content, but its desiccation resistance per microgram carbohydrate was the lowest among the five

  3. Src64 controls a novel actin network required for proper ring canal formation in the Drosophila male germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenes, Åsmund Husabø; Malerød, Lene; Lie-Jensen, Anette; Sem Wegner, Catherine; Brech, Andreas; Liestøl, Knut; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-12-01

    In many organisms, germ cells develop as cysts in which cells are interconnected via ring canals (RCs) as a result of incomplete cytokinesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of incomplete cytokinesis remain poorly understood. Here, we address the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of RCs in the Drosophila male germline. We uncover a hierarchy of tyrosine phosphorylation within germline cysts that positively correlates with RC age. The kinase Src64 is responsible for mediating RC tyrosine phosphorylation, and loss of Src64 causes a reduction in RC diameter within germline cysts. Mechanistically, we show that Src64 controls an actin network around the RCs that depends on Abl and the Rac/SCAR/Arp2/3 pathway. The actin network around RCs is required for correct RC diameter in cysts of developing germ cells. We also identify that Src64 is required for proper germ cell differentiation in the Drosophila male germline independent of its role in RC regulation. In summary, we report that Src64 controls actin dynamics to mediate proper RC formation during incomplete cytokinesis during germline cyst development in vivo. PMID:26628094

  4. Control of male sexual behavior in Drosophila by the sex determination pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Rideout, Elizabeth J; Dornan, Anthony J; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how genes influence behavior, including sexuality, is one of biology's greatest challenges. Much of the recent progress in understanding how single genes can influence behavior has come from the study of innate behaviors in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, the elab

  5. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micael Reis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes.

  6. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Michael W.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of pop...

  7. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not aff...

  8. Developmental expression of drop-dead is required for early adult survival and normal body mass in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Christine Lynn; Blumenthal, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations in the gene drop-dead (drd) result in early adult lethality, with flies dying within 2 weeks of eclosion. Additional phenotypes include neurodegeneration, tracheal defects, starvation, reduced body mass, and female sterility. The cause of early lethality and the function of the drd protein remain unknown. In the current study, the temporal profiles of drd expression required for adult survival and body mass regulation were investigated. Knockdown of drd e...

  9. The Steroid Molting Hormone Ecdysone Regulates Sleep in Adult Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysone is the major steroid hormone in insects and plays essential roles in coordinating developmental transitions such as larval molting and metamorphosis through its active metabolite 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Although ecdysone is present throughout life in both males and females, its functions in adult physiology remain largely unknown. In this study we demonstrate that ecdysone-mediated signaling in the adult is intimately involved in transitions between the physiological states of slee...

  10. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: mating preference in male-, female– and multiple-choice mating experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M T Tanuja; N B Ramachandra; H A Ranganath

    2001-09-01

    Interracial divergence is an important facet of speciation. The nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila with sixteen morphologically identical, karyotypically different but cross-fertile races is an excellent system to study a few dimensions of raciation. Drosophila nasuta nasuta, Drosophila nasuta albomicans, Cytorace 1, Cytorace 2, Cytorace 3 and Cytorace 4 of this subgroup have been subjected to male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments. Out of 8456 crosses conducted, 7185 had successful matings. The overall impression is that mating is far from random amongst these six closely related races of the nasuta-albomicans complex. The males of D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 in male-choice, the females of Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 2 in female-choice, and the males and females of D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 against the males and females of Cytorace 2 in multiple-choice experiments, had significantly more homogamic matings than expected. Thus in this study of evolutionary experimentation on raciation under laboratory conditions, we have documented the initiation of preference for con-specific matings among closely related and independently evolving members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila.

  11. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukoha Ukoha Ukoha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of their faces were taken and traced out on tracing papers. On these, two vertical distances, nasion to subnasal and subnasale to menton, and four angles, nasofrontal (NF, nasofacial, nasomental (NM and mentocervical, were measured. Results: The result showed that the Igbo Nigerian adult male had a middle face that was shorter than the lower one (41.76% vs.58.24%, a moderate glabella (NF=133.97°, a projected nose (NM=38.68° and a less prominent chin (NM=125.87°. Conclusion: This study is very important in medical practice as it can be used to compare the pre- and post-operative results of plastic surgery and other related surgeries of the face.

  12. JAK/STAT signaling regulates tissue outgrowth and male germline stem cell fate in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shree Ram SINGH; Xiu CHEN; Steven X.HOU

    2005-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, biological activities are regulated by cell signaling. The various signal transduction pathways regulate cell fate, proliferation, migration, and polarity. Miscoordination of the communicative signals will lead to disasters like cancer and other fatal diseases. The JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway is one of the pathways, which was first identified in vertebrates and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Studying the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway in Drosophila provides an excellent opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism of the cell regulation during development and tumor formation. In this review, we discuss the general overview of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila with respect to its functions in the eye development and stem cell fate determination.

  13. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  14. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  15. Evolution of male genitalia: environmental and genetic factors affect genital morphology in two Drosophila sibling species and their hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasson Esteban

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid evolution of genital morphology is a fascinating feature that accompanies many speciation events. However, the underlying patterns and explanatory processes remain to be settled. In this work we investigate the patterns of intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence in male genitalic morphology (size and shape in the cactophilic sibling species Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae. Genital morphology in interspecific hybrids was examined and compared to the corresponding parental lines. Results Despite of being siblings, D. buzzatii and D. koepferae showed contrasting patterns of genital morphological variation. Though genitalic size and shape variation have a significant genetic component in both species, shape varied across host cacti only in D. buzzatii. Such plastic expression of genital shape is the first evidence of the effect of rearing substrate on genitalic morphology in Drosophila. Hybrid genital morphology was not intermediate between parental species and the morphological resemblance to parental strains was cross-dependent. Conclusion Our results suggest the evolution of different developmental networks after interspecific divergence and the existence of a complex genetic architecture, involving genetic factors with major effects affecting genital morphology.

  16. DWnt-2, a Drosophila Wnt gene required for the development of the male reproductive tract, specifies a sexually dimorphic cell fate

    OpenAIRE

    Kozopas, Karen M.; Samos, Cindy Harryman; Nusse, Roel

    1998-01-01

    The sexually dimorphic characteristics of the reproductive tract in Drosophila require that cells of the gonad and the genital disc be assigned sex-specific fates. We report here that DWnt-2, a secreted glycoprotein related to wingless, is a signal required for cell fate determination and morphogenesis in the developing male reproductive tract. Testes from DWnt-2 null mutant flies lack the male-specific pigment cells of the reproductive tract sheath and the muscle precursors of the sheath fai...

  17. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an Adult Indian Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Harjai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Following its first description by Guy Patin in 1692 as a disease that turned a woman into wood, Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva has maintained its low profile that too mainly in textbooks and rarely does one encounter a live walking individual affected by this entity. The hallmarks of this deadly disease are the short size of only the big toes and uninhibited progressive ossification of soft tissues. It can have a sporadic occurrence or may even be inherited through autosomal dominant pattern and has a wide range of expression. A wrong clinical diagnosis exposes the patient to unnecessary surgical excision and even harmful radiotherapy.Hence a case of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an adult Indian male is being reported here for the benefit of one and all. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 927-931

  18. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  19. Correlated evolution of male and female reproductive traits drive a cascading effect of reinforcement in Drosophila yakuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeault, Aaron A; Venkat, Aarti; Matute, Daniel R

    2016-07-27

    Selection against maladaptive hybridization can drive the evolution of reproductive isolation in a process called reinforcement. While the importance of reinforcement in evolution has been historically debated, many examples now exist. Despite these examples, we typically lack a detailed understanding of the mechanisms limiting the spread of reinforced phenotypes throughout a species' range. Here we address this issue in the fruit fly Drosophila yakuba, a species that hybridizes with its sister species D. santomea and is undergoing reinforcement in a well-defined hybrid zone on the island of São Tomé. Within this region, female D. yakuba show increased postmating-prezygotic (gametic) isolation towards D. santomea when compared with females from allopatric populations. We use a combination of natural collections, fertility assays, and experimental evolution to understand why reinforced gametic isolation in D. yakuba is confined to this hybrid zone. We show that, among other traits, D. yakuba males from sympatric populations sire fewer progeny than allopatric males when mated to allopatric D. yakuba females. Our results provide a novel example of reinforcement acting on a postmating-prezygotic trait in males, resulting in a cascade of reproductive isolation among conspecific populations. PMID:27440664

  20. Evolution of multiple additive loci caused divergence between Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea in wing rowing during male courtship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cande

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, male flies perform innate, stereotyped courtship behavior. This innate behavior evolves rapidly between fly species, and is likely to have contributed to reproductive isolation and species divergence. We currently understand little about the neurobiological and genetic mechanisms that contributed to the evolution of courtship behavior. Here we describe a novel behavioral difference between the two closely related species D. yakuba and D. santomea: the frequency of wing rowing during courtship. During courtship, D. santomea males repeatedly rotate their wing blades to face forward and then back (rowing, while D. yakuba males rarely row their wings. We found little intraspecific variation in the frequency of wing rowing for both species. We exploited multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG to genotype two backcross populations with a single lane of Illumina sequencing. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping using the ancestry information estimated by MSG and found that the species difference in wing rowing mapped to four or five genetically separable regions. We found no evidence that these loci display epistasis. The identified loci all act in the same direction and can account for most of the species difference.

  1. Lineage mapping identifies molecular and architectural similarities between the larval and adult Drosophila central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacin, Haluk; Truman, James W

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis in Drosophila occurs in two phases, embryonic and post-embryonic, in which the same set of neuroblasts give rise to the distinct larval and adult nervous systems, respectively. Here, we identified the embryonic neuroblast origin of the adult neuronal lineages in the ventral nervous system via lineage-specific GAL4 lines and molecular markers. Our lineage mapping revealed that neurons born late in the embryonic phase show axonal morphology and transcription factor profiles that are similar to the neurons born post-embryonically from the same neuroblast. Moreover, we identified three thorax-specific neuroblasts not previously characterized and show that HOX genes confine them to the thoracic segments. Two of these, NB2-3 and NB3-4, generate leg motor neurons. The other neuroblast is novel and appears to have arisen recently during insect evolution. Our findings provide a comprehensive view of neurogenesis and show how proliferation of individual neuroblasts is dictated by temporal and spatial cues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13399.001 PMID:26975248

  2. The ROP vesicle release factor is required in adult Drosophila glia for normal circadian behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny S. Ng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that endocytosis and/or vesicle recycling mechanisms are essential in adult Drosophila glial cells for the neuronal control of circadian locomotor activity. In this study, our goal was to identify specific glial vesicle trafficking, recycling or release factors that are required for rhythmic behavior. From a glia-specific, RNAi-based genetic screen, we identified 8 glial factors that are required for normally robust circadian rhythms in either a light-dark cycle or in constant dark conditions. In particular, we show that conditional knockdown of the ROP vesicle release factor in adult glial cells results in arrhythmic behavior. Immunostaining for ROP reveals reduced protein in glial cell processes and an accumulation of the Par Domain Protein 1(PDP1 clock output protein in the small lateral clock neurons. These results suggest that glia modulate rhythmic circadian behavior by secretion of factors that act on clock neurons to regulate a clock output factor.

  3. Reduced Calcium Channel Function in Drosophila Disrupts Associative Learning in Larva and Behavior in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Cooper

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature sensitive nature of a mutation in the Cacophony gene, which codes for the alpha subunit in the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel, reduces Ca2+ influx when exposed to non-permissive temperatures. We investigated the subtle nature in the impact for this mutation on whole animal function, in regards to learning and memory, in larvae and adults. The effects in acutely reducing evoked Ca2+ influx in nerve terminals during various behavioural assays greatly decreased the ability of larval Drosophila to learn, as demonstrated in associative learning assays. These assays are based on olfaction and gustation with association to light or dark environments with negative reinforces. Adult flies also showed defects in olfaction and sense of light when the animal is acutely depressed in normal Ca2+ influx within the nervous system. We demonstrated that this particular mutation does not alter cardiac function acutely. Thus, implying that the alpha 1 subunit mutation which retards neuronal function is not relevant for the pace maker and cardiac contractility as indexed by heart rate.

  4. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbretti, Fabiana; Iannetti, Ilaria; Guglielmi, Loredana; Perconti, Susanna; Evangelistella, Chiara; Proietti De Santis, Luca; Bongiorni, Silvia; Prantera, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL), underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL. PMID:26963718

  5. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fabbretti

    Full Text Available Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL, underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL.

  6. DNA – histone interactions are sufficient to position a single nucleosome juxtaposing Drosophila Adh adult enhancer and distal promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, J. R.; Benyajati, C

    1993-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh) of Drosophila melanogaster is transcribed from two tandem promoters in distinct developmental and tissue-specific patterns. Both promoters are regulated by separate upstream enhancer regions. In its wild-type context the adult enhancer specifically stimulates only the distal promoter, approximately 400 bp downstream, and not the proximal promoter, which is approximately 700 bp further downstream. Genomic footprinting and micrococcal nuclease analyses have ...

  7. Tumor suppressors Sav/Scrib and oncogene Ras regulate stem cell transformation in adult Drosophila Malpighian Tubules

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xiankun; Singh, Shree Ram; Hou, David; Steven X Hou

    2010-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that tumors might originate from a few transformed cells that share many properties with normal stem cells. However, it remains unclear how normal stem cells are transformed into cancer stem cells. Here, we demonstrated that mutations causing the loss of tumor suppressor Sav or Scrib or activation of the oncogene Ras transform normal stem cells into cancer stem cells through a multistep process in the adult Drosophila Malpighian Tubules (MTs). In wild-t...

  8. A Sox Transcription Factor Is a Critical Regulator of Adult Stem Cell Proliferation in the Drosophila Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Fanju W. Meng; Benoît Biteau

    2015-01-01

    Adult organs and their resident stem cells are constantly facing the challenge of adapting cell proliferation to tissue demand, particularly in response to environmental stresses. Whereas most stress-signaling pathways are conserved between progenitors and differentiated cells, stem cells have the specific ability to respond by increasing their proliferative rate, using largely unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that a member of the Sox family of transcription factors in Drosophila, Sox21a, is...

  9. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  10. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von;

    2015-01-01

    are able to learn to associate olfactory and gustatory cues with female receptivity, but the role of more arbitrary, visual cues in mate choice learning has been overlooked to date in this species. We therefore carried out a series of experiments to determine: 1) whether males had a baseline...... preference for female eye color (red versus brown), 2) if males could learn to associate an eye color cue with female receptivity, and 3) whether this association disappeared when the males were unable to use this visual cue in the dark. We found that naïve males had no baseline preference for females of...... either eye color, but that males which were trained with sexually receptive females of a given eye color showed a preference for that color during a standard binary choice experiment. The learned cue was indeed likely to be truly visual, since the preference disappeared when the binary choice phase of...

  11. Dosage Compensation of the Period Gene in Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, M K; Hamblen-Coyle, M. J.; Liu, X; Rutila, J E; Hall, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The period (per) gene is located on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Its expression influences biological clocks in this fruit fly, including the one that subserves circadian rhythms of locomotor activity. Like most X-linked genes in Drosophila, per is under the regulatory control of gene dosage compensation. In this study, we assessed the activity of altered or augmented per(+) DNA fragments in transformants. Relative expression levels in male and female adults were inferred from...

  12. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  13. Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön Ybarra, M A

    1986-01-01

    Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers. PMID:3609972

  14. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulik R; Miriyala, Ganesh K; Littleton, Aimee J; Yang, Heiko; Trinh, Kien; Young, Janet M; Kennedy, Scott R; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Pallanck, Leo J; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    Due to their strict maternal inheritance in most animals and plants, mitochondrial genomes are predicted to accumulate mutations that are beneficial or neutral in females but harmful in males. Although a few male-harming mtDNA mutations have been identified, consistent with this ‘Mother’s Curse’, their effect on females has been largely unexplored. Here, we identify COIIG177S, a mtDNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase II, which specifically impairs male fertility due to defects in sperm development and function without impairing other male or female functions. COIIG177S represents one of the clearest examples of a ‘male-harming’ mtDNA mutation in animals and suggest that the hypomorphic mtDNA mutations like COIIG177S might specifically impair male gametogenesis. Intriguingly, some D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COIIG177S -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16923.001 PMID:27481326

  15. The ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase regulates adult intestinal stem cell proliferation during homeostasis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghan; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Yang, Eungi; Nojima, Hisashi; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-05-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation, and is aberrantly activated in colorectal cancer. Inhibitors of the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks) have become lead therapeutic candidates for Wnt-driven cancers, following the recent discovery that Tnks targets Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, for proteolysis. Initial reports indicated that Tnks is important for Wnt pathway activation in cultured human cell lines. However, the requirement for Tnks in physiological settings has been less clear, as subsequent studies in mice, fish and flies suggested that Tnks was either entirely dispensable for Wnt-dependent processes in vivo, or alternatively, had tissue-specific roles. Here, using null alleles, we demonstrate that the regulation of Axin by the highly conserved Drosophila Tnks homolog is essential for the control of ISC proliferation. Furthermore, in the adult intestine, where activity of the Wingless pathway is graded and peaks at each compartmental boundary, Tnks is dispensable for signaling in regions where pathway activity is high, but essential where pathway activity is relatively low. Finally, as observed previously for Wingless pathway components, Tnks activity in absorptive enterocytes controls the proliferation of neighboring ISCs non-autonomously by regulating JAK/STAT signaling. These findings reveal the requirement for Tnks in the control of ISC proliferation and suggest an essential role in the amplification of Wnt signaling, with relevance for development, homeostasis and cancer. PMID:27190037

  16. Personality Profiles of Adult Males Sexually Molested by Their Maternal Caregivers: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roys, Deloris T.; Timms, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined two groups of adult males who had been sexually abused as children by female maternal caregivers: those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual abuse survivor work, and those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual offender work. These groups show greater psychological disruption than adult males who as children had not…

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  5. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stéphanie Bedhomme; Adam K. Chippindale; N. G. Prasad; Matthieu Delcourt; Jessica K. Abbott; Martin A. Mallet; Howard D. Rundle

    2011-12-01

    Sexually dimorphic traits are likely to have evolved through sexually antagonistic selection. However, recent empirical data suggest that intralocus sexual conflict often persists, even when traits have diverged between males and females. This implies that evolved dimorphism is often incomplete in resolving intralocus conflict, providing a mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variance in fitness-related traits. We used experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to directly test for ongoing conflict over a suite of sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) that are likely targets of sex-specific selection. Using a set of experimental populations in which the transmission of genetic material had been restricted to males for 82 generations, we show that CHCs did not evolve, providing experimental evidence for the absence of current intralocus sexual conflict over these traits. The absence of ongoing conflict could indicate that CHCs have never been the target of sexually antagonistic selection, although this would require the existing dimorphism to have evolved via completely sex-linked mutations or as a result of former, but now absent, pleiotropic effects of the underlying loci on another trait under sexually antagonistic selection. An alternative interpretation, and which we believe to be more likely, is that the extensive CHC sexual dimorphism is the result of past intralocus sexual conflict that has been fully resolved, implying that these traits have evolved genetic independence between the sexes and that genetic variation in them is therefore maintained by alternative mechanisms. This latter interpretation is consistent with the known roles of CHCs in sexual communication in this species and with previous studies suggesting the genetic independence of CHCs between males and females. Nevertheless, direct estimates of sexually antagonistic selection will be important to fully resolve these alternatives.

  6. Sequence signatures involved in targeting the male-specific lethal complex to X-chromosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Philge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage-compensation system that equalizes X-linked gene expression between males and females, thereby assuring that an appropriate balance is maintained between the expression of genes on the X chromosome(s and the autosomes, is at least partially mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL complex. This complex binds to genes with a preference for exons on the male X chromosome with a 3' bias, and it targets most expressed genes on the X chromosome. However, a number of genes are expressed but not targeted by the complex. High affinity sites seem to be responsible for initial recruitment of the complex to the X chromosome, but the targeting to and within individual genes is poorly understood. Results We have extensively examined X chromosome sequence variation within five types of gene features (promoters, 5' UTRs, coding sequences, introns, 3' UTRs and intergenic sequences, and assessed its potential involvement in dosage compensation. Presented results show that: the X chromosome has a distinct sequence composition within its gene features; some of the detected variation correlates with genes targeted by the MSL-complex; the insulator protein BEAF-32 preferentially binds upstream of MSL-bound genes; BEAF-32 and MOF co-localizes in promoters; and that bound genes have a distinct sequence composition that shows a 3' bias within coding sequence. Conclusions Although, many strongly bound genes are close to a high affinity site neither our promoter motif nor our coding sequence signatures show any correlation to HAS. Based on the results presented here, we believe that there are sequences in the promoters and coding sequences of targeted genes that have the potential to direct the secondary spreading of the MSL-complex to nearby genes.

  7. Segment-specific Ca(2+) transport by isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster: A comparison of larval and adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Austin; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Haemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved through the regulation of calcium excretion by Malpighian tubules in two ways: (1) sequestration of calcium within biomineralized granules and (2) secretion of calcium in soluble form within the primary urine. Using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET), basolateral Ca(2+) transport was measured at the distal, transitional, main and proximal tubular segments of anterior tubules isolated from both 3rd instar larvae and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Basolateral Ca(2+) transport exceeded transepithelial secretion by 800-fold and 11-fold in anterior tubules of larvae and adults, respectively. The magnitude of Ca(2+) fluxes across the distal tubule of larvae and adults were larger than fluxes across the downstream segments by 10 and 40 times, respectively, indicating a dominant role for the distal segment in whole animal Ca(2+) regulation. Basolateral Ca(2+) transport across distal tubules of Drosophila varied throughout the life cycle; Ca(2+) was released by distal tubules of larvae, taken up by distal tubules of young adults and was released once again by tubules of adults ⩾ 168 h post-eclosion. In adults and larvae, SIET measurements revealed sites of both Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+) release across the basolateral surface of the distal segment of the same tubule, indicating that Ca(2+) transport is bidirectional. Ca(2+) uptake across the distal segment of tubules of young adults and Ca(2+) release across the distal segment of tubules of older adults was also suggestive of reversible Ca(2+) storage. Our results suggest that the distal tubules of D. melanogaster are dynamic calcium stores which allow efficient haemolymph calcium regulation through active Ca(2+) sequestration during periods of high dietary calcium intake and passive Ca(2+) release during periods of calcium deficiency. PMID:26802560

  8. Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Widén, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and female...

  9. Hindsight/RREB-1 functions in both the specification and differentiation of stem cells in the adult midgut of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Brittany L; McKnight, Cameron; Pruchnicki, Porsha C; Biro, Nicole A; Reed, Bruce H

    2015-01-01

    The adult Drosophila midgut is established during the larval/pupal transition from undifferentiated cells known as adult midgut precursors (AMPs). Four fundamental cell types are found in the adult midgut epithelium: undifferentiated intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their committed daughter cells, enteroblasts (EBs), plus enterocytes (ECs) and enteroendocrine cells (EEs). Using the Drosophila posterior midgut as a model, we have studied the function of the transcription factor Hindsight (Hnt)/RREB-1 and its relationship to the Notch and Egfr signaling pathways. We show that hnt is required for EC differentiation in the context of ISC-to-EC differentiation, but not in the context of AMP-to-EC differentiation. In addition, we show that hnt is required for the establishment of viable or functional ISCs. Overall, our studies introduce hnt as a key factor in the regulation of both the developing and the mature adult midgut. We suggest that the nature of these contextual differences can be explained through the interaction of hnt with multiple signaling pathways. PMID:26658272

  10. Hindsight/RREB-1 functions in both the specification and differentiation of stem cells in the adult midgut of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Baechler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult Drosophila midgut is established during the larval/pupal transition from undifferentiated cells known as adult midgut precursors (AMPs. Four fundamental cell types are found in the adult midgut epithelium: undifferentiated intestinal stem cells (ISCs and their committed daughter cells, enteroblasts (EBs, plus enterocytes (ECs and enteroendocrine cells (EEs. Using the Drosophila posterior midgut as a model, we have studied the function of the transcription factor Hindsight (Hnt/RREB-1 and its relationship to the Notch and Egfr signaling pathways. We show that hnt is required for EC differentiation in the context of ISC-to-EC differentiation, but not in the context of AMP-to-EC differentiation. In addition, we show that hnt is required for the establishment of viable or functional ISCs. Overall, our studies introduce hnt as a key factor in the regulation of both the developing and the mature adult midgut. We suggest that the nature of these contextual differences can be explained through the interaction of hnt with multiple signaling pathways.

  11. Different degree of paternal mtDNA leakage between male and female progeny in interspecific Drosophila crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D

    2014-07-01

    Maternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in animals is thought to prevent the spread of selfish deleterious mtDNA mutations in the population. Various mechanisms have been evolved independently to prevent the entry of sperm mitochondria in the embryo. However, the increasing number of instances of paternal mtDNA leakage suggests that these mechanisms are not very effective. The destruction of sperm mitochondria in mammalian embryos is mediated by nuclear factors. Also, the destruction of paternal mitochondria in intraspecific crosses is more effective than in interspecific ones. These observations have led to the hypothesis that leakage of paternal mtDNA (and consequently mtDNA recombination owing to ensuing heteroplasmy) might be more common in inter- than in intraspecific crosses and that it should increase with phylogenetic distance of hybridizing species. We checked paternal leakage in inter- and intraspecific crosses in Drosophila and found little evidence for this hypothesis. In addition, we have observed a higher level of leakage among male than among female progeny from the same cross. This is the first report of sex-specific leakage of paternal mtDNA. It suggests that paternal mtDNA leakage might not be a stochastic result of an error-prone mechanism, but rather, it may be under complex genetic control. PMID:25077015

  12. RNA helicase Belle (DDX3) is essential for male germline stem cell maintenance and division in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Alexei A; Olenkina, Oxana M; Kibanov, Mikhail V; Olenina, Ludmila V

    2016-06-01

    The present study showed that RNA helicase Belle (DDX3) was required intrinsically for mitotic progression and survival of germline stem cells (GSCs) and spermatogonial cells in the Drosophila melanogaster testes. We found that deficiency of Belle in the male germline resulted in a strong germ cell loss phenotype. Early germ cells are lost through cell death, whereas somatic hub and cyst cell populations are maintained. The observed phenotype is related to that of the human Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome caused by the loss of DBY (DDX3) expression in the human testes and results in a complete lack of germ cells with preservation of somatic Sertoli cells. We found the hallmarks of mitotic G2 delay in early germ cells of the larval testes of bel mutants. Both mitotic cyclins, A and B, are markedly reduced in the gonads of bel mutants. Transcription levels of cycB and cycA decrease significantly in the testes of hypomorph bel mutants. Overexpression of Cyclin B in the germline partially rescues germ cell survival, mitotic progression and fertility in the bel-RNAi knockdown testes. Taken together, these results suggest that a role of Belle in GSC maintenance and regulation of early germ cell divisions is associated with the expression control of mitotic cyclins. PMID:26876306

  13. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Ariane C; Chaurasia, Soumya; McKee, Bruce D; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-04-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase. PMID:27120695

  14. Genetic architecture of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila: analysis of intraspecies variation for interspecies isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Reed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of postzygotic isolation is a central puzzle in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary forces causing hybrid sterility or inviability act on the responsible genes while they still are polymorphic, thus we have to study these traits as they arise, before isolation is complete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isofemale strains of D. mojavensis vary significantly in their production of sterile F(1 sons when females are crossed to D. arizonae males. We took advantage of the intraspecific polymorphism, in a novel design, to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping analyses directly on F(1 hybrid male sterility itself. We found that the genetic architecture of the polymorphism for hybrid male sterility (HMS in the F(1 is complex, involving multiple QTL, epistasis, and cytoplasmic effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The role of extensive intraspecific polymorphism, multiple QTL, and epistatic interactions in HMS in this young species pair shows that HMS is arising as a complex trait in this system. Directional selection alone would be unlikely to maintain polymorphism at multiple loci, thus we hypothesize that directional selection is unlikely to be the only evolutionary force influencing postzygotic isolation.

  15. A dataset for assessing temporal changes in gene expression during the aging process of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly A; Zhang, Chi; Harshman, Lawrence G

    2016-06-01

    A Drosophila melanogaster genome-wide transcriptome dataset is available for studies on temporal patterns of gene expression. Gene expression was measured using two-dye color oligonucleotide arrays derived from Version 2 of the Drosophila Genomics Resource Center. A total of 15,158 oligonucleotide probes corresponded to a high proportion of the coding genes in the genome. The source of the flies was a highly genetically heterogeneous population maintained in an overlapping generation population regime. This regime was designed to maintain life history traits so that they were similar to those found in natural populations. Flies collected for the cohorts were obtained in a short period of time in a carefully controlled manner before virgin females and males were allowed to mate. Mated females were introduced into two large population cages in unusually high numbers (approximately 12,000 per cage) for a Drosophila laboratory longevity study. Samples were taken weekly from each cohort for 11 weeks; only a small proportion of surviving flies were present at the last two collection time points and thus they were exceptionally old compared to those collected in early-to-midlife samples. The data set is useful for studies of temporal patterns of gene expression as flies age. The very large size of each cohort, and relatively frequent incidence of temporal samples, allows for a fine-scale study of gene expression from young to very old flies. PMID:27252981

  16. Multidendritic sensory neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen: origins, dendritic morphology, and segment- and age-dependent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimura Kaoru

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the establishment of functional neural circuits that support a wide range of animal behaviors, initial circuits formed in early development have to be reorganized. One way to achieve this is local remodeling of the circuitry hardwiring. To genetically investigate the underlying mechanisms of this remodeling, one model system employs a major group of Drosophila multidendritic sensory neurons - the dendritic arborization (da neurons - which exhibit dramatic dendritic pruning and subsequent growth during metamorphosis. The 15 da neurons are identified in each larval abdominal hemisegment and are classified into four categories - classes I to IV - in order of increasing size of their receptive fields and/or arbor complexity at the mature larval stage. Our knowledge regarding the anatomy and developmental basis of adult da neurons is still fragmentary. Results We identified multidendritic neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen, visualized the dendritic arbors of the individual neurons, and traced the origins of those cells back to the larval stage. There were six da neurons in abdominal hemisegment 3 or 4 (A3/4 of the pharate adult and the adult just after eclosion, five of which were persistent larval da neurons. We quantitatively analyzed dendritic arbors of three of the six adult neurons and examined expression in the pharate adult of key transcription factors that result in the larval class-selective dendritic morphologies. The 'baseline design' of A3/4 in the adult was further modified in a segment-dependent and age-dependent manner. One of our notable findings is that a larval class I neuron, ddaE, completed dendritic remodeling in A2 to A4 and then underwent caspase-dependent cell death within 1 week after eclosion, while homologous neurons in A5 and in more posterior segments degenerated at pupal stages. Another finding is that the dendritic arbor of a class IV neuron, v'ada, was immediately reshaped during post

  17. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  18. Alaska northern fur seal adult male satellite telemetry data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...

  19. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  20. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  1. Depressive-Like Behavioral Response of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys during Routine Animal Husbandry Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael B.; Brenda McCowan

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two ...

  2. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  3. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  4. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  5. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  6. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785. ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2014

  7. Internal dose from ingestion for Japanese adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal doses by ingestion for Japanese males were estimated from a literature survey. Intakes were derived form estimated food intakes and from whole-body counting. Total annual effective doses form natural and manmade sources were estimated to be 0.4 mSv and 0.002 mSv, respectively. 32 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Croft

    Full Text Available i to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand.Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors.Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61% and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving. Older men (aged +55 years old had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74 and when involved in different activities.Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies.

  9. Protein and carbohydrate composition of larval food affects tolerance tothermal stress and desiccation in adult Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laila H; Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2010-01-01

    Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult insects. Here we test whether raising larvae of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, on two different nutritional regimes affects resistance to cold, heat and desiccation...

  10. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanabe, Karin; Katsube, Hiroka; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam) is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC) is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis. PMID:27402967

  11. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanabe, Karin; Katsube, Hiroka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam) is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC) is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis. PMID:27402967

  12. S-value of Radioiodine(131I) in Korean Reference Adult Male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand the effects of absorbed radioiodine upon Korean reference adult male, a mathematical phantom representation was contrived based on composite data of the physiology of Korean reference adult male. Using this, S-values of radioiodine() per each organ were calculated. The calculated S-values were compared to the existing data described in the TM-8381 report of ORNL calculated on the basis of an ICRP-23 reference male. The results indicated that S-values were higher for the phantom based on Korean reference adult male. The results of this study illustrate that, while the bio-chemical constitution of each source and target organ of the torso are important, the relative location of the organs and characteristics of the radionuclides also exert important influences.

  13. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males. PMID:25683788

  14. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  15. A subset of neurons controls the permeability of the peritrophic matrix and midgut structure in Drosophila adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmoku, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Ote, Manabu; Kuraishi, Takayuki; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2016-08-01

    The metazoan gut performs multiple physiological functions, including digestion and absorption of nutrients, and also serves as a physical and chemical barrier against ingested pathogens and abrasive particles. Maintenance of these functions and structures is partly controlled by the nervous system, yet the precise roles and mechanisms of the neural control of gut integrity remain to be clarified in Drosophila Here, we screened for GAL4 enhancer-trap strains and labeled a specific subsets of neurons, using Kir2.1 to inhibit their activity. We identified an NP3253 line that is susceptible to oral infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The subset of neurons driven by the NP3253 line includes some of the enteric neurons innervating the anterior midgut, and these flies have a disorganized proventricular structure with high permeability of the peritrophic matrix and epithelial barrier. The findings of the present study indicate that neural control is crucial for maintaining the barrier function of the gut, and provide a route for genetic dissection of the complex brain-gut axis in adults of the model organism Drosophila. PMID:27229474

  16. A high-resolution whole-genome map of key chromatin modifications in the adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Yin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic research has been focused on cell-type-specific regulation; less is known about common features of epigenetic programming shared by diverse cell types within an organism. Here, we report a modified method for chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq and its use to construct a high-resolution map of the Drosophila melanogaster key histone marks, heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a and RNA polymerase II (polII. These factors are mapped at 50-bp resolution genome-wide and at 5-bp resolution for regulatory sequences of genes, which reveals fundamental features of chromatin modification landscape shared by major adult Drosophila cell types: the enrichment of both heterochromatic and euchromatic marks in transposons and repetitive sequences, the accumulation of HP1a at transcription start sites with stalled polII, the signatures of histone code and polII level/position around the transcriptional start sites that predict both the mRNA level and functionality of genes, and the enrichment of elongating polII within exons at splicing junctions. These features, likely conserved among diverse epigenomes, reveal general strategies for chromatin modifications.

  17. UPRT, a suicide-gene therapy candidate in higher eukaryotes, is required for Drosophila larval growth and normal adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arpan C; Shimell, MaryJane; Leof, Emma R; Haley, Macy J; O'Connor, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) is a pyrimidine salvage pathway enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of uracil to uridine monophosphate (UMP). The enzyme is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans and yet phylogenetic evidence suggests that UPRT homologues from higher-eukaryotes, including Drosophila, are incapable of binding uracil. Purified human UPRT also do not show any enzymatic activity in vitro, making microbial UPRT an attractive candidate for anti-microbial drug development, suicide-gene therapy, and cell-specific mRNA labeling techniques. Nevertheless, the enzymatic site of UPRT remains conserved across the animal kingdom indicating an in vivo role for the enzyme. We find that the Drosophila UPRT homologue, krishah (kri), codes for an enzyme that is required for larval growth, pre-pupal/pupal viability and long-term adult lifespan. Our findings suggest that UPRT from all higher eukaryotes is likely enzymatically active in vivo and challenges the previous notion that the enzyme is non-essential in higher eukaryotes and cautions against targeting the enzyme for therapeutic purposes. Our findings also suggest that expression of the endogenous UPRT gene will likely cause background incorporation when using microbial UPRT as a cell-specific mRNA labeling reagent in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26271729

  18. Drosophila homologs of transcriptional mediator complex subunits are required for adult cell and segment identity specification

    OpenAIRE

    Boube, Muriel; Faucher, Christian; Joulia, Laurent; Cribbs, David L.; Bourbon, Henri-Marc

    2000-01-01

    The origins of specificity in gene expression are a central concern in understanding developmental control. Mediator protein complexes regulate transcriptional initiation, acting as modular adaptors linking specific transcription factors to core RNA polymerase II. Here, we identified the Drosophila homologs of 23 human mediator genes and mutations of two, dTRAP240 and of dTRAP80 (the putative fly homolog of yeast SRB4). Clonal analysis indicates a general role for dTRAP80 necessary for cell v...

  19. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila ventral nervous system: Neuroglian expression reveals the adult hemilineage associated fiber tracts in the adult thoracic neuromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, David; Harris, Robin; Williams, Darren W; Truman, James W

    2016-09-01

    During larval life most of the thoracic neuroblasts (NBs) in Drosophila undergo a second phase of neurogenesis to generate adult-specific neurons that remain in an immature, developmentally stalled state until pupation. Using a combination of MARCM and immunostaining with a neurotactin antibody, Truman et al. (2004; Development 131:5167-5184) identified 24 adult-specific NB lineages within each thoracic hemineuromere of the larval ventral nervous system (VNS), but because of the neurotactin labeling of lineage tracts disappearing early in metamorphosis, they were unable extend the identification of these lineages into the adult. Here we show that immunostaining with an antibody against the cell adhesion molecule neuroglian reveals the same larval secondary lineage projections through metamorphosis and bfy identifying each neuroglian-positive tract at selected stages we have traced the larval hemilineage tracts for all three thoracic neuromeres through metamorphosis into the adult. To validate tract identifications we used the genetic toolkit developed by Harris et al. (2015; Elife 4) to preserve hemilineage-specific GAL4 expression patterns from larval into the adult stage. The immortalized expression proved a powerful confirmation of the analysis of the neuroglian scaffold. This work has enabled us to directly link the secondary, larval NB lineages to their adult counterparts. The data provide an anatomical framework that 1) makes it possible to assign most neurons to their parent lineage and 2) allows more precise definitions of the neuronal organization of the adult VNS based in developmental units/rules. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2677-2695, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878258

  20. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of 14C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  1. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients.

  2. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in...

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors in young male adults: impact of physical activity and parental education

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Çuhadar; Ayşenur Atay; Gülcan Sağlam; Mehmet Köseoğlu; Levent Çuhadar

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to assess whether choices of physical activity, smoking status, and parental education and income were correlated with the health status of young adult males which are important for preventive health policy. Methods: 491 18-29-year old males from lower socioeconomical districts in Turkey participated in this study. Information about demographic characteristics, parental education, household income, smoking status, and physical activity was obtained by mean...

  4. Evolution of Pre- and Post-Copulatory Traits in Male Drosophila melanogaster as a Correlated Response to Selection for Resistance to Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Singh

    Full Text Available In Drosophila melanogaster the fitness of males depends on a broad array of reproductive traits classified as pre- and post-copulatory traits. Exposure to cold stress, can reduce sperm number, male mating ability and courtship behavior. Therefore, it is expected that the adaptation to cold stress will involve changes in pre- and post-copulatory traits. Such evolution of reproductive traits in response to cold stress is not well studied.We selected replicate populations of D. melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. Over 37-46 generations of selection, we investigated pre- and post-copulatory traits such as mating latency, copulation duration, mating frequency, male fertility, fitness (progeny production and sperm competitive ability in male flies subjected to cold shock and those not subjected to cold shock.We found that post cold shock, the males from the selected populations had a significantly lower mating latency along with, higher mating frequency, fertility, sperm competitive ability and number of progeny relative to the control populations.While most studies of experimental evolution of cold stress resistance have documented the evolution of survivorship in response to selection, our study clearly shows that adaptation to cold stress involves rapid changes in the pre- and post-copulatory traits. Additionally, improved performances under stressful conditions need not necessarily trade-off with performance under benign conditions.

  5. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found tha...

  6. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  7. Effect of methoprene application, adult food and feeding duration on male melon fly starvation survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of methoprene and access to protein in adult diet has been shown to enhance mating success in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their incorporation into operational area-wide programmes integrating the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). T...

  8. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Wilson; F. Happé; S.J. Wheelwright; C. Ecker; M.V. Lombardo; P. Johnston; E. Daly; C.M. Murphy; D. Spain; M-C. Lai; B Chakrabarti; D.A. Sauter; - MRC AIMS Consortium; S. Baron-Cohen; D.G.M. Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of c

  9. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  10. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  11. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. mgm 1, the earliest sex-specific germline marker in Drosophila, reflects expression of the gene esg in male stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Adrian; Bernasconi, Luca; Sergeev, Pavel; Cruz, Alex; Steinmann-Zwicky, Monica

    2002-01-01

    The pathway that controls sex in Drosophila has been well characterized. The elements of this genetic hierarchy act cell-autonomously in somatic cells. We have previously shown that the sex of germ cells is determined by a different mechanism and that somatic and autonomously acting elements interact to control the choice between spermatogenesis and oogenesis. A target for both types of signals is the enhancer-trap mgm1, which monitors male-specific gene expression in germ cells. Here we report that mgm1 reflects the expression of escargot (esg), a member of the snail gene family, which are transcription factors with zink finger motifs. Genes of this family partially redundantly control a number of processes involving cell fate choices. The regulation of gene expression in germ cells by sex-specific esg enhancers is already seen in embryos. Therefore, autonomous and non-autonomous sex-specific factors that participate in germline sex determination are already present at this early stage. esg is expressed in the male gonad, both in somatic cells and in germline stem cells. We show that esg expression in the male germline is not required for proper sex determination and spermatogenesis, as functional sperm is differentiated by mutant germ cells in wild type hosts. However, somatic esg expression is required for the maintenance of male germline stem cells. PMID:11902678

  13. Open source tracking and analysis of adult Drosophila locomotion in Buridan's paradigm with and without visual targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Colomb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects have been among the most widely used model systems for studying the control of locomotion by nervous systems. In Drosophila, we implemented a simple test for locomotion: in Buridan's paradigm, flies walk back and forth between two inaccessible visual targets [1]. Until today, the lack of easily accessible tools for tracking the fly position and analyzing its trajectory has probably contributed to the slow acceptance of Buridan's paradigm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present here a package of open source software designed to track a single animal walking in a homogenous environment (Buritrack and to analyze its trajectory. The Centroid Trajectory Analysis (CeTrAn software is coded in the open source statistics project R. It extracts eleven metrics and includes correlation analyses and a Principal Components Analysis (PCA. It was designed to be easily customized to personal requirements. In combination with inexpensive hardware, these tools can readily be used for teaching and research purposes. We demonstrate the capabilities of our package by measuring the locomotor behavior of adult Drosophila melanogaster (whose wings were clipped, either in the presence or in the absence of visual targets, and comparing the latter to different computer-generated data. The analysis of the trajectories confirms that flies are centrophobic and shows that inaccessible visual targets can alter the orientation of the flies without changing their overall patterns of activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using computer generated data, the analysis software was tested, and chance values for some metrics (as well as chance value for their correlation were set. Our results prompt the hypothesis that fixation behavior is observed only if negative phototaxis can overcome the propensity of the flies to avoid the center of the platform. Together with our companion paper, we provide new tools to promote Open Science as well as the collection and

  14. Personality and symptoms of psychological ill health among adult male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle

    2011-05-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. Male offenders (N = 161) housed at two medium-high-risk institutions completed the Ten Item Personality Inventory and the Symptom Checklist Outpatient Rating Scale. Emotional stability emerged as the strongest individual predictor of psychological ill health and predicted each of the subscales measured (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism) and overall symptoms. Although agreeableness predicted depression and anger-hostility only, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience did not predict any aspect of psychological ill health investigated. The findings contribute to the current literature and provide further information about the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. PMID:20798143

  15. Sexual Dimorphism in the Effect of a Taurine Supplemented Diet on Life Span in Adult Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, A; B. Talon; S. Shirkey; Habib, I.; Smith, L.A.; J. Nadolski

    2011-01-01

    As the amino acid taurine is being used more frequently in human and animal diets, the exact physiological role and benefit have not been fully elucidated. To determine if taurine can impact long term physiology, we investigated the effects of a chronic taurine supplemented diet using the model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. We specifically studied how life span and development are affected. A pairwise comparison of survival curves found a significant difference between male and female fr...

  16. Development of a Korean adult male computational phantom for internal dosimetry calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Korean adult male computational phantom was constructed based on the current anthropometric and organ volume data of Korean average adult male, and was applied to calculate internal photon dosimetry data. The stylised models of external body, skeleton, and a total of 13 internal organs (brain, gall bladder, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, spleen, stomach, testes, thymus, thyroid and urinary bladder) were redesigned based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) adult phantom. The height of trunk of the Korean phantom was 8.6% less than that of the ORNL adult phantom, and the volumes of all organs decreased up to 65% (pancreas) except for brain, gall bladder wall and thymus. Specific absorbed fraction (SAF) was calculated using the Korean phantom and Monte Carlo code, and compared with those from the ORNL adult phantom. The SAF of organs in the Korean phantom was overall higher than that from the ORNL adult phantom. This was caused by the smaller organ volume and the shorter inter-organ distance in the Korean phantom. The self SAF was dominantly affected by the difference in organ volume, and the SAF for different source and target organs was more affected by the inter-organ distance than by the organ volume difference. The SAFs of the Korean stylised phantom differ from those of the ORNL phantom by 10-180%. The comparison study of internal dosimetry will be extended to tomographic phantom and electron source in the future. (authors)

  17. Male- and female-specific variants of doublesex gene products have different roles to play towards regulation of Sex combs reduced expression and sex comb morphogenesis in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thangjam Ranjita Devi; B V Shyamala

    2013-09-01

    Sexually dimorphic characters have two-fold complexities in pattern formation as they have to get input fromboth somatic sex determination as well as the positional determining regulators. Sex comb development in Drosophila requires functions of the somatic sex-determining gene doublesex and the homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Attempts have not been made to decipher the role of dsx in imparting sexually dimorphic expression of SCR and the differential function of sex-specific variants of dsx products in sex comb development. Our results in this study indicate that male-like pattern of SCR expression is independent of dsx function, and dsxF must be responsible for bringing about dimorphism in SCR expression, whereas dsxM function is required with Scr for the morphogenesis of sex comb.

  18. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  19. Inhibition of GSK-3 ameliorates Abeta pathology in an adult-onset Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyinkan Sofola

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abeta peptide accumulation is thought to be the primary event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, with downstream neurotoxic effects including the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 is increasingly implicated as playing a pivotal role in this amyloid cascade. We have developed an adult-onset Drosophila model of AD, using an inducible gene expression system to express Arctic mutant Abeta42 specifically in adult neurons, to avoid developmental effects. Abeta42 accumulated with age in these flies and they displayed increased mortality together with progressive neuronal dysfunction, but in the apparent absence of neuronal loss. This fly model can thus be used to examine the role of events during adulthood and early AD aetiology. Expression of Abeta42 in adult neurons increased GSK-3 activity, and inhibition of GSK-3 (either genetically or pharmacologically by lithium treatment rescued Abeta42 toxicity. Abeta42 pathogenesis was also reduced by removal of endogenous fly tau; but, within the limits of detection of available methods, tau phosphorylation did not appear to be altered in flies expressing Abeta42. The GSK-3-mediated effects on Abeta42 toxicity appear to be at least in part mediated by tau-independent mechanisms, because the protective effect of lithium alone was greater than that of the removal of tau alone. Finally, Abeta42 levels were reduced upon GSK-3 inhibition, pointing to a direct role of GSK-3 in the regulation of Abeta42 peptide level, in the absence of APP processing. Our study points to the need both to identify the mechanisms by which GSK-3 modulates Abeta42 levels in the fly and to determine if similar mechanisms are present in mammals, and it supports the potential therapeutic use of GSK-3 inhibitors in AD.

  20. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:26470310

  1. Depressive-Like Behavioral Response of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys during Routine Animal Husbandry Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Hennessy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors—lying on the substrate and day time sleeping—that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7 to 14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood.

  2. Depressive-like behavioral response of adult male rhesus monkeys during routine animal husbandry procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; McCowan, Brenda; Jiang, Jing; Capitanio, John P

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors-lying on the substrate and day time sleeping-that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7-14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood. PMID:25249954

  3. LUNG FUNCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FORCED VITAL CAPACITY (FVC) AND BODY MASS INDEX IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

    OpenAIRE

    MR Swaroop

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a serious public health issue and is related to lung dysfunction. This study was planned to assess the correlation between the pulmonary function like FVC and increasing BMI in young adult males. This study was undertaken in normal weight and overweight young adult males of Balagangadaranatha nagara. The study and control groups were comprised of 120 male subjects between the age group 18-24 years randomly selected from the population of Balagangadarana...

  4. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult male Oman is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets in serologically HIV-seronegative healthy male adults in Oman. A cohort, of 118 healthy male blood donors ranging in age from 18-51 years, was included in the study. The average was 25 years. Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. This study was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the year 2006. For the 118 males investigated, the mean percentage and absolute values of the lymphocyte subsets were as follows: Cd3: 68.53+-7.5%, 1701+-489 cells/ul; CD8: 25.8+-5.9%, 638+-225 cells/ul; CD19: 13.7+-4.7%, 349+-158 cells/ul, CD56: 12.2+-6.7%, 308+-204 cells/ul. The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.6. Immunophenotyping has been used to establish reference values of lymphocyte subsets in normal healthy adult males in Oman. The Omani male reference values obtained in this study show wide variations compared with kits values previously used as reference. (author)

  5. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. ...

  6. Effect of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on some reproductive and sperm parameters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to examine the effect of oral administration of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on spermatogenesis, accessory sex glands and serum testosterone level in adult male rats aged 2.5-3 months. The extract was administered orally daily at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. The results showed that the extract at the three doses significantly reduced testis weight and testosterone level. Furthermore a significant reduction in sperm count, weight of body, tail of epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in rats treated with extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg compared with control, associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms compared with control. It was concluded that Rosmarinus Officinalis extract administration to adult male rats caused adverse effects on some reproductive and semen parameters.

  7. Notch is required in adult Drosophila sensory neurons for morphological and functional plasticity of the olfactory circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kidd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs convey odor information to the central brain, but like other sensory neurons were thought to play a passive role in memory formation and storage. Here we show that Notch, part of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway, is required in adult Drosophila ORNs for the structural and functional plasticity of olfactory glomeruli that is induced by chronic odor exposure. Specifically, we show that Notch activity in ORNs is necessary for the odor specific increase in the volume of glomeruli that occurs as a consequence of prolonged odor exposure. Calcium imaging experiments indicate that Notch in ORNs is also required for the chronic odor induced changes in the physiology of ORNs and the ensuing changes in the physiological response of their second order projection neurons (PNs. We further show that Notch in ORNs acts by both canonical cleavage-dependent and non-canonical cleavage-independent pathways. The Notch ligand Delta (Dl in PNs switches the balance between the pathways. These data define a circuit whereby, in conjunction with odor, N activity in the periphery regulates the activity of neurons in the central brain and Dl in the central brain regulates N activity in the periphery. Our work highlights the importance of experience dependent plasticity at the first olfactory synapse.

  8. Drosophila homologs of transcriptional mediator complex subunits are required for adult cell and segment identity specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boube, Muriel; Faucher, Christian; Joulia, Laurent; Cribbs, David L.; Bourbon, Henri-Marc

    2000-01-01

    The origins of specificity in gene expression are a central concern in understanding developmental control. Mediator protein complexes regulate transcriptional initiation, acting as modular adaptors linking specific transcription factors to core RNA polymerase II. Here, we identified the Drosophila homologs of 23 human mediator genes and mutations of two, dTRAP240 and of dTRAP80 (the putative fly homolog of yeast SRB4). Clonal analysis indicates a general role for dTRAP80 necessary for cell viability. The dTRAP240 gene is also essential, but cells lacking its function are viable and proliferate normally. Clones reveal localized developmental activities including a sex comb cell identity function. This contrasts with the ubiquitous nuclear accumulation of dTRAP240 protein in imaginal discs. Synergistic genetic interactions support shared developmental cell and segment identity functions of dTRAP240 and dTRAP80, potentially within a common complex. Further, they identify the homeotic Sex combs reduced product, required for the same cell/tissue identities, as a functional partner of these mediator proteins. PMID:11090137

  9. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V.; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A.; ,; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and...

  10. A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Chuan Lai; Lombardo, Michael V.; Greg Pasco; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A; Bhismadev Chakrabarti; Simon Baron-Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (h...

  11. Effects of Adult Male Circumcision on Premature Ejaculation: Results from a Prospective Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingjing Gao; Chuan Xu; Jingjing Zhang; Chaozhao Liang; Puyu Su; Zhen Peng; Kai Shi; Dongdong Tang; Pan Gao; Zhaoxiang Lu; Jishuang Liu; Lei Xia; Jiajia Yang; Zongyao Hao; Jun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Patie...

  12. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  13. Effects of early life stress on adult male aggression and hypothalamic vasopressin and serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Veenema, Alexa H.; Blume, Annegret; Niederle, Daniela; Buwalda, Bauke; Neumann, Inga D.

    2006-01-01

    Early life stress in humans enhances the risk for psychopathologies, including excessive aggression and violence. In rodents, maternal separation is a potent early life stressor inducing long-lasting changes in emotional and neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress, associated with depression- and anxiety-like symptoms. However, effects of maternal separation on adult male aggression and underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of maternal se...

  14. Investigation of curcumin effects on liver tissue in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra khodaparast; ali reza yousofi; ameneh khoshvagti

    2014-01-01

     Background & Objective: Cyclophosphamide is an antineoplastic drug that has many clinical uses in cancer treatment, but it has toxic effects due to creation of free radicals. In this study, the effects of curcumin" as an antioxidant drug” on liver tissue was investigated. Materials & methods: 50 wistar adult male rats were selected randomly and were divided in to five groups including control, sham (receiving normal saline and olive oil), cyclophosp...

  15. Patterns of coping preferences for male and female caregivers of frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, H M; Hamilton, D W; Lovett, S; Gallagher-Thompson, D

    1997-06-01

    The similarities and differences in male and female caregivers' preferred strategies for coping and the perceived helpfulness of these strategies in managing caregiving stressors were examined in this study. Respondents were 170 caregivers (139 women and 31 men) who were primary caregivers for an elderly adult relative who was either cognitively impaired or physically frail. Results provide preliminary evidence that gender is related to frequency of use but not to the perceived helpfulness of specific coping strategies. PMID:9189986

  16. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate) in adult males with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Bateh, Abd El-aziz M; Hamed, Sherifa A; et al

    2009-01-01

    Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were asse...

  17. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  18. Assessment of specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons using average adult Japanese male phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is revising dose coefficients, which are effective and equivalent doses per unit intake of radionuclides, based on the 2007 Recommendations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of voxel phantoms having standard physiques and organ masses (physical characteristics) of Caucasian are used for calculation of the new dose coefficients. SAFs depend on physical characteristics of a phantom used for assessment of the SAFs. Therefore, the SAFs and the dose coefficients developed by ICRP reflect physical characteristics of Caucasian. On the other hand, physiques of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian, and organ masses are also different from each other. Consequently, it is expected that SAFs and dose coefficients with physical characteristics of adult Japanese are different from those of ICRP. It is important to understand the influence of the differences in physical characteristics between both races on SAFs and dose coefficients when using the SAFs and dose coefficients of ICRP for radiation protection for Japanese. In order to evaluate internal doses considering the physical characteristics of adult Japanese, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency plans to develop a comprehensive data set of SAFs for photons, electrons, alpha particles and neutrons using average adult Japanese male and female phantoms (male: JM-103, female: JF-103). This report presents a data set of photon and electron SAFs for JM-103. JM-103 was incorporated into the general purpose radiation transport code, MCNPX 2.6.0, and the SAFs were calculated by the MCNPX 2.6.0 for 25 energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV and for combinations of 67 source regions and 41 target organs. Influences of differences in physical characteristics between adult Japanese and Caucasian on SAFs was also examined by comparison between the calculated SAFs in this study and the SAFs of the reference adult male phantom of ICRP. The photon and electron

  19. Orthodenticle is necessary for survival of a cluster of clonally related dopaminergic neurons in the Drosophila larval and adult brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Rahul

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dopaminergic (DA neurons present in the central brain of the Drosophila larva are spatially arranged in stereotyped groups that define clusters of bilaterally symmetrical neurons. These clusters have been classified according to anatomical criteria (position of the cell bodies within the cortex and/or projection pattern of the axonal tracts. However, information pertaining to the developmental biology, such as lineage relationship of clustered DA neurons and differential cell subtype-specific molecular markers and mechanisms of differentiation and/or survival, is currently not available. Results Using MARCM and twin-spot MARCM techniques together with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, we have analyzed the larval central brain DA neurons from a developmental point of view and determined their time of birth, their maturation into a DA neurotransmitter phenotype as well as their lineage relationships. In addition, we have found that the homeodomain containing transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd is present in a cluster of clonally related DA neurons in both the larval and adult brain. Taking advantage of the otd hypomorphic mutation ocelliless (oc and the oc2-Gal4 reporter line, we have studied the involvement of orthodenticle (otd in the survival and/or cell fate specification of these post-mitotic neurons. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence of the presence of seven neuroblast lineages responsible for the generation of the larval central brain DA neurons during embryogenesis. otd is expressed in a defined group of clonally related DA neurons from first instar larvae to adulthood, making it possible to establish an identity relationship between the larval DL2a and the adult PPL2 DA clusters. This poses otd as a lineage-specific and differential marker of a subset of clonally related DA neurons. Finally, we show that otd is required in those DA neurons for their survival.

  20. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  1. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  2. Mass mortality of adult male subantarctic fur seals: are alien mice the culprits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Nico de Bruyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass mortalities of marine mammals due to infectious agents are increasingly reported. However, in contrast to previous die-offs, which were indiscriminate with respect to sex and age, here we report a land-based mass mortality of Subantarctic fur seals with apparent exclusivity to adult males. An infectious agent with a male-predilection is the most plausible explanation for this die-off. Although pathogens with gender-biased transmission and pathologies are unusual, rodents are known sources of male-biased infectious agents and the invasive Mus musculus house mouse, occurs in seal rookeries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular screening for male-biased pathogens in this potential rodent reservoir host revealed the absence of Cardiovirus and Leptospirosis genomes in heart and kidney samples, respectively, but identified a novel Streptococcus species with 30% prevalence in mouse kidneys. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Inter-species transmission through environmental contamination with this novel bacterium, whose congenerics display male-bias and have links to infirmity in seals and terrestrial mammals (including humans, highlights the need to further evaluate disease risks posed by alien invasive mice to native species, on this and other islands.

  3. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  4. Constancy of Adult Personality Structure in Males: Longitudinal, Cross-Sectional and Times-of-Measurement Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The invariance of factor structures in the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey is clearly evident. Basic personality structure appears little affected by social and historical change. Results favor the stability model for objectively measured personality traits in adult males. (JAC)

  5. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, G.A.; Ruff, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA

  6. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  7. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  8. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Jasmin S; Nagel, Anja C; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-12-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) and a phospho-mimetic Su(H) (MAPK-ac) isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vg (BE) -lacZ). In general, Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H) (MAPK-ac) was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vg (BE) -lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DER (act) ) or the MAPK (rl (SEM) ) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones. PMID:26702412

  9. Adult Drosophila melanogaster evolved for antibacterial defense invest in infection-induced expression of both humoral and cellular immunity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGraw Elizabeth A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve in flies selected for improved antibacterial defense. Here we use this experimental system to examine how insects invest in constitutive versus infection-induced transcription of immunity genes. These two strategies carry with them different consequences with respect to energetic and pleiotropic costs and may be more or less effective in improving defense depending on whether the genes contribute to humoral or cellular aspects of immunity. Findings Contrary to expectation we show that selection preferentially increased the infection-induced expression of both cellular and humoral immunity genes. Given their functional roles, infection induced increases in expression were expected for the humoral genes, while increases in constitutive expression were expected for the cellular genes. We also report a restricted ability to improve transcription of immunity genes that is on the order of 2-3 fold regardless of total transcription level of the gene. Conclusions The evolved increases in infection-induced expression of the cellular genes may result from specific cross talk with humoral pathways or from generalised strategies for enhancing immunity gene transcription. A failure to see improvements in constitutive expression of the cellular genes suggests either that increases might come at too great a cost or that patterns of expression in adults are decoupled from the larval phase where increases would be most effective. The similarity in fold change increase across all immunity genes may suggest a shared mechanism for the evolution of increased transcription in small, discrete units such as duplication of cis-regulatory elements.

  10. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Jasmin S.; Nagel, Anja C.; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H)MAPK-ko and a phospho-mimetic Su(H)MAPK-ac isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vgBE-lacZ). In general, Su(H)MAPK-ko induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H)MAPK-ac was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vgBE-lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DERact) or the MAPK (rlSEM) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones. PMID:26702412

  11. Reactions to First Postpubertal Male Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors With Peers, Minors With Adults, and Adults With Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Bruce; Welter, Max

    2016-10-01

    Rind and Welter (2014) examined first postpubertal coitus using the Kinsey sample, finding that reactions were just as positive, and no more negative, among minors with adults compared to minors with peers and adults with adults. In the present study, we examined first postpubertal male same-sex sexual experiences in the Kinsey same-sex sample (i.e., participants mostly with extensive postpubertal same-sex behavior), comparing reactions across the same age categories. These data were collected between 1938 and 1961 (M year: 1946). Minors under age 18 years with adults (M ages: 14.0 and 30.5, respectively) reacted positively (i.e., enjoyed the experience "much") often (70 %) and emotionally negatively (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret) infrequently (16 %). These rates were the same as adults with adults (M ages: 21.2 and 25.9, respectively): 68 and 16 %, respectively. Minors with peers (M ages: 13.3 and 13.8, respectively) reacted positively significantly more often (82 %) and negatively nominally less often (9 %). Minors with adults reacted positively to intercourse (oral, anal) just as often (69 %) as to outercourse (body contact, masturbation, femoral) (72 %) and reacted emotionally negatively significantly less often (9 vs. 25 %, respectively). For younger minors (≤14) with adults aged 5-19 years older, reactions were just as positive (83 %) as for minors with peers within 1 year of age (84 %) and no more emotionally negative (11 vs. 7 %, respectively). Results are discussed in relation to findings regarding first coitus in the Kinsey sample and to the cultural context particular to Kinsey's time. PMID:27178172

  12. Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin; López Núñez, Carla; Becker, Julia; Gmel, Gerhard; Schaub, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of cannabis and other illegal drugs is particularly prevalent in male young adults and is associated with severe health problems. This longitudinal study explored variables associated with the onset of cannabis use and the onset of illegal drug use other than cannabis separately in male young adults, including demographics, religion and religiosity, health, social context, substance use, and personality. Furthermore, we explored how far the gateway hypothesis and the common...

  13. Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin; López Núñez, Carla; Becker, Julia; Gmel, Gerhard; Schaub, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of cannabis and other illegal drugs is particularly prevalent in male young adults and is associated with severe health problems. This longitudinal study explored variables associated with the onset of cannabis use and the onset of illegal drug use other than cannabis separately in male young adults, including demographics, religion and religiosity, health, social context, substance use, and personality. Furthermore, we explored how far the gateway hypothesis and the commo...

  14. Effect of adult diet on signaling activity, mate attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed to examine the effect of adult diet on calling activity, female attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In all tests, comparisons were drawn between males fed sugar only ('protein-deprived' males) and males fed a protein-sugar mixture ('protein-fed' males). In tests of long-distance attraction, aggregations consisting of protein-deprived males exclusively or protein-fed males exclusively were established in a coffee field, and females were released from a central release point. Protein-fed and protein-deprived males displayed similar calling levels, but approximately twice as many female sightings were recorded at groups of protein-fed males than at groups of protein-deprived males. A second test of female attraction compared single groups of protein-deprived and protein-fed males within the canopy of a field-caged host plant. As before, calling activity did not vary with diet, and in this case numbers of female sightings were also similar between aggregations of protein-fed vs. protein-deprived males. In mating trials conducted on field-caged host plants, protein-fed males achieved significantly more matings than protein-deprived males. These results are compared with other recent studies on the nutritional ecology of male Mediterranean fruit flies. (author)

  15. Origin and development of neuropil glia of the Drosophila larval and adult brain: Two distinct glial populations derived from separate progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Jaison Jiro; Yogi, Puja; Hartenstein, Volker

    2015-08-15

    Glia comprise a conspicuous population of non-neuronal cells in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Drosophila serves as a favorable model to elucidate basic principles of glial biology in vivo. The Drosophila neuropil glia (NPG), subdivided into astrocyte-like (ALG) and ensheathing glia (EG), extend reticular processes which associate with synapses and sheath-like processes which surround neuropil compartments, respectively. In this paper we characterize the development of NPG throughout fly brain development. We find that differentiated neuropil glia of the larval brain originate as a cluster of precursors derived from embryonic progenitors located in the basal brain. These precursors undergo a characteristic migration to spread over the neuropil surface while specifying/differentiating into primary ALG and EG. Embryonically-derived primary NPG are large cells which are few in number, and occupy relatively stereotyped positions around the larval neuropil surface. During metamorphosis, primary NPG undergo cell death. Neuropil glia of the adult (secondary NPG) are derived from type II lineages during the postembryonic phase of neurogliogenesis. These secondary NPG are much smaller in size but greater in number than primary NPG. Lineage tracing reveals that both NPG subtypes derive from intermediate neural progenitors of multipotent type II lineages. Taken together, this study reveals previously uncharacterized dynamics of NPG development and provides a framework for future studies utilizing Drosophila glia as a model. PMID:25779704

  16. FLP Recombinase-Mediated Induction of Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Transgene Expression Can Extend the Life Span of Adult Drosophila melanogaster Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jingtao; Tower, John

    1999-01-01

    Yeast FLP recombinase was used in a binary transgenic system (“FLP-OUT”) to allow induced overexpression of catalase and/or Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) in adult Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of FLP recombinase was driven by the heat-inducible hsp70 promoter. Once expressed, FLP catalyzed the rearrangement and activation of a target construct in which expression of catalase or Cu/ZnSOD cDNAs was driven by the constitutive actin5C promoter. In this way a brief heat pulse (120 or...

  17. Treatment for convicted adult male sex offenders: an overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Corabian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In countries with developed economies, a common approach to protecting communities from sexual offending is to provide specialized treatment for convicted sex offenders to reduce recidivism. Many psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy interventions are currently in widespread use as sex offender treatment (SOT options delivered within programs to prevent recidivism or reoffending among convicted adult male sex offenders. A number of systematic reviews (SRs have already evaluated the evidence from primary research studies on the effectiveness of these interventions.Methods: A structured overview of SRs published in English since January 1998 was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders.Results: Eight SRs met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from seven moderate-to-high quality SRs suggests that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT delivered within programs adhering to the risk/need/responsivity (RNR model has the potential to reduce recidivism. These findings must be tempered as they are mostly based on poor quality primary research. The reviewed evidence was inconclusive as to the components or framework of an effective SOT program or the setting in which a program should be delivered.Conclusions: This overview provides decision-makers in the SOT field with an accessible, good quality synthesis of the best evidence available on the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders. While further research is warranted, the available evidence suggests that CBT delivered within programs adhering to the RNR model represents the most promising approach.

  18. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  19. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  20. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  1. Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex chromosome of In(1)B$^{M2}$(reinverted) of Drosophila melanogaster is associated with increased acetylation of histone 4 at lysine 16

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Kulkarni-Shukla; A. P. Barge; R. S. Vartak; Anita Kar

    2008-12-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, dosage compensation occurs through hypertranscription of sex-linked genes in males. The hypertranscription involves acetylation of histone 4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) on amale X-chromosome, brought about by a histone acetyltransferase encoded by the dosage compensation gene, males absent on the first (mof). We report a phenomenon in the strain In(1)B$^{M2}$(reinverted) of D. melanogaster where the global structure of the male X-chromosome can be altered at the third instar larval stage through a 4-h cold shock at 12±1°C. We show that the cold shock results in a transient hyperacetylation of H4K16 and an increased expression of MOF. Control proteins H4 acetylated at lysine 5, and the dosage compensation gene msl-2, do not show any change in expression after cold shock. Cytology of the male X-chromosome at different time points during cold shock and recovery, suggests that the hyperacetylation of H4 at lysine 16 causes the X-chromosome to corkscrew into itself, thereby achieving the cold-induced change in the higher order structure of the male polytene X-chromosome. Our studies suggest a role for H4K16 in maintaining the structure of the male X-chromosome in Drosophila.

  2. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature

  3. Primary Mature Cystic Teratoma Mimicking As An Adrenal Mass In An Adult Male Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Okulu

    2014-03-01

    Teratomas are bizarre neoplasms derived from embryonic tissues that are typically found only in the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions of adults. Primary retroperitoneal teratomas are rare and present challenging management options. We report a case of unilateral primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma mimicking as an adrenal mass in 54-year-old male patient. Adrenal mass complete resection was performed by flank approach using the 11th rib resection. Because of the risk of malignancy, follow-up radiographic studies were performed to ensure the oncologic efficacy of resection. The patient has been free of recurrence for longer than 12 months.

  4. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  5. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  6. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, ...

  7. Male-specific Fruitless isoforms have different regulatory roles conferred by distinct zinc finger DNA binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Justin E.; Fear, Justin M.; Knott, Simon; Baker, Bruce S.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Arbeitman, Michelle N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Drosophila melanogaster adult males perform an elaborate courtship ritual to entice females to mate. fruitless (fru), a gene that is one of the key regulators of male courtship behavior, encodes multiple male-specific isoforms (FruM). These isoforms vary in their carboxy-terminal zinc finger domains, which are predicted to facilitate DNA binding. Results By over-expressing individual FruM isoforms in fru-expressing neurons in either males or females and assaying the global transcri...

  8. The fruitless gene is required for the proper formation of axonal tracts in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Ho-Juhn; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Reynaud, Enrique; Carlo, Troy; Spana, Eric P; Perrimon, Norbert; Goodwin, Stephen F; Baker, Bruce S; Taylor, Barbara J

    2002-01-01

    The fruitless (fru) gene in Drosophila melanogaster is a multifunctional gene that has sex-specific functions in the regulation of male sexual behavior and sex-nonspecific functions affecting adult viability and external morphology. While much attention has focused on fru's sex-specific roles, less

  9. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  10. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed. PMID:7287599

  11. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-10-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language-neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  12. Maternal immune activation differentially impacts mature and adult-born hippocampal neurons in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus develops both before and after birth. To study the relative contribution of mature and adult-born DG granule cells to disease etiology, we compared both cell populations in a mouse model of psychiatric illness resulting from maternal immune activation. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyIC, 5mg/kg) or saline was given on gestation day 15 to pregnant female C57Bl/6 mice. Male offspring (n=105), was administered systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 50mg/kg) (n=52) or intracerebral retroviral injection into the DG (n=53), to label dividing cells at one month of age. Two months later behavioral tests were performed to evaluate disease phenotype. Immunohistochemistry and whole-cell patch clamping were used to assess morphological and physiological characteristics of DG cells. Three-month-old PolyIC exposed male offspring exhibited deficient pre-pulse inhibition, spatial maze performance and motor coordination, as well as increased depression-like behavior. Histological analysis showed reduced DG volume and parvalbumin positive interneuron number. Both mature and new hippocampal neurons showed modifications in intrinsic properties such as increased input resistance and lower current threshold, and decreased action potential number. Reduced GABAergic inhibitory transmission was observed only in mature DG neurons. Differential impairments in mature DG cells and adult-born new neurons may have implications for behavioral deficits associated with maternal immune activation. PMID:25449671

  13. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats. PMID:27092594

  14. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. PMID:24836970

  15. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  16. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  17. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  18. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  19. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P athletes were different (P athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced. PMID:24414089

  20. Control of Adult Pests by the Irradiation-of-Male Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grosch effect (i.e., of radiation interfering with utilization of nutrients in insects) became applicable to pest control when Galun and Warburg discovered that irradiated ticks fed once would seldom if ever feed again. This lifelong sensation of 'impletion' does not interfere with sexual competitiveness, but it does render harmless a pest that is a pest during the adult stage of its life cycle. It would seem that the general principle of treating adult pests to limit their feeding capacity could be extended to other pests. When insect pests are- living in stored food products, it is a general rule that desirably low levels of radiation can be used to eradicate the pest if sterilizing doses rather than insecticidal doses are used. With the entire population of both males and females being irradiated, the sterilizing dose is often much lower than that which would be desirable when the insects are mass-reared for irradiation and release. Where mass-rearing techniques are not feasible, or where the pestiferousness of adults cannot be overcome by radiation or other treatments, field-irradiation facilities in baited traps can be devised. These have some advantages over similar traps containing chemosterilants. Wherever it can be used, the method of mass-rearing, irradiation, and release is still the most desirable way to control insect pests. (author)

  1. Role of the ATPase/helicase maleless (MLE in the assembly, targeting, spreading and function of the male-specific lethal (MSL complex of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morra Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male-specific lethal (MSL complex of Drosophila remodels the chromatin of the X chromosome in males to enhance the level of transcription of most X-linked genes, and thereby achieve dosage compensation. The core complex consists of five proteins and one of two non-coding RNAs. One of the proteins, MOF (males absent on the first, is a histone acetyltransferase that specifically acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16. Another protein, maleless (MLE, is an ATP-dependent helicase with the ability to unwind DNA/RNA or RNA/RNA substrates in vitro. Recently, we showed that the ATPase activity of MLE is sufficient for the hypertranscription of genes adjacent to a high-affinity site by MSL complexes located at that site. The helicase activity is required for the spreading of the complex to the hundreds of positions along the X chromosome, where it is normally found. In this study, to further understand the role of MLE in the function of the MSL complex, we analyzed its relationship to the other complex components by creating a series of deletions or mutations in its putative functional domains, and testing their effect on the distribution and function of the complex in vivo. Results The presence of the RB2 RNA-binding domain is necessary for the association of the MSL3 protein with the other complex subunits. In its absence, the activity of the MOF subunit was compromised, and the complex failed to acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16. Deletion of the RB1 RNA-binding domain resulted in complexes that maintained substantial acetylation activity but failed to spread beyond the high-affinity sites. Flies bearing this mutation exhibited low levels of roX RNAs, indicating that these RNAs failed to associate with the proteins of the complex and were degraded, or that MLE contributes to their synthesis. Deletion of the glycine-rich C-terminal region, which contains a nuclear localization sequence, caused a substantial level of retention of the

  2. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  3. Quality of life, social situation, and sexual satisfaction, in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falhammar, Henrik; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Thorén, Marja

    2014-09-01

    To determine quality of life (QoL) in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 30), 19-67 years old, were compared with controls (n = 32). QoL was assessed using questionnaires on general living conditions and sexual issues, and the psychological well-being index (PGWB) form. Fewer CAH males than controls were students (3 vs. 25 %, P = 0.028) and more had blue-collar work (57 vs. 33 %, P = 0.023). Patients were less interested in sports (47 vs. 72 %, P = 0.034) and art/literature/film (10 vs. 47 %, P = 0.004). PGWB total score was 82.7 ± 13.7 versus 87.0 ± 11.1 (P = NS), but hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate treated scored lower than controls and prednisolone treated. Glucocorticoid over-treated had lower QoL than those with poor control (PGWB total score 77.1 ± 13.5 vs. 92.4 ± 11.1, P = 0.026) and controls (P = 0.025). Total PGWB score was positively correlated with adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. Subscale scores indicated that patients with late diagnosis were more depressive (12.1 ± 2.8 vs. 13.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.011) and had a lower self-control (11.3 ± 3.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.0, P = 0.019) compared with controls. Sexual satisfaction was similar in spite of more patients being sexually inactive (27 vs. 6 %, P = 0.040). Adult CAH males differed from controls with respect to type of occupation and spare time interests but had similar QoL despite being less sexually active. Optimizing glucocorticoid therapy might further improve QoL. Some disadvantages found in patients diagnosed late will hopefully not be seen in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, but this has yet to be studied. PMID:24408051

  4. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADH AND ALPHA-GPDH LOCI IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER - ADULT SURVIVAL AT HIGH-TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAN, L; VANDELDEN, W; KAMPING, A; BIJLSMA, R

    1992-01-01

    The role of high temperature resistance in the world-wide cline of Adh and alpha-Gpdh allele frequencies of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Experimental strains were used with different combinations of Adh and alpha-Gpdh alleles but with similar genetic background. The survival time of adu

  5. Within-day and between-day Reproducibility of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Healthy Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L J; De Ste Croix, M; James, D V B

    2016-06-01

    Within-day and between-day reproducibility of supine and tilt baroreflex sensitivity were investigated utilising sequence and spectral indices in 46 healthy adult males employing 3 repeat measures; baseline, +60 min and +24 h. Reproducibility was assessed via the 95% limits of agreement and by the technical error of the measurement. For spectral parameters, the limits of agreement indicated same day was marginally better than between-day reproducibility. For sequence parameters, between-day had marginally better agreement than same-day reproducibility. Tilt markedly improved reproducibility across all outcome measures. Precision expressed by the technical error of the measurement for all spectral outcomes was good in both supine and tilt baroreflex sensitivity (outcomes in both positions (outcome measure, which may aid in the detection of modest baroreflex sensitivity changes in studies employing limited sample sizes. PMID:26928916

  6. Development of a voxel phantom of Japanese adult male in upright posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese voxel phantom in upright posture, JM2, has been developed on the basis of CT images of a healthy Japanese adult male. Body characteristics of JM2 were compared with those of the supine voxel phantom, JM, previously developed using CT images of the same person. Differences were found in the shapes of the spine and lower abdomen and the locations of several organs such as kidneys, liver and stomach between the two phantoms. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for 24 target and 11 sources organs were calculated for monoenergetic photon ranging from 0.01 to 4 MeV. It was found that the SAFs for the kidneys as source organ and the lower large intestine wall as target organ in JM2 were significantly higher than those in JM for all photon energies. The differences of the SAFs between the two phantoms were attributed to the differences in the organ distance and organ geometry depending on the posture. (authors)

  7. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  8. Personality dimensions in adult male rhesus macaques: prediction of behaviors across time and situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, J P

    1999-01-01

    The idea that consistencies in behavior exist over time and across situations underlies human personality research. Although several studies have examined personality in nonhuman primates, there are very few data showing the predictive power of personality factors. The goal of the present study was to determine whether personality dimensions, identified in adult male rhesus monkeys living in half-acre cages, predicted behavior in situations different from the one from which the dimensions were originally derived and at time points of up to 4.5 years after the original assessments. Four personality dimensions (Sociability, Confidence, Excitability, and Equability) were identified using psychometric procedures and were correlated with behaviors recorded in several situations: the animals' natal groups, during tests of behavioral responsiveness while in individual cages, in small stable and unstable social groups, while viewing stimulus videotapes, and during stable social dyads. Results indicated substantial predictability. Sociability reflected a greater tendency to engage in affiliative interactions. Confidence correlated with more aggressive behaviors and with behaviors that suggest less attractiveness. Animals high in Excitability were somewhat inconsistent in their social behavior, perhaps reflecting hyper-responsiveness to novel circumstances and thwarted opportunities for escape. Equability appeared to be related to a less aggressive, more passive, style of interaction. Excitability and Equability appear to reflect more stylistic components of social behavior, whereas Sociability and Confidence may be more content-based dimensions. Sociability was strongly related to size of kin network in the animals' natal groups, suggesting an important role for ontogeny in this dimension. These data suggest that a limited number of personality dimensions exist in adult male rhesus macaques, and that these dimensions have predictive power that is both long-term and cross

  9. Safety, Feasibility, and Acceptability of the PrePex Device for Adult Male Circumcision in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett Barr, Beth A.; Kang'ombe, Anderson; Hofstee, Carola; Kilembe, Franklin; Galagan, Sean; Chilongozi, David; Namate, Dorothy; Machaya, Medson; Kabwere, Khuliena; Mwale, Mwawi; Msunguma, Wezi; Reed, Jason; Chimbwandira, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nonsurgical adult male circumcision devices present an alternative to surgery where health resources are limited. This study aimed to assess the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Malawi. Methods: A prospective single-arm cohort study was conducted at 3 sites (1 urban static, 1 rural static, 1 rural tent) in Malawi. Adverse event (AE) outcomes were stratified to include/exclude pain, and confidence intervals (CIs) were corrected for clinic-level clustering. Results: Among 935 men screened, 131 (14.0%) were not eligible, 13 (1.4%) withdrew before placement, and 791 (84.6%) received the device. Moderate and severe AEs totaled 7.1% including pain [95% CI: 3.4–14.7] and 4.0% excluding pain (95% CI: 2.6 to 6.4). Severe AEs included pain (n = 3), insufficient skin removal (n = 4), and early removal (n = 4). Among early removals, 1 had immediate surgical circumcision, 1 had surgery after 48 hours of observation, 1 declined surgery, and 1 did not return to our site although presented at a nearby clinic. More than half of men (51.9%) reported odor; however, few (2.2%) stated they would not recommend the device to others because of odor. Median levels of reported pain (scale, 1–10) were 2 (interquartile range, 2–4) during application and removal, and 0 (interquartile range, 0–2) at all other time points. Conclusions: Severe AEs were rare and similar to other programs. Immediate provision of surgical services after displacement or early removal proved a challenge. Cases of insufficient skin removal were linked to poor technique, suggesting provider training requires reinforcement and supervision. PMID:27331590

  10. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  11. Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Okesina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR, the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group. The control group A received phosphate buffered saline orally, with the aid of a cannula. 1 mL of 50% ethanol was administered orally, by a cannula, to produce the gastric lesion in group B (n = 8. And in the group C, 500 mg/kg body weight of paw paw leaf extract was administered orally, with a cannula, twelve hours after ethanol administration to the rats. This experiment lasted for twenty one consecutive days. The result showed that TBARS in gastric mucosa as an index for oxidative stress level was significantly increased after ethanol administration. CPL did not reduce significantly the levels of TBARS in the gastric mucosa. G-6-PDH activity was significantly increased in gastric mucosa after ethanol administration, but in rats treated with CPL, a reverse of G-6-PDH activity was observed. Ethanol induced a remarkable and significant decrease of GPx activity in gastric mucosa, whereas CPL induced a significant reversion of ethanol’s effect on the enzyme. The results therefore demonstrate that CPL treatment exerts antioxidant effects on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in wistar rats.

  12. Plasma riboflavin is a useful marker for studying riboflavin requirement in Chinese male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changjiang; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Tang, Zhenchuang; Li, Lingyan

    2016-06-01

    Urinary riboflavin excretion and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient are frequently applied in determining riboflavin requirement. Previously, we found that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker in the assessment of riboflavin status in rat models. Here, we hypothesize that plasma riboflavin is a useful maker in studying riboflavin requirement. This study examines the changes of fasting plasma riboflavin and urinary riboflavin excretion in response to different riboflavin intake levels in Chinese male adults. The estimated average requirement (EAR) of riboflavin was extrapolated. Seventy-eight participants were randomly divided into the control and 5 riboflavin-supplemented groups. A 6-week riboflavin supplementation was performed at the doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, or 1.0 mg daily. The energy expenditure was 15.4 ± 1.9 MJ/d, as estimated by the 24-hour physical activity recording method. Dietary riboflavin intake was 1.0 ± 0.2 mg/d, based on chemical analysis. The fasting plasma riboflavin was increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.4 mg/d and the EAR of riboflavin was suggested to be between 1.3 and 1.5 mg/d. In addition, we found a significant increase in fasting urinary riboflavin excretion when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.6 mg/d. The critical point was calculated as 1.4 mg/d, based on the intersecting point of the 2 regression lines at lower and higher riboflavin intakes. These findings demonstrate that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker for riboflavin status, and the EAR of riboflavin for Chinese male adults is 1.4 mg. PMID:27188899

  13. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  14. The effect of omega-3 on cognition in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Gomaa, Asmaa M S; Sayed, Manal M

    2014-09-01

    Thyroid hormones and omega-3 are essential for normal brain functions. Recent studies have suggested that omega-3 may protect against the risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats, the underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic value of omega-3 supplementation. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups; control, hypothyroid and omega-3 treated. Hypothyroidism induced significant deficits in working and reference memories in radial arm maze, retention deficits in passive avoidance test and impaired intermediate and long-term memories in novel object recognition test. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hippocampal serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were decreased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Moreover, the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats showed marked structural changes as diffuse vacuolar degeneration and distortion of the pyramidal cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of Cav1.2 (the voltage dependent LTCC alpha 1c subunit) protein was increased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Omega-3 supplementation ameliorated memory deficits, increased TAC, decreased the structural changes and decreased the expression of Cav1.2 protein. In conclusion omega-3 could be useful as a neuroprotective agent against hypothyroidism-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:25183510

  15. Atypically rightward cerebral asymmetry in male adults with autism stratifies individuals with and without language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Dorothea L; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Auer, Tibor; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J; Bullmore, Edward T; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    In humans, both language and fine motor skills are associated with left-hemisphere specialization, whereas visuospatial skills are associated with right-hemisphere specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show a profile of deficits and strengths that involves these lateralized cognitive functions. Here we test the hypothesis that regions implicated in these functions are atypically rightward lateralized in individuals with ASC and, that such atypicality is associated with functional performance. Participants included 67 male, right-handed adults with ASC and 69 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical males. We assessed group differences in structural asymmetries in cortical regions of interest with voxel-based analysis of grey matter volumes, followed by correlational analyses with measures of language, motor and visuospatial skills. We found stronger rightward lateralization within the inferior parietal lobule and reduced leftward lateralization extending along the auditory cortex comprising the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and parietal operculum, which was more pronounced in ASC individuals with delayed language onset compared to those without. Planned correlational analyses showed that for individuals with ASC, reduced leftward asymmetry in the auditory region was associated with more childhood social reciprocity difficulties. We conclude that atypical cerebral structural asymmetry is a potential candidate neurophenotype of ASC. PMID:26493275

  16. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  17. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  18. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Oyinloye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies.

  19. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyinloye, Olalekan; Nzeh, Donald; Yusuf, Ayodeji; Sanya, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies. PMID:25288854

  20. Chronic effect of gabapentin on liver function in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GPN is a new antiepileptic agent currently in used as add-on therapy in adult patients suffering from partial seizures. The extent of liver damage at different dosage and long term treatment with GPN is not yet clear. Therefore this study was undertaken to find out the possibility of liver damage by this drug. Adult male (Wistar rats of 180-220 g were administered intraperitoneally with GPN (20 or 100 mg/kg for 45 days. After the experimental period, the liver function tests were carried out in control and experimental groups. The activity of liver enzymes, with 20 mg/kg of GPN were not significantly different from the control group but, the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin were enhanced significantly with 100 mg/kg of GPN. Total protein and albumin decreased in this group as compared with control animals. The histopathology of the liver parenchymal cells also showed minute foci of necrosis in a few rats treated with high dose of GPN, whereas, at therapeutic dose the histopathology and biochemical indices showed almost normal values. At therapeutic dose GPN is a safer drug with regards to liver function and hepatocellular damage as compared with other antiepileptic drugs.

  1. Quercetin-induced changes in femoral bone microstructure of adult male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Babosová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites with antioxidant effects. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet is quercetin. It is found widely in fruits, vegetables and has a lot of beneficial effects on human health. Quercetin has a positive pharmacological effect on bone metabolism and it prevents the organism against bone loss. However, its impact on the size of basic structural units of the compact bone is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the impact of the quercetin on femoral bone microstructure in 5-month-old male rabbits. Five rabbits of Californian broiler line were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (E group; n=3, animals were intramuscularly injected with quercetin at dose 1000 μg.kg-1 body weight (bw for 90 days, 3 times per week. Two rabbits without quercetin administration served as a control group (C group. According to our results, intramuscular application of quercetin had an insignificant effect on cortical bone thickness in male rabbits. In these rabbits, changes in qualitative histological characteristics were present in the middle part of the compacta, where primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was present and expanded there from the periosteum. Also, a lower number of secondary osteons was found in these animals. From the histomorphometrical point of view, significantly decreased sizes of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons (p <0.05 were found in rabbits administered by quercetin. Our findings indicate that subchronic administration of quercetin at the dose used in our study had considerable impact on both qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone in adult male rabbits.

  2. THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

  3. An assessment of knowledge and attitude of vasectomy in adult males: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Vasectomy is a simple, reliable, safe, effective and permanent method of birth control for men. The failure rate is less than 1%. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of vasectomy in adult males residing in Pokhara, Nepal. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional survey approach was adopted for the present study. 100 adult males of 26-49 years of age were selected for this study. Data was collected from 31-03-2014 to 30-04-2014 by using structured questionnaire and finally analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPPS for Windows Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, IL, USA. Results In the present study majority of the participants had average level of knowledge 69%; 26% had poor and remaining 5% had good level of knowledge regarding vasectomy. Most of the participants had good attitude 60%, 40% of them had average attitude and none of them had poor attitude regarding vasectomy. Conclusion Majority of adult males had average knowledge on vasectomy. So, adult males should be educated about the advantages of vasectomy. This may bring changes in controlling population explosion, sharing the decisions of contraception burden equally with their partners, more awareness of reproductive roles and closes the gap in male and female sterilization rates.

  4. Effect of Pistacia Vera Oil on Pituitary Gonad Axis and Histological Testis Changes in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    f Porhemmat; M Shariati; L Sepehrara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Pistachio oil contains the chemical compounds such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids can inhibit 5-α- reductase enzyme and unsaturated fatty acids increase cholesterol levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of pistachio oil on adult male rats’ reproductive status. Methods: In the present experimental study, 40 male Wistar rat were divided into five groups of eight. The control group received ...

  5. The Relationship among Pulse Wave Velocity, Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index and Heart Rate Variability in Adult Males

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jeong-Hwan; Kong, Mihee

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) are non-invasive tools to measure atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Heart rate variability (HRV) has proven to be a non-invasive powerful tool in the investigation of the autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among PWV, ABI, and HRV parameters in adult males. Methods The study was carried out with 117 males who visited a health care center from ...

  6. Association between Periodontal Status, Oral Hygiene Status and Tooth Wear among Adult Male Population in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umoh, AO; Azodo, CC

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. Aim: To determine the association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and tooth wear among the adult male population in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted among 65 male drivers, aged 25-64 years, with a mean age of 48.6 (9.1) years in an organized private motor park ...

  7. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood. PMID:26620193

  8. The mapping of neurons and lineage classification of the larvae and adult Drosophila brain in several Gal4 transmitter lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ahad, Sally

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, neurons within the central nervous system are grouped into units called lineages. Each lineage contains cells derived from a single neuroblast. A neuroblast is a stem cell divides and forms lineages of neurons. In flies, the lineage can be subdivided into different parts; the neurons that are born first are closest to the neuropile (Spindler and Hartenstein, 2010). There is a birth ordering of neurons. In the embryo, the neuroblasts divide 5 to 6 times and are called primary n...

  9. UPRT, a suicide-gene therapy candidate in higher eukaryotes, is required for Drosophila larval growth and normal adult lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Arpan C. Ghosh; MaryJane Shimell; Leof, Emma R.; Macy J. Haley; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) is a pyrimidine salvage pathway enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of uracil to uridine monophosphate (UMP). The enzyme is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans and yet phylogenetic evidence suggests that UPRT homologues from higher-eukaryotes, including Drosophila, are incapable of binding uracil. Purified human UPRT also do not show any enzymatic activity in vitro, making microbial UPRT an attractive candidate for anti-microbial drug developme...

  10. Heavy metals effect in Drosophila melanogaster germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals occur naturally and some of them are very important in cellular metabolism. Industrial development has increased metal concentration in the environment and in the living organisms tissues. This increase promotes the human risk to suffer teratogenesis, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Different biological systems have been used to proof the genetic effect of heavy metals including Drosophila. In the present work chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc and arsenic salts were administered to Drosophila females and males adults in order to determine the genetic effect produced by these compounds, in both femenine and masculine germinal cells. The mating system used (''Oster males'' and y2wsup(a)/y2wsup(a); e/e females) permited to determine among two succesive generations, the mutagenic effects produced by heavy metals in Drosophila. The salts administration to adult flies was made by injection. Non-disjunction, X-chromosome loss, and sex linked recessive lethals frequency was increased by heavy metals. It was observed a fertility disminution between F 1 descendants from individuals treated with the metalic salts. It was demonstrated that heavy metals can interact with genetic material at different levels in the two types of gametic cells to produce genetic damage. (author)

  11. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

  12. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  13. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both chil-dren and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantiifed using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identiifed as regions with signiifcant group-wise differences. The identiifed regions were correlated with clinical scores relfecting de-pression and anxiety and signiifcant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain cir-cuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  14. Effects of adolescent social defeat on adult amphetamine-induced locomotion and corticoaccumbal dopamine release in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Forster, Gina L.; Novick, Andrew M.; Roberts, Christina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Maturation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems occurs during adolescence, and exposure to social stress during this period results in behavioral dysfunction including substance abuse disorders. Adult male rats exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence exhibit reduced basal dopamine tissue content in the medial prefrontal cortex, altered dopamine tissue content in corticoaccumbal dopamine regions following acute amphetamine, and increased amphetamine conditioned place preference follo...

  15. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  16. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  17. The effect of continuous work on discretional energy expenditure in male adult construction workers in northern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to measure the variations in discretional energy expenditure in male adult construction workers of different body mass index when exposed to a heavy and prolonged workload. It is also intended to compare the factorial method based on indirect calorimetry with the doubly-labelled water system for the estimation of free living energy expenditure. 15 refs, 5 tabs

  18. Drosophila neuroblasts retain the daughter centrosome

    OpenAIRE

    Januschke, Jens; Llamazares, Salud; Reina, Jose; Gonzalez, Cayetano

    2011-01-01

    During asymmetric mitosis, both in male Drosophila germline stem cells and in mouse embryo neural progenitors, the mother centrosome is retained by the self-renewed cell; hence suggesting that mother centrosome inheritance might contribute to stemness. We test this hypothesis in Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) tracing photo converted centrioles and a daughter-centriole-specific marker generated by cloning the Drosophila homologue of human Centrobin. Here we show that upon asymmetric mitosis, the...

  19. Effects of arsenic upon the no-disyuntion and X chromosome loss mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation we make the analysis of the effect of the sodium arsenite chemistry in concentration 0.2 m M over the events of no-disyuntion and chromosome loss X in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster. The Drosophila lineages used for this assay were: females (y2 wa / y2 wa ; e/e) and males (XC2 yf bb- / Bs Y y+). Those lineages were propagated and isolated for to be used after in the assays. Subsequently these, we make some links types with these individuals with the object to observed the effects of the oral administration of sodium arsenite in the adult individuals, in each one, we induce a damage in the sperm of the male with gamma radiation (25 Gy) and was observed immediately the results of the different assay applied in the first generation (F1). Finally, we analyze and compare the results in contrast with and other investigation we find that the chemistry cause a significant increment in the chromosome loss X either the No-disyuntion was not significative. Also, the arsenite sodium increment the male descendant productivity, so, we deduced that the sodium arsenite do not cause an inhibition of the reparation mechanisms present in the Drosophila melanogaster female ovocites, but the chemistry operated like a modulator of this mechanisms, and prevent an increment of the damage provoked for the gamma radiation over the Drosophila melanogaster male sperm. (Author)

  20. The inhibitory effects on adult male reproductive functions of crude garlic (Allium sativum) feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imen Hammami; Afef Nahdi; Claire Mauduit; Mohamed Benahmed; Mohamed Amri; Awatef Ben Amar; Semy Zekri; Ahmed El May; Michele Veronique El May

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of crude garlic on adult male rat reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (untreated) and groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fed for 30 days with 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% crude garlic, respectively. Testes and accessory organs were weighed and some markers were assessed. Light and electron microscopy observations were also performed. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the body weight of groups 4 (14%; P < 0.01) and 5 (20%; P < 0.01); of the prostate weight in group 5 (29.1%; P < 0.05) and of seminal vesicle weight in groups 3 (14.4%; P < 0.01), 4 (18.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (27.3%; P < 0.01). In contrast, testis and epididymis weights were unchanged. In epididymis tissue, the alpha glucosidase activity and the spermatozoa density were unchanged. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone serum levels in groups 3 (77.3%; P < 0.01), 4 (77.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (90.9%; P < 0.01), associated with a significant increase in LH serum levels (P < 0.01). Testicular histology showed a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of empty seminiferous tubules. Moreover, testicular function was affected; a significant decrease in phosphatase acid activity (P < 0.01) and testosterone (P < 0.05) contents were observed. Conclusion: Crude garlic consumption during 1 month reduced testosterone secretion and altered spermatogenesis at 10%, 15% and 30% doses. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 593-601)

  1. An Echocardiographic Study of Heart in a Group of Male Adult Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohebi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe and prolonged physical training is associated with morphological and physiological cardiac changes, often termed as the “athlete’s heart”. Echocardiographic features peculiar to elite Iranian athletes have not been previously described. The aim was to examine the echocardiographic characteristics of highly trained Iranian athletes involved in three different sports. Methods: We studied cardiac morphology and function as assessed by rest echocardiography in 50 elite adult male athletes referring to a university hospital in Tehran between February 2001 and March 2006. Resting ejection fraction, interventricular septal wall thickness (IVSWT, left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT, left ventricular internal end diastolic dimension (LVEdD, left ventricular internal systolic dimension (LVIsD, left ventricular (LV mass, and relative wall thickness (RWT were measured. The control group consisted of 50 age- and weight-matched normal healthy men. Results: Of the athletes, 38 were engaged in predominantly dynamic (running and soccer and 12 in predominantly static (weightlifting sports. The overall mean LVEdD (51.06±5.49mm and IVSWT (10.24±1.43mm were higher in the athletes than those in the normal subjects. The mean of IVSWT in the 38 endurance-trained athletes was significantly more than that of the 12 strength-trained athletes (11.1 mm vs. 10.3 mm, P<0.05. LVEdD was also greater in the endurance-trained athletes, but the difference was not statistically significant (51.2 mm vs. 50.6 mm. Conclusion: Our results of higher LVEdD and IVSWT in Iranian male athletes are in line with previous reports. To generalize the results, we require more studies with larger sample sizes (with female athletes included.

  2. Variants of psychopathy in adult male offenders: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, Andreas; Hare, Robert D; Neumann, Craig S; Santtila, Pekka; Habermeyer, Elmar; Nitschke, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    As measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), psychopathy is a dimensional construct underpinned by 4 correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Theorists and clinicians (e.g., Karpman and Arieti) have posited 2 variants of "primary" or "true" psychopathy, both distinct from so-called "secondary" or "pseudopsychopathy." We used latent profile analysis to determine if homogeneous classes exist within a sample of 1,451 male offenders with high PCL-R scores (≥ 27). The 4 PCL-R factors were the dependent variables for clustering. A solution with 3 latent classes showed a better fit to the data than did a unitary model without latent classes. Tentative labels for the latent classes are Manipulative (Latent Class 1 [LC1]), Aggressive (Latent Class 2 [LC2]), and Sociopathic (Latent Class 3 [LC3]). The latter class represented an antisocial group that lacked the emotional detachment observed in the other 2 groups. We propose that LC1 and LC2 reflect phenotypic variations on a theme of the traditional construct of psychopathy, and that LC3 is consistent with conceptions of antisocial personality disorder and sociopathy. Replication and external classification with an independent data set of 497 adult male offenders again yielded clearly separable clusters, as well as meaningful differences or trends among latent classes on education, intelligence, symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported psychopathic traits and negative affect. The conceptualization of psychopathy in terms of manipulative and aggressive variants is consistent with clinical theory and is empirically grounded. PMID:25643206

  3. Reproductive biology of Oligosarcus argenteus (Gunther, 1864 adult males and description of the gonadal maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oligosarcus argenteus belongs to the Acestrorhynchinae subfamily, being restricted to South America, and found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins, in lotic and lentic environments, where they are able to reproduce. With the purpose of studying the reproductive biology of the males from this species, many morphological parameters were analyzed during a 24 month period, as well as characterizing the different testicular maturation stages. A maturity scale, with three stages (I - Initial Maturing, II - Intermediate Maturing, III - Final Maturing was proposed for the adult males of Oligosarcus argenteus. The reproductive period was established by the bimonthly frequency of spermatogenesis and by the gonadal maturation stages.Oligosarcus argenteus é uma espécie pertencente à subfamília Acestrorhynchinae, restrita à América do Sul, sendo comumente encontrada nas várias bacias hidrográficas brasileiras, em ambientes lóticos e lênticos, onde se reproduzem. Com o objetivo de estudar a biologia reprodutiva de machos desta espécie, vários parâmetros morfológicos foram analisados durante um período de 24 meses, assim como foram caracterizados os diferentes estádios de maturação testicular. Estes foram descritos, considerando-se exemplares adultos, em: Estádio I - Maturação Inicial, Estádio II - Maturação Intermediária e Estádio III - Maturação Final. Pela freqüência bimestral das células germinativas e dos estádios de maturação gonadal, a época de reprodução foi determinada.

  4. Early maladaptive schemas among young adult male substance abusers: a comparison with a non-clinical group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L; Anderson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (J. E. Young, 1994). Research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as schemas are believed to underlie, perpetuate, and maintain problematic substance use. To date, research has not examined whether young adult male substance abuse treatment seekers (ages 18 to 25) report greater early maladaptive schema endorsement than a non-clinical comparison group. The current study extended the research on substance use and schemas by comparing the early maladaptive schemas of young adult male residential substance abuse patients (n = 101) and a group of non-clinical male college students (n = 175). Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical comparison group on 9 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and substance use treatment programs are discussed. PMID:23312769

  5. LUNG FUNCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FORCED VITAL CAPACITY (FVC AND BODY MASS INDEX IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

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    Swaroop

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a serious public health issue and is related to lung dysfunction. This study was planned to assess the correlation between the pulmonary function like FVC and increasing BMI in young adult males. This study was undertaken in normal weight and overweight young adult males of Balagangadaranatha nagara. The study and control groups were comprised of 120 male subjects between the age group 18-24 years randomly selected from the population of Balagangadaranatha nagara. Anthropometric measurements and spirometry was performed in all subjects. FVC was used as a measure of lung function. There was significant differences in FVC in the study group and there was inverse relationship between FVC and increase in BMI.

  6. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. X. Age-specific dynamics of adult epicuticular hydrocarbon expression in response to different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cassia C

    2014-06-01

    Analysis of sexual selection and sexual isolation in Drosophila mojavensis and its relatives has revealed a pervasive role of rearing substrates on adult courtship behavior when flies were reared on fermenting cactus in preadult stages. Here, we assessed expression of contact pheromones comprised of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from eclosion to 28 days of age in adults from two populations reared on fermenting tissues of two host cacti over the entire life cycle. Flies were never exposed to laboratory food and showed significant reductions in average CHC amounts consistent with CHCs of wild-caught flies. Overall, total hydrocarbon amounts increased from eclosion to 14-18 days, well past age at sexual maturity, and then declined in older flies. Most flies did not survive past 4 weeks. Baja California and mainland populations showed significantly different age-specific CHC profiles where Baja adults showed far less age-specific changes in CHC expression. Adults from populations reared on the host cactus typically used in nature expressed more CHCs than on the alternate host. MANCOVA with age as the covariate for the first six CHC principal components showed extensive differences in CHC composition due to age, population, cactus, sex, and age × population, age × sex, and age × cactus interactions. Thus, understanding variation in CHC composition as adult D. mojavensis age requires information about population and host plant differences, with potential influences on patterns of mate choice, sexual selection, and sexual isolation, and ultimately how these pheromones are expressed in natural populations. Studies of drosophilid aging in the wild are badly needed. PMID:25360246

  7. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history. PMID:24903974

  8. Effects of Adult Male Circumcision on Premature Ejaculation: Results from a Prospective Study in China

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    Jingjing Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE. Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P<0.001 for all. Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P<0.001 for all. These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  9. Effect of Obstructive Cholestasis on Sperm Parameters in the Adult Male Rats

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    E. Nasiri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids , nitric oxide and cytokins in the blood streams. These consequences may affect sex hormones since proper fertility will be resulted from physiological balance of sex hormones, we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and gonadotropins and sperm parameters in adult male rats.Materials & Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: control (No-surgery, Sham (surgical control, and cholestatic (surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animals were killed by ether, and serum concentrations of FSH and LH were determined by radioimmunoassay, sperm parameters were evaluated by light microscop.Results: The findings of this study showed that LH and FSH levels decreased significantly in cholestatic compared to control and sham groups (p0.05.Conclusion: These findings indicated that obstructive cholestasis lead to decrease in the levels of serum gonadotropins, but it has no significant effect on sperm parameters. We speculated that spermatogenesis, and sperm parameters were not dependent on gonadotropin hormones but other factors may involved.

  10. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  11. Fenugreek potent activity against nitrate-induced diabetes in young and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wakf, Azza M; Hassan, Hanaa A; Mahmoud, Ashraf Z; Habza, Marwa N

    2015-05-01

    Nitrate has described as an endocrine disruptor that promotes onset of diabetes. This study was undertaken to evaluate diabetic effect of high nitrate intake in young and adult male rats and its amelioration by fenugreek administration. The study revealed significant increase in serum glucose and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), while serum insulin and liver glycogen were decreased among nitrate exposed animals, in particular the young group. A significant reduction in the body weight gain and serum thyroid hormones (T4 & T3) was also recorded. Further reduction in serum levels of urea and creatinine, as well as total protein in serum, liver and pancreas was demonstrated, with elevation in their levels in the urine of all nitrate exposed groups. Meanwhile, the activity of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) was increased, with decline in their activity in the liver tissue. In addition, an elevation in serum total bilirubin, tissues (liver and pancreas) nitric oxide and lipid profile, as well as liver activity of glucose-6-phosphatase was recorded. Fenugreek administration to nitrate exposed rats was found to be effective in alleviating hyperglycemia and other biochemical changes characterizing nitrate-induced diabetes. So, fenugreek can be considered to possess potent activity against onset of nitrate induced-diabetes. PMID:24615531

  12. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

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    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulations. Blood samples for plasma phenytoin levels were collected at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24 hours. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the two brands of phenytoin sodium calculated were area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC 0–24, Area under the Curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞, peak plasma concentration (Cmax and time of peak concentration (tmax. Formulation B failed to comply in terms of Area under the Curve (AUC, an important pharmacokinetic parameter to test bioequivalency, which was tested at significance level 0.05. This showed that the test formulation is not bioequivalent with the innovator. Taken together, our preliminary findings suggest that further studies in a large population is needed before switching phenytoin brands once a patient is carefully titrated to a given phenytoin brand.

  13. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 7, Adult male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for an adult male (70-kg Reference Man). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Effects of different exercise protocols on ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T; Vaghef, L; Babri, S; Mahmood-Alilo, M; Beirami, M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is often accompanied by numerous cognitive deficits and may lead to long-lasting impairments in spatial learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of regular treadmill exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory in ethanol-treated rats. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris Water Maze task. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol (4 g/kg, 20% v/v for 4 weeks) and effects of three exercise protocols (pre-ethanol, post-ethanol and pre-to-post-ethanol treatment) were examined. Results showed that ethanol exposure resulted in longer escape latencies during the acquisition phase of the Morris Water Maze task. Moreover, all three exercise protocols significantly decreased the latency to locate the hidden platform. During the probe trial, ethanol led to decreased time spent in the target quadrant. In contrast, performance on the probe trial was significantly better in the rats that had done the post- and pre-to-post-ethanol, but not pre-ethanol, exercises. These findings suggest that treadmill running can attenuate the adverse effects of chronic ethanol exposure on spatial memory, and may serve as a non-pharmacological alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:23683528

  15. Screening Neuropharmacological Activities of Kaempferia parviflora (Krachai Dam in Healthy Adult Male Rats

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    Thaneeya Hawiset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the global prevalence of psychological disorders is increasing continually, the efficacies of therapeutic strategies are still very limited. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and substance possessing antioxidant activity can alleviate the mentioned conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that Kaempferia parviflora, a medicinal plant claimed for nerve tonic, also possessed the neuropharmacological activities which provide the advantage for psychiatric disorders. Approach: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 grams, were orally given the ethanolic extract of K. parviflora at doses of 150, 200 and 250 mg kg-1 BW once daily for 2 weeks. Then, they were determined the neuropharmacological activities including anxiolytic, anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement after single dose, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Results: K. parviflora possessed anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anxiolytic like activity. Conclusion: Our results suggested that K. parviflora might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for psychiatric disorder and cognitive enhancement. However, further investigations about precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  16. Applicability of dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 to Asian adult males: Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reported comprehensive dose conversion coefficients for adult population, which is exposed to external photon sources in the Publication 74. However, those quantities were calculated from so-called stylized (or mathematical) phantoms composed of simplified mathematical surface equations so that the discrepancy between the phantoms and real human anatomy has been investigated by several authors using Caucasian-based voxel phantoms. To address anatomical and racial limitations of the stylized phantoms, several Asian-based voxel phantoms have been developed by Korean and Japanese investigators, independently. In the current study, photon dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 were compared with those from a total of five Asian-based male voxel phantoms, whose body dimensions were almost identical. Those of representative radio-sensitive organs (testes, red bone marrow, colon, lungs, and stomach), and effective dose conversion coefficients were obtained for comparison. Even though organ doses for testes, colon and lungs, and effective doses from ICRP 74 agreed well with those from Asian voxel phantoms within 10%, absorbed doses for red bone marrow and stomach showed significant discrepancies up to 30% which was mainly attributed to difference of phantom description between stylized and voxel phantoms. This study showed that the ICRP 74 dosimetry data, which have been reported to be unrealistic compared to those from Caucasian-based voxel phantoms, are also not appropriate for Asian population

  17. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark ET

    2015-01-01

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (pExergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults. PMID:26240669

  18. Effect of Caffeine and Folic Acid on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Disorders In Adult Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of caffeine-rich drinks on human health indicate that certain controversial issues are still unresolved. On the other hand, folic acid has similar effect as beta-carotene, which exerted a beneficial radioprotective role as natural antioxidant agent. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-oxidant and protective roles of caffeine, folic acid or their combination orally administrated four weeks before exposure of adult male Spraque Dawely rats to whole body irradiation (4.5 Gy). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), malondialdhyde (MDA), total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G) and A/G ratio were investigated 1,3 and 7 days post irradiation. The results revealed significant decrease in T3, T4 total protein and globulin due to radiation exposure. While, the levels of MDA, albumin and A/G ratio were significantly increased. Administration of caffeine and /or folic before irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration of the radiation induced changes in thyroid hormones, T3 T4, lipid peroxides (MDA), total protein, albumin (A) and globulin (G)

  19. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed. PMID:23261420

  20. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

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    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  1. MAX - a Male Adult voXel model for radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models or phantoms used in Monte Carlo computer codes are representations of the human body, designed to allow equivalent dose calculations in organs and tissues. Mathematical phantoms (MIRD-5, ADAM, EVA, etc.), in shape and form a rather limited representation of a real human body, have been widely used in the past to calculate conversion coefficients between equivalent dose to relevant organs and tissues of the human body and measurable quantities for various types of radiation and field geometries. Progress of image processing, clock speed and memory capacity of computers over the last 20 years made it possible to create the so-called voxel phantoms, which are a more realistic representation of the human body. Voxel (Volume pixel) phantoms are constructed from segmented CT and/or MRI images of real persons. A complete set of such images can be joined to a 3-dimensional representation of the human body, which can be linked to a Monte Carlo computer code to allow particle transport calculations. This study describes the modifications done to the VOXTISS8 human voxel phantom (YALE University) in order to create the MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantom whose organ and tissue masses correspond better to the data recommended by ICRP in Publications No. 23 and 70. (author)

  2. A Comparison of the Status, Legal, Economic, and Psychological Characteristics of Types of Adult Male Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N

    2015-09-01

    Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers—sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)—in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers. PMID:24838781

  3. The effect of age and vocal task on cepstral/spectral measures of vocal function in adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Ronshaugen, Rachelle; Saenz, Daniella

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging on cepstral/spectral acoustic measures calculated from clinical stimuli (vowels and sentences from the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice). Thirty younger adult males (20-49 years of age) and thirty older males (50-79 years of age) produced sustained vowels and read a connected speech stimulus which were applied to cepstral/spectral acoustic analyses to derive the multiparametric measure of Cepstral/Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID). Results indicated that older males exhibited significantly greater CSID measures than younger males in connected speech (p=0.001; d=0.98), but not the vowel. Linear regression revealed a moderate correlation between age and CSID in connected speech. These results further inform our understanding of how aging influences voice production in varied contexts and how commonly utilised clinical voice tasks subjected to cepstral/spectral acoustic analyses might differentially inform our knowledge of underlying vocal physiology. PMID:25651197

  4. Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kagawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW measured using single-frequency (SF and multi-frequency (MF modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF and intra-cellular fluid (ICF values differed significantly (p < 0.01 between the different postures in both groups. In addition, while estimated TBW in adult males using the MF mode was significantly (p < 0.01 greater than the result from the dilution technique, TBW estimated using the SF mode and prediction equation was significantly (p < 0.01 lower in boys. Measurement posture may not affect estimation of TBW in boys and adult males, however, body fluid shifts may still occur. In addition, technical factors, including selection of prediction equation, may be important when TBW is estimated from measured impedance.

  5. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  6. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPIAM and female RPIAF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  7. Biology and physiology of Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, quickly emerged as a devastating invasive pest of small and stone fruits in the Americas and Europe. To better understand the population dynamics of D. suzukii, we reviewed recent work on juvenile development, adult reproduction, and seasonal variation in...

  8. Comparison of internal doses calculated using the specific absorbed fractions of the average adult Japanese male phantom with those of the reference computational phantom-adult male of ICRP publication 110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of body sizes and masses of organs and tissues on internal dose assessment, the values corresponding to effective dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides were calculated using the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of two phantoms: the average adult Japanese male phantom (JM-103) and the reference computational phantom-adult male (RCP-AM) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. SAFs were evaluated using the phantoms and Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX or were taken from published data. As a result of a comparison for 2894 cases of 923 radionuclides, the maximum discrepancy in the effective dose coefficients between the JM-103 and RCP-AM was about 40%. However, the discrepancies were smaller than 10% in 97% of all cases. (paper)

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAND LENGTH AND HEIGHT IN ADULT MALES OF NORTH INDIAN PUNJABI POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stature of an individual is an inherent characteris tic, the estimate of which is considered to be an important a ssessment in identification of unknown human remains 12 .The stature prediction occupies relatively a central position both in anthropological research and in the identification n ecessitated by the medical jurisprudence or by medico legal experts. Estimation of stature of an individual from the skeletal material or from the mutilated or amputated limbs or parts of limbs ha s obvious significance in the personal identification in the events of the murders, accide nts or natural disasters mainly concerns with forensic identification analysis 8 . Whether this is true for the North Indian Punjabi m ale population is not known till date. AIMS: The present study was done with an aim to establish relationship between height and hand length in adult males of north Indian Punjabi population, as it is not seen in the accessible literature till date to the best of our knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Height of 150 healthy male students between 18 to 25 years of age was measured with the help of an anthropometric rod. The height of all the students was measured in anatomical position keeping all the subjects erect . The height measured was vertical distance from the vertex to floor. Hand length is the direct linear distance between the distal wrist crease and the distal ends of most anterior projecting poin t i.e., tip of the middle finger. It is also the distance between midpoint of line joining the two st ylion and Dactylion of middle finger. Result: - A positive correlation between height and hand leng th was observed and it was statistically significant. Regression equation for height estimat ion was formulated using hand length. For statistical analysis IBM ( Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS + Version 20 was used. The mean difference of the height was 1773.273 ± 78.832 mm and Hand length (Right and Left were 196

  10. Factors Associated with Knowledge of and Willingness for Adult Male Circumcision in Changsha, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Mingqiang; Wang, Ling; Chen, Caifang; Zeng, Fanchang; Huang, Liang; Xue, Ruizhi; Chen, Junjie; Gao, Benmin; Tang, Zhengyan

    2016-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of male genital diseases. MC is not commonly practiced among Chinese males and little is known about the factors associated with their knowledge of and willingness for MC. This study was to explore the knowledge regarding the foreskin among Chinese males and to identify factors associated with their willingness to undergo circumcision. Methods A total of 237 patients with redundant prepuce/phimosis were interviewed through fa...

  11. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana. PMID:26754167

  12. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas Del Rio, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200-300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0-5, 5-24, 24-48, and 48-72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5-24, 24-48, and 48-72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  13. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2 played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ~10 min, ~ 2 min rest periods in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05. Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05. Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  14. Safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Feldblum

    Full Text Available To assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult medical male circumcision (MMC in routine service delivery in Kenya.We enrolled 427 men ages 18-49 at one fixed and two outreach clinics. Procedures were performed by trained clinical officers and nurses. The first 50 enrollees were scheduled for six follow-up visits, and remaining men were followed at Days 7 and 42. We recorded adverse events (AEs and time to complete healing, and interviewed men about acceptability and pain.Placement and removal procedures each averaged between 3 and 4 minutes. Self-reported pain was minimal during placement but was fleetingly intense during removal. The rate of moderate/severe AEs was 5.9% overall (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%-8.5%, all of which resolved without sequelae. AEs included 5 device displacements, 2 spontaneous foreskin detachments, and 9 cases of insufficient foreskin removal. Surgical completion of MMC was required for 9 men (2.1%. Among the closely monitored first 50 participants, the probability of complete healing by Day 42 was 0.44 (95% CI 0.30-0.58, and 0.90 by Day 56. A large majority of men was favorable about their MMC procedure and would recommend PrePex to friends and family.The PrePex device was effective for MMC in Kenya, and well-accepted. The AE rate was higher than reported for surgical procedures there, or in previous PrePex studies. Healing time is longer than following surgical circumcision. Provider experience and clearer counseling on post-placement and post-removal care should lead to lower AE rates.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01711411.

  15. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver. PMID:26349937

  16. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  17. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  18. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M; Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  19. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Baran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult zebra finches (T. guttata form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homologue of vasopressin and the V1a receptor (V1aR early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird.

  20. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  1. Deficiency of X-Linked Inverted Duplicates with Male-Biased Expression and the Underlying Evolutionary Mechanisms in the Drosophila Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhen-Xia; Zhang, Yong E.; Vibranovski, Maria; Luo, Jingchu; Gao, Ge; Long, Manyuan

    2011-01-01

    Inverted duplicates (IDs) are pervasive in genomes and have been reported to play functional roles in various biological processes. However, the general underlying evolutionary forces that maintain IDs in genomes remain largely elusive. Through a systematic screening of the Drosophila melanogaster genome, 20,223 IDs were detected in nonrepetitive intergenic regions, far more than expectation under the neutrality model. 3,846 of these IDs were identified to have stable hairpin structure (i.e.,...

  2. Early Maladaptive Schemas among Young Adult Male Substance Abusers: A Comparison with a Non-Clinical Group

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (Young, 1994). Research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as schemas are believed to underlie, perpetuate, and maintain problematic substance use. To date, research has not examined whether young adult male substance abuse treatment seekers (ages 18 to 25) report greater early maladaptive schema endorsement t...

  3. AB221. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Methods Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency ...

  4. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A.; Dalby, Matthew J; Garden, Karen; Lynn M. Thomson; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Ross, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insolubl...

  5. Large and forgotten in rural Australia: assessment, attitudes and possible approaches to losing weight in young adult males

    OpenAIRE

    Mendis, Kumara; Forster, Tanya; Paxton, Karen; Hyland, Karen; Yelverton, Jason; McLean, Rick; Canalese, Joseph; Brown, Anthony; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Background Young Adult Males (YAMs) in rural Australia are poorly studied with respect to overweight and obesity. Firstly, we explored the feasibility of recruiting 17–25 year old YAMs to obtain baseline data on overweight and obesity rates, socio-demographics, nutrition, exercise and mobile phone usage. Secondly, we explored the views of YAMs with a waist measurement over 94 cm about using mobile phone text messages to promote weight loss and incentives to promote healthy lifestyles. Methods...

  6. SCREENING FOR BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES ATTENDING MEDICINE OPD AT MIMSH, MANDYA CITY, KARNA TAKA, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna; Poornima; Shivakumar

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The number of young adults seeking care for diabete s related complications has been constantly on the rise in our hospitals. This f act prompted us to take up this study. OBJECTIVE: To screen all the young males aged between 20- 30 y ears attending medicine OPD at MIMSH, Mandya City, for blood sugar levels. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive study of 6 months duration was taken up at Medical C ollege Hospital MIMS, Mandya. All the...

  7. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Puran Badkoobeh; Kazem Parivar; Seyed Mehdi Kalantar; Seyed Davood Hosseini; Alireza Salabat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including...

  8. Primary Mature Cystıc Teratoma Mimickıng an Adrenal Mass in an Adult Male Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Okulu, Emrah; Ener, Kemal; Aldemir, Mustafa; Isik, Evren; Irkkan, Cigdem; Kayigil, Onder

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are bizarre neoplasms derived from embryonic tissues that are typically found only in the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions of adults. Primary retroperitoneal teratomas are rare and present challenging management options. We report a case of a unilateral primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma mimicking an adrenal mass in a 54-year-old male patient. Complete resection of the adrenal mass was performed by the flank approach by using the 11th rib resection. Because of the risk...

  9. Effects of Photoperiod and Temperature on Growth and Reproductive Organ Mass in Adult Male Mongolian Gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent GÜNDÜZ

    2002-01-01

    Rates of growth and sexual maturation of Mongolian gerbils vary in response to photoperiod. Previous work has shown that the responses of the testes and body weight of juvenile and adult gerbils are influenced not only by the photoperiods but also by other factors. The present work sought to determine if Mongolian gerbils alter body mass, body composition and/or reproductive organ mass in response to different photoperiods and temperatures. Male Mongolian gerbils were raised under long (14L) ...

  10. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during...

  11. DIETARY SODIUM INTAKE IN A SAMPLE OF ADULT MALE POPULATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY.Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzullo, P; Venezia, Antonella; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Russo, Ornella; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Farinaro, Eduardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Galletti, Ferruccio; Rossi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess dietary habitual sodium intake, the association between daily sodium intake and anthropometric indices, food habits and hypertension in the sample of adult male population participating in the Olivetti Heart Study. Design, Setting and Participants: The study population was composed of 940 men participating in the 2002-04 follow-up examination of the Olivetti Heart Study. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and sodium excre...

  12. Excretion Rate and Composition of Skin Surface Lipids on the Foreheads of Adult Males with Type IV Hyperlipoproteinemia

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLDÜR, Tayfun

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Most of the lipids of the skin surface come from the sebaceous glands, which secrete an oily substance called sebum. Some of the sebum lipids are synthesized by sebaceous cells while some are reported to be derived from the plasma. The role of blood lipoproteins in sebum secretion rate and composition is unclear. To this end, excretion rate and composition of skin surface lipids in normo- and type IV hyperlipoproteinemic adult male subjects were compared. Materials and Methods: Quantit...

  13. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514

  14. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8(-/-) mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. PMID:27328324

  15. Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically modulated impairments in visuospatial tasks controlled for psychomotor speed

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    Wong Ling M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study reported enhanced psychomotor speed, and subtle but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs. Because male carriers, unlike females, do not have a second, unaffected FMR1 allele, male fXPCs should exhibit similar, if not worse, impairments. Understanding male fXPCs is of particular significance because of their increased risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS. Methods Male fXPCs (n = 18 and healthy control (HC adults (n = 26 aged less than 45 years performed two psychomotor speed tasks (manual and oral and two visuospatial tasks (magnitude comparison and enumeration. In the magnitude comparison task, participants were asked to compare and judge which of two bars was larger. In the enumeration task, participants were shown between one and eight green bars in the center of the screen, and asked to state the total number displayed. Enumeration typically proceeds in one of two modes: subitizing, a fast and accurate process that works only with a small set of items, and counting, which requires accurate serial-object detection and individuation during visual search. We examined the associations between the performance on all tasks and the age, full-scale intelligent quotient, and CGG repeat length of participants. Results We found that in the magnitude comparison and enumeration tasks, male fXPCs exhibited slower reaction times relative to HCs, even after controlling for simple reaction time. Conclusions Our results indicate that male fXPCs as a group show impairments (slower reaction times in numerical visuospatial tasks, which are consistent with previous findings. This adds to a growing body of literature characterizing the phenotype in fXPCs who are asymptomatic for FXTAS. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these impairments

  16. Paired-organ and other selected absorbed fraction for the Korean Reference Adult Male model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed a mathematical model for calculating internal radionuclide dosimetry for the Korean Reference Adult Male, and have also derived paired-organ and other selected inter-organ photon-specific absorbed fractions for this model. Each lung, kidney and adrenal gland was set as a separate source region even though each of them shares an identical physiological function with their complementary half. The thyroid gland was also set as a source region. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were then derived by selecting 10 photon energies from 0.02 to 4.0 MeV inclusive. For this purpose the Monte Carlo methodology was used, and the derived SAF was compared with the resulting value of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 and ORNL TM-8381, both of which were derived on the basis of the ICRP-23 reference man. The comparison showed that MIRD No. 5 and ORNL TM-8381 resulted in a higher absorbed fraction, but the phantom created on the basis of the Korean reference man led to a higher SAF. The weight of the organs of the phantom, and the size and location of the trunk seem to account for the differences. The energy-dependent differences in the SAFs are considered to be related to the distance between the source and target regions, the composition of the intervening tissues, and the photon energies and mean free paths. Also, as a result of deriving SAFs after setting each separate lung, kidney and adrenal gland as a source region, it was found that, although they are of the same physiological function, each individual organ serves as a source region on its own. Differences were noted in SAFs exerted on the source and target organs in accordance with the location of the organs, that is, whether they were located to the left or right of the source organs. The SAF derived in this study can be used for a more accurate internal radionuclide dosimetry for Koreans and other Orientals whose physiology, lifestyle and dietary habits are similar to those of Koreans. (authors)

  17. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate in adult males with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaydaa A Shehata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were assessed in 45 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and/or valproate and free of seizures for ≥1 year. Thirty-four newly diagnosed or untreated patients with epilepsy and 58 matched healthy subjects were also included for comparison. A battery of psychometric tests was utilized including Stanford-Binet (4th edition, Beck Inventory for Depression, Aggressive Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.Results: Compared to matched control subjects, treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance in different cognitive and behavioral functions testing. Treated patients had worse scores in memory for digits forward and backward, total short-term memory, extroversion and psychosis. The duration of AEDs intake was correlated with memory of objects (r = -0.323; P = 0.030, bead memory (r = -0.314; P = 0.036 and total nonverbal short-term memory (r = -0.346; P = 0.020. Treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance of similar extent in behavioral functions testing (depression, aggression and neurosis. The dose of AEDs was correlated with testing scores for neurosis (r = 0.307; P = 0.040, verbal aggression (r = 0.483; P = 0.001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.526; P = 0.000, and duration of drug intake was correlated with scores for depression (r = 0.384; P = 0.009, psychosis (r = 0.586; P = 0.0001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.300; P = 0.045.Conclusions: This study provides support for the notion that AEDs can impair performance

  18. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  19. Evaluation Of Gonadotropin And Testosterone Hormons In Adult Male Cholestatic Rats

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    Nasiri E

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids (EOP, nitric oxide (NO, and cytokins in the blood streams. Therefore we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and function of germ cells in adult male rats."nMaterial and Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: No-surgery, Sham-surgery, and surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animal were killed by ether, serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were determined by Radioimmunoassay, apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by in situ terminal deoxynucloetidyl Transfrase-mediated dUTP nike end labeling (TUNEL."nResults: The mean of FSH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 13.22+ 1.038, 18.14+ 1.276, and 16.92+ 1.072 ng/ml, respectively. The mean of LH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 0.83 + 0.21, 2.058 ± 0.26, and 1.84 + 0.17 ng/ml, respectively. In addition, the mean of testosterone level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 1.52 ± 0.16, 2.41 ± 0.18, and 2.31 + 0.14 ng/ml, respectively. The results of this study were indicated that serum FSH, LH and testosterone were significantly lower in cholestatic than control and sham groups (p=0.0195, P= 0.0029, and P=0.0023, respectively. However there was no significant difference in apoptotic index between all of groups (P=0.195. The apoptotic index in cholestatic, control and sham rats were 9.897± 1.374, 7.086 + 0.91, and 7.729 + 1.101, respectively. "nConclusion: These findings have been shown which as obstructive cholestasis was decreased the levels of serum gonadotropins and testosterone but it has no significant effector testicular germinal cells apoptosis."n"n"n"n 

  20. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

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    Steven Mark Gillespie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring and secondary (impulsive, antisocial psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, was associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  1. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  2. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  3. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  4. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

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    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  5. Drosophila 60A gene, another transforming growth factor beta family member, is closely related to human bone morphogenetic proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Wharton, K. A.; Thomsen, G H; Gelbart, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The 60A gene, a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of signaling proteins, has been identified in Drosophila melanogaster. From its inferred protein sequence we predict the precursor is secreted and processed to release a growth factor-like molecule. The 60A gene is expressed throughout development with peaks of transcription during early embryogenesis, in pupae, and in adult males. The putative 60A protein shows greater sequence similarity to three vertebrate family mem...

  6. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

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    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  7. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior.

  8. Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude

    In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.

  9. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nozhat; Sanaz Alaee; Khodabakhsh Behzadi; Najmeh Azadi Chegini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C) and three experimental groups (I, II and III) received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility an...

  10. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

  11. Evaluating the Effect of Vitamins E and C on Sexual Cell Lineages in Adult Male Rats under Oxidative Stress Induced by Endosulfan Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    yazdan heydari; shirzad hosseini; mojtaba keshavarz; ahmad mozafar; mohammadhasaan meshkibaf; mohammadali takhshid

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Endosulfan is one of the strong insecticides used in agriculture. This toxin is absorbed by inhalation and skin. Endosulfan has side effects such as infertility in men. This study surveys the effect of vitamins E and C on  preventing the harmful effects of Endosulfan on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: Adult male rats (200-250 g) from Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats. Rats in the experimental group...

  12. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socio-economic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahly, Darren L; Adair, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that lower birth order amplifies the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult males from a lower-income, developing country context. Design The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is an ongoing community-based, observational study of a one year birth cohort (1983). Subjects 970 young adult males, mean age 21.5 y (2005). Measurements Central adiposity measured by waist circumference; birth order; perinatal...

  13. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  14. Disentangling recoding processes and evaluative associations in a gender attitude implicit association test among adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    The course of male development of implicit gender attitudes between young age (N = 30, age 17-26 years) and old age (N = 34, age 56-78 years) was investigated. The findings demonstrated that younger males had a stronger implicit preference for females relative to males than did older participants, shedding light on the nature of age differences in gender attitudes in regard to implicit measures. Although younger and older participants demonstrated different levels of gender bias on an implicit association test (IAT), the application of the ReAL model [Meissner, F., & Rothermund, K. (2013). Estimating the contributions of associations and recoding in the implicit association test: The ReAL model for the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(1), 45-69.] showed that evaluative associations of both female and male were activated at equivalent levels among both the young and old age groups, but younger males were more able to recode the female gender and a positive evaluation into common categories. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses between younger and older males exaggerated the differences in the underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and concealed the differences in recoding processes. These findings have important implications for the measurement and interpretation of implicit gender attitudes. PMID:26933754

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise on Pancreas Beta-cells function in adult obese males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.

  16. The prevalence of disorders causing disability in young adult males in Turkey between 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kocak, Necmettin; Turker TURKER; Aydin, Ibrahim; Istanbulluoglu, Hakan; Akyildiz, Ramazan; Kilic, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disability is one of the significant problems that the public faces as regards social aspects, economics, public health and politics. Our aim was to review the prevalence of diseases causing disabilities in young adult men who are declared “unfit for military service” in Turkey after medical examination. Methods: We reviewed the prevalence of diseases among 113,175 young adult men who were referred for medical examination between 2009 and 2011. Results: Prevalence of unfitness for ...

  17. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  18. Evaluation of some hormonal levels related to age in adult and aged male rats exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we grow older, the ability to produce most hormones in adequate amounts declined. This decline in natural hormones production coincides with nearly every age-related health problems. The present work aims to evaluate the levels of some hormones related to age namely dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) and melatonin and also the alteration in lipid fractions using male rats subjected to acute sublethal dose of gamma radiation. This study included thirty two male albino rats divided into two main groups; adult group (four months old) and aged group (20 months old). Each group was divided into two subgroups; control group and group irradiated at a dose level of 5 Gray whole body gamma irradiation. Blood samples were collected from both adult and aged groups 3 days post-irradiation after 16 hours fasting. As related to age, the aged group showed significant decrease in DHEA, DHEA-s and melatonin levels and significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and cholesterol/HDL ratio when compared to adult group. Concerning the effect of gamma radiation, the irradiated adult group showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in DHEA, DHEA-s and melatonin levels by values equal to -32.2%, - 39.8% and -67.9%, respectively, and nonsignificant changes in lipids concentrations except for LDL-c level, which showed significant (P<0.05) increase at +58.2 % in irradiated adult group as compared to adult controls. On the other hand, exposure to irradiation of aged rats did not affect the hormonal levels assayed except for the level of DHEA-s which was decreased significantly (P<0.05) by -26.4% as compared to control aged rats. Also, total cholesterol and LDL-c levels were increased significantly (P<0.01) by +17.1% and +27.4 %, respectively in irradiated rats as compared to control aged group. It could be concluded that y-radiation obviously accelerates the aging process in adults suggesting the need for protective agents to overcome the

  19. Suppression of spermatogenesis by testosterone undecanoate-loaded injectable in situ-forming implants in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Dan; Meng, Shu; Wang, Ping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Dan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of administration of testosterone undecanoate (TU)-loaded injectable in situ-forming implant (ISFI) for contraception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were treated with vehicle, TU-loaded ISFIs (540, 270 and 135 mg TU kg-1 ) or TU injections (45 mg TU kg-1 every 30 days) for 120 days. Fertility tests served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Serum testosterone concentration, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, and histology of the testis were monitored. The TU-loaded ISFIs increased serum testosterone levels in rats steadily without fluctuation over 3 months. One month after TU administration, the epididymal sperm count decreased significantly in all experimental groups. After 3 months, the animals treated with 270 and 135 mg kg-1 TU-loaded ISFIs were 100% infertile, and no implantation sites were produced in the mated females. However, some of males treated with 540 mg kg-1 ISFI or TU injections were still fertile but numbers of implantation sites were also significantly lower than control values. TU-loaded ISFI at an appropriate dose has potential as a long-acting male contraceptive drug that suppresses spermatogenesis consistently over a period of 3 months. PMID:26459781

  20. Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the Fran(c)ois langur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hai ZHOU; Bang LUO; Cheng-Ming HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Infanticide by males is a common phenomenon in mammals,especially primates,as lactation lasts much longer than gestation in many species.Usually,infanticidal episodes occur soon after group takeovers,and are traditionally considered a male reproductive strategy (i.e.,support the sexual selection hypothesis,Hrdy,1974).To verify the validity of this conception,we observed one group of Fran(c)ois' langurs in the Nonggang Nature Reserve,China,between August 2003 and July 2004.During the study period,a Fran(c)ois' langur female with the youngest infant in the group was attacked three times by immigrating males,and later disappeared by the third day after the final attack.We suggest that these attacks on the female-infant dyad represent infanticide attempts by males,and may be the cause of the adult female and her infant's disappearance.Presumably,that female dispersed with her infant to avoid infanticide and was not killed.Though these observations do not completely verify the sexual selection hypothesis,they are not inconsistent with it.

  1. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  2. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on `Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantit...

  3. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi; Farhad Soltanalinejad; Gholamreza Najafi; Leila Roshangar

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin ...

  4. Age effect of deafening on stereotyped song maintenance in adult male bengalese finches Lonchura striata domestica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingyu SUN; Rui WANG; Shuli SHAO; Shaoju ZENG; Mingxue ZUO

    2009-01-01

    Birdsong is a complex learned vocal behavior that relies on auditory experience for development. However, it appears that among different species of close-ended songbirds, there are some variations in the necessity of auditory feedback for maintaining stereotyped aduh song. In zebra finches, the deterioration of adult songs following deafness depends on the birds' age. It is unknown whether this age effect is a general ride in other avian species as well. Therefore, we chose Bengalese finches, whose songs show more complexity and have much heavier dependency on auditory feedback than that of zebra finches, to compare the degree of song degradation after heating loss in old (over 18 months old) and young adult birds (5-6 months old). We found that beth syllable sequence and syllable phonology were much leas severely affected by deafening in old adults than that in young ones. Moreover, young adults almost lost their capability to sing trills over 6 months following deafening, while old birds continued to sing plenty of trills and trilled syllables after the same period of deafening. Our results suggest that age plays an important role in affecting the dependency of adult song maintenance on auditory feedback in Bengalese finches. Furthermore, the age dependency may be a general phenomenon in different species of close-ended songbirds.

  5. A Prospective Analysis of Juvenile Male Sex Offenders: Characteristics and Recidivism Rates as Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandiver, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male…

  6. Factors Associated with Knowledge of and Willingness for Adult Male Circumcision in Changsha, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiang Zeng

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of male genital diseases. MC is not commonly practiced among Chinese males and little is known about the factors associated with their knowledge of and willingness for MC. This study was to explore the knowledge regarding the foreskin among Chinese males and to identify factors associated with their willingness to undergo circumcision.A total of 237 patients with redundant prepuce/phimosis were interviewed through face-to-face interviews. The items on the questionnaire included: demographics, an objective scale assessing knowledge about the foreskin, willingness to have MC, the attitudes of sexual partners and doctors toward redundant prepuce/phimosis, and the approaches that patients used to acquire knowledge regarding the prepuce. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify factors that are associated with willingness to be circumcised (WTC.A total of 212 patients completed the interview. Multivariable logistic regression showed that three factors were significantly associated with WTC: being married (OR = 0.43, perceiving redundant prepuce/phimosis as a disease (OR = 1.93, and if a patient's partner supported MC (OR = 1.39. 58% (n = 122 had received information about the foreskin from another party: 18% (n = 37 from school, 8% (n = 17 from family, 17% (n = 36 from friends, 27% (n = 57 from health care providers. About 4% (n = 8 believed that their partners disliked their redundant prepuce/phimosis. 20% (n = 42 had received doctors' advice to undergo circumcision.Knowledge about the foreskin was low among Chinese males. Our study elucidates the factors associated with WTC and suggests that more education of the population about the foreskin can help improve the recognition of a correctible abnormality and help patients assess the potential role of MC in their health.

  7. Brain serotonin synthesis in adult males characterized by physical aggression during childhood: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Booij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults exhibiting severe impulsive and aggressive behaviors have multiple indices of low serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. It remains unclear though whether low 5-HT mediates the behavior or instead reflects a pre-existing vulnerability trait. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ((11C-AMT was used to compare 5-HT synthesis capacity in two groups of adult males from a 21-year longitudinal study (mean age +/- SD: 27.1+/-0.7: individuals with a history of childhood-limited high physical aggression (C-LHPA; N = 8 and individuals with normal (low patterns of physical aggression (LPA; N = 18. The C-LHPA males had significantly lower trapping of (11C-AMT bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex and self-reported more impulsiveness. Despite this, in adulthood there were no group differences in plasma tryptophan levels, genotyping, aggression, emotional intelligence, working memory, computerized measures of impulsivity, psychosocial functioning/adjustment, and personal and family history of mood and substance abuse disorders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results force a re-examination of the low 5-HT hypothesis as central in the biology of violence. They suggest that low 5-HT does not mediate current behavior and should be considered a vulnerability factor for impulsive-aggressive behavior that may or may not be expressed depending on other biological factors, experience, and environmental support during development.

  8. Trade-off between resource allocation and acquisition in anadromous adult male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vladic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual energetic limitations in variable environments lead to life-history trade-offs between investment in somatic growth and gonadal tissue, causing individuals to adopt specific behavioural tactics to attain reproduction. We investigated energy allocation in primary and secondary sexual traits in Atlantic salmon by estimating the life history characters (smolt size, sea age, first sea year growth rate by back-calculation of scales. Adult size increased with the fish sea age (years at sea and exerted a strong allometric effect on the energy investment pattern into secondary sexual traits. A compensatory mechanism at the ejaculate level is identified by which males investing less in secondary sexual traits produce ejaculates of higher quality. Distinct differences in investment into primary and secondary sexual traits between the fish that spent a single year in the sea before returning to the spawn (grilse and multi-sea-year adults were detected, indicating that their energy allocation strategy in reproductive effort reflects alternative developmental pathways. Grilse ejaculate investment depended more on the resource allocation, whereas multi-sea-year male ejaculate investment depended more on the resource acquisition.

  9. The Effect of Disulfiram on Serum Levels of Hormones in the Pituitary-Thyroid in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Disulfiram is used for treatment of alcohol intoxication.Based on the results of different studies, excessive amounts of the drug can affect the body's endocrine function. This study investigated the effect of disulfiram on the activity of the pituitary - thy-roid in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: In this study 50 adult male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200 to 220 g were used in the experimental, control and intact groups. Experimental groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg oral doses of disulfiram for 10 days and control group received 1 ml saline for 10 days and intact groups did not receive any thing. At the end of the tenth day ,the rats were bled from the heart and T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured by commercial kits Gama Counter and the results were analyzed using one-way (ANOVA with SPSS ver-sion 18. Results: Results show that there was no significant changes in T4 plasma level, but T3 and TSH level increased significantly when the control and intact groups were compared. Conclusion: Disulfiram had no significant effect in T4 plasma level but T3 and TSH level in-creased significantly. It probably happened due to increasing serotonin and reducing soma-tostatine and also enhancing the activity of 5-Deiodinase enzymes following the entry of cal-cium ions into the cells.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:43-47

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

  11. Does Prison-Based Adult Basic Education Improve Postrelease Outcomes for Male Prisoners in Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Rosa Minhyo; Tyler, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The authors use administrative data from Florida to determine the extent to which prison-based adult basic education (ABE) improves inmate's postrelease labor market outcomes, such as earnings and employment. Using two nonexperimental comparison groups, the authors find evidence that ABE participation is associated with higher postrelease…

  12. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  13. Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Male and Female Young Adults: 1990 versus 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Laura; Nicodemus, Teresa; Pomante, Michael; Binasiewicz, Megan; Dheer, Rahul; Dugan, Amy; Madaras, Janice; Chambliss, Catherine

    The increase in maternal employment has affected society and children. Indications are that the increased numbers of working mothers had impacted the size of families and the birth intervals within them. In addition, as children experience life with a working mother, personal constructs of adult roles and attitudes towards maternal employment can…

  14. A dose-response relationship between maternal smoking during late pregnancy and adult intelligence in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Sanders, Stephanie A; Reinisch, June Machover

    2005-01-01

    An association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and cognitive and behavioural development has been observed in several studies, but potential effects of maternal smoking on offspring adult intelligence have not been investigated. The objective of the present study was to investigate a potential association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring intelligence in young adulthood. Adult intelligence was assessed at the mean age of 18.7 years by a military draft board intelligence test (Borge Priens Prove) for 3044 singleton males from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort with information regarding maternal smoking during the third trimester coded into five categories (about 50% of the mothers were smokers). The following potential confounders were included as covariates in multivariable analyses: parental social status and education, single mother status, mother's height and age, number of pregnancies, and gestational age. In separate analyses, birthweight and length were also included as covariates. Maternal cigarette smoking during the third trimester, adjusted for the seven covariates, showed a negative association with offspring adult intelligence (P=0.0001). The mean difference between the no-smoking and the heaviest smoking category amounted to 0.41 standard deviation, corresponding to an IQ difference of 6.2 points [95% confidence interval 0.14, 0.68]. The association remained significant when further adjusted for birthweight and length (P=0.007). Both unadjusted and adjusted means suggested a dose-response relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring adult intelligence. When subjects with missing data were excluded, essentially the same results were obtained in the reduced sample (n=1829). These results suggest that smoking during pregnancy may have long-term negative consequences on offspring adult intelligence. PMID:15670102

  15. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States); Lee, Choonsik, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 {mu}m resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 {mu}m endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 {mu}m shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  16. The developmental transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Connecticut; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brooks, Angela N.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Duff, Michael O.; Landolin, Jane M.; Yang, Li; Artieri, Carlo G.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Boley, Nathan; Booth, Benjamin W.; Brown, James B.; Cherbas, Lucy; Davis, Carrie A.; Dobin, Alex; Li, Renhua; Lin, Wei; Malone, John H.; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R.; Miller, David; Sturgill, David; Tuch, Brian B.; Zaleski, Chris; Zhang, Dayu; Blanchette, Marco; Dudoit, Sandrine; Eads, Brian; Green, Richard E.; Hammonds, Ann; Jiang, Lichun; Kapranov, Phil; Langton, Laura; Perrimon, Norbert; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Yi; Andrews, Justen; Bicke, Peter J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Brent, Michael R.; Cherbas, Peter; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Oliver, Brian; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-12-02

    . Whereas, 20% of Drosophila genes are annotated as encoding alternatively spliced premRNAs, splice-junction microarray experiments indicate that this number is at least 40% (ref. 7). Determining the diversity of mRNAs generated by alternative promoters, alternative splicing and RNA editing will substantially increase the inferred protein repertoire. Non-coding RNA genes (ncRNAs) including short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAS (miRNAs) (reviewed in ref. 10), and longer ncRNAs such as bxd (ref. 11) and rox (ref. 12), have important roles in gene regulation, whereas others such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs)and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are important components of macromolecular machines such as the ribosome and spliceosome. The transcription and processing of these ncRNAs must also be fully documented and mapped. As part of the modENCODE project to annotate the functional elements of the D. melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, we used RNA-Seq and tiling microarrays to sample the Drosophila transcriptome at unprecedented depth throughout development from early embryo to ageing male and female adults. We report on a high-resolution view of the discovery, structure and dynamic expression of the D. melanogaster transcriptome.

  17. Higher Glycated Hemoglobin Level Is Associated with Increased Risk for Ischemic Stroke in Non-Diabetic Korean Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Geun Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe role of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c in the prediction of ischemic stroke in non-diabetic subjects is not clear. We performed a study to analyze the role of HbA1c in the risk prediction of ischemic stroke in non-diabetic Korean males adult.MethodsA total of 307 non-diabetic male patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled, and 253 age-matched control subjects without a history of diabetes, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease were selected from a Health Check-up database. Anthropometric measurement data, fasting glucose level, lipid profile, and HbA1c level were available for all subjects. Associations of the variables and the presence or absence of ischemic stroke were analyzed.ResultsThe ischemic stroke patient group had significantly higher HbA1c levels (5.8±0.5% vs. 5.5±0.5%, P<0.01 and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the control group. Among the variables, smoking, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c were the significant determinants for ischemic stroke. The highest quartile of HbA1c showed a 9.6-fold increased odds ratio for ischemic stroke compared with the lowest quartile of HbA1c (odds ratio, 9.596; 95% confidence interval, 3.859 to 23.863, P<0.01. The proportion of ischemic stroke patients showed a significant trend for increment as the deciles of HbA1c increased (P for trend <0.01.ConclusionHigher HbA1c indicated a significantly increased risk for ischemic stroke after adjusting for other confounding variables in non-diabetic Korean adult males. HbA1c might have significance in predicting the risk for ischemic stroke even in the non-diabetic range.

  18. Effect of Excess Iodine on Oxidative Stress Markers, Steroidogenic-Enzyme Activities, Testicular Morphology, and Functions in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Mandal, Jagadis; Mondal, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sabyasachi; Chandra, Amar K

    2016-08-01

    Improper iodine intake is a major concern in public health. Chronic intake of low iodine affects gonadal functions of man and animals; however, such effects of excess iodine in male reproduction, specially on testicular morphology, testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities, sperm morphology, sperm viability, and sperm count including male hormonal profiles in reference to iodine status and thyroid hormone profiles are yet to be explored. With this background, adult male rats of 120 ± 10 gm Bw of 90 ± 5 days were divided broadly in two groups depending on the duration of the treatment for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Both the groups consisted of control animals. Excess iodine (100EI), i.e., 100 times more than its recommended level but within its tolerable ranges, was administered through gavage regularly to the first group of experimental animals for 30 and 60 days, respectively, and excessive iodine (500EI), i.e., 500 times more than its recommended level and above tolerable range in the same way and for the same durations, was administered to the other group of experimental animals. Overall results revealed that regular consumption of iodine in excess impairs reproductive functions in adult male rats depending on the dose and duration of its exposure through different mechanisms. Excess iodine accumulates in the testis which results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as evidenced by higher lipid peroxidation level as well as an imbalance in the pro-/antioxidant status inhibiting the activity of ∆(5) 3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD resulting to reduced synthesis of testosterone that causes structural and functional changes of the testis. Secondly, persistent generation of ROS in testis as a result of prolonged excess iodine exposure affects hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis that stimulates synthesis and secretion of corticosterone which inhibits LH release that downregulates testosterone synthesis causing further

  19. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  20. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    A. Y. Jasem; H. M. Jassem; H. K. Ismaiel

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water) for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight). The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight), caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live ...

  2. Intensive music therapy process with a male adult client diagnosed with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Solati, Safa

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (also called ASD) is the fastest growing disability. Research shows that music is a relational, emotional, and motivational medium that plays an essential role in field of music therapy, specifically for individuals with autism. This Master’s thesis aims at describing the intensive music therapy process with a 24 year-old Turkish-Cypriot male client diagnosed with ASD in a group setting concentrating on his four main areas of impairments (verbal/non verbal, social int...

  3. Acute Stress Differentially Affects Aromatase Activity in Specific Brain Nuclei of Adult Male and Female Quail

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, s...

  4. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Motoi Tamura; Chigusa Hoshi; Sachiko Hori

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0....

  5. Aerobic exercise training reduces cardiac function in adult male offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura M; Kirschenman, Raven; Quon, Anita; Morton, Jude S; Shah, Amin; Davidge, Sandra T

    2015-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Exercise is an effective preventive intervention for cardiovascular diseases; however, it may be detrimental in conditions of compromised health. The aim of this study was to determine whether exercise training can improve cardiac performance after I/R injury in IUGR offspring. We used a hypoxia-induced IUGR model by exposing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to 21% oxygen (control) or hypoxic (11% oxygen; IUGR) conditions from gestational day 15 to 21. At 10 wk of age, offspring were randomized to a sedentary group or to a 6-wk exercise protocol. Transthoracic echocardiography assessments were performed after 6 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last bout of exercise, ex vivo cardiac function was determined using a working heart preparation. With exercise training, there was improved baseline cardiac performance in male control offspring but a reduced baseline cardiac performance in male IUGR exercised offspring (P exercise decreased superoxide generation in control offspring, while in IUGR offspring, it had the polar opposite effect (interaction P ≤ 0.05). There was no effect of IUGR or exercise on cardiac function in female offspring. In conclusion, in male IUGR offspring, exercise may be a secondary stressor on cardiac function. A reduction in cardiac performance along with an increase in superoxide production in response to exercise was observed in this susceptible group. PMID:26157059

  6. Effect of Thymus vulgaris oil on some reproductive characters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Kakel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to show the effect of thymus vulgaris oil administration at (0.3, 0.6 ml/kg orally for 60 days on male fertility and epididymal sperms characters in male rats at age of 100 days. The animals treated with thyme oil at a dose of (0.6 ml revealed a significant decrease in the weight of testes, body of epididymis, percentage of live/dead sperms and epididymyal sperm count, with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. On the other hand the animals treated with thyme oil at a dose (0.3 ml show a significant decrease in the weight of body of epididymis, epididymal sperm count and the percentage of live/dead sperms accompanied with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. Its concluded from this study that thymus vulgaris has an inhibitory effect on reproductive system and spermatogenesis in mature male rats.

  7. Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

  8. Lactogenic and Cytogenetic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Adult Male Rats and Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid A. Abbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic and cytogenic effects were studied for Ochratoxin (OTA dosed daily orally throughout lactation period to four groups each consist of newly parturated female rats at doses (0, 60, 120, 180 µg/Kg. BW representing control, T1, T2, T3 group. Micronucleus test results indicated significant increase in number of fragmented and budding nuclei of T1, T2, T3 adult rat bone marrow in dose dependent manner in comparison with control group. The lactating results show no significant change in weekly pup group’s weight gain or length throughout lactating period. Alough there were no changes recorded in viability index of all pups groups, lactating index recorded considerable decline in T1, T2, T3 pups groups according with their adult OTA doses with maximum pups death at the third lactating week. Different histopathological lesions observed in pups liver, kidney and spleen that increase in severity proportionally with their OTA mother doses.

  9. Effects of bisphenol-A on male reproductive success in adult Kadaknath chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram P; Shafeeque, Chathathayil M; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Singh, Renu; Kannan, Maharajan; Sastry, Kochiganti V H; Raghunandanan, Sajith; Mohan, Jag; Azeez, Parappurath A

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) adversely affects human and animal reproductive success in many ways, but this information is scant on birds. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of BPA in adult Kadaknath chicken using two BPA dosages orally (1 or 5mg/kg body weight) for seven weeks. In order to assess BPA toxicity, sperm functions, fertilizing ability, serum testosterone concentration and testis histopathology were measured in treated and control chickens. The semen volume was highest in birds exposed to 1mg/kg body weight BPA compared to other groups. 5mg/kg body weight BPA reduced sperm concentration significantly more than other treatment and controls. However, overall fertility and testis histology were unaffected. These results indicate that BPA adversely affects sperm characteristics in adult kadaknath chicken without affecting fertilization potential. PMID:26895245

  10. Induction of blindness by formoguanamine hydrochloride in adult male roseringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anamika Sengupta; Yoshihiko Obara; Tapan K Banerji; Saumen K Maitra

    2002-12-01

    Formoguanamine (2,4-diamino-s-triazine) was known to be an effective chemical agent in inducing blindness in poultry chicks, but not in adult birds. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the influences, if any, of this chemical on the visual performance and retinal histology in an adult sub-tropical wild bird, the roseringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Formoguanamine (FG) hydrochloride was subcutaneously injected into adult parakeets at a dosage of 25 mg (dissolved in 0×75 ml physiological saline)/100 g body weight/day, for two consecutive days while the control birds were injected only with a placebo. The effects were studied after 10, 20 and 30 days of the last treatment of FG. Within 24 h of the treatment of FG, about 90% of the total birds exhibited lack of visual responses to any light stimulus and even absence of pupillary light reactions. The remaining birds became totally blind on the day following the last injection of FG and remained so till the end of investigation. At the microscopic level, conspicuous degenerative changes were noted in the outer pigmented epithelium and the photoreceptive layer of rods and cones in the retinas of FG treated birds. A significant reduction in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer was also found in the retinas of FG treated parakeets, compared to that in the control birds. However, the inner cell layers of the retina in the control and FG administered parakeets were almost identical. It deserves special mention that the effects of FG, noted after 30 days of last treatment, were not very different from those noted just after 10 days of treatment. Collectively, the results of the present investigation demonstrate that FG can be used as a potent pharmacological agent for inducing irreversible blindness through selective damage in retinal tissue even in the adult wild bird, thereby making FG treatment an alternative euthanasic device to a cumbersome, stressful, surgical method of enucleation of the ocular

  11. Does Prison-Based Adult Basic Education Improve Postrelease Outcomes for Male Prisoners in Florida?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Rosa Minhyo; John H. Tyler

    2010-01-01

    The authors use administrative data from Florida to determine the extent to which prison-based adult basic education (ABE) improves inmate’s postrelease labor market outcomes, such as earnings and employment. Using two nonexperimental comparison groups, the authors find evidence that ABE participation is associated with higher postrelease earnings and employment rates, especially for minorities. The authors find that the relationship is the largest for ABE participants who had uninterrupted A...

  12. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding In...

  13. The Drosophila cyst stem cell lineage

    OpenAIRE

    Zoller, Richard; Schulz, Cordula

    2012-01-01

    In all animals, germline cells differentiate in intimate contact with somatic cells and interactions between germline and soma are particularly important for germline development and function. In the male gonad of Drosophila melanogaster, the developing germline cells are enclosed by somatic cyst cells. The cyst cells are derived from cyst stem cells (CySCs) of somatic origin and codifferentiate with the germline cells. The fast generation cycle and the genetic tractability of Drosophila has ...

  14. Studies on mass rearing and effect of sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on the adult emergence and male competitiveness on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on mass rearing of mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) revealed that the size and weight of pupae influence the adult emergence, flight ability index and egg production. Egg laying spans over a period of 18 days. A great majority was laid during 3rd to 7th day. The ideal dose of gamma irradiation for sterilization of males was found to be 9 Krad applied to mature pupae. Sexual competitiveness of irradiated males was highest when the ratios of sterile male to untreated males and female was either 1:2:1 or 1:3:1. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Innate immune responses of Drosophila melanogaster are altered by spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Marcu

    Full Text Available Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways.

  16. Rate of amino acid substitution is influenced by the degree and conservation of male-biased transcription over 50 myr of Drosophila evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grath, Sonja; Parsch, John

    2012-01-01

    Sex-biased gene expression (i.e., the differential expression of genes between males and females) is common among sexually reproducing species. However, genes often differ in their sex-bias classification or degree of sex bias between species. There is also an unequal distribution of sex-biased genes (especially male-biased genes) between the X chromosome and the autosomes. We used whole-genome expression data and evolutionary rate estimates for two different Drosophilid lineages, melanogaster and obscura, spanning an evolutionary time scale of around 50 Myr to investigate the influence of sex-biased gene expression and chromosomal location on the rate of molecular evolution. In both lineages, the rate of protein evolution correlated positively with the male/female expression ratio. Genes with highly male-biased expression, genes expressed specifically in male reproductive tissues, and genes with conserved male-biased expression over long evolutionary time scales showed the fastest rates of evolution. An analysis of sex-biased gene evolution in both lineages revealed evidence for a "fast-X" effect in which the rate of evolution was greater for X-linked than for autosomal genes. This pattern was particularly pronounced for male-biased genes. Genes located on the obscura "neo-X" chromosome, which originated from a recent X-autosome fusion, showed rates of evolution that were intermediate between genes located on the ancestral X-chromosome and the autosomes. This suggests that the shift to X-linkage led to an increase in the rate of molecular evolution. PMID:22321769

  17. Adult-onset obesity reveals prenatal programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male sheep nutrient restricted during late gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rhodes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity invokes a range of metabolic disturbances, but the transition from a poor to excessive nutritional environment may exacerbate adult metabolic dysfunction. The current study investigated global maternal nutrient restriction during early or late gestation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the adult offspring when lean and obese. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pregnant sheep received adequate (1.0M; CE, n = 6 or energy restricted (0.7M diet during early (1-65 days; LEE, n = 6 or late (65-128 days; LEL, n = 7 gestation (term approximately 147 days. Subsequent offspring remained on pasture until 1.5 years when all received glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT & ITT and body composition determination by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. All animals were then exposed to an obesogenic environment for 6-7 months and all protocols repeated. Prenatal dietary treatment had no effect on birth weight or on metabolic endpoints when animals were 'lean' (1.5 years. Obesity revealed generalised metabolic 'inflexibility' and insulin resistance; characterised by blunted excursions of plasma NEFA and increased insulin(AUC (from 133 to 341 [s.e.d. 26] ng.ml(-1.120 mins during a GTT, respectively. For LEL vs. CE, the peak in plasma insulin when obese was greater (7.8 vs. 4.7 [s.e.d. 1.1] ng.ml(-1 and was exacerbated by offspring sex (i.e. 9.8 vs. 4.4 [s.e.d. 1.16] ng.ml(-1; LEL male vs. CE male, respectively. Acquisition of obesity also significantly influenced the plasma lipid and protein profile to suggest, overall, greater net lipogenesis and reduced protein metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates generalised metabolic dysfunction with adult-onset obesity which also exacerbates and 'reveals' programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male offspring prenatally exposed to maternal undernutrition during late gestation. Taken together, the data suggest that metabolic function appears little compromised in young

  18. Short-term treatment with bisphenol-A leads to metabolic abnormalities in adult male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Thiago M.; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Maria Esmeria C.; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Nef, Serge; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adu...

  19. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered. PMID:23174820

  20. Effects of fetal exposure to gamma rays on aggressive behavior in adult male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior (AB) in first generation (F1) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated on the 14th day of gestation was studied at 100-135 days of age. Gravid female mice were irradiated with 1.0 or 2.0 Gy of gamma rays to the whole body. The AB of pairs of mice were recorded with a capacitance-induction motility monitor and on videotape. Recordings were continued for 90 min, starting at 2:00 PM. Vigorous wrestling, boxing and biting were regarded as AB. Data recorded at 15-min intervals were stored on micro-computer discs. The body weight for the irradiated group was significantly lower than that for the control group. The number of instances of AB was significantly higher in the irradiated group. The AB of the 2.0 Gy group was significantly more intensive than that of the control group. No difference in the duration of AB was found for the 2 irradiated and the control groups. Results demonstrate that male mice irradiated prenatally show increased aggressiveness. (author)

  1. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  2. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, A. I.; Offor, U.; Azu, O. O.; Akinloye, O.

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility. PMID:26516332

  3. Sperm Bundles in the Seminal Vesicle of the Crematogaster victima (Smith) Adult Males (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Moreira, J; Gomes, L F; Camargo-Mathias, M I; Lino-Neto, J

    2014-06-01

    This study establishes the presence of spermatodesm in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature males of Crematogaster victima (Smith). In this species, the spermatozoa are maintained together by an extracellular matrix in which the acrosomal regions are embedded. This characteristic has not yet been observed in any other Aculeata. However, the sperm morphology in this species is similar to that described for other ants. The spermatozoa measure on average 100 μm in length, and the number of sperm per bundle is up to 256. They are composed of a head formed by the acrosome and nucleus; this is followed by the flagellum, which is formed by the centriolar adjunct, an axoneme with a 9 + 9 + 2 microtubule pattern, two mitochondrial derivatives, and two accessory bodies. The acrosome is formed by the acrosomal vesicle and perforatorium. The nucleus is filled with compact chromatin with many areas of thick and non-compacted filaments. Both mitochondrial derivatives have the same shape and diameters. The presence of sperm bundles in sexually mature males differentiates C. victima from other ants; however, the similarities in the sperm ultrastructure support the monophyly of this insect group. PMID:27193615

  4. Dose conversion coefficients for Chinese reference adult male and female voxel phantoms from idealized neutron exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Huan; Qiu, Rui; Yang, Yue; Pan, Yu-Xi; Liu, Li-Ye

    2015-01-01

    A new set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese reference adult voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF are presented for six idealized external neutron exposures from 10-8 MeV to 20 MeV. The voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF were adjusted from the previous phantoms CNMAN and CNWM respectively, and the masses of individual organs have been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. The calculation of organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were performed with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. The resulting dose conversion coefficients were compared with those published in ICRP Publication 116, which represents the reference Caucasian. The organ-absorbed dose conversion coefficients of most organs are in good agreement with the results in ICRP Publication 116, however, obvious discrepancies are observed for some organs and certain geometries. For neutrons with energies above 2 MeV, the effective dose conversion coefficients of Chinese reference adult are almost identical to those of ICRP Publicatio...

  5. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in fresh commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Swedman, Allison; Prices, Donald K

    2014-06-01

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on larval and pupal development and adult reproduction in D. suzukii were examined. Larvae (first, second, and third instars) and pupae (1-2-d-old, 3-5-d-old, and 7-8-d-old) on diet were irradiated at target doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. Males and females were equally susceptible. A radiation dose of 40 Gy applied to first- and second-instar larvae prevented adult emergence. The late-stage pupa was the most radiation-tolerant stage that occurs in fruit, and individuals irradiated at this stage readily emerged as adults; therefore, prevention of F1 adults was the desired treatment response for large-scale validation tests with naturally infested fruit. In large-scale tests, a radiation dose of 80 Gy applied to late-stage pupae in sweet cherries or grapes resulted in no production of F1 adults in > 33,000 treated individuals, which meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. A minimum absorbed dose of 80 Gy is recommended for quarantine control of D. suzukii. PMID:25026654

  6. Tissue- and stage-dependent dosage compensation on the Neo-X chromosome in drosophila pseudoobscura

    KAUST Repository

    Nozawa, Masafumi

    2013-12-03

    Sex chromosome dosage compensation (DC) is widely accepted in various organisms. This concept is mostly supported by comparisons of gene expression between chromosomes and between sexes. However, genes on the X chromosome and autosomes are mostly not homologous, and the average gene expression level on these chromosomes may not be the same even under DC, which complicates comparisons between chromosomes. Many genes with sex-biased expression also make comparisons between sexes difficult. To overcome these issues, we investigated DC by comparing the expression of neo-X-linked genes in Drosophila pseudoobscura with those of their autosomal orthologs in other Drosophila species. The ratio of the former to the latter in males would be 1 under DC, whereas it becomes 0.5 without DC. We found that the ratio was ∼0.85 for adult whole bodies, indicating that the DC is incomplete on the neo-X chromosome in adults as a whole. The ratio (∼0.90) was also significantly less than 1 for adult bodies without gonads, whereas it was ∼1.0 for adult heads. These results indicate that DC varies among tissues. Our sliding-window analysis of the ratio also revealed that the upregulation of neo-X-linked genes in males occurred chromosome wide in all tissues analyzed, indicating global upregulation mechanisms. However, we found that gene functions also affected the levels of DC. Furthermore, most of the genes recently moved to the X were already under DC at the larval stage but not at the adult stage. These results suggest that DC in Drosophila species operates in a tissue/stage-dependent manner. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  8. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  9. Insulin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruzzelli, L.; Herrera, R.; Rosen, O.

    1986-05-01

    A specific, high affinity insulin receptor is present in both adult Drosophila and in Drosophila embryos. Wheat germ lectin-enriched extracts of detergent-solubilized membranes from embryos and adults bind insulin with a K/sub d/ of 15 nM. Binding is specific for insulin; micromolar concentrations of proinsulin, IGFI, and IGFII are required to displace bound /sup 125/I-insulin. Insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase activity appears during embryogenesis. It is evident between 6 and 12 hours of development, peaks between 12 and 18 hours and falls in the adult. During 0-6 hours of embryogenesis, and in the adult, a specific protein band (Mr = 135,000) is crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. During 6-12 and 12-18 hours of embryogenesis stages in which insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase is high, an additional band (Mr = 100,000) becomes crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. Isolation and DNA sequence analysis of genomic clones encoding the Drosophila insulin receptor will be presented as will the characterization of insulin receptor mRNA's during development.

  10. Insulin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific, high affinity insulin receptor is present in both adult Drosophila and in Drosophila embryos. Wheat germ lectin-enriched extracts of detergent-solubilized membranes from embryos and adults bind insulin with a K/sub d/ of 15 nM. Binding is specific for insulin; micromolar concentrations of proinsulin, IGFI, and IGFII are required to displace bound 125I-insulin. Insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase activity appears during embryogenesis. It is evident between 6 and 12 hours of development, peaks between 12 and 18 hours and falls in the adult. During 0-6 hours of embryogenesis, and in the adult, a specific protein band (Mr = 135,000) is crosslinked to 125I-insulin. During 6-12 and 12-18 hours of embryogenesis stages in which insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase is high, an additional band (Mr = 100,000) becomes crosslinked to 125I-insulin. Isolation and DNA sequence analysis of genomic clones encoding the Drosophila insulin receptor will be presented as will the characterization of insulin receptor mRNA's during development

  11. Novel A TPSB1 mutation in an adult male with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Cheng Deng; Sa Lv; Wei Cui; Rui Zhao; Xu Lu; Jian Wu; Pei Liu

    2012-01-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 is a rare disease that is characterized by low serum γ-glutamyltransferase levels due to mutation in ATP8B1.We present a 23-year-old male who experienced persistent marked pruritus for eighteen years and recurrent jaundice for thirteen years,in addition to cholestasis that eventually became fatal.Genetic sequencing studies of the entire coding (exon) sequences of ATP8B1 and ABCB11 uncovered a novel heterozygous missense 3035G>T mutation (S1012I) and a synonymous 696T>C mutation in ATP8B1.The patient's progression was associated with not only impaired familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1 (FIC1) function but also impaired bile salt export pump expression due to the impaired FIC1 function.Our findings show that patients with intermittent cholestasis can develop progressive liver disease even after several decades and require regular follow up.

  12. Neural Correlates of Psychosis and Gender Dysphoria in an Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Karine; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Mueller, Andressa; Soll, Bianca; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Salvador, Jaqueline; Zucker, Kenneth J; Schneider, Maiko Abel; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) (DSM-5) or transsexualism (ICD-10) refers to the marked incongruity between the experience of one's gender and the sex at birth. In this case report, we describe the use of LSD as a triggering factor of confusion in the gender identity of a 39-year-old male patient, with symptoms of psychosis and 25 years of substance abuse, who sought psychiatric care with the desire to undergo sex reassignment surgery. The symptoms of GD/psychosis were resolved by two therapeutic measures: withdrawal of psychoactive substances and use of a low-dose antipsychotic. We discuss the hypothesis that the superior parietal cortical area may be an important locus for body image and that symptoms of GD may be related to variations underlying this brain region. Finally, this case report shows that some presentations of GD can be created by life experience in individuals who have underlying mental or, synonymously, neurophysiological abnormalities. PMID:26597648

  13. Perinatal testosterone exposure and cerebral lateralisation in adult males: evidence for the callosal hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Lauren P; Maybery, Murray T; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2014-12-01

    Two competing theories address the influence of foetal testosterone on cerebral laterality: one proposing exposure to high foetal testosterone concentrations is related to atypical lateralisation (Geschwind-Galaburda hypothesis), the other that high foetal testosterone concentrations exaggerate typical lateralisation (callosal hypothesis). The current study examined the relationship between cord testosterone concentrations and cerebral laterality for language and spatial memory in adulthood. Male participants with high (>0.15nmol) and low (lateralisation of language was more common in the high-testosterone group than in the low-testosterone group, χ(2)=4.50, df=1, p=034. Spatial memory laterality was unrelated to cord testosterone level. Our findings indicate that foetal testosterone exposure is related to language laterality in a direction that supports the callosal hypothesis. PMID:25148786

  14. Effects of radiotransmitter necklaces on behaviors of adult male western burrowing owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, E.D.; McIntyre, N.E.; Ray, J.D.; Wallace, M.C.; Boal, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the behavioral effects of necklace-style radiotransmitters on breeding male western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in 2 areas of northwestern Texas, USA, in 2004 and 2005. We tested the hypothesis that transmittered owls would spend time interacting with their necklaces and as a result spend less time in vigilance and resting activities than would nontransmittered owls. Nontransmittered owls (n = 6) spent significantly more time being vigilant (P = 0.007) than did transmittered owls (n = 3) in 2004, who spent significant amounts of time interacting with their necklaces. In 2005, behaviors of transmittered owls (n = 8) were significantly different (P owls spent a significant amount of time interacting with their necklaces, they appeared to habituate to the presence of the transmitters within a relatively short period (<1 week), and necklaces did not affect survivorship or fitness in the short-term.

  15. Single coronary artery; extremely rare coronary anomaly successfully treated surgically in young adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, A R

    2010-05-01

    Single coronary artery arising from aortic root, is a rare congenital anomaly. A 30-year-old male presented with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complaining of chest pain and raised troponin levels. Emergency angiography showed no coronary lesions but both left and right coronary arteries arising from single ostium. Patient was operated electively and perioperative findings confirmed the diagnosis of single coronary artery, as left coronary artery after taking origin from right sinus of valsalva runs through the septum, before dividing into left anterior descending and circumflex branches. The single coronary ostium opened with a slit like incision over the course of left main coronary, making the size of ostium three to four times bigger than the native one. In addition left internal mammary artery was harvested and grafted to the left anterior descending branch distally. Patient made successful recovery. Four months follow up dobutamine stress echo showed no inducible ischemia.

  16. Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  17. Some Neuro hormonal Effects of ruta chalepensis in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral sub-chronic administrations of Ruta chalepensis extract equivalent to 3.0 g/kg body weight were given to male albino rats daily for four weeks (0.5 ml solution/100 g/ rat). The data revealed significant increases in tyrosine, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in all tested brain areas throughout most of the experimental intervals. Significant increases of serum leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were also observed while serum prolactin was decreased significantly. It could be also concluded from the present results that treatment with Ruta chalepensis extract significantly increased catecholamine content. This observation may be in part due to an increase in its synthesis through an increase of the peripheral availability of tyrosine for brain synthesis of catecholamine and/or a decrease in its release

  18. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders. PMID:25909960

  19. Construction of Chinese adult male phantom library and its application in the virtual calibration of in vivo measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizheng; Qiu, Rui; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli

    2016-03-01

    In vivo measurement is a main method of internal contamination evaluation, particularly for large numbers of people after a nuclear accident. Before the practical application, it is necessary to obtain the counting efficiency of the detector by calibration. The virtual calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation usually uses the reference human computational phantom, and the morphological difference between the monitored personnel with the calibrated phantom may lead to the deviation of the counting efficiency. Therefore, a phantom library containing a wide range of heights and total body masses is needed. In this study, a Chinese reference adult male polygon surface (CRAM_S) phantom was constructed based on the CRAM voxel phantom, with the organ models adjusted to match the Chinese reference data. CRAMS phantom was then transformed to sitting posture for convenience in practical monitoring. Referring to the mass and height distribution of the Chinese adult male, a phantom library containing 84 phantoms was constructed by deforming the reference surface phantom. Phantoms in the library have 7 different heights ranging from 155 cm to 185 cm, and there are 12 phantoms with different total body masses in each height. As an example of application, organ specific and total counting efficiencies of Ba-133 were calculated using the MCNPX code, with two series of phantoms selected from the library. The influence of morphological variation on the counting efficiency was analyzed. The results show only using the reference phantom in virtual calibration may lead to an error of 68.9% for total counting efficiency. Thus the influence of morphological difference on virtual calibration can be greatly reduced using the phantom library with a wide range of masses and heights instead of a single reference phantom.

  20. Desensitization and Incomplete Recovery of Hepatic Target Genes After Chronic Thyroid Hormone Treatment and Withdrawal in Male Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Kenji; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Lesmana, Ronny; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Ghosh, Sujoy; Refetoff, Samuel; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee; Yen, Paul Michael

    2016-04-01

    Clinical symptoms may vary and not necessarily reflect serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels during acute and chronic hyperthyroidism as well as recovery from hyperthyroidism. We thus examined changes in hepatic gene expression and serum TH/TSH levels in adult male mice treated either with a single T3 (20 μg per 100 g body weight) injection (acute T3) or daily injections for 14 days (chronic T3) followed by 10 days of withdrawal. Gene expression arrays from livers harvested at these time points showed that among positively-regulated target genes, 320 were stimulated acutely and 429 chronically by T3. Surprisingly, only 69 of 680 genes (10.1%) were induced during both periods, suggesting desensitization of the majority of acutely stimulated target genes. About 90% of positively regulated target genes returned to baseline expression levels after 10 days of withdrawal; however, 67 of 680 (9.9%) did not return to baseline despite normalization of serum TH/TSH levels. Similar findings also were observed for negatively regulated target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of representative positively regulated target genes suggested that acetylation of H3K9/K14 was associated with acute stimulation, whereas trimethylation of H3K4 was associated with chronic stimulation. In an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism since birth, adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 knockout mice also demonstrated desensitization of most acutely stimulated target genes that were examined. In summary, we have identified transcriptional desensitization and incomplete recovery of gene expression during chronic hyperthyroidism and recovery. Our findings may be a potential reason for discordance between clinical symptoms and serum TH levels observed in these conditions. PMID:26866609

  1. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  2. First comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild adult male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B McCarthy

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes

  3. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight. The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

  4. Perspectives on perceived stigma and self-stigma in adult male patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latalova K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Jan Prasko Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Palacky Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: There are two principal types of stigma in mental illness, ie, “public stigma” and “self-stigma”. Public stigma is the perception held by others that the mentally ill individual is socially undesirable. Stigmatized persons may internalize perceived prejudices and develop negative feelings about themselves. The result of this process is “self-stigma”. Stigma has emerged as an important barrier to the treatment of depression and other mental illnesses. ­Gender and race are related to stigma. Among depressed patients, males and African-Americans have higher levels of self-stigma than females and Caucasians. Perceived stigma and self-stigma affect willingness to seek help in both genders and races. African-Americans demonstrate a less positive attitude towards mental health treatments than Caucasians. Religious beliefs play a role in their coping with mental illness. Certain prejudicial beliefs about mental illness are shared globally. Structural modeling indicates that conformity to dominant masculine gender norms (“boys don’t cry” leads to self-stigmatization in depressed men who feel that they should be able to cope with their illness without professional help. These findings suggest that targeting men’s feelings about their depression and other mental health problems could be a more successful approach to change help-seeking attitudes than trying to change those attitudes directly. Further, the inhibitory effect of traditional masculine gender norms on help-seeking can be overcome if depressed men feel that a genuine connection leading to mutual understanding has been established with a health care professional. Keywords: stigma, self-stigma, depression, male gender

  5. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders. PMID:27014121

  6. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders. PMID:27014121

  7. Relationship between parenting and cognitive schemas in a group of male adult offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pellerone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the experimental group, aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group, aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily.The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ. The preliminary analysis showed an high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father’s control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders.

  8. Production and survival of projection neurons in a forebrain vocal center of adult male canaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurons are produced in the adult canary telencephalon. Many of these cells are incorporated into the high vocal center (nucleus HVC), which participates in the control of learned song. In the present work, 3H-thymidine and fluorogold were employed to follow the differentiation and survival of HVC neurons born in adulthood. We found that many HVC neurons born in September grow long axons to the robust nucleus of the archistriatum (nucleus RA) and thus become part of the efferent pathway for song control. Many of these new neurons have already established their connections with RA by 30 d after their birth. By 240 d, 75-80% of the September-born HVC neurons project to RA. Most of these new projection neurons survive at least 8 months. The longevity of HVC neurons born in September suggests that these cells remain part of the vocal control circuit long enough to participate in the yearly renewal of the song repertoire

  9. Dynamics of Wolbachia pipientis Gene Expression Across the Drosophila melanogaster Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Florence; Carmo, Catarina R; Miller, Danny E; Rice, Danny W; Newton, Irene L G; Hawley, R Scott; Teixeira, Luis; Bergman, Casey M

    2015-12-01

    Symbiotic interactions between microbes and their multicellular hosts have manifold biological consequences. To better understand how bacteria maintain symbiotic associations with animal hosts, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression for the endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis across the entire life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. We found that the majority of Wolbachia genes are expressed stably across the D. melanogaster life cycle, but that 7.8% of Wolbachia genes exhibit robust stage- or sex-specific expression differences when studied in the whole-organism context. Differentially-expressed Wolbachia genes are typically up-regulated after Drosophila embryogenesis and include many bacterial membrane, secretion system, and ankyrin repeat-containing proteins. Sex-biased genes are often organized as small operons of uncharacterized genes and are mainly up-regulated in adult Drosophila males in an age-dependent manner. We also systematically investigated expression levels of previously-reported candidate genes thought to be involved in host-microbe interaction, including those in the WO-A and WO-B prophages and in the Octomom region, which has been implicated in regulating bacterial titer and pathogenicity. Our work provides comprehensive insight into the developmental dynamics of gene expression for a widespread endosymbiont in its natural host context, and shows that public gene expression data harbor rich resources to probe the functional basis of the Wolbachia-Drosophila symbiosis and annotate the transcriptional outputs of the Wolbachia genome. PMID:26497146

  10. A global research synthesis of HIV and STI biobehavioural risks in female-to-male transgender adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Murchison, Gabriel R

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in HIV infection and sexually transmitted infection (STI) disease burden and risk among transgender people globally; however, the majority of work has been conducted with male-to-female transgender populations. This research synthesis comprehensively reviews HIV and STI research in female-to-male (FTM) transgender adults. A paucity of research exists about HIV and STIs in FTMs. Only 25 peer-reviewed papers (18 quantitative, 7 qualitative) and 11 'grey literature' reports were identified, most in the US or Canada, that include data identifying HIV and STI risks in FTMs (five with fully laboratory-confirmed HIV and/or STIs, and five with partial laboratory confirmation). Little is known about the sexual and drug use risk behaviours contributing to HIV and STIs in FTMs. Future directions are suggested, including the need for routine surveillance and monitoring of HIV and STIs globally by transgender identity, more standardised sexual risk assessment measures, targeted data collection in lower- and middle-income countries, and explicit consideration of the rationale for inclusion/exclusion of FTMs in category-based prevention approaches with MSM and transgender people. Implications for research, policy, programming, and interventions are discussed, including the need to address diverse sexual identities, attractions, and behaviours and engage local FTM communities. PMID:26785800

  11. Sutureless Adult Voluntary Male Circumcision with Topical Anesthetic: A Randomized Field Trial of Unicirc, a Single-Use Surgical Instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Shenje

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has solicited rapid and minimally invasive techniques to facilitate scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC.Non-blinded randomized controlled field trial with 2:1 allocation ratio.75 adult male volunteers.Outpatient primary care clinic.Open surgical circumcision under local anesthetic with suturing vs. Unicirc disposable instrument under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive.Intraoperative duration.Intraoperative and postoperative pain; adverse events; time to healing; patient satisfaction; cosmetic result.The intraoperative time was less with the Unicirc technique (median 12 vs. 25 min, p < 0.001. Wound healing and cosmetic results were superior in the Unicirc group. Adverse events were similar in both groups.VMMC with Unicirc under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive is rapid, heals by primary intention with superior cosmetic results, and is potentially safer and more cost-effective than open surgical VMMC.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02443792.

  12. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  13. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-09-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116.

  14. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116. (paper)

  15. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from immature male inflorescence of adult dura and tenera palms of Elaeis guineensis (Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, Madhavan; Susanthi, Bollarapu; Murali Mohan, Nandiganti; Mandal, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We report here a method for plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from explants collected from immature male inflorescence of adult oil palm cultivated in India. Callus induction was successful from tissues of immature male inflorescence collected from both dura and tenera varieties of oil palm. A modified Y3 (Eeuwens) media supplemented with several additives and activated charcoal (3%) were used for the experiments. Out of four different auxin treatments, 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-...

  16. Sexually Explicit Media on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Sexual Behaviors, Risk, and Media Characteristics in Gay Male Adult Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex perfor...

  17. Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M D; Cadete-Leite, A; Andrade, J P; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1991-12-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism upon the structure of the central nervous system of adult rats are poorly understood in spite of evidence that the mature brain is vulnerable to this condition. Existing developmental studies show that the morphological changes induced by thyroid hormone deficiency are related to alterations in neurogenesis. We studied the granular layer of the dentate gyrus under different experimental conditions of hypothyroidism, because in rodents the neurogenesis of the granule cells continues during adulthood. The following groups of rats were analysed: 1) control; 2) hypothyroid from day 0 until day 180 (hypothyroid group); 3) hypothyroid until day 30 and henceforth maintained euthyroid (recovery group); and 4) hypothyroid since day 30 (adult hypothyroid group). Groups of 6 male rats and 6 female rats were analysed separately. The volume of the dentate gyrus granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were evaluated, so we were able to estimate the total number of granule cells. Because in the experimental groups the volume of the granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were reduced, the total number of granule cells was decreased. In the hypothyroid and recovery groups the alterations were identical and more striking than in the adult hypothyroid groups. The total number of granule cells displayed sexual differences in all groups studied except in the hypothyroid groups. The present results support the view that thyroid hormone deficiency interferes with the process of cell acquisition by reducing neuronal proliferation and that it also leads to increased cell death. These events underlie the irreversible morphological changes observed in the brain of hypothyroid rats, either during development or at maturity. The referred structural alterations are probably related to the functional deficits observed in this condition. PMID:1797872

  18. The Physical and Mental Health of Lesbian, Gay Male, and Bisexual (LGB) Older Adults: The Role of Key Health Indicators and Risk and Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Emlet, Charles A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Erosheva, Elena A.; GOLDSEN, JAYN; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, aged 50 and older (N = 2,439). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the contributions of key health indicators (access to health care and hea...

  19. Sexual Behavior of Drosophila suzukii

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Revadi; Sébastien Lebreton; Peter Witzgall; Gianfranco Anfora; Teun Dekker; Becher, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    A high reproductive potential is one reason for the rapid spread of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and in the United States. In order to identify mechanisms that mediate mating and reproduction in D. suzukii we studied the fly’s reproductive behavior, diurnal mating activity and sexual maturation. Furthermore, we studied the change of female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) with age and conducted a preliminary investigation on the role of female-derived chemical signals in male mating behavior. Se...

  20. Genotoxic potency in Drosophila melanogaster of selected aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as assayed in the DNA repair test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, K; Fort, F L; Samejima, K; Sakamoto, Y

    1993-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster stock consisting of meiotic recombination deficient (Rec-) double mutant mei-9a mei-41D5 males and Rec+ females was exposed at the larval stage to an aromatic amine or a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. After emergence as adult flies, the males and the females were scored separately. When the treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the male to female ratio from the control level; the experiment was repeated with a larval stock consisting of Rec+ males and Rec+ females under comparable conditions. A preferential killing effect upon Rec- larvae was taken as evidence of DNA damaging effect of the test compound. Among 16 compounds tested, 1-AP, B(a)P, 2-AF, DAF, 4-AAF, 2-AAF, 1-AA, 2-AA, DMA, B(a)A and DMBA were registered as positive; Py and 3-MC were weakly positive; and B(e)P, Fluo and Ant were negative. The selective killing effects of the compounds in each of the pyrene, fluorene and anthracene series varied drastically as a function of structure in a way similar to that reported for the genotoxicity in Drosophila and the carcinogenicity in rodents. The Drosophila DNA repair assay will serve as a simple adjunct to the already available means for studying the genotoxic potency of aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:7694108

  1. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Mepham, Kathryn, E-mail: katherine.mepham@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Sebag, Igal A., E-mail: igal.sebag@mcgill.ca [Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  2. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  3. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight) were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01). The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health. PMID:24336061

  4. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  5. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Tamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01. The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05. This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health.

  6. Traumatic rupture of a type IVa choledochal cyst in an adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Fei Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Choledochal cyst (CC is a rare, congenital anomaly of the bile ducts. We describe a 26-year-old male patient who was transferred to our hospital with a reported traumatic rupture of cystic liver lesions following a fall. At the time of injury, the patient experienced severe abdominal pain. He was found to have peritonitis and abdominal hemorrhage, which is quite rare. Laparotomy revealed 3000 mL fluid consisting of a mixture of blood, bile and inflammatory effusion in the peritoneal cavity. The liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and colon appeared normal. A large cystic mass was discovered near the porta hepatis. This mass, which connected to the hepatic bifurcation and gallbladder had a 5 cm rupture in the right wall with active arterial bleeding. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and emergency laparotomy revealed rupture of a huge type IVa CC. The patient was successfully managed by primary cyst excision, cholecystectomy, and Roux-en-Y end-to-side hepaticojejunostomy reconstruction. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 12th day of hospitalization. Four weeks after surgery, abdominal CT scan showed pneumatosis in the intrahepatic bile duct, and intrahepatic dilatation which decreased following adequate biliary drainage. The patient has remained well in the close follow-up period for 9 mo.

  7. Chronic crude garlic-feeding modified adult male rat testicular markers: mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El May Michèle V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Garlic or Allium sativum (As shows therapeutic effects such as reduction of blood pressure or hypercholesterolemia but side-effects on reproductive functions remain poorly investigated. Because of garlic's chemical complexity, the processing methods and yield in preparations differ in efficacy and safety. In this context, we clarify the mechanisms of action of crushed crude garlic on testicular markers. Methods During one month of treatment, 24 male rats were fed 5%, 10% and 15% crude garlic. Results We showed that crude garlic-feeding induced apoptosis in testicular germ cells (spermatocytes and spermatids. This cell death process was characterized by increased levels of active CASP3 but not CASP6. Expression of the caspase inhibitors BIRC3 and BIRC2 was increased at all doses of As while expression of XIAP and BIRC5 was unchanged. Moreover, expression of the IAP inhibitor DIABLO was increased at doses 10% and 15% of As. The germ cell death process induced by As might be related to a decrease in testosterone production because of the reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a, Hsd3b5 and Hsd17b. Evaluation of Sertoli markers showed that TUBB3 and GSTA2 expression was unchanged. In contrast, AMH, RHOX5 and CDKN1B expression was decreased while GATA4 expression was increased. Conclusion In summary, we showed that feeding with crude garlic inhibited Leydig steroidogenic enzyme expression and Sertoli cell markers. These alterations might induce apoptosis in testicular germ cells.

  8. Perspectives on perceived stigma and self-stigma in adult male patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There are two principal types of stigma in mental illness, ie, "public stigma" and "self-stigma". Public stigma is the perception held by others that the mentally ill individual is socially undesirable. Stigmatized persons may internalize perceived prejudices and develop negative feelings about themselves. The result of this process is "self-stigma". Stigma has emerged as an important barrier to the treatment of depression and other mental illnesses. Gender and race are related to stigma. Among depressed patients, males and African-Americans have higher levels of self-stigma than females and Caucasians. Perceived stigma and self-stigma affect willingness to seek help in both genders and races. African-Americans demonstrate a less positive attitude towards mental health treatments than Caucasians. Religious beliefs play a role in their coping with mental illness. Certain prejudicial beliefs about mental illness are shared globally. Structural modeling indicates that conformity to dominant masculine gender norms ("boys don't cry") leads to self-stigmatization in depressed men who feel that they should be able to cope with their illness without professional help. These findings suggest that targeting men's feelings about their depression and other mental health problems could be a more successful approach to change help-seeking attitudes than trying to change those attitudes directly. Further, the inhibitory effect of traditional masculine gender norms on help-seeking can be overcome if depressed men feel that a genuine connection leading to mutual understanding has been established with a health care professional. PMID:25114531

  9. Proline metabolism in adult male burned patients and healthy control subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postabsorptive proline flux, oxidation, and endogenous biosynthesis were determined in five severely burned intensive-care-unit patients (mean age 27 y) and in six healthy, young-adult control subjects. Continuous primed, intravenous, 160-min, dual stable-isotope-tracer infusions of L-[1-13C]proline and L-[methyl-2H3]leucine were used in conjunction with measurement of plasma proline concentration and 24-h urinary hydroxyproline output. Burn patients, compared with normal individuals, demonstrated a doubling in proline and leucine flux (P less than 0.01 for both findings), a threefold enhancement of proline oxidation (P less than 0.05), a trend toward decreased proline synthesis, and a 37% reduction in plasma proline concentrations (P less than 0.05). Further, the injured group, unlike the control group, was in a distinct negative body proline balance, as proline oxidation greatly exceeded endogenous proline biosynthesis (P less than 0.01). These studies indicate that significant proline deficits may evolve during the postabsorptive period in severely burned patients and that an exogenous supply of proline might benefit the nitrogen economy of the traumatized patient

  10. The neurotoxic effects of artemether on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum of adult male wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 70kg adult man, artemether is given at a total dosage of 480mg for five days in the treatment of malarial. Using t-test analysis technique at 95% confidence interval i.e t < 0.05 and P - value = 2.26, no significant difference was observed between the average brain and cerebellar weight, the average width of cerebellar cortical layers, the density and the average size of Purkinje Cells in the control groups C1 and C2 and the experimental group E. In the present study, there were no gross or morphological differences between the two groups of animals (control and experimental groups) on day 7 at the completion of experimental procedure. A significant statistical increase in average body weight was observed in the control groups C1 (which received only standard diet and water) and C2 (which received 1.23mg/kg body weight of normal saline intramuscularly in addition to standard diet and water) from 140 + 19.65g on day 1 to 146 + 19.90g on day 7 and 151 + 12.0g on day 1 to 156.2 + 12.2g on Day 7 respectively. There was a non-statistically significant apparent reduction in body weight in the experimental group E, (which received intramuscular injection of 1.23mg/kg body weight of artemether), from 160 + 9.0g on day 1 to 157.4 + 8.0g on day 7. The rats in the control groups CI and C2 displayed normal balance and co-ordination, while rats in the experimental group E, showed abnormalities of balance and co-ordination. This study investigated the effects of corresponding 1.23mg/kg body weight of artemether for a period of seven days on the functions of rats after drug administration. (author)

  11. Genome-wide RNAi screening implicates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Sherpa in mediating innate immune signaling by Toll in Drosophila adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Hirotaka; Tong, Li-Li; Kuraishi, Takayuki; Suda, Yamato; Momiuchi, Yoshiki; Shishido, Fumi; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2015-10-27

    The Drosophila Toll pathway plays important roles in innate immune responses against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. To identify previously uncharacterized components of this pathway, we performed comparative, ex vivo, genome-wide RNA interference screening. In four screens, we overexpressed the Toll adaptor protein dMyd88, the downstream kinase Pelle, or the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) homolog Dif, or we knocked down Cactus, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian inhibitor of NF-κB. On the basis of these screens, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Sherpa as being necessary for the activation of Toll signaling. A loss-of-function sherpa mutant fly exhibited compromised production of antimicrobial peptides and enhanced susceptibility to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. In cultured cells, Sherpa mediated ubiquitylation of dMyd88 and Sherpa itself, and Sherpa and Drosophila SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) were required for the proper membrane localization of an adaptor complex containing dMyd88. These findings highlight a role for Sherpa in Drosophila host defense and suggest the SUMOylation-mediated regulation of dMyd88 functions in Toll innate immune signaling. PMID:26508789

  12. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the posture modification of Adult Male (AM) and Adult Female (AF) reference phantoms of ICRP 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Alves, M. C.; Souza, D. N.; Carvalho, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to modify the standing posture of the anthropomorphic reference phantoms of ICRP publication 110, AM (Adult Male) and AF (Adult Female), to the sitting posture. The change of posture was performed using the Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the phantoms and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. Scion Image software was used to reconstruct and smooth the knee and hip contours of the phantoms in a sitting posture. For 3D visualization of phantoms, the VolView software was used. In the change of postures, the organ and tissue masses were preserved. The MCNPX was used to calculate the equivalent and effective dose conversion coefficients (CCs) per fluence for photons for six irradiation geometries suggested by ICRP publication 110 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO) and energy range 0.010-10 MeV. The results were compared between the standing and sitting postures, for both sexes, in order to evaluate the differences of scattering and absorption of radiation for different postures. Significant differences in the CCs for equivalent dose were observed in the gonads, colon, prostate, urinary bladder and uterus, which are present in the pelvic region, and in organs distributed throughout the body, such as the lymphatic nodes, muscle, skeleton and skin, for the phantoms of both sexes. CCs for effective dose showed significant differences of up to 16% in the AP irradiation geometry, 27% in the PA irradiation geometry and 13% in the ROT irradiation geometry. These results demonstrate the importance of using phantoms in different postures in order to obtain more precise conversion coefficients for a given exposure scenario.

  13. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  14. The safety of adult male circumcision in HIV-infected and uninfected men in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Kigozi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to compare rates of adverse events (AEs related to male circumcision (MC in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men in order to provide guidance for MC programs that may provide services to HIV-infected and uninfected men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 2,326 HIV-negative and 420 HIV-positive men (World Health Organization [WHO] stage I or II and CD4 counts > 350 cells/mm3 were circumcised in two separate but procedurally identical trials of MC for HIV and/or sexually transmitted infection prevention in rural Rakai, Uganda. Participants were followed at 1-2 d and 5-9 d, and at 4-6 wk, to assess surgery-related AEs, wound healing, and resumption of intercourse. AE risks and wound healing were compared in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. Adjusted odds ratios (AdjORs were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for baseline characteristics and postoperative resumption of sex. At enrollment, HIV-positive men were older, more likely to be married, reported more sexual partners, less condom use, and higher rates of sexually transmitted disease symptoms than HIV-negative men. Risks of moderate or severe AEs were 3.1/100 and 3.5/100 in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants, respectively (AdjOR 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-1.74. Infections were the most common AEs (2.6/100 in HIV-positive versus 3.0/100 in HIV-negative men. Risks of other complications were similar in the two groups. The proportion with completed healing by 6 wk postsurgery was 92.7% in HIV-positive men and 95.8% in HIV-negative men (p = 0.007. AEs were more common in men who resumed intercourse before wound healing compared to those who waited (AdjOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.33. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the safety of MC was comparable in asymptomatic HIV-positive and HIV-negative men, although healing was somewhat slower among the HIV infected. All men should be strongly counseled to refrain from intercourse until full wound

  15. Associations of Yeasts with Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii; Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Cherries and Raspberries

    OpenAIRE

    Hamby, Kelly A.; Hernández, Alejandro; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Frank G. Zalom

    2012-01-01

    A rich history of investigation documents various Drosophila-yeast mutualisms, suggesting that Drosophila suzukii similarly has an association with a specific yeast species or community. To discover candidate yeast species, yeasts were isolated from larval frass, adult midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) technology and decimal dilution plating were used to identify and determine the relative abundance of yeast species present in fr...

  16. "Never Really Had a Good Education You Know, Until I Came in Here": Educational Life Histories of Young Adult Male Prisoner Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Jane; Maunsell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the educational life histories of nine prisoner learners aged between 18 and 21 years which were collated as part of doctoral work which sought to access the life histories of adult male prisoners who were attending a prison school while incarcerated in prison. The nine life histories of the young men were collated not only…

  17. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  18. Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Baatrup, E

    2001-01-01

    with the object of comparing biomarker responses to EDCs at increasing levels of biological complexity. Short-term exposure to the xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol and the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) changed important sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy. Both compounds increased...

  19. Comparative fasting bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 formulations of glucosamine hydrochloride in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Liu, M; Wang, S; Zhao, H; Yao, W; Feng, W; Yan, M; Tang, Y; Wei, M

    2012-08-01

    Glucosamine (CAS 66-84-2) hydrochloride is an amino monosaccharide indicated for the treatment of arthrosis, especially osteoarthritis of the knee joint. This study was conducted to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, bioavailability of a newly developed dispersible tablet formulation (test) of glucosamine hydrochloride with those of an established branded capsule formulation (reference) in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in 18 healthy Chinese adult male volunteers under fasting condition. Plasma samples were collected at pre-specified times over a 12-h period following administration in each period and analyzed the plasma glucosamine concentrations by Liquid Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. The mean (SD) PK parameters of Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-12, and AUC0-∞ after administration of the test and reference formulations were, respectively, as follows: Cmax, 907.01 (444.22) vs. 944.40 (429.89) ng/mL, Tmax, 3.03 (0.95) vs. 3.30 (0.99) hours, AUC0-12, 2891.41 (1352.30) vs. 2889.69 (925.48) ng/mL/h, and AUC0-∞, 3029.90 (1321.36) vs. 3091.87 (870.36) ng/mL/h. The mean (SD) t1/2 was 1.10 (0.52) hours for the test formulation and 1.50 (1.17) hours for the reference formulation. On ANOVA, neither period nor sequence effects were observed for any PK properties. The relative bioavailability of the test formulation was 98.3% assessed by AUC0-12. The 90% CIs of glucosamine for the log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0-12, and AUC0-∞ were 78.4-113.9%, 80.8-108.5% and 80.8-105.8%, respectively, meeting the predetermined criteria for bioequivalence of SFDA. PMID:22791244

  20. Ethanol exposure during peripubertal period increases the mast cell number and impairs meiotic and spermatic parameters in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Franco Punhagui, Ana; Rodrigues Vieira, Henrique; Eloisa Munhoz De Lion Siervo, Gláucia; da Rosa, Renata; Scantamburlo Alves Fernandes, Glaura

    2016-06-01

    Puberty is characterized by psychosomatic alterations, whereas chronic ethanol consumption is associated with morphophysiological changes in the male reproductive system. The purpose of this study was to show the toxic effects on testis and epididymal morphophysiology after ethanol administration during peripuberty. To this end, male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: ethanol (E) group: received a 2 g dose of ethanol/kg in 25% (v/v); and control (C) group: received the same volume of filtered water; both were treated by gavage for 54 days. On the 55th day of the experiment, epididymis, and testis were collected for sperm count, histopathology, mast cell count, and morphometry. The vas deferens was collected for sperm motility analysis. The femur and testicle were used for cytogenetic analysis. Ethanol exposure caused reduction in daily sperm production (DSP) and in sperm motility, multinucleated cells or those having no chromosomal content, and late chromosome migrations. No changes were observed in the number of chromosomes in the mitotic analysis. However, some alterations could be seen in meiocytes at different stages of cell division. Stereological analysis of the epididymis indicated reorganization of its component in the 2A and 5A/B regions. The epididymal cauda had greater recruitment, and both degranulated and full mast cells showed an increase in the initial segment, in the ethanol group. In conclusion, ethanol administration during the pubertal phase affects epididymis and testis in adult rats, as indicated mainly by our new findings related to mast cell number and meiotic impact. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:541-549, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27058992