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Sample records for adult male drosophila

  1. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior.

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    Anna A Lazareva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein.

  2. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model.

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    Abhay Sharma

    Full Text Available Available instances of inheritance of epigenetic transgenerational phenotype are limited to environmental exposures during embryonic and adult gonadal development. Adult exposures can also affect gametogenesis and thereby potentially result in reprogramming of the germline. Although examples of epigenetic effects on gametogenesis exist, it is notable that transgenerational inheritance of environment-induced adult phenotype has not yet been reported. Epigenetic codes are considered to be critical in neural plasticity. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced long-term brain plasticity has recently been described. In this model, chronic PTZ treatment of adult males causes alterations in CNS transcriptome. Here, we describe our search for transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of PTZ induced gene expression phenotype acquired by adult Drosophila males. We generated CNS transcriptomic profiles of F(1 adults after treating F(0 adult males with PTZ and of F(2 adults resulting from a cross between F(1 males and normal females. Surprisingly, microarray clustering showed F(1 male profile as closest to F(1 female and F(0 male profile closest to F(2 male. Differentially expressed genes in F(1 males, F(1 females and F(2 males showed significant overlap with those caused by PTZ. Interestingly, microarray evidence also led to the identification of upregulated rRNA in F(2 males. Next, we generated microarray expression profiles of adult testis from F(0 and F(1 males. Further surprising, clustering of CNS and testis profiles and matching of differentially expressed genes in them provided evidence of a spermatogenic mechanism in the transgenerational effect observed. To our knowledge, we report for the first time detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult acquired somatic gene expression characteristic. The Drosophila systems model offers an excellent opportunity to understand the epigenetic mechanisms underlying

  3. Adult Neurogenesis in Drosophila

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    Ismael Fernández-Hernández; Christa Rhiner; Eduardo Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been linked to several cognitive functions and neurological disorders. Description of adult neurogenesis in a model organism like Drosophila could facilitate the genetic study of normal and abnormal neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, formation of new neurons has not been detected in adult fly brains and hence has been thought to be absent in Drosophila. Here, we used an improved lineage-labeling method to show that, surprisingly, adult neurogenesis occurs in the m...

  4. Gene structure of Drosophila diaphorase-1: diversity of transcripts in adult males and females, in different organs and at different stages of development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavlina M. Ivanova; Boris H. Dunkov; Kiril H. Ralchev

    2008-08-01

    The gene EG:22E5.5 or CG4199 (accession number O77266, Q9W529) from Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) was found using the partial amino acid sequences of three tryptic peptides obtained from purified Drosophila virilis diaphorase-1. This gene is located on the X chromosome at position 2C9–2C10. The structure of the gene reveals three exons and two long introns. Using BDGP, we found six transcripts in this gene. The difference between these transcripts is in their 5′ ends; the 3′ ends of the six transcripts are identical. Thirty-four ESTs from different cDNA libraries were found, most of them from Schneider L2 cell culture (SH) cDNA library. The transcripts are represented at very low level in the cells of different organs and at different stages of Drosophila development. Using RT-PCR, we obtained five of these transcripts in cDNA samples from female adult flies. However, we could not find any of them in cDNA samples from male adult flies. Moreover, we obtained only the third transcript (CG4199-RC) in the sample of testis from adult flies and the fourth transcript (CG4199-RD) in an embryo sample. None of the other five transcripts were found in the samples of different organs and in the samples obtained at different stages of Drosophila development.

  5. Higher dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On May 21 2008, Journal of Neuroscience published an online paper from the Institute of Neuroscience, the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, entitled "Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila." This work was done by Mr. LIU Tong, a doctoral candidate, and colleagues under the supervision of Dr. GUO Aike, and in collaboration with Dr. Jean-Francois Ferveur from France.

  6. Male-male pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila.

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    Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Björn G

    2006-03-22

    Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from male-female, as compared to male-male signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from male-male signalling.

  7. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

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    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  8. Adult sex ratio effects on male survivorship of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae Efeito da razão sexual de adultos na curva de sobrevivência de machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae

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    Marcelo Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral biology has a central role in evolutionary biology mainly because the antagonistic relations that occur in the sexual reproduction. One involves the effect of reproduction on the future life expectation. In this scenario, changes in male operational sex ratio could lead to an increase in mortality due to costs associated with excessive courtship and mating displays. Thus, this work experimentally altered the male sex ratio of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, to determine its impact on mortality. The results indicated that mortality increases as the sex ratio changes, including modifications in the survivorship curve type and in the curve concavity, measured by entropy.A biologia comportamental tem um papel central na biologia evolutiva principalmente pelas relações antagônicas que ocorrem na reprodução sexuada. Uma destas relações envolve o efeito da reprodução sobre a expectativa de vida futura. Neste cenário, alterações na razão sexual operacional de machos podem levar a um aumento na mortalidade por causa dos custos associados com o excesso de displays de corte e cópulas. Neste sentido este trabalho alterou experimentalmente a razão sexual em machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, para determinar os efeitos em termos de mortalidade. Os resultados indicam que a mortalidade aumenta a medida que a razão sexual se enviesa incluindo alterações no tipo de curva de sobrevivência e da concavidade da curva, medida pela entropia.

  9. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

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    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  10. No evidence for learned mating discrimination in male Drosophila pseudoobscura

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    Kandul Ekaterina V

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since females often pay a higher cost for heterospecific matings, mate discrimination and species recognition are driven primarily by female choice. In contrast, frequent indiscriminate matings are hypothesized to maximize male fitness. However, recent studies show that previously indiscriminate males (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster and Poecilia reticulata can learn to avoid heterospecific courtship. This ability of males to discriminate against heterospecific courtship may be advantageous in populations where two species co-occur if courtship or mating is costly. Results Here, we tested whether Drosophila pseudoobscura males learn to discriminate against heterospecific females after being exposed to and rejected by D. persimilis females. In most of our assays, we failed to observe differences in D. pseudoobscura courtship intensity of heterospecific females by males that had previously courted heterospecific females vs. males that had been maintained in isolation. Conclusion We conclude that learning to avoid heterospecific courtship may not be universal, even within the genus Drosophila, and may possibly be dependent on the natural history of the species.

  11. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Dominic A Edward

    Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  12. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  13. Female contact modulates male aggression via a sexually dimorphic GABAergic circuit in Drosophila.

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    Yuan, Quan; Song, Yuanquan; Yang, Chung-Hui; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific male-male aggression, which is important for sexual selection, is regulated by environment, experience and internal states through largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. To understand the basic neural pathway underlying the modulation of this innate behavior, we established a behavioral assay in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated the relationship between sexual experience and aggression. In the presence of mating partners, adult male flies exhibited elevated levels of aggression, which was largely suppressed by prior exposure to females via a sexually dimorphic neural mechanism. The suppression involved the ability of male flies to detect females by contact chemosensation through the pheromone-sensing ion channel ppk29 and was mediated by male-specific GABAergic neurons acting on the GABAA receptor RDL in target cells. Silencing or activating this circuit led to dis-inhibition or elimination of sex-related aggression, respectively. We propose that the GABAergic inhibition represents a critical cellular mechanism that enables prior experience to modulate aggression.

  14. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

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    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  15. Tropics accelerate the evolution of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

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    Yukilevich, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that facilitate speciation and explain global patterns of species diversity has remained a challenge for decades. The most general pattern of species biodiversity is the latitudinal gradient, whereby species richness increases toward the tropics. Although such a global pattern probably has a multitude of causes, recent attention has focused on the hypothesis that speciation and the evolution of reproductive isolation occur faster in the tropics. Here, I tested this prediction using a dataset on premating and postzygotic isolation between recently diverged Drosophila species. Results showed that while the evolution of premating isolation was not greater between tropical Drosophila relative to nontropical species, postzygotic isolation evolved faster in the tropics. In particular, hybrid male sterility was much greater among tropical Drosophila compared to nontropical species pairs of similar genetic age. Several testable explanations for the novel pattern are discussed, including greater role for sterility-inducing bacterial endosymbionts in the tropics and more intense sperm-sperm competition or sperm-egg sexual conflict in the tropics. The results imply that processes of speciation in the tropics may evolve at different rates or may even be somewhat different from those at higher latitudes.

  16. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

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    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  17. Wolbachia Influences the Production of Octopamine and Affects Drosophila Male Aggression.

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    Rohrscheib, Chelsie E; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W; Brownlie, Jeremy C

    2015-07-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine β-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads.

  18. Drosophila adult and larval pheromones modulate larval food choice.

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    Farine, Jean-Pierre; Cortot, Jérôme; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2014-06-07

    Insects use chemosensory cues to feed and mate. In Drosophila, the effect of pheromones has been extensively investigated in adults, but rarely in larvae. The colonization of natural food sources by Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila simulans species may depend on species-specific chemical cues left in the food by larvae and adults. We identified such chemicals in both species and measured their influence on larval food preference and puparation behaviour. We also tested compounds that varied between these species: (i) two larval volatile compounds: hydroxy-3-butanone-2 and phenol (predominant in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, respectively), and (ii) adult cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs). Drosophila buzzatii larvae were rapidly attracted to non-CH adult conspecific cues, whereas D. simulans larvae were strongly repulsed by CHs of the two species and also by phenol. Larval cues from both species generally reduced larval attraction and pupariation on food, which was generally--but not always--low, and rarely reflected larval response. As these larval and adult pheromones specifically influence larval food search and the choice of a pupariation site, they may greatly affect the dispersion and survival of Drosophila species in nature.

  19. Sensory integration regulating male courtship behavior in Drosophila.

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    Dimitrije Krstic

    Full Text Available The courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster serves as an excellent model system to study how complex innate behaviors are controlled by the nervous system. To understand how the underlying neural network controls this behavior, it is not sufficient to unravel its architecture, but also crucial to decipher its logic. By systematic analysis of how variations in sensory inputs alter the courtship behavior of a naïve male in the single-choice courtship paradigm, we derive a model describing the logic of the network that integrates the various sensory stimuli and elicits this complex innate behavior. This approach and the model derived from it distinguish (i between initiation and maintenance of courtship, (ii between courtship in daylight and in the dark, where the male uses a scanning strategy to retrieve the decamping female, and (iii between courtship towards receptive virgin females and mature males. The last distinction demonstrates that sexual orientation of the courting male, in the absence of discriminatory visual cues, depends on the integration of gustatory and behavioral feedback inputs, but not on olfactory signals from the courted animal. The model will complement studies on the connectivity and intrinsic properties of the neurons forming the circuitry that regulates male courtship behavior.

  20. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaqi, E-mail: Huaqi.Jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu [Department of Developmental Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX, 75235 (United States); Edgar, Bruce A., E-mail: b.edgar@dkfz.de [ZMBH-DKFZ Alliance, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave. N., Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  1. Effects of the isoflavone prunetin on gut health and stress response in male Drosophila melanogaster

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    Stefanie Piegholdt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Asian diet is rich in fruits, vegetables and soy, the latter representing a significant source of dietary isoflavones. The isoflavone prunetin was recently identified to improve intestinal epithelial barrier function in vitro and to ameliorate general survival and overall health state in vivo in male Drosophila melanogaster. However, the prunetin-mediated health benefits in the fruit fly were ascertained under standard living conditions. As the loss of intestinal integrity is closely related to a reduction in Drosophila lifespan and barrier dysfunction increases with age, effects on prunetin-modulated gut health under oxidative or pathogenic stress provocation remain to be elucidated. In this study, male adult D. melanogaster were administered either a prunetin or a control diet. Gut-derived junction protein expression and pathogen-induced antimicrobial peptide expressions as well as the stem cell proliferation in the gut were evaluated. Furthermore, survival following exposure to hydrogen peroxide was assessed. Prunetin ingestion did not attenuate bacterial infection and did not protect flies from oxidative stress. Intestinal mRNA expression levels of adherence and septate junction proteins as well as the stem cell proliferation were not altered by prunetin intake. Prunetin does not improve the resistance of flies against severe injuring, exogenous stress and therefore seems to function in a preventive rather than a therapeutic approach since the health-promoting benefits appear to be exclusively restricted to normal living circumstances.

  2. LUNG CARCINOMA IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

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    Dhanasekar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report three case of Lung Carcinoma in young adult males, non - smokers, no family history of malignancy and no other risk factors like occupational or environmental exposure, past history of tuberculosis or chronic obstructive bronchitis, who presented with variable chest radiographic and computerized tomog raphic findings, these cases warrants further analysis regarding the changing trend of higher incidents of lung carcinoma in young adult males.

  3. LUNG CARCINOMA IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekar; Anbumaran; Rajagopalan; Shanmugapriya

    2015-01-01

    Here we report three case of Lung Carcinoma in young adult males, non - smokers, no family history of malignancy and no other risk factors like occupational or environmental exposure, past history of tuberculosis or chronic obstructive bronchitis, who presented with variable chest radiographic and computerized tomog raphic findings, these cases warrants further analysis regarding the changing trend of higher incidents of lung carcinoma in young adult males.

  4. Oral magnetite nanoparticles disturb the development of Drosophila melanogaster from oogenesis to adult emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Du, Wei; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Bi, Xiaolin

    2015-05-01

    The potential impacts of nanomaterials (NMs) on fetal development have attracted great concerns because of the increased potential exposure to NMs during pregnancy. Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis and developmental transitions may provide an attractive system to study the biological and environmental effects of NMs on the embryonic development. In this study, the effects of three types of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs): UN-MNPs (pristine), CA-MNPs (citric acid modified) and APTS-MNPs (3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane coated) on the development of Drosophila at 300 and 600 μg/g dosage were studied. The uptake of MNPs by female and male flies caused obvious reduction in the female fecundity, and the developmental delay at the egg-pupae and pupae-adult transitions, especially in those treated by the positive APTS-MNPs. Further investigation demonstrates that the parental uptake of MNPs disturbs the oogenesis period, induces ovarian defect, reduces the length of eggs, decreases the number of nurse cells and delays egg chamber development, which may contribute to the decrease of fecundity of female Drosophila and the development delay of their offspring. Using the synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF), the dyshomeostasis of trace elements such as Fe, Ca and Cu along the anterior-posterior axis of the fertilized eggs was found, which may be an important reason for the development delay of Drosophila.

  5. Differential roles of HOW in male and female Drosophila germline differentiation.

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    Adrian C Monk

    Full Text Available The adult gonads in both male and female Drosophila melanogaster produce gametes that originate from a regenerative pool of germline stem cells (GSCs. The differentiation programme that produces gametes must be co-ordinated with GSC maintenance and proliferation in order to regulate tissue regeneration. The HOW RNA-binding protein has been shown to maintain mitotic progression of male GSCs and their daughters by maintenance of Cyclin B expression as well as suppressing accumulation of the differentiation factor Bam. Loss of HOW function in the male germline results in loss of GSCs due to a delay in G2 and subsequent apoptosis. Here we show that female how mutant GSCs do not have any cell cycle defects although HOW continues to bind bam mRNA and suppress Bam expression. The role of HOW in suppressing germ cell Bam expression appears to be conserved between sexes, leading to different cellular outcomes in how mutants due to the different functions of Bam. In addition the role in maintaining Cyclin B expression has not been conserved so female how GSCs differentiate rather than arrest.

  6. Little qualitative RNA misexpression in sterile male F1 hybrids of Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis

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    Noor Mohamed AF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the genetics of hybrid sterility has been the subject of evolutionary studies for over sixty years, no one has shown the reason(s why alleles that operate normally within species fail to function in another genetic background. Several lines of evidence suggest that failures in normal gene transcription contribute to hybrid dysfunctions, but genome-wide studies of gene expression in pure-species and hybrids have not been undertaken. Here, we study genome-wide patterns of expression in Drosophila pseudoobscura, D. persimilis, and their sterile F1 hybrid males using differential display. Results Over five thousand amplifications were analyzed, and 3312 were present in amplifications from both of the pure species. Of these, 28 (0.5% were not present in amplifications from adult F1 hybrid males. Using product-specific primers, we were able to confirm one of nine of the transcripts putatively misexpressed in hybrids. This transcript was shown to be male-specific, but without detectable homology to D. melanogaster sequence. Conclusion We tentatively conclude that hybrid sterility can evolve without widespread, qualitative misexpression of transcripts in species hybrids. We suggest that, if more misexpression exists in sterile hybrids, it is likely to be quantitative, tissue-specific, and/ or limited to earlier developmental stages. Although several caveats apply, this study was a first attempt to determine the mechanistic basis of hybrid sterility, and one potential candidate gene has been identified for further study.

  7. Pheromonal and behavioral cues trigger male-to-female aggression in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, María de la Paz; Chan, Yick-Bun; Yew, Joanne Y; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Levine, Joel D; Kravitz, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the ability to recognize potential competitors. As in most species, Drosophila males fight with other males and do not attack females. In insects, sex recognition is strongly dependent on chemosensory communication, mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons acting

  8. The Drosophila Female Aphrodisiac Pheromone Activates ppk23+ Sensory Neurons to Elicit Male Courtship Behavior

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    Hirofumi Toda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD, is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court females or to court males perfumed with 7,11-HD. Artificial activation of these ppk23+ neurons stimulates male-male courtship even without 7,11-HD perfuming. These data identify the ppk23+ sensory neurons as the primary targets for female sex pheromones in Drosophila.

  9. The Drosophila female aphrodisiac pheromone activates ppk23(+) sensory neurons to elicit male courtship behavior.

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    Toda, Hirofumi; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Dickson, Barry J

    2012-06-28

    Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court females or to court males perfumed with 7,11-HD. Artificial activation of these ppk23(+) neurons stimulates male-male courtship even without 7,11-HD perfuming. These data identify the ppk23(+) sensory neurons as the primary targets for female sex pheromones in Drosophila.

  10. Influence of the White locus on the courtship behavior of Drosophila males.

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    Dimitrije Krstic

    Full Text Available Since its discovery by Morgan, the Drosophila white gene has become one of the most intensely studied genes and has been widely used as a genetic marker. Earlier reports that over- and misexpression of White protein in Drosophila males leads to male-male courtship implicated white in courtship control. While previous studies suggested that it is the mislocalization of White protein within cells that causes the courtship phenotype, we demonstrate here that also the lack of extra-retinal White can cause very similar behavioral changes. Moreover, we provide evidence that the lack of White function increases the sexual arousal of males in general, of which the enhanced male-male courtship might be an indirect effect. We further show that white mutant flies are not only optomotor blind but also dazzled by the over-flow of light in daylight. Implications of these findings for the proper interpretation of behavioral studies with white mutant flies are discussed.

  11. Pheromonal and behavioral cues trigger male-to-female aggression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María de la Paz; Chan, Yick-Bun; Yew, Joanne Y; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Levine, Joel D; Kravitz, Edward A

    2010-11-23

    Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the ability to recognize potential competitors. As in most species, Drosophila males fight with other males and do not attack females. In insects, sex recognition is strongly dependent on chemosensory communication, mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons acting as pheromones. While the roles of chemical and other sensory cues in stimulating male to female courtship have been well characterized in Drosophila, the signals that elicit aggression remain unclear. Here we show that when female pheromones or behavior are masculinized, males recognize females as competitors and switch from courtship to aggression. To masculinize female pheromones, a transgene carrying dsRNA for the sex determination factor transformer (traIR) was targeted to the pheromone producing cells, the oenocytes. Shortly after copulation males attacked these females, indicating that pheromonal cues can override other sensory cues. Surprisingly, masculinization of female behavior by targeting traIR to the nervous system in an otherwise normal female also was sufficient to trigger male aggression. Simultaneous masculinization of both pheromones and behavior induced a complete switch in the normal male response to a female. Control males now fought rather than copulated with these females. In a reciprocal experiment, feminization of the oenocytes and nervous system in males by expression of transformer (traF) elicited high levels of courtship and little or no aggression from control males. Finally, when confronted with flies devoid of pheromones, control males attacked male but not female opponents, suggesting that aggression is not a default behavior in the absence of pheromonal cues. Thus, our results show that masculinization of either pheromones or behavior in females is sufficient to trigger male-to-female aggression. Moreover, by manipulating both the pheromonal profile and the fighting patterns displayed by the opponent, male behavioral responses towards

  12. Pheromonal and behavioral cues trigger male-to-female aggression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Paz Fernández

    Full Text Available Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the ability to recognize potential competitors. As in most species, Drosophila males fight with other males and do not attack females. In insects, sex recognition is strongly dependent on chemosensory communication, mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons acting as pheromones. While the roles of chemical and other sensory cues in stimulating male to female courtship have been well characterized in Drosophila, the signals that elicit aggression remain unclear. Here we show that when female pheromones or behavior are masculinized, males recognize females as competitors and switch from courtship to aggression. To masculinize female pheromones, a transgene carrying dsRNA for the sex determination factor transformer (traIR was targeted to the pheromone producing cells, the oenocytes. Shortly after copulation males attacked these females, indicating that pheromonal cues can override other sensory cues. Surprisingly, masculinization of female behavior by targeting traIR to the nervous system in an otherwise normal female also was sufficient to trigger male aggression. Simultaneous masculinization of both pheromones and behavior induced a complete switch in the normal male response to a female. Control males now fought rather than copulated with these females. In a reciprocal experiment, feminization of the oenocytes and nervous system in males by expression of transformer (traF elicited high levels of courtship and little or no aggression from control males. Finally, when confronted with flies devoid of pheromones, control males attacked male but not female opponents, suggesting that aggression is not a default behavior in the absence of pheromonal cues. Thus, our results show that masculinization of either pheromones or behavior in females is sufficient to trigger male-to-female aggression. Moreover, by manipulating both the pheromonal profile and the fighting patterns displayed by the opponent, male behavioral

  13. Comparison of the Attraction Index of Male and Female Drosophila. Melanogaster to Varying Odorant Substances

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    S. Abba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the differences if any, in the olfactory discrematory ability of wild type drosophila and mutated Or83b type and also if these differences exists between male and females of both species. Insect and mammalian olfactory systems are strikingly similar. Therefore, Drosophila can be used as a simple model for olfaction. The olfactory system has evolved the capacity to recognize and discriminate an inordinate number of chemically distinct odors that signal the presence of food, predators, or mating partners. Most organisms including humans rely on their olfactory system to detect and analyze olfactory cues in the environment, cues that are subsequently utilized in the context of behavior. Several works have been done on the olfactory system of the insect drosophila, attraction of various strain of drosophila to different odors but no work has been done to investigate sexual differences in this attraction to odorants. In this research we try investigating differences in the sensitivity of the olfactory receptors of male and female drosophila by measuring their attraction index to odors (yeast. O83b mutants and ORR wild type flies were used. By behavioral analysis, using the attraction index as a measure of sensitivity of the olfactory receptors, we were able to show that the female flies have a higher attraction index to odorant than the males but this difference is not significant statistically as indicated by the p value.

  14. Early events in speciation: polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

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    Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2004-06-15

    Capturing the process of speciation early enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid male sterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors present at different frequencies in different populations of D. mojavensis. In addition, we show that hybrid male sterility is a complex phenotype; some hybrid males with motile sperm still cannot sire offspring. Because male sterility factors in hybrids between these species are not yet fixed within D. mojavensis, this system provides an invaluable opportunity to characterize the genetics of reproductive isolation at an early stage.

  15. Little evidence for demasculinization of the Drosophila X chromosome among genes expressed in the male germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiklejohn, Colin D; Presgraves, Daven C

    2012-01-01

    Male-biased genes-those expressed at higher levels in males than in females-are underrepresented on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Several evolutionary models have been posited to explain this so-called demasculinization of the X. Here, we show that the apparent paucity of male-biased genes on the X chromosome is attributable to global X-autosome differences in expression in Drosophila testes, owing to a lack of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the male germline, but not to any difference in the density of testis-specific or testis-biased genes on the X chromosome. First, using genome-wide gene expression data from 20 tissues, we find no evidence that genes with testis-specific expression are underrepresented on the X chromosome. Second, using contrasts in gene expression profiles among pairs of tissues, we recover a statistical underrepresentation of testis-biased genes on the X but find that the pattern largely disappears once we account for the lack of dosage compensation in the Drosophila male germline. Third, we find that computationally "demasculinizing" the autosomes is not sufficient to produce an expression profile similar to that of the X chromosome in the testes. Our findings thus show that the lack of sex chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila testes can explain the apparent signal of demasculinization on the X, whereas evolutionary demasculinization of the X cannot explain its overall reduced expression in the testes.

  16. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  17. The involvement of several enzymes in methanol detoxification in Drosophila melanogaster adults.

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    Wang, Shu-Ping; Hu, Xing-Xing; Meng, Qing-Wei; Muhammad, Shahid Arain; Chen, Rui-Rui; Li, Fei; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-09-01

    Methanol is among the most common short-chain alcohols in fermenting fruits, the natural food and oviposition sites of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Our previous results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) were associated with methanol detoxification in the larvae. Catalases, alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), esterases (ESTs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were specifically inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT), 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethylmeleate (DEM), respectively. CYPs were inhibited by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT). In the present paper, the involvements of these enzymes in methanol metabolism were investigated in female and male adults by determining the combination indices of methanol and their corresponding inhibitors. When PBO, 1-ABT, 3-AT, 4-MP and TPP were individually mixed with methanol, they exhibited significant synergism to the mortality of the adults after 72h of dietary exposure. In contrast, the DEM and methanol mixture showed additive effects. Moreover, methanol exposure dramatically increased CYP activity and up-regulated mRNA expression levels of several Cyp genes. Bioassays using different strains revealed that the variation in ADH activity and RNAi-mediated knockdown of α-Est7 significantly changed LC50 values for methanol. These results suggest that CYPs, catalases, ADHs and ESTs are partially responsible for methanol elimination in adults. It seems that there are some differences in methanol metabolism between larvae and adults, but not between female and male adults.

  18. The effects of inbreeding and heat stress on male sterility in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Bijlsma, Kuke

    2011-01-01

    in benign and stressful environments using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Male sterility was compared in 21 inbred lines and five non-inbred control lines at 25.0 and 29.0 °C. The effect of inbreeding on sterility was significant only at 29.0 °C. This stress-induced increase in sterility...

  19. The Role of Cuticular Pheromones in Courtship Conditioning of "Drosophila" Males

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    Siwicki, Kathleen K.; Riccio, Paul; Ladewski, Lisa; Marcillac, Fabrice; Dartevelle, Laurence; Cross, Stephanie A.; Ferveur, Jean-Francois

    2005-01-01

    Courtship conditioning is an associative learning paradigm in "Drosophila melanogaster," wherein male courtship behavior is modified by experience with unreceptive, previously mated females. While the training experience with mated females involves multiple sensory and behavioral interactions, the authors hypothesized that female cuticular…

  20. The pathology of embryo death caused by the male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium in Drosophila nebulosa

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    Heraty Joseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited bacteria that kill male offspring, male-killers, are known to be common in insects, but little is understood about the mechanisms used by male-killing bacteria to kill males. In this paper we describe the tempo and changes that occur during male-killing by Spiroplasma bacteria in the host Drosophila nebulosa. Results Spiroplasma infected D. nebulosa males were developmentally retarded from 6–8 h into embryonic development at 25°C, and arrested at between stages 12 and 13 of embryogenesis (10–12 h. Dying males were characterized by a failure to form segments, and ultimately disintegration of the normal oval embryonic shape. Prior to death, dying males exhibited widespread apoptosis, as testified by TUNEL staining. Conclusion The Spiroplasma kills male Drosophila in a narrow developmental period, shortly after the formation of the host dosage compensation complex that is required for male-killing. Male death is preceded by widespread apoptosis, but it is uncertain if this is primary or secondary apoptosis.

  1. A Wolbachia-Sensitive Communication between Male and Female Pupae Controls Gamete Compatibility in Drosophila.

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    Pontier, Stéphanie M; Schweisguth, François

    2015-09-21

    Gamete compatibility is fundamental to sexual reproduction. Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate gamete compatibility in many arthropod species. In Drosophila, the fertilization of uninfected eggs by sperm from Wolbachia-infected males often results in early developmental arrest. This gamete incompatibility is called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is highest in young males, suggesting that Wolbachia affect sperm properties during male development. Here, we show that Wolbachia modulate testis development. Unexpectedly, this effect was associated with Wolbachia infection in females, not males. This raised the possibility that females influenced testis development by communicating with males prior to adulthood. Using a combinatorial rearing protocol, we provide evidence for such a female-to-male communication during metamorphosis. This communication involves the perception of female pheromones by male olfactory receptors. We found that this communication determines the compatibility range of sperm. Wolbachia interfere with this female-to-male communication through changes in female pheromone production. Strikingly, restoring this communication partially suppressed CI in Wolbachia-infected males. We further identified a reciprocal male-to-female communication at metamorphosis that restricts the compatibility range of female gametes. Wolbachia also perturb this communication by feminizing male pheromone production. Thus, Wolbachia broaden the compatibility range of eggs, promoting thereby the reproductive success of Wolbachia-infected females. We conclude that pheromone communication between pupae regulates gamete compatibility and is sensitive to Wolbachia in Drosophila.

  2. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von

    2015-01-01

    Although males are generally less discriminating than females when it comes to choosing a mate, they still benefit from distinguishing between mates that are receptive to courtship and those that are not, in order to avoid wasting time and energy. It is known that males of Drosophila melanogaster...... of the experiment was carried out in darkness.This is, to our knowledge 1) the first evidence that male D. melanogaster can use more arbitrary cues and 2) the first evidence that males use visual cues during mate choice learning. Our findings suggest that that D. melanogaster has untapped potential as a model...

  3. Differential potencies of effector genes in adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Andreas S; Knapek, Stephan; Rister, Jens; Dierichs-Schmitt, Eva; Heisenberg, Martin; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2006-09-10

    The GAL4/UAS gene expression system in Drosophila has been crucial in revealing the behavioral significance of neural circuits. Transgene products that block neurotransmitter release and induce cell death have been proved to inhibit neural function powerfully. Here we compare the action of the five effector genes shibire(ts1), Tetanus toxin light chain (TNT), reaper, Diphtheria toxin A-chain (DTA), and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) and show differences in their efficiency depending on the target cells and the timing of induction. Specifically, effectors blocking neuronal transmission or excitability led to adult-induced paralysis more efficiently than those causing cell ablation. We contrasted these differential potencies in adult to their actions during development. Furthermore, we induced TNT expression in the adult mushroom bodies. In contrast to the successful impairment in short-term olfactory memory by shibire(ts1), adult TNT expression in the same set of cells did not lead to any obvious impairment. Altogether, the efficiency of effector genes depends on properties of the targeted neurons. Thus, we conclude that the selection of the appropriate effector gene is critical for evaluating the function of neural circuits.

  4. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid can protect the sperm of other males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    physiology. # 2. Seminal fluid is well-studied in Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which it has been suggested to 'incapacitate' the sperm of rival males (e.g. by killing them) and thereby provide an advantage in sperm competition. This hypothesis has been tested several times over many years......, but different studies have yielded conflicting conclusions. Here, I use fluorescent staining to directly measure the effects of D. melanogaster seminal fluid on the survival of sperm from the same male or from a rival. The results suggest that seminal fluid improves sperm survival, even if the sperm are from...... a different male. This study therefore provides strong evidence that seminal fluid does not kill rival sperm, and instead can actually protect them. This study also tested whether chemicals in the female reproductive tract harm sperm as in another Drosophila species, but found no evidence of this. # 3...

  6. A gene necessary for normal male courtship, yellow, acts downstream of fruitless in the Drosophila melanogaster larval brain.

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    Drapeau, Mark David; Radovic, Anna; Wittkopp, Patricia J; Long, Anthony D

    2003-04-01

    The fruitless (fru) gene is a member of the Drosophila melanogaster somatic sex determination genetic pathway. Although it has been hypothesized that the primary function of fru is to regulate a genetic hierarchy specifying development of adult male courtship behavior, genes acting downstream of fru have not yet been identified. Here we demonstrate that the yellow (y) gene is genetically downstream of fru in the 3(rd)-instar larval brain. Yellow protein is present at elevated levels in neuroblasts, which also show expression of male-specific FRU proteins, compared to control neuroblasts without FRU. A location for y downstream of fru in a genetic pathway was experimentally demonstrated by analysis of fru mutants lacking transcription of zinc-finger DNA binding domains, and of animals with temporal, spatial, or sexual mis-expression of male-specific FRU. A subset of fru and y mutants is known to reduce levels of a specific behavioral component of the male courtship ritual, wing extension, and FRU and Yellow were detected in the general region of the brain whose maleness is necessary for development of that behavior. We therefore hypothesized that ectopic expression of Yellow in the 3(rd)-instar brain, in a y null background, would rescue low levels of wing extension and male competitive mating success, and this was found to be the case. Overall, these data suggest that y is a downstream member of the fru branch of the D. melanogaster sex determination hierarchy, where it plays a currently unknown role in the development of adult male wing extension during courtship.

  7. No evidence for heritability of male mating latency or copulation duration across social environments in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Taylor

    Full Text Available A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in male mating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance.

  8. Green tea polyphenols extend the lifespan of male drosophila melanogaster while impairing reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T; Huey, Jocelyn; Jafari, Mahtab

    2014-12-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans.

  9. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility is associated with decreased Hira expression in male Drosophila.

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    Ya Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria that infect numerous species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia can induce several reproductive phenotypes in their insect hosts including feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. CI is the most common phenotype and occurs when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females resulting in no or very low numbers of viable offspring. However, matings between males and females infected with the same strain of Wolbachia result in viable progeny. Despite substantial scientific effort, the molecular mechanisms underlying CI are currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression studies were undertaken in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans which display differential levels of CI using quantitative RT-PCR. We show that Hira expression is correlated with the induction of CI and occurs in a sex-specific manner. Hira expression is significantly lower in males which induce strong CI when compared to males inducing no CI or Wolbachia-uninfected males. A reduction in Hira expression is also observed in 1-day-old males that induce stronger CI compared to 5-day-old males that induce weak or no CI. In addition, Hira mutated D. melanogaster males mated to uninfected females result in significantly decreased hatch rates comparing with uninfected crosses. Interestingly, wMel-infected females may rescue the hatch rates. An obvious CI phenotype with chromatin bridges are observed in the early embryo resulting from Hira mutant fertilization, which strongly mimics the defects associated with CI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest Wolbachia-induced CI in Drosophila occurs due to a reduction in Hira expression in Wolbachia-infected males leading to detrimental effects on sperm fertility resulting in embryo lethality. These results may help determine the underlying mechanism of CI and provide further insight in to the important role

  10. Ephemeral association between gene CG5762 and hybrid male sterility in Drosophila sibling species.

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    Ma, Daina; Michalak, Pawel

    2011-10-01

    Interspecies divergence in regulatory pathways may result in hybrid male sterility (HMS) when dominance and epistatic interactions between alleles that are functional within one genome are disrupted in hybrid genomes. The identification of genes contributing to HMS and other hybrid dysfunctions is essential for understanding the origin of new species (speciation). Previously, we identified a panel of male-specific loci misexpressed in sterile male hybrids of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana relative to parental species. In the current work, we attempt to dissect the genetic associations between HMS and one of the genes, CG5762, a Drosophila-unique locus characterized by rapid sequence divergence within the genus, presumably driven by positive natural selection. CG5762 is underexpressed in sterile backcross males compared with their fertile brothers. In CG5762 heterozygotes, the D. mauritiana allele is consistently overexpressed on both the D. simulans and D. mauritiana backcross genomic background, suggesting a cis-acting regulation factor. There is a significant association between heterozygosity and HMS in hybrid males from early but not later backcross generations. Microsatellite markers spanning CG5762 fail to associate with HMS. These observations lead to a conclusion that CG5762 is not a causative factor of HMS. Although genetic linkage between CG5762 and a neighboring causative introgression cannot be ruled out, it seems that the pattern is most consistent with CG5762 participating in epistatic interactions that are disrupted in flies with HMS.

  11. Peripheral, central and behavioral responses to the cuticular pheromone bouquet in Drosophila melanogaster males.

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    Tsuyoshi Inoshita

    Full Text Available Pheromonal communication is crucial with regard to mate choice in many animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster flies produce a pheromonal bouquet with many cuticular hydrocarbons some of which diverge between the sexes and differently affect male courtship behavior. Cuticular pheromones have a relatively high weight and are thought to be -- mostly but not only -- detected by gustatory contact. However, the response of the peripheral and central gustatory systems to these substances remains poorly explored. We measured the effect induced by pheromonal cuticular mixtures on (i the electrophysiological response of peripheral gustatory receptor neurons, (ii the calcium variation in brain centers receiving these gustatory inputs and (iii the behavioral reaction induced in control males and in mutant desat1 males, which show abnormal pheromone production and perception. While male and female pheromones induced inhibitory-like effects on taste receptor neurons, the contact of male pheromones on male fore-tarsi elicits a long-lasting response of higher intensity in the dedicated gustatory brain center. We found that the behavior of control males was more strongly inhibited by male pheromones than by female pheromones, but this difference disappeared in anosmic males. Mutant desat1 males showed an increased sensitivity of their peripheral gustatory neurons to contact pheromones and a behavioral incapacity to discriminate sex pheromones. Together our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbons induce long-lasting inhibitory effects on the relevant taste pathway which may interact with the olfactory pathway to modulate pheromonal perception.

  12. Feminization and alteration of Drosophila taste neurons induce reciprocal effects on male avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaille, Fabien; Everaerts, Claude; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2009-09-01

    Taste perception allows most animals to find edible food, potential mates, and avoid ingesting toxic molecules. Intriguingly, a small group of Drosophila taste neurones (expressing Gr66a-Gal4) involved in the perception of bitter substances is also used to detect 7-tricosene (7-T), a male cuticular pheromone. Male flies tend to be inhibited by 7-T whereas females are stimulated by this pheromone. To better understand their role on male courtship, Gr66a-Gal4 neurons were genetically feminized or altered with various transgenes, and the response of transgenic males was measured toward live targets carrying various amounts of 7-T, or of bitter molecules (caffeine, quinine and berberine). Surprisingly, tester males with feminized taste neurons showed an increased dose-dependent avoidance toward targets with high level of any of these substances, compared to other tester males. Conversely, males with altered neurons showed no, or very little avoidance. Moreover, the surgical ablation of the sensory appendages carrying these taste neurons differently affected the behavioral response of the various tester males. The fact that this manipulation did not affect the courtship toward control females nor the locomotor activity of tester males suggests that Gr66a-Gal4 neurons are involved in the sex-specific perception of molecules inducing male avoidance behavior.

  13. Neighboring genes for DNA-binding proteins rescue male sterility in Drosophila hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Araripe, Luciana O; Hartl, Daniel L

    2016-07-19

    Crosses between closely related animal species often result in male hybrids that are sterile, and the molecular and functional basis of genetic factors for hybrid male sterility is of great interest. Here, we report a molecular and functional analysis of HMS1, a region of 9.2 kb in chromosome 3 of Drosophila mauritiana, which results in virtually complete hybrid male sterility when homozygous in the genetic background of sibling species Drosophila simulans. The HMS1 region contains two strong candidate genes for the genetic incompatibility, agt and Taf1 Both encode unrelated DNA-binding proteins, agt for an alkyl-cysteine-S-alkyltransferase and Taf1 for a subunit of transcription factor TFIID that serves as a multifunctional transcriptional regulator. The contribution of each gene to hybrid male sterility was assessed by means of germ-line transformation, with constructs containing complete agt and Taf1 genomic sequences as well as various chimeric constructs. Both agt and Taf1 contribute about equally to HMS1 hybrid male sterility. Transgenes containing either locus rescue sterility in about one-half of the males, and among fertile males the number of offspring is in the normal range. This finding suggests compensatory proliferation of the rescued, nondysfunctional germ cells. Results with chimeric transgenes imply that the hybrid incompatibilities result from interactions among nucleotide differences residing along both agt and Taf1 Our results challenge a number of preliminary generalizations about the molecular and functional basis of hybrid male sterility, and strongly reinforce the role of DNA-binding proteins as a class of genes contributing to the maintenance of postzygotic reproductive isolation.

  14. Age-dependent chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Vibranovski, Maria D; Krinsky, Benjamin H; Long, Manyuan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the correlation between the chromosomal location and age distribution of new male-biased genes formed by duplications via DNA intermediates (DNA-level) or by de novo origination in Drosophila. Our genome-wide analysis revealed an excess of young X-linked male-biased genes. The proportion of X-linked male-biased genes then diminishes through time, leading to an autosomal excess of male-biased genes. The switch between X-linked and autosomal enrichment of male-biased genes was also present in the distribution of both protein-coding genes on the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome and microRNA genes of D. melanogaster. These observations revealed that the evolution of male-biased genes is more complicated than the previously detected one-step X→A gene traffic and the enrichment of the male-biased genes on autosomes. The pattern we detected suggests that the interaction of various evolutionary forces such as the meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), faster-X effect, and sexual antagonism in the male germline might have shaped the chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes on different evolutionary time scales.

  15. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichiro Tachibana

    Full Text Available A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment.

  16. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beika Lu

    2014-01-01

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment. However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster. We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions.

  17. Genotype-by-environment interactions for female mate choice of male cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila simulans.

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    Fiona C Ingleby

    Full Text Available Recent research has highlighted the potential importance of environmental and genotype-by-environment (G×E variation in sexual selection, but most studies have focussed on the expression of male sexual traits. Consequently, our understanding of genetic variation for plasticity in female mate choice is extremely poor. In this study we examine the genetics of female mate choice in Drosophila simulans using isolines reared across two post-eclosion temperatures. There was evidence for G×Es in female choosiness and preference, which suggests that the evolution of female mate choice behaviour could differ across environments. However, the ranked order of preferred males was consistent across females and environments, so the same males are favoured by mate choice in spite of G×Es. Our study highlights the importance of taking cross-environment perspectives in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the operation of sexual selection.

  18. Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Daniels, Joseph; Glaser, Alex E; Wolf, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFR(A887T), Ras85D(V12) and Ras85D(V12S35), which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr) RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERK(D334N), which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for

  19. Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2013-07-01

    In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFRA887T, Ras85DV12 and Ras85DV12S35, which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERKD334N, which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for Raf

  20. On Marta Breuer and some of her unpublished drawings of Drosophila spp. male terminalia (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A short illustrated biography of Marta Erps Breuer (1902-1977, designer and lab technician at the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo, and a former Bauhaus student, is presented. Additionally, twenty fine China ink drawings of the male terminalia of twenty species of Neotropical Drosophila, made by her between October 4th, 1951, and March 24th, 1959, and currently deposited in the archives of the Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology of the Institute of Biosciences of the University of São Paulo (Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, are included. All illustrated species but one are members of one of the following seven groups of the subgenus Drosophila: annulimana, canalinea, cardini, coffeata, dreyfusi, repleta, and tripunctata. Besides being depicted in the same position, the illustrations are so precise that we believe they will be extremely useful for those interested in Drosophila spp. identification. A comprehensive list of her scientific papers is included among the references.

  1. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiklejohn, Colin D; Landeen, Emily L; Cook, Jodi M; Kingan, Sarah B; Presgraves, Daven C

    2011-08-01

    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females) has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female) germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  2. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

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    Colin D Meiklejohn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  3. Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, B N

    2005-05-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata--parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinata--malerkotliana and parabipectinata--malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

  4. Male sex drive and the maintenance of sex: evidence from Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rama S; Artieri, Carlo G

    2010-01-01

    The resolution of the paradoxes surrounding the evolutionary origins and maintenance of sexual reproduction has been a major focus in biology. The operation of sexual selection-which is very common among multicellular organisms-has been proposed as an important factor in the maintenance of sex, though in order for this hypothesis to hold, the strength of sexual selection must be stronger in males than in females. Sexual selection poses its own series of evolutionary questions, including how genetic variability is maintained in the face of sustained directional selection (known as the "paradox of the lek"). In this short review, we present evidence obtained from recent comparative genomics projects arguing that 1) the genomic consequences of sexual selection clearly show that its effect is stronger in males and 2) this sustained selection over evolutionary timescales also has an effect of capturing de novo genes and expression patterns influencing male fitness, thus providing a mechanism via which new genetic variation can be input into to male traits. Furthermore, we argue that this latter process of genomic "masculinization" has an additional effect of making males difficult to purge from populations, as evidence from Drosophila indicates that, for example, many male sexually selected seminal fluid factors are required to ensure maximally efficient reproduction. Newly arising parthenogenic mutations would suffer an immediate reproductive rate disadvantage were these proteins lost. We show that recent studies confirm that genomic masculinization, as a result of "male sex drive," has important consequences for the evolution of sexually dimorphic species.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster males increase the number of sperm in their ejaculate when perceiving rival males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbaczewska, Martyna; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    It is is common for females from many species to mate with multiple males within one reproductive cycle. As a result, sperm from different males come into contact in the female reproductive organs, where they compete for ova fertilization. This sperm competition appears to drive the ejaculation of a

  6. An integrated hybrid microfluidic device for oviposition-based chemical screening of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacob C K; Hilliker, Arthur J; Rezai, Pouya

    2016-02-21

    Chemical screening using Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) is vital in drug discovery, agricultural, and toxicological applications. Oviposition (egg laying) on chemically-doped agar plates is an important read-out metric used to quantitatively assess the biological fitness and behavioral responses of Drosophila. Current oviposition-based chemical screening studies are inaccurate, labor-intensive, time-consuming, and inflexible due to the manual chemical doping of agar. In this paper, we have developed a novel hybrid agar-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for single- and multi-concentration chemical dosing and on-chip oviposition screening of free-flying adult stage Drosophila. To achieve this, we have devised a novel technique to integrate agar with PDMS channels using ice as a sacrificial layer. Subsequently, we have conducted single-chemical toxicity and multiple choice chemical preference assays on adult Drosophila melanogaster using zinc and acetic acid at various concentrations. Our device has enabled us to 1) demonstrate that Drosophila is capable of sensing the concentration of different chemicals on a PDMS-agar microfluidic device, which plays significant roles in determining oviposition site selection and 2) investigate whether oviposition preference differs between single- and multi-concentration chemical environments. This device may be used to study fundamental and applied biological questions in Drosophila and other egg laying insects. It can also be extended in design to develop sophisticated and dynamic chemical dosing and high-throughput screening platforms in the future that are not easily achievable with the existing oviposition screening techniques.

  7. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila sulfurigaster neonasuta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Ravi Ram; S. R. Ramesh

    2007-12-01

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different populations from southern India. A total of 25 and 18 variant protein phenotypes were identified in D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta, respectively. Protein fractions of group III were more polymorphic than those from groups I and II. The results show that accessory gland secretory proteins show high levels of polymorphism, irrespective of species or habitat. Moreover, we have used the variation in the accessory gland proteins to assess the extent of divergence between the species and to infer their population structure. The study suggests that though both D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta belong to the same subgroup, they differ in population structure, as far as accessory gland protein polymorphism is concerned.

  8. Genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2006-06-01

    Understanding genetic mechanisms underlying hybrid male sterility is one of the most challenging problems in evolutionary biology especially speciation. By using the interspecific hybridization method roles of Y chromosome, Major Hybrid Sterility (MHS) genes and cytoplasm in sterility of hybrid males have been investigated in a promising group, the Drosophila bipectinata species complex that consists of four closely related species: D. pseudoananassae, D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana. The interspecific introgression analyses show that neither cytoplasm nor MHS genes are involved but X-Y interactions may be playing major role in hybrid male sterility between D. pseudoananassae and the other three species. The results of interspecific introgression analyses also show considerable decrease in the number of males in the backcross offspring and all males have atrophied testes. There is a significant positive correlation between sex - ratio distortion and severity of sterility in backcross males. These findings provide evidence that D. pseudoananassae is remotely related with other three species of the D. bipectinata species complex.

  9. Orbit/CLASP is required for myosin accumulation at the cleavage furrow in Drosophila male meiosis.

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    Daishi Kitazawa

    Full Text Available Peripheral microtubules (MTs near the cell cortex are essential for the positioning and continuous constriction of the contractile ring (CR in cytokinesis. Time-lapse observations of Drosophila male meiosis showed that myosin II was first recruited along the cell cortex independent of MTs. Then, shortly after peripheral MTs made contact with the equatorial cortex, myosin II was concentrated there in a narrow band. After MT contact, anillin and F-actin abruptly appeared on the equatorial cortex, simultaneously with myosin accumulation. We found that the accumulation of myosin did not require centralspindlin, but was instead dependent on Orbit, a Drosophila ortholog of the MT plus-end tracking protein CLASP. This protein is required for stabilization of central spindle MTs, which are essential for cytokinesis. Orbit was also localized in a mid-zone of peripheral MTs, and was concentrated in a ring at the equatorial cortex during late anaphase. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments indicated that Orbit is closely associated with F-actin in the CR. We also showed that the myosin heavy chain was in close proximity with Orbit in the cleavage furrow region. Centralspindlin was dispensable in Orbit ring formation. Instead, the Polo-KLP3A/Feo complex was required for the Orbit accumulation independently of the Orbit MT-binding domain. However, orbit mutations of consensus sites for the phosphorylation of Cdk1 or Polo did not influence the Orbit accumulation, suggesting an indirect regulatory role of these protein kinases in Orbit localization. Orbit was also necessary for the maintenance of the CR. Our data suggest that Orbit plays an essential role as a connector between MTs and the CR in Drosophila male meiosis.

  10. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  11. Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, C J; Longino, J T

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the play behaviour in one group of coatis (Nasua narica) at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We incidentally found adult males playing with juvenile coatis, and conducted post-hoc analyses to investigate this interaction. Coati groups consist of adult females and juveniles of both sexes until male juveniles reach two years of age and leave the band to become solitary. Adult males only tolerate juveniles for a brief period during breeding season when the males court females to mate. Outside of the breeding season, adult males are known to prey on juveniles. In this study, when adult males were present with the band, play occurred more than was expected by chance, and adult males engaged in many of these play bouts. Because the mechanisms driving infanticidal behaviour are not well understood, and adult male coatis show a range of behaviours from infanticide to highly affiliative interactions with juveniles, using coatis as a model system may elucidate mechanisms underlying infanticide.

  12. Overexpression of glutathione transferase E7 in Drosophila differentially impacts toxicity of organic isothiocyanates in males and females.

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    Aslam M A Mazari

    Full Text Available Organic isothiocyanates (ITCs are allelochemicals produced by plants in order to combat insects and other herbivores. The compounds are toxic electrophiles that can be inactivated and conjugated with intracellular glutathione in reactions catalyzed by glutathione transferases (GSTs. The Drosophila melanogaster GSTE7 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified for functional studies. The enzyme showed high catalytic activity with various isothiocyanates including phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, which in millimolar dietary concentrations conferred toxicity to adult D. melanogaster leading to death or a shortened life-span of the flies. In situ hybridization revealed a maternal contribution of GSTE7 transcripts to embryos, and strongest zygotic expression in the digestive tract. Transgenesis involving the GSTE7 gene controlled by an actin promoter produced viable flies expressing the GSTE7 transcript ubiquitously. Transgenic females show a significantly increased survival when subjected to the same PEITC treatment as the wild-type flies. By contrast, transgenic male flies show a significantly lower survival rate. Oviposition activity was enhanced in transgenic flies. The effect was significant in transgenic females reared in the absence of ITCs as well as in the presence of 0.15 mM PEITC or 1 mM AITC. Thus the GSTE7 transgene elicits responses to exposure to ITC allelochemicals which differentially affect life-span and fecundity of male and female flies.

  13. Rapid male-specific regulatory divergence and down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila species hybrids.

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    Jennifer Ferguson

    Full Text Available In most crosses between closely related species of Drosophila, the male hybrids are sterile and show postmeiotic abnormalities. A series of gene expression studies using genomic approaches have found significant down regulation of postmeiotic spermatogenesis genes in sterile male hybrids. These results have led some to suggest a direct relationship between down regulation in gene expression and hybrid sterility. An alternative explanation to a cause-and-effect relationship between misregulation of gene expression and male sterility is rapid divergence of male sex regulatory elements leading to incompatible interactions in an interspecies hybrid genome. To test the effect of regulatory divergence in spermatogenesis gene expression, we isolated 35 fertile D. simulans strains with D. mauritiana introgressions in either the X, second or third chromosome. We analyzed gene expression in these fertile hybrid strains for a subset of spermatogenesis genes previously reported as significantly under expressed in sterile hybrids relative to D. simulans. We found that fertile autosomal introgressions can cause levels of gene down regulation similar to that of sterile hybrids. We also found that X chromosome heterospecific introgressions cause significantly less gene down regulation than autosomal introgressions. Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids.

  14. Hyperprolactinemia affects spermiogenesis in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, M; Choudhari, J; Padwal, V; Balasinor, N; Parte, P; Gill-Sharma, M K

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the antifertility effects of hyperprolactinemia have yet to be established in an appropriate experimental model. Hyperprolactinemia is a known side effect of fluphenazine, a broad spectrum, long-acting phenothiazine known to be dopamine type-D2 receptor antagonist. In our earlier study in adult male rats, we reported that fluphenazine at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day suppressed serum FSH but not testosterone (T) through increasing dopamine (DA) metabolism in the pituitary gland, within 60 days. Fluphenazine treatment affected sperm quality and male rats treated with fluphenazine sired fewer litters. The effects of fluphenazine-induced hyperprolactinemia on sperm quality appeared to be related to reduced FSH. We now report that FSH suppression enhanced the uptake of acridine orange (AO), a DNA intercalating, fluorescent dye by the fluphenazine-treated caput epididymal sperms with concomitant reduction in the uptake of thiol-specific monobromobimane (mBBr) fluorescent dye in vitro, suggesting greater accessibility of DNA intercalating dye to sperm chromatin and reduction in free sperm protein thiols. The concomitant increase in AO and decrease in mBBr fluorescence was suggestive of loose chromatin packaging in caput epididymal sperms after treatment with fluphenazine at 3 mg/kg/day for 60 days. The suppression in levels of protamine (P1) in caput epididymal sperms suggested that chromatin hypocompaction was due to reduced deposition of protamines in sperm chromatin. Reduction in testicular levels of cyclic adenosyl 3', 5' monophosphate response element modulator (CREMtau) and P1 further suggested that reduced deposition was indeed due to reduced synthesis. The concomitant reduction in testicular levels of transition protein 1 (TP1) and transition protein 2 (TP2) also suggested that hypoprotamination was due to reduced synthesis of these proteins crucial for facilitating P1 deposition. The effect appeared to have occurred at the level of translation

  15. Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Pavković-Lučić

    Full Text Available Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature? Sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster, related to body size and fluctuating asymmetry in wing length and number of sex comb teeth in males, was tested in natural conditions. Males collected in copula were significantly larger than those collected as a single, while no difference in mean number of sex comb teeth between copulating and single males was observed. On the other hand, single males had greater asymmetry both for wing length and number of sex comb teeth than their mating counterparts. It looks like that symmetry of these bilateral traits also may play a role in sexual selection in this dipteran species in nature.

  16. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  17. Retention of Ejaculate by Drosophila melanogaster Females Requires the Male-Derived Mating Plug Protein PEBme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Frank W; Cohen, Allie B; Ameerudeen, Fatima S; Duneau, David; Suresh, Shruthi; Mattei, Alexandra L; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-08-01

    Within the mated reproductive tracts of females of many taxa, seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) coagulate into a structure known as the mating plug (MP). MPs have diverse roles, including preventing female remating, altering female receptivity postmating, and being necessary for mated females to successfully store sperm. The Drosophila melanogaster MP, which is maintained in the mated female for several hours postmating, is comprised of a posterior MP (PMP) that forms quickly after mating begins and an anterior MP (AMP) that forms later. The PMP is composed of seminal proteins from the ejaculatory bulb (EB) of the male reproductive tract. To examine the role of the PMP protein PEBme in D. melanogaster reproduction, we identified an EB GAL4 driver and used it to target PEBme for RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown. PEBme knockdown in males compromised PMP coagulation in their mates and resulted in a significant reduction in female fertility, adversely affecting postmating uterine conformation, sperm storage, mating refractoriness, egg laying, and progeny generation. These defects resulted from the inability of females to retain the ejaculate in their reproductive tracts after mating. The uncoagulated MP impaired uncoupling by the knockdown male, and when he ultimately uncoupled, the ejaculate was often pulled out of the female. Thus, PEBme and MP coagulation are required for optimal fertility in D. melanogaster. Given the importance of the PMP for fertility, we identified additional MP proteins by mass spectrometry and found fertility functions for two of them. Our results highlight the importance of the MP and the proteins that comprise it in reproduction and suggest that in Drosophila the PMP is required to retain the ejaculate within the female reproductive tract, ensuring the storage of sperm by mated females.

  18. Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-03

    Males from many species ensure paternity by preventing their mates from copulating with other males. One mate-guarding strategy involves marking females with anti-aphrodisiac pheromones (AAPs), which reduces the females' attractiveness and dissuades other males from courting. Since females benefit from polyandry, sexual conflict theory predicts that females should develop mechanisms to counteract AAPs to achieve additional copulations, but no such mechanisms have been documented. Here we show that during copulation Drosophila melanogaster males transfer two AAPs: cis-Vaccenyl Acetate (cVA) to the females' reproductive tract, and 7-Tricosene (7-T) to the females' cuticle. A few hours after copulation, females actively eject cVA from their reproductive tract, which results in increased attractiveness and re-mating. Although 7-T remains on those females, we show that it is the combination of the two chemicals that reduces attractiveness. To our knowledge, female AAP ejection provides the first example of a female mechanism that counter-acts chemical mate-guarding.

  19. Wolbachia-mediated antiviral protection in Drosophila larvae and adults following oral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Aleksej L; Arnold, Pieter A; Johnson, Karyn N

    2015-12-01

    Understanding viral dynamics in arthropods is of great importance when designing models to describe how viral spread can influence arthropod populations. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia spp., which is present in up to 40% of all insect species, has the ability to alter viral dynamics in both Drosophila spp. and mosquitoes, a feature that in mosquitoes may be utilized to limit spread of important arboviruses. To understand the potential effect of Wolbachia on viral dynamics in nature, it is important to consider the impact of natural routes of virus infection on Wolbachia antiviral effects. Using adult Drosophila strains, we show here that Drosophila-Wolbachia associations that have previously been shown to confer antiviral protection following systemic viral infection also confer protection against virus-induced mortality following oral exposure to Drosophila C virus in adults. Interestingly, a different pattern was observed when the same fly lines were challenged with the virus when still larvae. Analysis of the four Drosophila-Wolbachia associations that were protective in adults indicated that only the w1118-wMelPop association conferred protection in larvae following oral delivery of the virus. Analysis of Wolbachia density using quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that a high Wolbachia density was congruent with antiviral protection in both adults and larvae. This study indicates that Wolbachia-mediated protection may vary between larval and adult stages of a given Wolbachia-host combination and that the variations in susceptibility by life stage correspond with Wolbachia density. The differences in the outcome of virus infection are likely to influence viral dynamics in Wolbachia-infected insect populations in nature and could also have important implications for the transmission of arboviruses in mosquito populations.

  20. No severe and global X chromosome inactivation in meiotic male germline of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylova Lyudmila M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a response to Vibranovski et al. See correspondence article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/49 and the original research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/29 We have previously reported a high propensity of testis-expressed X-linked genes to activation in meiotic cells, a similarity in global gene expression between the X chromosome and autosomes in meiotic germline, and under-representation of various types of tissue-specific genes on the X chromosome. Based on our findings and a critical review of the current literature, we believe that there is no global and severe silencing of the X chromosome in the meiotic male germline of Drosophila. The term 'meiotic sex chromosome inactivation' (MSCI therefore seems misleading when used to describe the minor underexpression of the X chromosome in the testis of Drosophila, because this term erroneously implies a profound and widespread silencing of the X-linked genes, by analogy to the well-studied MSCI system in mammals, and therefore distracts from identification and analysis of the real mechanisms that orchestrate gene expression and evolution in this species.

  1. Genetic architecture of autosome-mediated hybrid male sterility in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, I. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Several estimators have been developed for assesing the number of sterility factors in a chromosome based on the sizes of fertile and sterile introgressed fragments. Assuming that two factors are required for producing sterility, simulations show that one of these, twice the inverse of the relative size of the largest fertile fragment, provides good average approximations when as few as five fertile fragments are analyzed. The estimators have been used for deducing the number of factors from previous data on several pairs of species. A particular result contrasts with the authors` interpretations: instead of the high number of sterility factors suggested, only a few per autosome are estimated in both reciprocal crosses involving Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae. It has been possible to map these factors, between three and six per chromosome, in the autosomes 3 and 4 of these species. Out of 203 introgressions of different fragments or combinations of fragments, the outcome of at least 192 is explained by the mapped zones. These results suggest that autosome-mediated sterility in the male hybrids of these species is mediated by a few epistatic factors, similarly to X-mediated sterility in the hybrids of other Drosophila species. 48 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Simple Y-autosomal incompatibilities cause hybrid male sterility in reciprocal crosses between Drosophila virilis and D. americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L

    2010-03-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation evolves when hybrid incompatibilities accumulate between diverging populations. Here, I examine the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility between two species of Drosophila, Drosophila virilis and D. americana. From these analyses, I reach several conclusions. First, neither species carries any autosomal dominant hybrid male sterility alleles: reciprocal F(1) hybrid males are perfectly fertile. Second, later generation (backcross and F(2)) hybrid male sterility between D. virilis and D. americana is not polygenic. In fact, I identified only three genetically independent incompatibilities that cause hybrid male sterility. Remarkably, each of these incompatibilities involves the Y chromosome. In one direction of the cross, the D. americana Y is incompatible with recessive D. virilis alleles at loci on chromosomes 2 and 5. In the other direction, the D. virilis Y chromosome causes hybrid male sterility in combination with recessive D. americana alleles at a single QTL on chromosome 5. Finally, in contrast with findings from other Drosophila species pairs, the X chromosome has only a modest effect on hybrid male sterility between D. virilis and D. americana.

  3. Sexual response of male Drosophila to honey bee queen mandibular pheromone: implications for genetic studies of social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Justin R; Liu, Tom; Camiletti, Alison L; Simon, Anne F; Thompson, Graham J

    2017-02-01

    Honey bees secrete a queen mandibular pheromone that renders workers reproductively altruistic and drones sexually attentive. This sex-specific function of QMP may have evolved from a sexually dimorphic signaling mechanism derived from pre-social ancestors. If so, there is potential for pre-social insects to respond to QMP, and in a manner that is comparable to its normal effect on workers and drones. Remarkably, QMP applied to female Drosophila does induce worker-like qualities [Camiletti et al. (Entomol Exp Appl 147:262, 2013)], and we here extend this comparison to examine the effects of bee pheromone on male fruit flies. We find that male Drosophila melanogaster consistently orient towards a source of queen pheromone in a T-maze, suggesting a recruitment response comparable to the pheromone's normal effect on drones. Moreover, exposure to QMP renders male flies more sexually attentive; they display intensified pre-copulatory behavior towards conspecific females. We can inhibit this sexual effect through a loss-of-olfactory-function mutation, which suggests that the pheromone-responsive behavioral mechanism is olfactory-driven. These pheromone-induced changes to male Drosophila behavior suggest that aspects of sexual signaling are conserved between these two distantly related taxa. Our results highlight a role for Drosophila as a genetically tractable pre-social model for studies of social insect biology.

  4. The acylphosphatase (Acyp) alleles associate with male hybrid sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Pawel; Ma, Daina

    2008-06-15

    Hybrid defects are believed to result from genetic incompatibilities between genes that have evolved in separate parental lineages. These genetic dysfunctions on the hybrid genomic background, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, can be an incipient signature of speciation, and as such - a subject of active research. Here we present evidence that Acyp locus (CG16870) that encodes acylphosphatase, a small enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylphosphates and participates in ion transport across biological membranes, is involved in genetic incompatibilities leading to male sterility in hybrids between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana. There is a strong association between Acyp alleles (genotype) and the sterility/fertility pattern (phenotype), as well as between the phenotype, the genotype and its transcriptional activity. Allele-specific expression in hybrids heterozygous for Acyp suggests a cis-type regulation of this gene, where an allele from one of the parental species (D. simulans) is consistently overexpressed.

  5. Occlusal status in Asian male adults : Prevalence and ethnic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soh, J; Sandham, John; Chin, Yeen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal status in young Asian male adults of three ethnic groups. Study models of a sample of male army recruits (N = 339, age 1722 years) with no history of orthodontic treatment were assessed. The ethnic proportions of the sample were Chinese 76.1% (

  6. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Gorianovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age. The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval. The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males.

  7. Adult Heat Tolerance Variation in Drosophila melanogaster is Not Related to Hsp70 Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Toft; Cockerell, Fiona Elizabeth; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard;

    2010-01-01

    Expression of heat-inducible Hsp70 is considered closely linked to thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and other ectotherms. However, intra-specific variation of Hsp70 expression levels and its relationship to heat resistance has only been investigated in a few studies. Although...... in adult heat tolerance. Therefore, although Hsp70 expression is a major component of the cellular heat stress response, its influence on intra-specific heat tolerance variation may be life-stage specific. J. Exp. Zool. 313A:35-44, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc...... in Drosophila larvae Hsp70 expression may be a key determinant of heat tolerance, the evidence for this in adults is equivocal. We therefore examined heat-induced Hsp70 expression and several measurements of adult heat tolerance in three independent collections of D. melanogaster, measured in three laboratories...

  8. Re-evaluation of the function of the male specific lethal complex in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Birchler; Lin Sun; Harvey Fernandez; Ryan Donohue; Weiwu Xie; Abhijit Sanyal

    2011-01-01

    A set of proteins and noncoding RNAs,referred to as the male specific lethal (MSL) complex,is present on the male X chromosome in Drosophila and has been postulated to be responsible for dosage compensation of this chromosome - the up-regulation of its expression to be equal to that of two X chromosomes in females.This hypothesis is evaluated in view of lesser known aspects of dosage compensation such as the fact that metafemales with three X chromosomes also have equal expression to normal females,which would require a down-regulation of each gene copy.Moreover,when this complex is ectopically expressed in females or specifically targeted to a reporter in males,there is no increase in expression of the genes or targets with which it is associated.These observations are not consistent with the hypothesis that the MSL complex conditions dosage compensation.A synthesis is described that can account for these observations.

  9. Incomplete urethral duplication in an adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-09-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly with less than 200 cases reported. It predominantly occurs in males and is nearly always diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. It is defined as a complete second passage from the bladder to the dorsum of the penis or as an accessory pathway that ends blindly on the dorsal or ventral surface.

  10. From the back or front: the courtship position is a matter of smell and sight in Drosophila melanogaster males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ken-ichi; Sato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males usually position themselves behind the target female. To decipher the sensory cues that guide the males to the courting position, we quantitatively analyzed male locomotion traces within a circular observation chamber, at the center of which an immobilized virgin female was placed as a courtship target. Wild-type males preferentially stayed behind the female under not only daylight but also dark conditions, indicating that vision is dispensable for orientation by males. By contrast, olfaction-defective Or83b2 homozygous males often positioned themselves in front of a female to court under dark but not daylight conditions. We conclude that vision and olfaction redundantly guide the male fly to move behind the female to perform courtship actions. The visual and olfactory features that provide a male with cues for differentiating between the front and back end of a female are yet to be determined.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study on Male Genital Shape and Size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baku Takahara

    Full Text Available Male genital morphology of animals with internal fertilization and promiscuous mating systems have been one of the most diverse and rapidly evolving morphological traits. The male genital morphology in general is known to have low phenotypic and genetic variations, but the genetic basis of the male genital variation remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster and its closely related species are morphologically very similar, but the shapes of the posterior lobe, a cuticular projection on the male genital arch are distinct from each other, representing a model system for studying the genetic basis of male genital morphology. In this study, we used highly inbred whole genome sequenced strains of D. melanogaster to perform genome wide association analysis on posterior lobe morphology. We quantified the outline shape of posterior lobes with Fourier coefficients obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis and performed principal component analysis, and posterior lobe size. The first and second principal components (PC1 and PC2 explained approximately 88% of the total variation of the posterior lobe shape. We then examined the association between the principal component scores and posterior lobe size and 1902142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. As a result, we obtained 15, 14 and 15 SNPs for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size with P-values smaller than 10(-5. Based on the location of the SNPs, 13, 13 and six protein coding genes were identified as potential candidates for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size, respectively. In addition to the previous findings showing that the intraspecific posterior shape variation are regulated by multiple QTL with strong effects, the present study suggests that the intraspecific variation may be under polygenic regulation with a number of loci with small effects. Further studies are required for investigating whether these candidate genes are responsible for the intraspecific posterior lobe shape variation.

  12. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  13. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  14. Modification by chloramphenicol of diethyl sulphate-induced male recombination frequency in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, G S; Kaur, N P

    1995-06-01

    To study the effect of chloramphenicol (CPL, an inhibitor of protein synthesis) on diethyl sulphate (DES, a potent mutagen) induced male recombination frequency, the F1 (+/aristaless dumpy black cinnabar, al dp b cn) larvae of D. melanogaster were given a pre- or post-treatment of CPL with DES during the first or second half of larval life. In order to determine sensitivity of different germ cell stages to the induction and modification of male recombination frequency, five 3-day broods were taken from every F1 male. DES showed toxic effect on egg-to-adult development. DES was found to be a potent recombinogen. Several cases of non-reciprocal male recombination were recorded. The most frequent recombinant phenotype observed was b cn followed by cn and al. Majority of the recombinants appeared in clusters suggesting their pre-meiotic origin. DES produced male recombination at a stage where only primary spermatocytes were present in the larval testes. CPL when given as a pre- or post-treatment with DES revealed highest frequency of male recombination in broods that represented effect of treatment on spermatogonia predominantly. CPL enhanced the overall level of male recombination produced by DES in both pre- and post-treatments. The results suggested the role of protein synthesis in induction of male recombination in D. melanogaster. In addition, the present experiments give a methodology of enhancing the frequency of chemically-induced male recombination.

  15. Conserved mechanisms of tumorigenesis in the Drosophila adult midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Òscar Martorell

    Full Text Available Whereas the series of genetic events leading to colorectal cancer (CRC have been well established, the precise functions that these alterations play in tumor progression and how they disrupt intestinal homeostasis remain poorly characterized. Activation of the Wnt/Wg signaling pathway by a mutation in the gene APC is the most common trigger for CRC, inducing benign lesions that progress to carcinomas due to the accumulation of other genetic alterations. Among those, Ras mutations drive tumour progression in CRC, as well as in most epithelial cancers. As mammalian and Drosophila's intestines share many similarities, we decided to explore the alterations induced in the Drosophila midgut by the combined activation of the Wnt signaling pathway with gain of function of Ras signaling in the intestinal stem cells. Here we show that compound Apc-Ras clones, but not clones bearing the individual mutations, expand as aggressive intestinal tumor-like outgrowths. These lesions reproduce many of the human CRC hallmarks such as increased proliferation, blockade of cell differentiation and cell polarity and disrupted organ architecture. This process is followed by expression of tumoral markers present in human lesions. Finally, a metabolic behavioral assay shows that these flies suffer a progressive deterioration in intestinal homeostasis, providing a simple readout that could be used in screens for tumor modifiers or therapeutic compounds. Taken together, our results illustrate the conservation of the mechanisms of CRC tumorigenesis in Drosophila, providing an excellent model system to unravel the events that, upon mutation in Apc and Ras, lead to CRC initiation and progression.

  16. Continued neurogenesis in adult Drosophila as a mechanism for recruiting environmental cue-dependent variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Ben Rokia-Mille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The skills used by winged insects to explore their environment are strongly dependent upon the integration of neurosensory information comprising visual, acoustic and olfactory signals. The neuronal architecture of the wing contains a vast array of different sensors which might convey information to the brain in order to guide the trajectories during flight. In Drosophila, the wing sensory cells are either chemoreceptors or mechanoreceptors and some of these sensors have as yet unknown functions. The axons of these two functionally distinct types of neurons are entangled, generating a single nerve. This simple and accessible coincidental signaling circuitry in Drosophila constitutes an excellent model system to investigate the developmental variability in relation to natural behavioral polymorphisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A fluorescent marker was generated in neurons at all stages of the Drosophila life cycle using a highly efficient and controlled genetic recombination system that can be induced in dividing precursor cells (MARCM system, flybase web site. It allows fluorescent signals in axons only when the neuroblasts and/or neuronal cell precursors like SOP (sensory organ precursors undergo division during the precedent steps. We first show that a robust neurogenesis continues in the wing after the adults emerge from the pupae followed by an extensive axonal growth. Arguments are presented to suggest that this wing neurogenesis in the newborn adult flies was influenced by genetic determinants such as the frequency dependent for gene and by environmental cues such as population density. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the neuronal architecture in the adult Drosophila wing is unfinished when the flies emerge from their pupae. This unexpected developmental step might be crucial for generating non-heritable variants and phenotypic plasticity. This might therefore constitute an advantage in an unstable ecological system and

  17. Chk2 and p53 regulate the transmission of healed chromosomes in the Drosophila male germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titen, Simon W A; Lin, Ho-Chen; Bhandari, Jayaram; Golic, Kent G

    2014-02-01

    When a dicentric chromosome breaks in mitosis, the broken ends cannot be repaired by normal mechanisms that join two broken ends since each end is in a separate daughter cell. However, in the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a broken end may be healed by de novo telomere addition. We find that Chk2 (encoded by lok) and P53, major mediators of the DNA damage response, have strong and opposite influences on the transmission of broken-and-healed chromosomes: lok mutants exhibit a large increase in the recovery of healed chromosomes relative to wildtype control males, but p53 mutants show a strong reduction. This contrasts with the soma, where mutations in lok and p53 have the nearly identical effect of allowing survival and proliferation of cells with irreparable DNA damage. Examination of testes revealed a transient depletion of germline cells after dicentric chromosome induction in the wildtype controls, and further showed that P53 is required for the germline to recover. Although lok mutant males transmit healed chromosomes at a high rate, broken chromosome ends can also persist through spermatogonial divisions without healing in lok mutants, giving rise to frequent dicentric bridges in Meiosis II. Cytological and genetic analyses show that spermatid nuclei derived from such meiotic divisions are eliminated during spermiogenesis, resulting in strong meiotic drive. We conclude that the primary responsibility for maintaining genome integrity in the male germline lies with Chk2, and that P53 is required to reconstitute the germline when cells are eliminated owing to unrepaired DNA damage.

  18. Chk2 and p53 regulate the transmission of healed chromosomes in the Drosophila male germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon W A Titen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When a dicentric chromosome breaks in mitosis, the broken ends cannot be repaired by normal mechanisms that join two broken ends since each end is in a separate daughter cell. However, in the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a broken end may be healed by de novo telomere addition. We find that Chk2 (encoded by lok and P53, major mediators of the DNA damage response, have strong and opposite influences on the transmission of broken-and-healed chromosomes: lok mutants exhibit a large increase in the recovery of healed chromosomes relative to wildtype control males, but p53 mutants show a strong reduction. This contrasts with the soma, where mutations in lok and p53 have the nearly identical effect of allowing survival and proliferation of cells with irreparable DNA damage. Examination of testes revealed a transient depletion of germline cells after dicentric chromosome induction in the wildtype controls, and further showed that P53 is required for the germline to recover. Although lok mutant males transmit healed chromosomes at a high rate, broken chromosome ends can also persist through spermatogonial divisions without healing in lok mutants, giving rise to frequent dicentric bridges in Meiosis II. Cytological and genetic analyses show that spermatid nuclei derived from such meiotic divisions are eliminated during spermiogenesis, resulting in strong meiotic drive. We conclude that the primary responsibility for maintaining genome integrity in the male germline lies with Chk2, and that P53 is required to reconstitute the germline when cells are eliminated owing to unrepaired DNA damage.

  19. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Bennett, Sarah M; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-10-27

    The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  20. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey S Chang

    Full Text Available The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  1. Genetic architecture of male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Nitin

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation between recently diverged species is a central problem in evolutionary genetics. Here, I present analyses of the genetic architecture underlying hybrid male sterility and segregation distortion between the Bogota and USA subspecies of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previously, a single gene, Overdrive (Ovd), was shown to be necessary but not sufficient for both male sterility and segregation distortion in F(1) hybrids between these subspecies, requiring several interacting partner loci for full manifestation of hybrid phenomena. I map these partner loci separately on the Bogota X chromosome and USA autosomes using a combination of different mapping strategies. I find that hybrid sterility involves a single hybrid incompatibility of at least seven interacting partner genes that includes three large-effect loci. Segregation distortion involves three loci on the Bogota X chromosome and one locus on the autosomes. The genetic bases of hybrid sterility and segregation distortion are at least partially--but not completely--overlapping. My results lay the foundation for fine-mapping experiments to identify the complete set of genes that interact with Overdrive. While individual genes that cause hybrid sterility or inviability have been identified in a few cases, my analysis provides a comprehensive look at the genetic architecture of all components of a hybrid incompatibility underlying F(1) hybrid sterility. Such an analysis would likely be unfeasible for most species pairs due to their divergence time and emphasizes the importance of young species pairs such as the D. pseudoobscura subspecies studied here.

  2. Neurons That Underlie Drosophila melanogaster Reproductive Behaviors: Detection of a Large Male-Bias in Gene Expression in fruitless-Expressing Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R. Newell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1 underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2–5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons, allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay. We find four times more male-biased than female-biased genes in TRAP mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons. This suggests a potential mechanism to generate dimorphism in behavior. The male-biased genes may direct male behaviors by establishing cell fate in a similar context of gene expression observed in females. These results suggest a possible global mechanism for how distinct behaviors can arise from a shared set of neurons.

  3. Affecting Rhomboid-3 function causes a dilated heart in adult Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila is a well recognized model of several human diseases, and recent investigations have demonstrated that Drosophila can be used as a model of human heart failure. Previously, we described that optical coherence tomography (OCT can be used to rapidly examine the cardiac function in adult, awake flies. This technique provides images that are similar to echocardiography in humans, and therefore we postulated that this approach could be combined with the vast resources that are available in the fly community to identify new mutants that have abnormal heart function, a hallmark of certain cardiovascular diseases. Using OCT to examine the cardiac function in adult Drosophila from a set of molecularly-defined genomic deficiencies from the DrosDel and Exelixis collections, we identified an abnormally enlarged cardiac chamber in a series of deficiency mutants spanning the rhomboid 3 locus. Rhomboid 3 is a member of a highly conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases and processes Spitz, an epidermal growth factor (EGF-like ligand. Using multiple approaches based on the examination of deficiency stocks, a series of mutants in the rhomboid-Spitz-EGF receptor pathway, and cardiac-specific transgenic rescue or dominant-negative repression of EGFR, we demonstrate that rhomboid 3 mediated activation of the EGF receptor pathway is necessary for proper adult cardiac function. The importance of EGF receptor signaling in the adult Drosophila heart underscores the concept that evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms are required to maintain normal myocardial function. Interestingly, prior work showing the inhibition of ErbB2, a member of the EGF receptor family, in transgenic knock-out mice or individuals that received herceptin chemotherapy is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our results, in conjunction with the demonstration that altered ErbB2 signaling underlies certain forms of mammalian cardiomyopathy, suggest

  4. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  5. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michael W; Griffith, Leslie C; Vecsey, Christopher G

    2014-08-11

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  6. Drosophila pheromone-sensing neurons expressing the ppk25 ion channel subunit stimulate male courtship and female receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vinoy; Thistle, Rob; Liu, Tong; Starostina, Elena; Pikielny, Claudio W

    2014-03-01

    As in many species, gustatory pheromones regulate the mating behavior of Drosophila. Recently, several ppk genes, encoding ion channel subunits of the DEG/ENaC family, have been implicated in this process, leading to the identification of gustatory neurons that detect specific pheromones. In a subset of taste hairs on the legs of Drosophila, there are two ppk23-expressing, pheromone-sensing neurons with complementary response profiles; one neuron detects female pheromones that stimulate male courtship, the other detects male pheromones that inhibit male-male courtship. In contrast to ppk23, ppk25, is only expressed in a single gustatory neuron per taste hair, and males with impaired ppk25 function court females at reduced rates but do not display abnormal courtship of other males. These findings raised the possibility that ppk25 expression defines a subset of pheromone-sensing neurons. Here we show that ppk25 is expressed and functions in neurons that detect female-specific pheromones and mediates their stimulatory effect on male courtship. Furthermore, the role of ppk25 and ppk25-expressing neurons is not restricted to responses to female-specific pheromones. ppk25 is also required in the same subset of neurons for stimulation of male courtship by young males, males of the Tai2 strain, and by synthetic 7-pentacosene (7-P), a hydrocarbon normally found at low levels in both males and females. Finally, we unexpectedly find that, in females, ppk25 and ppk25-expressing cells regulate receptivity to mating. In the absence of the third antennal segment, which has both olfactory and auditory functions, mutations in ppk25 or silencing of ppk25-expressing neurons block female receptivity to males. Together these results indicate that ppk25 identifies a functionally specialized subset of pheromone-sensing neurons. While ppk25 neurons are required for the responses to multiple pheromones, in both males and females these neurons are specifically involved in stimulating

  7. Active and passive sexual roles that arise in Drosophila male-male courtship are modulated by dopamine levels in PPL2ab neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiu-Ling; Chen, Yu-Hui; Wang, Chuan-Chan; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Chia-Lin; Wang, Pei-Yu; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of male courtship sustainment in Drosophila. Here we report that changes in the ability of the PPL2ab in the central nervous system (CNS) to produce DA strongly impact male-male courtship in D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, the DA-synthesizing abilities of these neurons appear to affect both the courting activities displayed by male flies and the sex appeal of male flies for other male flies. Moreover, the observed male-male courtship is triggered primarily by target motion, yet chemical cues can replace visual input under dark conditions. This is interesting evidence that courtship responses in male individuals are controlled by PPL2ab neurons in the CNS. Our study provides insight for subsequent studies focusing on sexual circuit modulation by PPL2ab neurons. PMID:28294190

  8. Natural variation in the strength and direction of male mating preferences for female pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Shahandeh, Michael P; Cochrane, Wesley G; Cochrane, Veronica A; Turner, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Many animal species communicate using chemical signals. In Drosophila, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are involved in species and sexual identification, and have long been thought to act as stimulatory pheromones as well. However, a previous study reported that D. melanogaster males were more attracted to females that were lacking CHCs. This surprising result is consistent with several evolutionary hypotheses but is at odds with other work demonstrating that female CHCs are attractive to males. Here, we investigated natural variation in male preferences for female pheromones using transgenic flies that cannot produce CHCs. By perfuming females with CHCs and performing mate choice tests, we found that some male genotypes prefer females with pheromones, some have no apparent preference, and at least one male genotype prefers females without pheromones. This variation provides an excellent opportunity to further investigate the mechanistic causes and evolutionary implications of divergent pheromone preferences in D. melanogaster males.

  9. Sex Chromosome-wide Transcriptional Suppression and Compensatory Cis-Regulatory Evolution Mediate Gene Expression in the Drosophila Male Germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Landeen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has repeatedly resulted in the evolution of sex chromosome-specific forms of regulation, including sex chromosome dosage compensation in the soma and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the germline. In the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a novel but poorly understood form of sex chromosome-specific transcriptional regulation occurs that is distinct from canonical sex chromosome dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Previous work shows that expression of reporter genes driven by testis-specific promoters is considerably lower-approximately 3-fold or more-for transgenes inserted into X chromosome versus autosome locations. Here we characterize this transcriptional suppression of X-linked genes in the male germline and its evolutionary consequences. Using transgenes and transpositions, we show that most endogenous X-linked genes, not just testis-specific ones, are transcriptionally suppressed several-fold specifically in the Drosophila male germline. In wild-type testes, this sex chromosome-wide transcriptional suppression is generally undetectable, being effectively compensated by the gene-by-gene evolutionary recruitment of strong promoters on the X chromosome. We identify and experimentally validate a promoter element sequence motif that is enriched upstream of the transcription start sites of hundreds of testis-expressed genes; evolutionarily conserved across species; associated with strong gene expression levels in testes; and overrepresented on the X chromosome. These findings show that the expression of X-linked genes in the Drosophila testes reflects a balance between chromosome-wide epigenetic transcriptional suppression and long-term compensatory adaptation by sex-linked genes. Our results have broad implications for the evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila male germline and for genome evolution.

  10. Sex Chromosome-wide Transcriptional Suppression and Compensatory Cis-Regulatory Evolution Mediate Gene Expression in the Drosophila Male Germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeen, Emily L; Muirhead, Christina A; Wright, Lori; Meiklejohn, Colin D; Presgraves, Daven C

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has repeatedly resulted in the evolution of sex chromosome-specific forms of regulation, including sex chromosome dosage compensation in the soma and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the germline. In the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a novel but poorly understood form of sex chromosome-specific transcriptional regulation occurs that is distinct from canonical sex chromosome dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Previous work shows that expression of reporter genes driven by testis-specific promoters is considerably lower-approximately 3-fold or more-for transgenes inserted into X chromosome versus autosome locations. Here we characterize this transcriptional suppression of X-linked genes in the male germline and its evolutionary consequences. Using transgenes and transpositions, we show that most endogenous X-linked genes, not just testis-specific ones, are transcriptionally suppressed several-fold specifically in the Drosophila male germline. In wild-type testes, this sex chromosome-wide transcriptional suppression is generally undetectable, being effectively compensated by the gene-by-gene evolutionary recruitment of strong promoters on the X chromosome. We identify and experimentally validate a promoter element sequence motif that is enriched upstream of the transcription start sites of hundreds of testis-expressed genes; evolutionarily conserved across species; associated with strong gene expression levels in testes; and overrepresented on the X chromosome. These findings show that the expression of X-linked genes in the Drosophila testes reflects a balance between chromosome-wide epigenetic transcriptional suppression and long-term compensatory adaptation by sex-linked genes. Our results have broad implications for the evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila male germline and for genome evolution.

  11. Genetics of hybrid male sterility among strains and species in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2011-07-01

    Taxa in the early stages of speciation may bear intraspecific allelic variation at loci conferring barrier traits in hybrids such as hybrid sterility. Additionally, hybridization may spread alleles that confer barrier traits to other taxa. Historically, few studies examine within- and between-species variation at loci conferring reproductive isolation. Here, we test for allelic variation within Drosophila persimilis and within the Bogota subspecies of D. pseudoobscura at regions previously shown to contribute to hybrid male sterility. We also test whether D. persimilis and the USA subspecies of D. pseudoobscura share an allele conferring hybrid sterility in a D. pseudoobscura bogotana genetic background. All loci conferred similar hybrid sterility effects across all strains studied, although we detected some statistically significant quantitative effect variation among D. persimilis alleles of some hybrid incompatibility QTLs. We also detected allelism between D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA at a second chromosome hybrid sterility QTL. We hypothesize that either the QTL is ancestral in D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA and lost in D. pseudoobscura bogotana, or gene flow transferred the QTL from D. persimilis to D. pseudoobscura USA. We discuss our findings in the context of population features that may contribute to variation in hybrid incompatibilities.

  12. Epistasis modifies the dominance of loci causing hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-01-01

    Speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations, serves as the driving force for generating biodiversity. Postzygotic barriers to gene flow, such as F(1) hybrid sterility and inviability, play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of biological species. F(1) hybrid incompatibilities in taxa that obey Haldane's rule, the observation that the heterogametic sex suffers greater hybrid fitness problems than the homogametic sex, are thought to often result from interactions between recessive-acting X-linked loci and dominant-acting autosomal loci. Because they play such prominent roles in producing hybrid incompatibilities, we examine the dominance and nature of epistasis between alleles derived from Drosophila persimilis that confer hybrid male sterility in the genetic background of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura bogotana. We show that epistasis elevates the apparent dominance of individually recessive-acting QTL such that they can contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility. These results have important implications for assumptions underlying theoretical models of hybrid incompatibilities and may offer a possible explanation for why, to date, identification of dominant-acting autosomal "speciation genes" has been challenging.

  13. Short and long-lasting behavioral consequences of agonistic encounters between male Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Séverine; Penn, Jill; Lucey, Kenia; Popovic, David; Kravitz, Edward A

    2016-04-26

    In many animal species, learning and memory have been found to play important roles in regulating intra- and interspecific behavioral interactions in varying environments. In such contexts, aggression is commonly used to obtain desired resources. Previous defeats or victories during aggressive interactions have been shown to influence the outcome of later contests, revealing loser and winner effects. In this study, we asked whether short- and/or long-term behavioral consequences accompany victories and defeats in dyadic pairings between male Drosophila melanogaster and how long those effects remain. The results demonstrated that single fights induced important behavioral changes in both combatants and resulted in the formation of short-term loser and winner effects. These decayed over several hours, with the duration depending on the level of familiarity of the opponents. Repeated defeats induced a long-lasting loser effect that was dependent on de novo protein synthesis, whereas repeated victories had no long-term behavioral consequences. This suggests that separate mechanisms govern the formation of loser and winner effects. These studies aim to lay a foundation for future investigations exploring the molecular mechanisms and circuitry underlying the nervous system changes induced by winning and losing bouts during agonistic encounters.

  14. Food odors trigger Drosophila males to deposit a pheromone that guides aggregation and female oviposition decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Preti, George; Potter, Christopher J

    2015-09-30

    Animals use olfactory cues for navigating complex environments. Food odors in particular provide crucial information regarding potential foraging sites. Many behaviors occur at food sites, yet how food odors regulate such behaviors at these sites is unclear. Using Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model, we found that males deposit the pheromone 9-tricosene upon stimulation with the food-odor apple cider vinegar. This pheromone acts as a potent aggregation pheromone and as an oviposition guidance cue for females. We use genetic, molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches to show that 9-tricosene activates antennal basiconic Or7a receptors, a receptor activated by many alcohols and aldehydes such as the green leaf volatile E2-hexenal. We demonstrate that loss of Or7a positive neurons or the Or7a receptor abolishes aggregation behavior and oviposition site-selection towards 9-tricosene and E2-hexenal. 9-Tricosene thus functions via Or7a to link food-odor perception with aggregation and egg-laying decisions.

  15. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  16. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  17. A screen for F1 hybrid male rescue reveals no major-effect hybrid lethality loci in the Drosophila melanogaster autosomal genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Satyaki, P; Ji, Shuqing; Clay, Derek M; Edelman, Nathaniel B; Kimchy, Alexandra; Li, Ling-Hei; Nuzzo, Erin A; Parekh, Neil; Park, Suna; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-10-27

    Hybrid sons between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die as 3rd instar larvae. Two genes, D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) on the X chromosome, and D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) on chromosome II, interact to cause this lethality. Loss-of-function mutations in either gene suppress lethality, but several pieces of evidence suggest that additional factors are required for hybrid lethality. Here we screen the D. melanogaster autosomal genome by using the Bloomington Stock Center Deficiency kit to search for additional regions that can rescue hybrid male lethality. Our screen is designed to identify putative hybrid incompatibility (HI) genes similar to Hmr and Lhr which, when removed, are dominant suppressors of lethality. After screening 89% of the autosomal genome, we found no regions that rescue males to the adult stage. We did, however, identify several regions that rescue up to 13% of males to the pharate adult stage. This weak rescue suggests the presence of multiple minor-effect HI loci, but we were unable to map these loci to high resolution, presumably because weak rescue can be masked by genetic background effects. We attempted to test one candidate, the dosage compensation gene male specific lethal-3 (msl-3), by using RNA interference with short hairpin microRNA constructs targeted specifically against D. simulans msl-3 but failed to achieve knockdown, in part due to off-target effects. We conclude that the D. melanogaster autosomal genome likely does not contain additional major-effect HI loci. We also show that Hmr is insufficient to fully account for the lethality associated with the D. melanogaster X chromosome, suggesting that additional X-linked genes contribute to hybrid lethality.

  18. The development of adult abdominal muscles in Drosophila: myoblasts express twist and are associated with nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, D A; Bate, M

    1991-09-01

    During metamorphosis, the adult muscles of the Drosophila abdomen develop from pools of myoblasts that are present in the larva. The adult myoblasts express twist in the third larval instar and the early pupa and are closely associated with nerves. Growing adult nerves and the twist-expressing cells migrate out across the developing abdominal epidermis, and as twist expression declines, the myoblasts begin to synthesize beta 3 tubulin. There follows a process involving cell fusion and segregation into cell groups to form multinucleate muscle precursors. These bipolar precursors migrate at both ends to find their correct attachment points. beta 3 tubulin expression continues at least until 51 h APF by which time the adult muscle pattern has been established.

  19. A model-based analysis of chemical and temporal patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons in male Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Kent

    Full Text Available Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons (CH influence courtship behaviour, mating, aggregation, oviposition, and resistance to desiccation. We measured levels of 24 different CH compounds of individual male D. melanogaster hourly under a variety of environmental (LD/DD conditions. Using a model-based analysis of CH variation, we developed an improved normalization method for CH data, and show that CH compounds have reproducible cyclic within-day temporal patterns of expression which differ between LD and DD conditions. Multivariate clustering of expression patterns identified 5 clusters of co-expressed compounds with common chemical characteristics. Turnover rate estimates suggest CH production may be a significant metabolic cost. Male cuticular hydrocarbon expression is a dynamic trait influenced by light and time of day; since abundant hydrocarbons affect male sexual behavior, males may present different pheromonal profiles at different times and under different conditions.

  20. Identification of a novel Drosophila gene, beltless, using injectable embryonic and adult RNA interference (RNAi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Hari

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a process triggered by a double-stranded RNA that leads to targeted down-regulation/silencing of gene expression and can be used for functional genomics; i.e. loss-of-function studies. Here we report on the use of RNAi in the identification of a developmentally important novel Drosophila (fruit fly gene (corresponding to a putative gene CG5652/GM06434, that we named beltless based on an embryonic loss-of-function phenotype. Results Beltless mRNA is expressed in all developmental stages except in 0–6 h embryos. In situ RT-PCR localized beltless mRNA in the ventral cord and brain of late stage embryos and in the nervous system, ovaries, and the accessory glands of adult flies. RNAi was induced by injection of short (22 bp beltless double-stranded RNAs into embryos or into adult flies. Embryonic RNAi altered cuticular phenotypes ranging from partially-formed to missing denticle belts (thus beltless of the abdominal segments A2–A4. Embryonic beltless RNAi was lethal. Adult RNAi resulted in the shrinkage of the ovaries by half and reduced the number of eggs laid. We also examined Df(1RK4 flies in which deletion removes 16 genes, including beltless. In some embryos, we observed cuticular abnormalities similar to our findings with beltless RNAi. After differentiating Df(1RK4 embryos into those with visible denticle belts and those missing denticle belts, we assayed the presence of beltless mRNA; no beltless mRNA was detectable in embryos with missing denticle belts. Conclusions We have identified a developmentally important novel Drosophila gene, beltless, which has been characterized in loss-of-function studies using RNA interference. The putative beltless protein shares homologies with the C. elegans nose resistant to fluoxetine (NRF NRF-6 gene, as well as with several uncharacterized C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster genes, some with prominent acyltransferase domains. Future studies should

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  4. Dynamics of glutamatergic signaling in the mushroom body of young adult Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau Yves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mushroom bodies (MBs are paired brain centers located in the insect protocerebrum involved in olfactory learning and memory and other associative functions. Processes from the Kenyon cells (KCs, their intrinsic neurons, form the bulk of the MB's calyx, pedunculus and lobes. In young adult Drosophila, the last-born KCs extend their processes in the α/β lobes as a thin core (α/β cores that is embedded in the surrounding matrix of other mature KC processes. A high level of L-glutamate (Glu immunoreactivity is present in the α/β cores (α/βc of recently eclosed adult flies. In a Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome, the main cause of inherited mental retardation, treatment with metabotropic Glu receptor (mGluR antagonists can rescue memory deficits and MB structural defects. Results To address the role of Glu signaling in the development and maturation of the MB, we have compared the time course of Glu immunoreactivity with the expression of various glutamatergic markers at various times, that is, 1 hour, 1 day and 10 days after adult eclosion. We observed that last-born α/βc KCs in young adult as well as developing KCs in late larva and at various pupal stages transiently express high level of Glu immunoreactivity in Drosophila. One day after eclosion, the Glu level was already markedly reduced in the α/βc neurons. Glial cell processes expressing glutamine synthetase and the Glu transporter dEAAT1 were found to surround the Glu-expressing KCs in very young adults, subsequently enwrapping the α/β lobes to become distributed equally over the entire MB neuropil. The vesicular Glu transporter DVGluT was detected by immunostaining in processes that project within the MB lobes and pedunculus, but this transporter is apparently never expressed by the KCs themselves. The NMDA receptor subunit dNR1 is widely expressed in the MB neuropil just after eclosion, but was not detected in the α/βc neurons. In contrast, we

  5. Condensin II resolves chromosomal associations to enable anaphase I segregation in Drosophila male meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A Hartl

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Several meiotic processes ensure faithful chromosome segregation to create haploid gametes. Errors to any one of these processes can lead to zygotic aneuploidy with the potential for developmental abnormalities. During prophase I of Drosophila male meiosis, each bivalent condenses and becomes sequestered into discrete chromosome territories. Here, we demonstrate that two predicted condensin II subunits, Cap-H2 and Cap-D3, are required to promote territory formation. In mutants of either subunit, territory formation fails and chromatin is dispersed throughout the nucleus. Anaphase I is also abnormal in Cap-H2 mutants as chromatin bridges are found between segregating heterologous and homologous chromosomes. Aneuploid sperm may be generated from these defects as they occur at an elevated frequency and are genotypically consistent with anaphase I segregation defects. We propose that condensin II-mediated prophase I territory formation prevents and/or resolves heterologous chromosomal associations to alleviate their potential interference in anaphase I segregation. Furthermore, condensin II-catalyzed prophase I chromosome condensation may be necessary to resolve associations between paired homologous chromosomes of each bivalent. These persistent chromosome associations likely consist of DNA entanglements, but may be more specific as anaphase I bridging was rescued by mutations in the homolog conjunction factor teflon. We propose that the consequence of condensin II mutations is a failure to resolve heterologous and homologous associations mediated by entangled DNA and/or homolog conjunction factors. Furthermore, persistence of homologous and heterologous interchromosomal associations lead to anaphase I chromatin bridging and the generation of aneuploid gametes.

  6. Aging and Autophagic Function Influences the Progressive Decline of Adult Drosophila Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Ratliff

    Full Text Available Multiple neurological disorders are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of protein aggregates and the progressive impairment of complex behaviors. Our Drosophila studies demonstrate that middle-aged wild-type flies (WT, ~4-weeks exhibit a marked accumulation of neural aggregates that is commensurate with the decline of the autophagy pathway. However, enhancing autophagy via neuronal over-expression of Atg8a (Atg8a-OE reduces the age-dependent accumulation of aggregates. Here we assess basal locomotor activity profiles for single- and group-housed male and female WT flies and observed that only modest behavioral changes occurred by 4-weeks of age, with the noted exception of group-housed male flies. Male flies in same-sex social groups exhibit a progressive increase in nighttime activity. Infrared videos show aged group-housed males (4-weeks are engaged in extensive bouts of courtship during periods of darkness, which is partly repressed during lighted conditions. Together, these nighttime courtship behaviors were nearly absent in young WT flies and aged Atg8a-OE flies. Previous studies have indicated a regulatory role for olfaction in male courtship partner choice. Coincidently, the mRNA expression profiles of several olfactory genes decline with age in WT flies; however, they are maintained in age-matched Atg8a-OE flies. Together, these results suggest that middle-aged male flies develop impairments in olfaction, which could contribute to the dysregulation of courtship behaviors during dark time periods. Combined, our results demonstrate that as Drosophila age, they develop early behavior defects that are coordinate with protein aggregate accumulation in the nervous system. In addition, the nighttime activity behavior is preserved when neuronal autophagy is maintained (Atg8a-OE flies. Thus, environmental or genetic factors that modify autophagic capacity could have a positive impact on neuronal aging and complex behaviors.

  7. Sequoia regulates cell fate decisions in the external sensory organs of adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hillary K; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Yamamoto, Shinya; Schulze, Karen L; Bellen, Hugo J

    2009-06-01

    The adult Drosophila external sensory organ (ESO), comprising the hair, socket, neuron, sheath and glia cells, arises through the asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs). In a mosaic screen designed to identify new components in ESO development, we isolated mutations in sequoia, which encodes a putative zinc-finger transcription factor that has previously been shown to have a role in dendritogenesis. Here, we show that adult clones mutant for seq exhibit a loss of hair cells and a gain of socket cells. We propose that the seq mutant phenotype arises, in part, owing to the loss of several crucial transcription factors known to be important in peripheral nervous system development such as D-Pax2, Prospero and Hamlet. Thus, Sequoia is a new upstream regulator of genes that orchestrates cell fate specification during development of the adult ESO lineage.

  8. In Situ Labeling of Mitochondrial DNA Replication in Drosophila Adult Ovaries by EdU Staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-15

    The mitochondrial genome is inherited exclusively through the maternal line. Understanding of how the mitochondrion and its genome are proliferated and transmitted from one generation to the next through the female oocyte is of fundamental importance. Because of the genetic tractability, and the elegant, ordered simplicity by which oocyte development proceeds, Drosophila oogenesis has become an invaluable system for mitochondrial study. An EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) labeling method was utilized to detect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication in Drosophila ovaries. This method is superior to the BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) labeling method in that it allows for good structural preservation and efficient fluorescent dye penetration of whole-mount tissues. Here we describe a detailed protocol for labeling replicating mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila adult ovaries with EdU. Some technical solutions are offered to improve the viability of the ovaries, maintain their health during preparation, and ensure high-quality imaging. Visualization of newly synthesized mtDNA in the ovaries not only reveals the striking temporal and spatial pattern of mtDNA replication through oogenesis, but also allows for simple quantification of mtDNA replication under various genetic and pharmacological perturbations.

  9. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  10. Giant Primary Mature Retroperitoneal Teratomain in Adult Male Patient

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ebrahimian; D. Tasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Teratomas are congenital tumors consisting of derivatives from the ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm germ cell layers. A teratoma is considered to be a non-seminomatous germ cell tumor and is typically located in either the sacrococcygeal region or in the gonads. Giant retroperitoneal teratomas in adults are even rarer, with only a few cases previously described in the literature. Case report: A 35-year-old male patient with severe nausea and vomiting was taken to the emergency wa...

  11. Epigenetics and sex-specific fitness: an experimental test using male-limited evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Abbott

    Full Text Available When males and females have different fitness optima for the same trait but share loci, intralocus sexual conflict is likely to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms such as genomic imprinting (in which expression is altered according to parent-of-origin and sex-specific maternal effects have been suggested as ways by which this conflict can be resolved. However these ideas have not yet been empirically tested. We designed an experimental evolution protocol in Drosophila melanogaster that enabled us to look for epigenetic effects on the X-chromosome-a hotspot for sexually antagonistic loci. We used special compound-X females to enforce father-to-son transmission of the X-chromosome for many generations, and compared fitness and gene expression levels between Control males, males with a Control X-chromosome that had undergone one generation of father-son transmission, and males with an X-chromosome that had undergone many generations of father-son transmission. Fitness differences were dramatic, with experimentally-evolved males approximately 20% greater than controls, and with males inheriting a non-evolved X from their father about 20% lower than controls. These data are consistent with both strong intralocus sexual conflict and misimprinting of the X-chromosome under paternal inheritance. However, expression differences suggested that reduced fitness under paternal X inheritance was largely due to deleterious maternal effects. Our data confirm the sexually-antagonistic nature of Drosophila's X-chromosome and suggest that the response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution entails compensatory evolution for maternal effects, and perhaps modification of other epigenetic effects via coevolution of the sex chromosomes.

  12. Drosophila Yemanuclein and HIRA cooperate for de novo assembly of H3.3-containing nucleosomes in the male pronucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A Orsi

    Full Text Available The differentiation of post-meiotic spermatids in animals is characterized by a unique reorganization of their nuclear architecture and chromatin composition. In many species, the formation of sperm nuclei involves the massive replacement of nucleosomes with protamines, followed by a phase of extreme nuclear compaction. At fertilization, the reconstitution of a nucleosome-based paternal chromatin after the removal of protamines requires the deposition of maternally provided histones before the first round of DNA replication. This process exclusively uses the histone H3 variant H3.3 and constitutes a unique case of genome-wide replication-independent (RI de novo chromatin assembly. We had previously shown that the histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA plays a central role for paternal chromatin assembly in Drosophila. Although several conserved HIRA-interacting proteins have been identified from yeast to human, their conservation in Drosophila, as well as their actual implication in this highly peculiar RI nucleosome assembly process, is an open question. Here, we show that Yemanuclein (YEM, the Drosophila member of the Hpc2/Ubinuclein family, is essential for histone deposition in the male pronucleus. yem loss of function alleles affect male pronucleus formation in a way remarkably similar to Hira mutants and abolish RI paternal chromatin assembly. In addition, we demonstrate that HIRA and YEM proteins interact and are mutually dependent for their targeting to the decondensing male pronucleus. Finally, we show that the alternative ATRX/XNP-dependent H3.3 deposition pathway is not involved in paternal chromatin assembly, thus underlining the specific implication of the HIRA/YEM complex for this essential step of zygote formation.

  13. The adult abdominal neuromuscular junction of Drosophila: a model for synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Sarita; Hall, Rachel E; Demski, Sarah A; Subramanian, Aswati; Fernandes, Joyce J

    2006-09-01

    During its life cycle, Drosophila makes two sets of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), embryonic/larval and adult, which serve distinct stage-specific functions. During metamorphosis, the larval NMJs are restructured to give rise to their adult counterparts, a process that is integrated into the overall remodeling of the nervous system. The NMJs of the prothoracic muscles and the mesothoracic dorsal longitudinal (flight) muscles have been previously described. Given the diversity and complexity of adult muscle groups, we set out to examine the less complex abdominal muscles. The large bouton sizes of these NMJs are particularly advantageous for easy visualization. Specifically, we have characterized morphological attributes of the ventral abdominal NMJ and show that an embryonic motor neuron identity gene, dHb9, is expressed at these adult junctions. We quantified bouton numbers and size and examined the localization of synaptic markers. We have also examined the formation of boutons during metamorphosis and examined the localization of presynaptic markers at these stages. To test the usefulness of the ventral abdominal NMJs as a model system, we characterized the effects of altering electrical activity and the levels of the cell adhesion molecule, FasciclinII (FasII). We show that both manipulations affect NMJ formation and that the effects are specific as they can be rescued genetically. Our results indicate that both activity and FasII affect development at the adult abdominal NMJ in ways that are distinct from their larval and adult thoracic counterparts

  14. Reduced rDNA Copy Number Does Not Affect “Competitive” Chromosome Pairing in XYY Males of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Keith A. Maggert

    2014-01-01

    The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are causal agents in X-Y chromosome pairing in meiosis I of Drosophila males. Despite broad variation in X-linked and Y-linked rDNA copy number, polymorphisms in regulatory/spacer sequences between rRNA genes, and variance in copy number of interrupting R1 and R2 retrotransposable elements, there is little evidence that different rDNA arrays affect pairing efficacy. I investigated whether induced rDNA copy number polymorphisms affect chromosome pairing in a “co...

  15. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  16. Male sterility associated with overexpression of the noncoding $hsr\\omega$ gene in cyst cells of testis of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. K. Rajendra; K. V. Prasanth; S. C. Lakhotia

    2001-08-01

    Of the several noncoding transcripts produced by the $hsr\\omega$ gene of Drosophila melanogaster, the nucleus-limited > 10-kb hsr-n transcript colocalizes with heterogeneous nuclear RNA binding proteins (hnRNPs) to form fine nucleoplasmic omega speckles. Our earlier studies suggested that the noncoding hsr-n transcripts dynamically regulate the distribution of hnRNPs in active (chromatin bound) and inactive (in omega speckles) compartments. Here we show that a P transposon insertion in this gene’s promoter (at – 130 bp) in the $hsr\\omega^{05241}$ enhancer-trap line had no effect on viability or phenotype of males or females, but the insertion-homozygous males were sterile. Testes of $hsr\\omega^{05241}$ homozygous flies contained nonmotile sperms while their seminal vesicles were empty. RNA : RNA in situ hybridization showed that the somatic cyst cells in testes of the mutant male flies contained significantly higher amounts of hsr-n transcripts, and unlike the characteristic fine omega speckles in other cell types they displayed large clusters of omega speckles as typically seen after heat shock. Two of the hnRNPs, viz. HRB87F and Hrp57A, which are expressed in cyst cells, also formed large clusters in these cells in parallel with the hsr-n transcripts. A complete excision of the P transposon insertion restored male fertility as well as the fine-speckled pattern of omega speckles in the cyst cells. The in situ distribution patterns of these two hnRNPs and several other RNA-binding proteins (Hrp40, Hrb57A, S5, Sxl, SRp55 and Rb97D) were not affected by $hsr\\omega$ mutation in any of the meiotic stages in adult testes. The present studies, however, revealed an unexpected presence (in wild-type as well as mutant) of the functional form of Sxl in primary spermatocytes and an unusual distribution of HRB87F along the retracting spindle during anaphase-telophase of the first meiotic division. It appears that the P transposon insertion in the promoter region causes

  17. Debra-mediated Ci degradation controls tissue homeostasis in Drosophila adult midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhouhua; Guo, Yueqin; Han, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Lai; Huang, Xudong; Lin, Xinhua

    2014-02-11

    Adult tissue homeostasis is maintained by resident stem cells and their progeny. However, the underlying mechanisms that control tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Debra-mediated Ci degradation is important for intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in Drosophila adult midgut. Debra inhibition leads to increased ISC activity and tissue homeostasis loss, phenocopying defects observed in aging flies. These defects can be suppressed by depleting Ci, suggesting that increased Hedgehog (Hh) signaling contributes to ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Consistently, Hh signaling activation causes the same defects, whereas depletion of Hh signaling suppresses these defects. Furthermore, the Hh ligand from multiple sources is involved in ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we show that the JNK pathway acts downstream of Hh signaling to regulate ISC proliferation. Together, our results provide insights into the mechanisms of stem cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis control.

  18. Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter during Development Impairs Memory in Adult Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Drago

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn—a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation—causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect. The behavioral impairment was associated with structural defects in MBn, including a decrease in synaptic vesicles and an increased length in the axons of the αβ MBn. Our results reveal an in vivo developmental role for the mitochondrial uniporter complex in establishing the necessary structural and functional neuronal substrates for normal memory formation in the adult organism.

  19. Requirement of matrix metalloproteinase-1 for intestinal homeostasis in the adult Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Park, Joung-Sun [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Science, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Shin [Research Institute of Genetic Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hae-Young [Molecular Inflammation Research Center for Aging Intervention (MRCA), College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Mi-Ae, E-mail: mayoo@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Science, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-10

    Stem cells are tightly regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), proteolytic enzymes, modulate the turnover of numerous substrates, including cytokine precursors, growth factors, and ECM molecules. However, the roles of MMPs in the regulation of adult stem cells are poorly understood. In the present study, we utilize the Drosophila midgut, which is an excellent model system for studying stem cell biology, to show that Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The results showed that Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut and that its expression increases with age and with exposure to oxidative stress. Mmp1 knockdown or Timp-overexpressing flies and flies heterozygous for a viable, hypomorphic Mmp1 allele increased ISC proliferation in the gut, as shown by staining with an anti-phospho-histone H3 antibody and BrdU incorporation assays. Reduced Mmp1 levels induced intestinal hyperplasia, and the Mmp1depletion-induced ISC proliferation was rescued by the suppression of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that Mmp1 regulates ISC proliferation through the EGFR signaling pathway. Furthermore, adult gut-specific knockdown and whole-animal heterozygotes of Mmp1 increased additively sensitivity to paraquat-induced oxidative stress and shortened lifespan. Our data suggest that Drosophila Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation for maintenance of gut homeostasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1-related ISC proliferation is associated with EGFR signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 in the gut is required for the intestinal homeostasis and longevity.

  20. Variation in adult life history and stress resistance across five species of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Sharmila Bharathi; N. G. Prasad; Mallikarjun Shakarad; Amitabh Joshi

    2003-12-01

    Dry weight at eclosion, adult lifespan, lifetime fecundity, lipid and carbohydrate content at eclosion, and starvation and desiccation resistance at eclosion were assayed on a long-term laboratory population of Drosophila melanogaster, and one recently wild-caught population each of four other species of Drosophila, two from the melanogaster and two from the immigrans species group. The relationships among trait means across the five species did not conform to expectations based on correlations among these traits inferred from selection studies on D. melanogaster. In particular, the expected positive relationships between fecundity and size/lipid content, lipid content and starvation resistance, carbohydrate (glycogen) content and desiccation resistance, and the expected negative relationship between lifespan and fecundity were not observed. Most traits were strongly positively correlated between sexes across species, except for fractional lipid content and starvation resistance per microgram lipid. For most traits, there was evidence for significant sexual dimorphism but the degree of dimorphism did not vary across species except in the case of adult lifespan, starvation resistance per microgram lipid, and desiccation resistance per microgram carbohydrate. Overall, D. nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta (immigrans group) were heavier at eclosion than the melanogaster group species, and tended to have somewhat higher absolute lipid content and starvation resistance. Yet, these two immigrans group species were shorter-lived and had lower average daily fecundity than the melanogaster group species. The smallest species, D. malerkotliana (melanogaster group), had relatively high daily fecundity, intermediate lifespan and high fractional lipid content, especially in females. D. ananassae (melanogaster group) had the highest absolute and fractional carbohydrate content, but its desiccation resistance per microgram carbohydrate was the lowest among the five

  1. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  2. Male Mating Success: Preference or Prowess? Investigating Sexual Selection in the Laboratory Using "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Seth; Jensen, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection is the primary force affecting the evolution of the elaborate sexual displays common in animals, yet sexual selection experiments are largely absent from introductory biology laboratories. Here we describe the rationale, methodology, and results of several experiments using "Drosophila melanogaster" to demonstrate sexual selection…

  3. Control of male sexual behavior in Drosophila by the sex determination pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Rideout, Elizabeth J; Dornan, Anthony J; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how genes influence behavior, including sexuality, is one of biology's greatest challenges. Much of the recent progress in understanding how single genes can influence behavior has come from the study of innate behaviors in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, the elab

  4. Src64 controls a novel actin network required for proper ring canal formation in the Drosophila male germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenes, Åsmund Husabø; Malerød, Lene; Lie-Jensen, Anette; Sem Wegner, Catherine; Brech, Andreas; Liestøl, Knut; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-12-01

    In many organisms, germ cells develop as cysts in which cells are interconnected via ring canals (RCs) as a result of incomplete cytokinesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of incomplete cytokinesis remain poorly understood. Here, we address the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of RCs in the Drosophila male germline. We uncover a hierarchy of tyrosine phosphorylation within germline cysts that positively correlates with RC age. The kinase Src64 is responsible for mediating RC tyrosine phosphorylation, and loss of Src64 causes a reduction in RC diameter within germline cysts. Mechanistically, we show that Src64 controls an actin network around the RCs that depends on Abl and the Rac/SCAR/Arp2/3 pathway. The actin network around RCs is required for correct RC diameter in cysts of developing germ cells. We also identify that Src64 is required for proper germ cell differentiation in the Drosophila male germline independent of its role in RC regulation. In summary, we report that Src64 controls actin dynamics to mediate proper RC formation during incomplete cytokinesis during germline cyst development in vivo.

  5. A young Drosophila duplicate gene plays essential roles in spermatogenesis by regulating several Y-linked male fertility genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ding

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is supposed to be the major source for genetic innovations. However, how a new duplicate gene acquires functions by integrating into a pathway and results in adaptively important phenotypes has remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated the biological roles and the underlying molecular mechanism of the young kep1 gene family in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup to understand the origin and evolution of new genes with new functions. Sequence and expression analysis demonstrates that one of the new duplicates, nsr (novel spermatogenesis regulator, exhibits positive selection signals and novel subcellular localization pattern. Targeted mutagenesis and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis provide evidence that nsr is required for male reproduction associated with sperm individualization, coiling, and structural integrity of the sperm axoneme via regulation of several Y chromosome fertility genes post-transcriptionally. The absence of nsr-like expression pattern and the presence of the corresponding cis-regulatory elements of the parental gene kep1 in the pre-duplication species Drosophila yakuba indicate that kep1 might not be ancestrally required for male functions and that nsr possibly has experienced the neofunctionalization process, facilitated by changes of trans-regulatory repertories. These findings not only present a comprehensive picture about the evolution of a new duplicate gene but also show that recently originated duplicate genes can acquire multiple biological roles and establish novel functional pathways by regulating essential genes.

  6. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Michael W.; Leslie C. Griffith; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of pop...

  7. From Embryo to Adult: piRNA-Mediated Silencing throughout Germline Development in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Pauline P.; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Boivin, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    In metazoan germ cells, transposable element activity is repressed by small noncoding PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs). Numerous studies in Drosophila have elucidated the mechanism of this repression in the adult germline. However, when and how transposable element repression is established during germline development has not been addressed. Here, we show that homology-dependent trans silencing is active in female primordial germ cells from late embryogenesis through pupal stages, and that genes related to the adult piRNA pathway are required for silencing during development. In larval gonads, we detect rhino-dependent piRNAs indicating de novo biogenesis of functional piRNAs during development. Those piRNAs exhibit the molecular signature of the “ping-pong” amplification step. Moreover, we show that Heterochromatin Protein 1a is required for the production of piRNAs coming from telomeric transposable elements. Furthermore, as in adult ovaries, incomplete, bimodal, and stochastic repression resembling variegation can occur at all developmental stages. Clonal analysis indicates that the repression status established in embryonic germ cells is maintained until the adult stage, suggesting the implication of a cellular memory mechanism. Taken together, data presented here show that piRNAs and their associated proteins are epigenetic components of a continuous repression system throughout germ cell development. PMID:27932388

  8. Lin-28 promotes symmetric stem cell division and drives adaptive growth in the adult Drosophila intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Huan; Luhur, Arthur; Sokol, Nicholas

    2015-10-15

    Stem cells switch between asymmetric and symmetric division to expand in number as tissues grow during development and in response to environmental changes. The stem cell intrinsic proteins controlling this switch are largely unknown, but one candidate is the Lin-28 pluripotency factor. A conserved RNA-binding protein that is downregulated in most animals as they develop from embryos to adults, Lin-28 persists in populations of adult stem cells. Its function in these cells has not been previously characterized. Here, we report that Lin-28 is highly enriched in adult intestinal stem cells in the Drosophila intestine. lin-28 null mutants are homozygous viable but display defects in this population of cells, which fail to undergo a characteristic food-triggered expansion in number and have reduced rates of symmetric division as well as reduced insulin signaling. Immunoprecipitation of Lin-28-bound mRNAs identified Insulin-like Receptor (InR), forced expression of which completely rescues lin-28-associated defects in intestinal stem cell number and division pattern. Furthermore, this stem cell activity of lin-28 is independent of one well-known lin-28 target, the microRNA let-7, which has limited expression in the intestinal epithelium. These results identify Lin-28 as a stem cell intrinsic factor that boosts insulin signaling in intestinal progenitor cells and promotes their symmetric division in response to nutrients, defining a mechanism through which Lin-28 controls the adult stem cell division patterns that underlie tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  9. From Embryo to Adult: piRNA-Mediated Silencing throughout Germline Development in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline P. Marie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In metazoan germ cells, transposable element activity is repressed by small noncoding PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs. Numerous studies in Drosophila have elucidated the mechanism of this repression in the adult germline. However, when and how transposable element repression is established during germline development has not been addressed. Here, we show that homology-dependent trans silencing is active in female primordial germ cells from late embryogenesis through pupal stages, and that genes related to the adult piRNA pathway are required for silencing during development. In larval gonads, we detect rhino-dependent piRNAs indicating de novo biogenesis of functional piRNAs during development. Those piRNAs exhibit the molecular signature of the “ping-pong” amplification step. Moreover, we show that Heterochromatin Protein 1a is required for the production of piRNAs coming from telomeric transposable elements. Furthermore, as in adult ovaries, incomplete, bimodal, and stochastic repression resembling variegation can occur at all developmental stages. Clonal analysis indicates that the repression status established in embryonic germ cells is maintained until the adult stage, suggesting the implication of a cellular memory mechanism. Taken together, data presented here show that piRNAs and their associated proteins are epigenetic components of a continuous repression system throughout germ cell development.

  10. A simple method for imaging axonal transport in aging neurons using the adult Drosophila wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Bullock, Simon L

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in the link between axonal cargo transport and age-associated neuronal dysfunction. The study of axonal transport in neurons of adult animals requires intravital or ex vivo imaging approaches, which are laborious and expensive in vertebrate models. We describe simple, noninvasive procedures for imaging cargo motility within axons using sensory neurons of the translucent Drosophila wing. A key aspect is a method for mounting the intact fly that allows detailed imaging of transport in wing neurons. Coupled with existing genetic tools in Drosophila, this is a tractable system for studying axonal transport over the life span of an animal and thus for characterization of the relationship between cargo dynamics, neuronal aging and disease. Preparation of a sample for imaging takes ∼5 min, with transport typically filmed for 2-3 min per wing. We also document procedures for the quantification of transport parameters from the acquired images and describe how the protocol can be adapted to study other cell biological processes in aging neurons.

  11. 454-Pyrosequencing survey of microbiota in adult Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) corroborates a core microbiome and additional symbiotic and entomopathogenic bacterial associates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete surveys of insect endosymbionts including species of economic importance have until recently been hampered by a lack of high-throughput genetic assays. We used 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicon of adult spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) from souther...

  12. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: mating preference in male-, female– and multiple-choice mating experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M T Tanuja; N B Ramachandra; H A Ranganath

    2001-09-01

    Interracial divergence is an important facet of speciation. The nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila with sixteen morphologically identical, karyotypically different but cross-fertile races is an excellent system to study a few dimensions of raciation. Drosophila nasuta nasuta, Drosophila nasuta albomicans, Cytorace 1, Cytorace 2, Cytorace 3 and Cytorace 4 of this subgroup have been subjected to male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments. Out of 8456 crosses conducted, 7185 had successful matings. The overall impression is that mating is far from random amongst these six closely related races of the nasuta-albomicans complex. The males of D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 in male-choice, the females of Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 2 in female-choice, and the males and females of D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 against the males and females of Cytorace 2 in multiple-choice experiments, had significantly more homogamic matings than expected. Thus in this study of evolutionary experimentation on raciation under laboratory conditions, we have documented the initiation of preference for con-specific matings among closely related and independently evolving members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila.

  13. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  14. JAK/STAT signaling regulates tissue outgrowth and male germline stem cell fate in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shree Ram SINGH; Xiu CHEN; Steven X.HOU

    2005-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, biological activities are regulated by cell signaling. The various signal transduction pathways regulate cell fate, proliferation, migration, and polarity. Miscoordination of the communicative signals will lead to disasters like cancer and other fatal diseases. The JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway is one of the pathways, which was first identified in vertebrates and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Studying the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway in Drosophila provides an excellent opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism of the cell regulation during development and tumor formation. In this review, we discuss the general overview of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila with respect to its functions in the eye development and stem cell fate determination.

  15. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality.

  16. Live imaging of epidermal morphogenesis during the development of the adult abdominal epidermis of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninov, Nikolay; Martín-Blanco, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    During larval stages of Drosophila development, the abdominal epidermis is composed of histoblasts (adult precursors) and larval epidermal cells (LECs). During metamorphosis, histoblasts proliferate and colonize the territories occupied by the LECs, which die and become engulfed by macrophages. This morphogenetic process is an excellent model for in vivo analysis of epithelial migration, cell division, cell death, patterning and differentiation. Here, we describe a protocol for time-lapse recording of the developing epidermis during metamorphosis. The protocol describes the removal of the pupal case (which acts as an opaque barrier to effective imaging) and mounting and imaging of specimens of different stages so that normal developmental processes are preserved. This method enables high-resolution studies over long time periods using fluorescent markers and confocal microscopy. The protocol requires 1 h for pupal dissection and mounting and, depending on the stages and genotypes to be analyzed, several more hours for preprocessing and aging and developmental staging of flies and pupae.

  17. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  18. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an Adult Indian Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Harjai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Following its first description by Guy Patin in 1692 as a disease that turned a woman into wood, Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva has maintained its low profile that too mainly in textbooks and rarely does one encounter a live walking individual affected by this entity. The hallmarks of this deadly disease are the short size of only the big toes and uninhibited progressive ossification of soft tissues. It can have a sporadic occurrence or may even be inherited through autosomal dominant pattern and has a wide range of expression. A wrong clinical diagnosis exposes the patient to unnecessary surgical excision and even harmful radiotherapy.Hence a case of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an adult Indian male is being reported here for the benefit of one and all. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 927-931

  19. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  20. Age-dependent arginine phosphokinase activity changes in male vestigial and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G T

    1975-01-01

    The activity of arginine phosphokinase, an important muscle enzyme in insects, was investigated with age in vestigial-winged and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Identical patterns of age-dependent activity changes were observed in the vestigial-winged flies as in the wild-type, even though vestigial-winged flies exhibit a 50% mortality approximately two thirds that of the wild-type as well as being incapable of flight. Results indicate that the age-dependent changes in arginine phosphokinase activity are intrinsically regulated within the cells of the flight muscle.

  1. Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Males from many species ensure paternity by preventing their mates from copulating with other males. One mate-guarding strategy involves marking females with anti-aphrodisiac pheromones (AAPs), which reduces the females' attractiveness and dissuades other males from courting. Since females benefit f

  2. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  3. The histone demethylase Dmel\\Kdm4A controls genes required for life span and male-specific sex determination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbeck, Meridith T; Singh, Neetu; Zervos, Ashley; Dhatta, Madhusmita; Lapchenko, Maria; Yang, Chen; Elefant, Felice

    2010-01-15

    Histone methylation plays an important role in regulating chromatin-mediated gene control and epigenetic-based memory systems that direct cell fate. Enzymes termed histone demethylases directly remove the methyl marks from histones, thus contributing to a dynamically regulated histone methylated genome; however, the biological functions of these newly identified enzymes remain unclear. The JMJD2A-D family belongs to the JmjC domain-containing family of histone demethylases (JHDMs). Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of the Drosophila HDM gene Dmel\\Kdm4A that is a homolog of the human JMJD2 family. We show that homologs for three human JHDM families, JHDM1, JHDM2, and JMJD2, are present in Drosophila and that each is expressed during the Drosophila lifecycle. Disruption of Dmel\\Kdm4A results in a reduction of the male life span and a male-specific wing extension/twitching phenotype that occurs in response to other males and is reminiscent of an inter-male courtship phenotype involving the courtship song. Remarkably, certain genes associated with each of these phenotypes are significantly downregulated in response to Dmel\\Kdm4A loss, most notably the longevity associated Hsp22 gene and the male sex-determination fruitless gene. Our results have implications for the role of the epigenetic regulator Dmel\\Kdm4A in the control of genes involved in life span and male-specific sex determination in the fly.

  4. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fabbretti

    Full Text Available Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL, underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL.

  5. Reduced Calcium Channel Function in Drosophila Disrupts Associative Learning in Larva and Behavior in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Cooper

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature sensitive nature of a mutation in the Cacophony gene, which codes for the alpha subunit in the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel, reduces Ca2+ influx when exposed to non-permissive temperatures. We investigated the subtle nature in the impact for this mutation on whole animal function, in regards to learning and memory, in larvae and adults. The effects in acutely reducing evoked Ca2+ influx in nerve terminals during various behavioural assays greatly decreased the ability of larval Drosophila to learn, as demonstrated in associative learning assays. These assays are based on olfaction and gustation with association to light or dark environments with negative reinforces. Adult flies also showed defects in olfaction and sense of light when the animal is acutely depressed in normal Ca2+ influx within the nervous system. We demonstrated that this particular mutation does not alter cardiac function acutely. Thus, implying that the alpha 1 subunit mutation which retards neuronal function is not relevant for the pace maker and cardiac contractility as indexed by heart rate.

  6. Are the structural changes in adult Drosophila mushroom bodies memory traces? Studies on biochemical learning mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, A; Technau, G M; Heisenberg, M

    2007-01-01

    The pre-imaginal development of Drosophila mushroom bodies is under the influence of an unknown variable which causes populations of wild-type flies at eclosion to differ in the average number of Kenyon cell fibers. During the first week of adult life the number adjusts to an intermediate level which depends upon the experience of the flies. Under olfactory deprivation or social isolation it reaches a lower level than under favorable rearing conditions (J. Neurogenet., 1 (1984) 113-126). The biochemical learning mutants dance and rutabaga show no experience-dependent modulation of fiber number (Fig. 2). In both strains the mushroom bodies of young adults seem to develop abnormally; in dance a loss of about 600 fibers is observed, in rutabaga fiber number is low at eclosion and does not increase (Fig. 1a). The following model for long-term memory is proposed: in mushroom bodies outgrowth and decay of Kenyon cell fibers occur simultaneously. The fibers randomly form transient synapses onto extrinsic output neurons of the mushroom bodies and receive synapses from modulating neurons. Experience consolidates certain synapses, thus prolonging survival of the respective Kenyon cell fibers and increasing the steady state level of fiber number (Fig. 3).

  7. Mef2 interacts with the Notch pathway during adult muscle development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Charlotte; Kasherov, Petar; Silber, Joël; Lalouette, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Myogenesis of indirect flight muscles (IFMs) in Drosophila melanogaster follows a well-defined cellular developmental scheme. During embryogenesis, a set of cells, the Adult Muscle Precursors (AMPs), are specified. These cells will become proliferating myoblasts during the larval stages which will then give rise to the adult IFMs. Although the cellular aspect of this developmental process is well studied, the molecular biology behind the different stages is still under investigation. In particular, the interactions required during the transition from proliferating myoblasts to differentiated myoblasts ready to fuse to the muscle fiber. It has been previously shown that the Notch pathway is active in proliferating myoblasts, and that this pathway is inhibited in developing muscle fibers. Furthermore, the Myocyte Enhancing Factor 2 (Mef2), Vestigial (Vg) and Scalloped (Sd) transcription factors are necessary for IFM development and that Vg is required for Notch pathway repression in differentiating fibers. Here we examine the interactions between Notch and Mef2 and mechanisms by which the Notch pathway is inhibited during differentiation. We show that Mef2 is capable of inhibiting the Notch pathway in non myogenic cells. A previous screen for Mef2 potential targets identified Delta a component of the Notch pathway. Dl is expressed in Mef2 and Sd-positive developing fibers. Our results show that Mef2 and possibly Sd regulate a Dl enhancer specifically expressed in the developing IFMs and that Mef2 is required for Dl expression in developing IFMs.

  8. Development of diet-induced insulin resistance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Siti Nur Sarah; Coogan, Claire; Chamseddin, Khalil; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Kolli, Santharam; Keller, Jeffrey N; Bauer, Johannes H

    2012-08-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is increasingly utilized as an alternative to costly rodent models to study human diseases. Fly models exist for a wide variety of human conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease, or cardiac function. Advantages of the fly system are its rapid generation time and its low cost. However, the greatest strength of the fly system are the powerful genetic tools that allow for rapid dissection of molecular disease mechanisms. Here, we describe the diet-dependent development of metabolic phenotypes in adult fruit flies. Depending on the specific type of nutrient, as well as its relative quantity in the diet, flies show weight gain and changes in the levels of storage macromolecules. Furthermore, the activity of insulin-signaling in the major metabolic organ of the fly, the fat body, decreases upon overfeeding. This decrease in insulin-signaling activity in overfed flies is moreover observed when flies are challenged with an acute food stimulus, suggesting that overfeeding leads to insulin resistance. Similar changes were observed in aging flies, with the development of the insulin resistance-like phenotype beginning at early middle ages. Taken together, these data demonstrate that imbalanced diet disrupts metabolic homeostasis in adult D. melanogaster and promotes insulin-resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the fly system may be a useful alternative tool in the investigation of molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and the development of pharmacologic treatment options.

  9. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  10. Adult circadian behavior in Drosophila requires developmental expression of cycle, but not period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tadahiro; Mirowska, Karolina; Currie, Jake; Kim, Min-Ho; Rao, Neethi Varadaraja; Bonilla, Gloribel; Wijnen, Herman

    2011-07-01

    Circadian clocks have evolved as internal time keeping mechanisms that allow anticipation of daily environmental changes and organization of a daily program of physiological and behavioral rhythms. To better examine the mechanisms underlying circadian clocks in animals and to ask whether clock gene expression and function during development affected subsequent daily time keeping in the adult, we used the genetic tools available in Drosophila to conditionally manipulate the function of the CYCLE component of the positive regulator CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC) or its negative feedback inhibitor PERIOD (PER). Differential manipulation of clock function during development and in adulthood indicated that there is no developmental requirement for either a running clock mechanism or expression of per. However, conditional suppression of CLK/CYC activity either via per over-expression or cyc depletion during metamorphosis resulted in persistent arrhythmic behavior in the adult. Two distinct mechanisms were identified that may contribute to this developmental function of CLK/CYC and both involve the ventral lateral clock neurons (LN(v)s) that are crucial to circadian control of locomotor behavior: (1) selective depletion of cyc expression in the LN(v)s resulted in abnormal peptidergic small-LN(v) dorsal projections, and (2) PER expression rhythms in the adult LN(v)s appeared to be affected by developmental inhibition of CLK/CYC activity. Given the conservation of clock genes and circuits among animals, this study provides a rationale for investigating a possible similar developmental role of the homologous mammalian CLOCK/BMAL1 complex.

  11. Ex vivo culture of Drosophila pupal testis and single male germ-line cysts: dissection, imaging, and pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefanie M K; Rathke, Christina; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Awe, Stephan

    2014-09-11

    During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. Studying the role of a protein in post-meiotic spermatogenesis using mutagenesis or other genetic tools is often impeded by essential embryonic, pre-meiotic, or meiotic functions of the protein under investigation. The post-meiotic phenotype of a mutant of such a protein could be obscured through an earlier developmental block, or the interpretation of the phenotype could be complicated. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster offers a bypass to this problem: intact testes and even cysts of germ cells dissected from early pupae are able to develop ex vivo in culture medium. Making use of such cultures allows microscopic imaging of living germ cells in testes and of germ-line cysts. Importantly, the cultivated testes and germ cells also become accessible to pharmacological inhibitors, thereby permitting manipulation of enzymatic functions during spermatogenesis, including post-meiotic stages. The protocol presented describes how to dissect and cultivate pupal testes and germ-line cysts. Information on the development of pupal testes and culture conditions are provided alongside microscope imaging data of live testes and germ-line cysts in culture. We also describe a pharmacological assay to study post-meiotic spermatogenesis, exemplified by an assay targeting the histone-to-protamine switch using the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor anacardic acid. In principle, this cultivation method could be adapted to address many other research questions in pre- and post-meiotic spermatogenesis.

  12. Associations between Variation in X Chromosome Male Reproductive Genes and Sperm Competitive Ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Greenspan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in reproductive success has long been thought to be mediated in part by genes encoding seminal proteins. Here we explore the effect on male reproductive phenotypes of X-linked polymorphisms, a chromosome that is depauperate in genes encoding seminal proteins. Using 57 X chromosome substitution lines, sperm competition was tested both when the males from the wild-extracted line were the first to mate (“defense” crosses, followed by a tester male, and when extracted-line males were the second to mate, after a tester male (“offfense” crosses. We scored the proportion of progeny sired by each male, the fecundity, the remating rate and refractoriness to remating, and tested the significance of variation among lines. Eleven candidate genes were chosen based on previous studies, and portions of these genes were sequenced in all 57 lines. A total of 131 polymorphisms were tested for associations with the reproductive phenotypes using linear models. Nine polymorphisms in 4 genes were found to show significant associations (at a 5% FDR. Overall, it appears that the X chromosomes harbor abundant variation in sperm competition, especially considering the paucity of seminal protein genes. This suggests that much of the male reproductive variation lies outside of genes that encode seminal proteins.

  13. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von;

    2015-01-01

    are able to learn to associate olfactory and gustatory cues with female receptivity, but the role of more arbitrary, visual cues in mate choice learning has been overlooked to date in this species. We therefore carried out a series of experiments to determine: 1) whether males had a baseline preference...... of the experiment was carried out in darkness.This is, to our knowledge 1) the first evidence that male D. melanogaster can use more arbitrary cues and 2) the first evidence that males use visual cues during mate choice learning. Our findings suggest that that D. melanogaster has untapped potential as a model...... system for mate choice learning...

  14. Giant Primary Mature Retroperitoneal Teratomain in Adult Male Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ebrahimian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teratomas are congenital tumors consisting of derivatives from the ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm germ cell layers. A teratoma is considered to be a non-seminomatous germ cell tumor and is typically located in either the sacrococcygeal region or in the gonads. Giant retroperitoneal teratomas in adults are even rarer, with only a few cases previously described in the literature. Case report: A 35-year-old male patient with severe nausea and vomiting was taken to the emergency ward of Hamadan Be’sat Hospital. He had not been feeling well, and had suffering from abdominal pain for a month. A physical examination showed some concretion in the right side of his abdomen. A CT scan of his abdomen and pelvis with IV and oral contrast re-vealed that the concretion was formed by aggregates of solid, cystic, and calcareous compo-nents. It compressed stomach and caused the rotation of the stomach around its longitudinal axis. Conclusion: Following the diagnosis, we performed a laparotomy and respected a concretion with dimension 20?25?22cm. Interestingly, we found out all mature tissues within the con-cretion in the pathology examination of an adequate sample (such as trachea, bone, GI lu-men…. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 165-169

  15. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  16. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  17. Differentially expressed genes between female and male adult Anopheles anthropophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yi-Jie; Gao, Shi-Tong; Huang, Da-Na; Zhao, Yi-Rui; Liu, Jian-ping; Li, Xiao-Heng; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify sex-specific genes in adult Anopheles anthropophagus. As the major malaria vector and Brugia malayi vector in the Asian continent, female Anopheles mosquitoes take blood meals and transmit pathogens through this pathway, while males are nectar feeders. This complex behavior is controlled at several levels, but is probably initiated by the genetic background difference between these two groups. In our study, a subtractive cDNA library for female A. anthropophagus was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique and then 3,074 clones from the female SSH library were analyzed using a microarray-based survey. Genes that were expressed differentially according to sex in A. anthropophagus were screened using real-time polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In our results, we report a series of genes which may be involved in female-specific mosquito behavior, including an inorganic phosphate transporter, a serine protease, the salivary protein GP35-2, and the D7 cluster salivary protein. These findings will provide clues to the nature of insect vectors and open up unprecedented opportunities to develop novel strategies for the control of mosquito-borne diseases.

  18. The lipolysis pathway sustains normal and transformed stem cells in adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram; Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Liu, Ying; Hou, Gerald; Liu, Hanhan; Hou, Steven X

    2016-10-06

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumour dormancy, relapse and the eventual death of most cancer patients. In addition, these cells are usually resistant to cytotoxic conditions. However, very little is known about the biology behind this resistance to therapeutics. Here we investigated stem-cell death in the digestive system of adult Drosophila melanogaster. We found that knockdown of the coat protein complex I (COPI)-Arf79F (also known as Arf1) complex selectively killed normal and transformed stem cells through necrosis, by attenuating the lipolysis pathway, but spared differentiated cells. The dying stem cells were engulfed by neighbouring differentiated cells through a draper-myoblast city-Rac1-basket (also known as JNK)-dependent autophagy pathway. Furthermore, Arf1 inhibitors reduced CSCs in human cancer cell lines. Thus, normal or cancer stem cells may rely primarily on lipid reserves for energy, in such a way that blocking lipolysis starves them to death. This finding may lead to new therapies that could help to eliminate CSCs in human cancers.

  19. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stéphanie Bedhomme; Adam K. Chippindale; N. G. Prasad; Matthieu Delcourt; Jessica K. Abbott; Martin A. Mallet; Howard D. Rundle

    2011-12-01

    Sexually dimorphic traits are likely to have evolved through sexually antagonistic selection. However, recent empirical data suggest that intralocus sexual conflict often persists, even when traits have diverged between males and females. This implies that evolved dimorphism is often incomplete in resolving intralocus conflict, providing a mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variance in fitness-related traits. We used experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to directly test for ongoing conflict over a suite of sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) that are likely targets of sex-specific selection. Using a set of experimental populations in which the transmission of genetic material had been restricted to males for 82 generations, we show that CHCs did not evolve, providing experimental evidence for the absence of current intralocus sexual conflict over these traits. The absence of ongoing conflict could indicate that CHCs have never been the target of sexually antagonistic selection, although this would require the existing dimorphism to have evolved via completely sex-linked mutations or as a result of former, but now absent, pleiotropic effects of the underlying loci on another trait under sexually antagonistic selection. An alternative interpretation, and which we believe to be more likely, is that the extensive CHC sexual dimorphism is the result of past intralocus sexual conflict that has been fully resolved, implying that these traits have evolved genetic independence between the sexes and that genetic variation in them is therefore maintained by alternative mechanisms. This latter interpretation is consistent with the known roles of CHCs in sexual communication in this species and with previous studies suggesting the genetic independence of CHCs between males and females. Nevertheless, direct estimates of sexually antagonistic selection will be important to fully resolve these alternatives.

  20. Sequence signatures involved in targeting the male-specific lethal complex to X-chromosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Philip Philge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage-compensation system that equalizes X-linked gene expression between males and females, thereby assuring that an appropriate balance is maintained between the expression of genes on the X chromosome(s and the autosomes, is at least partially mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL complex. This complex binds to genes with a preference for exons on the male X chromosome with a 3' bias, and it targets most expressed genes on the X chromosome. However, a number of genes are expressed but not targeted by the complex. High affinity sites seem to be responsible for initial recruitment of the complex to the X chromosome, but the targeting to and within individual genes is poorly understood. Results We have extensively examined X chromosome sequence variation within five types of gene features (promoters, 5' UTRs, coding sequences, introns, 3' UTRs and intergenic sequences, and assessed its potential involvement in dosage compensation. Presented results show that: the X chromosome has a distinct sequence composition within its gene features; some of the detected variation correlates with genes targeted by the MSL-complex; the insulator protein BEAF-32 preferentially binds upstream of MSL-bound genes; BEAF-32 and MOF co-localizes in promoters; and that bound genes have a distinct sequence composition that shows a 3' bias within coding sequence. Conclusions Although, many strongly bound genes are close to a high affinity site neither our promoter motif nor our coding sequence signatures show any correlation to HAS. Based on the results presented here, we believe that there are sequences in the promoters and coding sequences of targeted genes that have the potential to direct the secondary spreading of the MSL-complex to nearby genes.

  1. Wolbachia gonadal density in female and male Drosophila vary with laboratory adaptation and respond differently to physiological and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Claudia C; Ballard, J William O

    2012-11-01

    In symbiotic associations such as those between Wolbachia and insects, the within-host symbiont density plays an important role in the maintenance of the infection in natural populations, as it relates to transmission fidelity and pathogenicity of the symbiont. Within-host density is speculated to be the result of complex interactions between the bacterial genotype, the host genotype and the environment, which may account for the substantial variation in Wolbachia titres among wild collected individuals compared to laboratory lines. Using quantitative PCR, we screened the Wolbachia gonadal density of individuals from 50 isofemale Drosophila simulans lines raised in standard conditions for at least two generations after collection from the wild. Although these newly collected lines displayed significant variation of ovarian Wolbachia titres, such variation was lost by F(19). Assaying these flies at different ages and under different environmental conditions indicated that symbiont titres in female gonads were not affected by the conditions tested. However, Wolbachia density in male gonads was consistently affected by these treatments in a line-specific way. We propose that the differences in Wolbachia densities among ovaries of F(4) flies are the consequence of large differences in the field-collected females caused by the variable environment, and carried over for at least four generations. In addition, we provide evidence of sex-specific dynamics of Wolbachia in gonads of females and males. In combination, our results support the view of sex-specific Wolbachia evolutionary interactions for males and females, which has been predicted by theory and observed experimentally.

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  10. Segment-specific Ca(2+) transport by isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster: A comparison of larval and adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Austin; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Haemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved through the regulation of calcium excretion by Malpighian tubules in two ways: (1) sequestration of calcium within biomineralized granules and (2) secretion of calcium in soluble form within the primary urine. Using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET), basolateral Ca(2+) transport was measured at the distal, transitional, main and proximal tubular segments of anterior tubules isolated from both 3rd instar larvae and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Basolateral Ca(2+) transport exceeded transepithelial secretion by 800-fold and 11-fold in anterior tubules of larvae and adults, respectively. The magnitude of Ca(2+) fluxes across the distal tubule of larvae and adults were larger than fluxes across the downstream segments by 10 and 40 times, respectively, indicating a dominant role for the distal segment in whole animal Ca(2+) regulation. Basolateral Ca(2+) transport across distal tubules of Drosophila varied throughout the life cycle; Ca(2+) was released by distal tubules of larvae, taken up by distal tubules of young adults and was released once again by tubules of adults ⩾ 168 h post-eclosion. In adults and larvae, SIET measurements revealed sites of both Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+) release across the basolateral surface of the distal segment of the same tubule, indicating that Ca(2+) transport is bidirectional. Ca(2+) uptake across the distal segment of tubules of young adults and Ca(2+) release across the distal segment of tubules of older adults was also suggestive of reversible Ca(2+) storage. Our results suggest that the distal tubules of D. melanogaster are dynamic calcium stores which allow efficient haemolymph calcium regulation through active Ca(2+) sequestration during periods of high dietary calcium intake and passive Ca(2+) release during periods of calcium deficiency.

  11. Octopamine Neuromodulation Regulates Gr32a-Linked Aggression and Courtship Pathways in Drosophila Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jonathan C.; Fernández, María Paz; Yu, Qin; Leary, Greg P.; Leung, Adelaine K. W.; Kavanaugh, Michael P.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Certel, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemosensory pheromonal information regulates aggression and reproduction in many species, but how pheromonal signals are transduced to reliably produce behavior is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the pheromonal signals detected by Gr32a-expressing chemosensory neurons to enhance male aggression are filtered through octopamine (OA, invertebrate equivalent of norepinephrine) neurons. Using behavioral assays, we find males lacking both octopamine and Gr32a gustatory receptors exhibit parallel delays in the onset of aggression and reductions in aggression. Physiological and anatomical experiments identify Gr32a to octopamine neuron synaptic and functional connections in the suboesophageal ganglion. Refining the Gr32a-expressing population indicates that mouth Gr32a neurons promote male aggression and form synaptic contacts with OA neurons. By restricting the monoamine neuron target population, we show that three previously identified OA-FruM neurons involved in behavioral choice are among the Gr32a-OA connections. Our findings demonstrate that octopaminergic neuromodulatory neurons function as early as a second-order step in this chemosensory-driven male social behavior pathway. PMID:24852170

  12. Octopamine neuromodulation regulates Gr32a-linked aggression and courtship pathways in Drosophila males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Andrews

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemosensory pheromonal information regulates aggression and reproduction in many species, but how pheromonal signals are transduced to reliably produce behavior is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the pheromonal signals detected by Gr32a-expressing chemosensory neurons to enhance male aggression are filtered through octopamine (OA, invertebrate equivalent of norepinephrine neurons. Using behavioral assays, we find males lacking both octopamine and Gr32a gustatory receptors exhibit parallel delays in the onset of aggression and reductions in aggression. Physiological and anatomical experiments identify Gr32a to octopamine neuron synaptic and functional connections in the suboesophageal ganglion. Refining the Gr32a-expressing population indicates that mouth Gr32a neurons promote male aggression and form synaptic contacts with OA neurons. By restricting the monoamine neuron target population, we show that three previously identified OA-Fru(M neurons involved in behavioral choice are among the Gr32a-OA connections. Our findings demonstrate that octopaminergic neuromodulatory neurons function as early as a second-order step in this chemosensory-driven male social behavior pathway.

  13. RNA helicase Belle (DDX3) is essential for male germline stem cell maintenance and division in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Alexei A; Olenkina, Oxana M; Kibanov, Mikhail V; Olenina, Ludmila V

    2016-06-01

    The present study showed that RNA helicase Belle (DDX3) was required intrinsically for mitotic progression and survival of germline stem cells (GSCs) and spermatogonial cells in the Drosophila melanogaster testes. We found that deficiency of Belle in the male germline resulted in a strong germ cell loss phenotype. Early germ cells are lost through cell death, whereas somatic hub and cyst cell populations are maintained. The observed phenotype is related to that of the human Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome caused by the loss of DBY (DDX3) expression in the human testes and results in a complete lack of germ cells with preservation of somatic Sertoli cells. We found the hallmarks of mitotic G2 delay in early germ cells of the larval testes of bel mutants. Both mitotic cyclins, A and B, are markedly reduced in the gonads of bel mutants. Transcription levels of cycB and cycA decrease significantly in the testes of hypomorph bel mutants. Overexpression of Cyclin B in the germline partially rescues germ cell survival, mitotic progression and fertility in the bel-RNAi knockdown testes. Taken together, these results suggest that a role of Belle in GSC maintenance and regulation of early germ cell divisions is associated with the expression control of mitotic cyclins.

  14. Incestuous sisters: mate preference for brothers over unrelated males in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Loyau

    Full Text Available The literature is full of examples of inbreeding avoidance, while recent mathematical models predict that inbreeding tolerance or even inbreeding preference should be expected under several realistic conditions like e.g. polygyny. We investigated male and female mate preferences with respect to relatedness in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. Experiments offered the choice between a first order relative (full-sibling or parent and an unrelated individual with the same age and mating history. We found that females significantly preferred mating with their brothers, thus supporting inbreeding preference. Moreover, females did not avoid mating with their fathers, and males did not avoid mating with their sisters, thus supporting inbreeding tolerance. Our experiments therefore add empirical evidence for inbreeding preference, which strengthens the prediction that inbreeding tolerance and preference can evolve under specific circumstances through the positive effects on inclusive fitness.

  15. Assessing the putative roles of X-autosome and X-Y interactions in hybrid male sterility of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2007-07-01

    Interspecific F1 hybrid males of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex are sterile, while females are fertile, following Haldane's rule. A backcross scheme involving a single recessive visible marker on the X chromosome has been used to assess the putative roles of X-autosome and X-Y interactions in hybrid male sterility in the D. bipectinata species complex. The results suggest that X-Y interactions are playing the major role in hybrid male sterility in the crosses D. bipectinata x D. parabipectinata and D. bipectinata x D. pseudoananassae, while X-autosome interactions are largely involved in hybrid male sterility in the crosses D. malerkotliana x D. bipectinata and D. malerkotliana x D. parabipectinata. However, by using this single marker it is not possible to rule out the involvement of autosome-autosome interactions in hybrid male sterility. These findings also lend further support to the phylogenetic relationships among 4 species of the D. bipectinata complex.

  16. Genetic architecture of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila: analysis of intraspecies variation for interspecies isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Reed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of postzygotic isolation is a central puzzle in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary forces causing hybrid sterility or inviability act on the responsible genes while they still are polymorphic, thus we have to study these traits as they arise, before isolation is complete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isofemale strains of D. mojavensis vary significantly in their production of sterile F(1 sons when females are crossed to D. arizonae males. We took advantage of the intraspecific polymorphism, in a novel design, to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping analyses directly on F(1 hybrid male sterility itself. We found that the genetic architecture of the polymorphism for hybrid male sterility (HMS in the F(1 is complex, involving multiple QTL, epistasis, and cytoplasmic effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The role of extensive intraspecific polymorphism, multiple QTL, and epistatic interactions in HMS in this young species pair shows that HMS is arising as a complex trait in this system. Directional selection alone would be unlikely to maintain polymorphism at multiple loci, thus we hypothesize that directional selection is unlikely to be the only evolutionary force influencing postzygotic isolation.

  17. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane C Blattner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase.

  18. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Ariane C; Chaurasia, Soumya; McKee, Bruce D; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-04-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase.

  19. Regulation of feeding behavior in adult Drosophila melanogaster varies with feeding regime and nutritional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgecomb, R S; Harth, C E; Schneiderman, A M

    1994-12-01

    The regulation of feeding behavior in adult Drosophila melanogaster includes such elements as ingestion responsiveness, volume ingested in a single meal, food storage in the crop and rate of defecation. Our results suggest that feeding behavior varies in a manner dependent on feeding regime (food-deprived or ad-libitum-fed) and nutritional state. Fed flies that are subsequently food-deprived become increasingly more responsive to food stimuli over time and, when offered 1% agar diets containing different concentrations of sucrose, ingest greater amounts of diets that have higher sucrose concentrations. When fed ad libitum for 72 h on these same diets, D. melanogaster maintained much smaller crops on average than food-deprived flies fed a single meal. Additionally, ad-libitum-fed flies are grouped into two categories depending on the concentration of sucrose in the diet. Flies fed for 72 h on 1% agar diets having 50 mmoll-1 sucrose or more are not affected by the concentration of sucrose in the diet, while flies fed on diets of 15 or 25 mmoll-1 sucrose increase ingestion responsiveness, crop size and the rate of defecation with decreasing concentrations of sucrose in the diet. Flies fed on even lower sucrose concentrations (5 or 10 mmoll-1 sucrose) for 27-72 h exhibit both a shift over time to larger crop sizes and increased mortality over those of flies fed 15 mmoll-1 sucrose. These data suggest that flies fed ad libitum are capable of modulating their feeding behavior in response to their nutritional state.

  20. The histone variant His2Av is required for adult stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rafael Morillo Prado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many tissues are sustained by adult stem cells, which replace lost cells by differentiation and maintain their own population through self-renewal. The mechanisms through which adult stem cells maintain their identity are thus important for tissue homeostasis and repair throughout life. Here, we show that a histone variant, His2Av, is required cell autonomously for maintenance of germline and cyst stem cells in the Drosophila testis. The ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor Domino is also required in this tissue for adult stem cell maintenance possibly by regulating the incorporation of His2Av into chromatin. Interestingly, although expression of His2Av was ubiquitous, its function was dispensable for germline and cyst cell differentiation, suggesting a specific role for this non-canonical histone in maintaining the stem cell state in these lineages.

  1. Adult male replacement and subsequent infant care by male and siblings in socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Juárez, Cecilia Paola; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) are small, territorial, socially monogamous primates that show intense infant care by the adult male in the group. It has been hypothesized that male care may be adaptive because it increases offspring survival and/or reduces the metabolic costs to the female of raising the offspring. Alternatively, males may provide care even when they are not related to the infants to increase future reproductive opportunities. We describe changes in infant care patterns that took place after the eviction of the resident male by a solitary male in an owl monkey population in the Argentinean Chaco. The resident male and mother provided all infant care during the first month of life of the infant, until the male was evicted. During the three-day male replacement event, care of the infant was shared among the mother, a four-year-old sister, and a one-year-old brother. The new male began contributing to infant care soon after entering the group, carrying, and interacting socially with the infant in much the same way as any male regularly does. However, despite receiving biparental care from both the original and new resident males, the infant disappeared at the age of four months and was presumed dead. These are the first reports of care by sibling and by non-putative fathers in wild owl monkeys. Given the significant amount of time that new pairs of owl monkeys spend before reproducing, it is possible that male care in owl monkeys functions as mating effort as much as or more than parenting effort.

  2. Differential effects of male nutrient balance on pre- and post-copulatory traits, and consequences for female reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Juliano; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-06-08

    Male fitness depends on the expression of costly traits involved in obtaining mates (pre-copulatory) and fertilization (post-copulatory). However, very little is known about the nutrient requirements for these traits and whether males compromise their diet to maximize one trait at the expense of another. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to investigate macronutrient requirements for pre- and post-copulatory traits in Drosophila, when males were the first or second to mate with females. We found no significant effects of male diet on sperm competitiveness. However, although males self-regulate their macronutrient intake at a protein-to-carbohydrate ratio ("P:C ratio") of 1:1.5, this ratio does not coincide with their optima for several key reproductive traits: both the short-term (~24 hr) rate of offspring production after a female's first mating, as well as the total offspring number sired when males were second to mate were maximized at a P:C ratio of 1:9, whereas male attractiveness (latency to mate), were maximised at a P:C ratio of 1:1. These results suggest a compromised optimum diet, and no single diet that simultaneously maximizes all male reproductive traits. The protein intake of first males also negatively affected female offspring production following remating, suggesting a long-term intersexual effect of male nutrition.

  3. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  4. Alaska northern fur seal adult male satellite telemetry data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...

  5. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  6. A time-sequence functional analysis of mating behaviour and genital coupling in Drosophila: role of cryptic female choice and male sex-drive in the evolution of male genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeeshan, S; Singh, R S

    2006-07-01

    Male genitalia in Drosophila exemplify strikingly rapid and divergent evolution, whereas female genitalia are relatively invariable. Whereas precopulatory and post-copulatory sexual selection has been invoked to explain this trend, the functional significance of genital structures during copulation remains obscure. We used time-sequence analysis to study the functional significance of external genitalic structures during the course of copulation, between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. This functional analysis has provided new information that reveals the importance of male-driven copulatory mechanics and strategies in the rapid diversification of genitalia. The posterior process, which is a recently evolved sexual character and present only in males of the melanogaster clade, plays a crucial role in mounting as well as in genital coupling. Whereas there is ample evidence for precopulatory and/or post-copulatory female choice, we show here that during copulation there is little or no physical female choice, consequently, males determine copulation duration. We also found subtle differences in copulatory mechanics between very closely related species. We propose that variation in male usage of novel genitalic structures and shifts in copulatory behaviour have played an important role in the diversification of genitalia in species of the Drosophila subgroup.

  7. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age grou

  8. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  9. CONSOLIDATION AND MODIFICATION OF SEXUAL PREFERENCES IN ADULT MALE ZEBRA FINCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUIJT, JP; MEEUWISSEN, GB

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study (KRUIJT & MEEUWISSEN, 1991) we examined the sexual preference of cross-fostered zebra finch (= Z) males that were reared by Bengalese finch (= B) parents and then isolated until the adult stage. Males then given a choice between a Z and a B female, directed most courtship and son

  10. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  11. Misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila hybrids is lineage-specific and driven by the combined effects of sterility and fast male regulatory divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, S; Civetta, A

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common outcome of crosses between different species. Gene expression studies have found that a number of spermatogenesis genes are differentially expressed in sterile hybrid males, compared with parental species. Late-stage sperm development genes are particularly likely to be misexpressed, with fewer early-stage genes affected. Thus, a link has been posited between misexpression and sterility. A more recent alternative explanation for hybrid gene misexpression has been that it is independent of sterility and driven by divergent evolution of male-specific regulatory elements between species (faster male hypothesis). The faster male hypothesis predicts that misregulation of spermatogenesis genes should be independent of sterility and approximately the same in both hybrids, whereas sterility should only affect gene expression in sterile hybrids. To test the faster male hypothesis vs. the effect of sterility on gene misexpression, we analyse spermatogenesis gene expression in different species pairs of the Drosophila phylogeny, where hybrid male sterility occurs in only one direction of the interspecies cross (i.e. unidirectional sterility). We find significant differences among genes in misexpression with effects that are lineage-specific and caused by sterility or fast male regulatory divergence.

  12. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  13. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Croft

    Full Text Available i to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand.Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors.Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61% and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving. Older men (aged +55 years old had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74 and when involved in different activities.Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies.

  14. Satelliting streptococci in an adult male with foetal heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakeerthi S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the days of surgical correction and antibiotics, endocarditis was one of the leading causes of death in adults with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA. Satelliting Streptococcus is an important cause of "culture negative endocarditis". There are no earlier reports of this organism causing endocarditis in a case of PDA. Such a unique association, first of its kind, is reported here.

  15. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site...... of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis...... melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises...

  16. Impact of dramatized television entertainment on adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, R; Loye, D; Steele, G

    1977-02-01

    The authors studied the effects of a week's viewing of five types of television programs, including those with predominantly helpful or hurtful content, on the aggressive mood and hurtful behavior of adult men. They found, within the population studied, a significant decrease in aggressive mood and lower levels of hurtful behavior in viewers of helpful programs as compared with a control group, as well as some evidence that emotional arousal in response to helpful programs is negatively correlated with aggressive mood.

  17. Variation in the X:Autosome Distribution of Male-Biased Genes among Drosophila melanogaster Tissues and Its Relationship with Dosage Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huylmans, Ann Kathrin; Parsch, John

    2015-06-24

    Genes that are expressed differently between males and females (sex-biased genes) often show a nonrandom distribution in their genomic location, particularly with respect to the autosomes and the X chromosome. Previous studies of Drosophila melanogaster found a general paucity of male-biased genes on the X chromosome, although this is mainly limited to comparisons of whole flies or body segments containing the reproductive organs. To better understand the chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes in various tissues, we used a common analysis framework to analyze microarray and RNA sequence data comparing male and female gene expression in individual tissues (brain, Malpighian tubule, and gonads), composite structures (head and gonadectomized carcass), and whole flies. Although there are relatively few sex-biased genes in the brain, there is a strong and highly significant enrichment of male-biased genes on the X chromosome. A weaker enrichment of X-linked male-biased genes is seen in the head, suggesting that most of this signal comes from the brain. In all other tissues, there is either no departure from the random expectation or a significant paucity of male-biased genes on the X chromosome. The brain and head also differ from other tissues in that their male-biased genes are significantly closer to binding sites of the dosage compensation complex. We propose that the interplay of dosage compensation and sex-specific regulation can explain the observed differences between tissues and reconcile disparate results reported in previous studies.

  18. Breeding season influxes and the behaviour of adult male samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzi, S P; Lawes, M

    1987-01-01

    Troops comprising a high density population of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in Natal province, South Africa, experienced an influx of adult males during the breeding season. Observation of one troop revealed that these males competed with one another and with two resident males for access to receptive females. Although both sexes initiated copulation, attempts to do so were more often successful if female-initiated. Males did not interact with non-receptive females and there were no recorded attempts at infanticide. Male-male interactions were agonistic in the presence of receptive females and neutral at other times. No ritualized displays of dominance and subordinance were seen. The significance of these observations for male reproductive strategies is discussed.

  19. Yolk proteins in the male reproductive system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster: spatial and temporal patterns of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Magdalena M; Suszczynska, Agnieszka; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Czerwik, Tomasz; Paterczyk, Bohdan; Polanska, Marta A; Bernatowicz, Piotr; Bebas, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    In insects, spermatozoa develop in the testes as clones of single spermatogonia covered by specialized somatic cyst cells (cc). Upon completion of spermatogenesis, spermatozoa are released to the vas deferens, while the cc remain in the testes and die. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the released spermatozoa first reach the seminal vesicles (SV), the organ where post-testicular maturation begins. Here, we demonstrate the temporal (restricted to the evening and early night hours) accumulation of membranous vesicles containing proteins in the SV lumen of D. melanogaster. When SV vesicles were isolated from the semen and co-incubated with testis-derived spermatozoa in vitro, their contents bound to the spermatozoa along their tails. The proteins of the SV vesicles were then characterized using 2-D electrophoresis. We identified a prominent protein spot of around 45-47 kDa, which disappears from the SV vesicles in the night, i.e. shortly after they appear in the SV lumen. Sequencing of peptides derived from this spot by mass spectrometry revealed identity with three yolk proteins (YP1-3). This unexpected result was confirmed by western blotting, which demonstrated that SV vesicles contain proteins that are immunoreactive with an antibody against D. melanogaster YP1-3. The expression of all yp genes was shown to be a unique feature of testis tissues. Using RNA probes we found that their transcripts localize exclusively to the cc that cover fully developed spermatozoa in the distal part of each testis. Temporally, the expression of yp genes was found to be restricted to a short period during the day and is followed by the evening accumulation of YP proteins in the cc. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that cc are the source of SV vesicles containing YPs that are released into the SV lumen. These vesicles interact with spermatozoa and as a result, YPs become extrinsic proteins of the sperm membrane. Thus, we describe for the first time the expression of

  20. Unique mechanism of chance fracture in a young adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  1. Unique Mechanism of Chance Fracture in a Young Adult Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports ofunique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicleaccidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall withthe mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering stylebackpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  2. EFFECT OF SIMULATED WEIGHTLESSNESS ON REPRODUCTION OF ADULT MALE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies had mainly focused on thehar mful effects of space environment on human be-ing's muscle,skeleton and blood circulation[1-3].However,the studies concerningthe effects of spaceenvironment on male reproduction are scare.The space environment is complicated,andweightlessness is one of the most i mportant healthrisk factors.Tail-suspension model is widely usedfor si mulated weightlessness in space health re-search[4].Therefore,the present study was designed toclarify the adverse effects of si mu...

  3. Handedness and cerebral anatomical asymmetries in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Crivello, Fabrice; Perchey, Guy; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2006-02-15

    Using voxel-based morphometry, we measured the cerebral anatomical asymmetries in a sample of 56 young right-handed males and then compared voxelwise asymmetry indices of these subjects to those of 56 young left-handed males. In the right-handed, the clusters of grey matter asymmetry corresponding to the leftward occipital petalia and planum temporale asymmetries were retrieved. Strong rightward temporo-parietal asymmetries were also observed, but the rightward grey matter asymmetry in the frontal lobe was less massive than previously described. Group comparisons of left- and right-handed subjects' asymmetry maps, performed at a statistical threshold not corrected for multiple comparisons, revealed significant effects of handedness on this pattern of anatomical asymmetry in frontal regions, notably in the lower central and precentral sulci, and also in the planum temporale, with right-handed subjects being more leftward asymmetric. Concerning white matter, although almost no focal differences between left- and right-handed subjects were detected, volumetric analyses at the hemispheric level revealed a leftward asymmetry, which happened to be significantly less marked in the left-handed. This latter result, together with the pattern of leftward white matter asymmetries, suggested that anatomical correlates of the left hemispheric specialization for language would exist in white matter. In the population we studied, differences in anatomical asymmetry between left- and right-handed subjects provided structural arguments for a greater functional ambilaterality in left-handed subjects.

  4. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Results Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1 is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. Conclusion We have applied biochemical approaches, not used

  5. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  6. Females remyelinate more efficiently than males following demyelination in the aged but not young adult CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wu; Penderis, Jacques; Zhao, Chao; Schumacher, Michael; Franklin, Robin J M

    2006-11-01

    To assess the effects of sex on CNS remyelination, demyelinating lesions were induced by injection of ethidium bromide into the caudal cerebellar peduncle of Sprague-Dawley rats divided into the following 8 groups: young adult male, young adult female, old adult male and old adult female and each of these in which the gonads had been removed 4 weeks prior to lesion induction. Remyelination was assessed, blinded to grouping, by a ranking analysis using standard morphological criteria. In young adult animals, where remyelination proceeds rapidly, there was no difference in the remyelination at four weeks after lesion induction in male or females regardless of whether they were intact or castrated/ovariectomised. However, in old adult rats, where remyelination proceeds slowly, the extent of oligodendrocyte remyelination was significantly less in males compared to females at 8 weeks after lesion induction. Removal of gonads did not affect remyelination in old rats of either gender. These results indicate a sex-associated divergence in remyelination efficiency that occurs with ageing that is unaffected by the removal of gonadal sources of sex steroid hormones.

  7. A subset of neurons controls the permeability of the peritrophic matrix and midgut structure in Drosophila adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmoku, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Ote, Manabu; Kuraishi, Takayuki; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2016-08-01

    The metazoan gut performs multiple physiological functions, including digestion and absorption of nutrients, and also serves as a physical and chemical barrier against ingested pathogens and abrasive particles. Maintenance of these functions and structures is partly controlled by the nervous system, yet the precise roles and mechanisms of the neural control of gut integrity remain to be clarified in Drosophila Here, we screened for GAL4 enhancer-trap strains and labeled a specific subsets of neurons, using Kir2.1 to inhibit their activity. We identified an NP3253 line that is susceptible to oral infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The subset of neurons driven by the NP3253 line includes some of the enteric neurons innervating the anterior midgut, and these flies have a disorganized proventricular structure with high permeability of the peritrophic matrix and epithelial barrier. The findings of the present study indicate that neural control is crucial for maintaining the barrier function of the gut, and provide a route for genetic dissection of the complex brain-gut axis in adults of the model organism Drosophila.

  8. Seronegative Adult Autoimmune Enteropathy in a Male Traveler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli-Akintade, Latifat; Stondell, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is rare but damaging. The lack of consistent objective findings makes diagnosis a challenge. A 45-year-old male developed noninfectious diarrhea with significant weight loss and electrolyte abnormalities. Computed tomography delineated enteritis. Colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed villous atrophy, chronic inflammation, and ulceration of the terminal ileum and cecum. Pathology showed cryptitis with apoptosis and abscesses throughout the small and large bowel and absent goblet cells. Steroids rapidly improved symptoms. Anti-enterocyte antibody serologies were negative. Management can be challenging, and, in this case, the patient initially improved with budesonide and infliximab but required alternative anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy after relapsing. This is an unusual presentation of seronegative AIE, which should be considered in cases of persistent severe diarrhea. PMID:28184376

  9. Economic impact of kidney stones in white male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Scheaffer, R L

    1984-10-01

    A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountain states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approximate cost of various types of surgery, number of days hospitalized, and room rates. Work force costs were estimated from information on work days lost and income categories. Estimated recurrence rates for this disease are used to approximate the total cost, due to stones, for the next year for a current stone case. Each incident of stone disease costs, on the average, approximately $2,000, exclusive of recurrences. Hospital stays average four to five days. The average annual cost of recurrence for a current stone case is conservatively estimated to be in the $300 to $400 range. A conservative projection of these costs to the entire national population of white males in the age range of eighteen to sixty years yields an annual cost due to kidney stones approaching $315,000,000.

  10. Reference values for FEV1 and FVC in male adolescents and young adults of Ibo origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ele, P U

    1992-02-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC) and one second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were measured in 245 healthy Nigerian Ibo males aged 12-23 years. Analysis showed strong correlation between anthropometric factors (age, height, weight) and spirometric measurements (r----0.808-0.994). In the young adult group (18-23 years), FEV1 did not correlate so strongly with weight, however (r----0.654). Prediction equations, based on age and height have been developed for use among male Ibo adolescents and young adults.

  11. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  12. The genetics of hybrid male sterility between the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana: dominant sterility alleles in collinear autosomal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2007-05-01

    F(1) hybrid male sterility is thought to result from interactions between loci on the X chromosome and dominant-acting loci on the autosomes. While X-linked loci that contribute to hybrid male sterility have been precisely localized in many animal taxa, their dominant autosomal interactors have been more difficult to localize precisely and/or have been shown to be of relatively smaller effect. Here, we identified and mapped at least four dominant autosomal factors contributing to hybrid male sterility in the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana. Using these results, we tested predictions of reduced recombination models of speciation. Consistent with these models, three of the four QTL associated with hybrid male sterility occur in collinear (uninverted) regions of these genomes. Furthermore, these QTL do not contribute significantly to hybrid male sterility in crosses between the sympatric species D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura pseudoobscura. The autosomal loci identified in this study provide the basis for introgression mapping and, ultimately, for molecular cloning of interacting genes that contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility.

  13. A Sox Transcription Factor Is a Critical Regulator of Adult Stem Cell Proliferation in the Drosophila Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanju W. Meng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult organs and their resident stem cells are constantly facing the challenge of adapting cell proliferation to tissue demand, particularly in response to environmental stresses. Whereas most stress-signaling pathways are conserved between progenitors and differentiated cells, stem cells have the specific ability to respond by increasing their proliferative rate, using largely unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that a member of the Sox family of transcription factors in Drosophila, Sox21a, is expressed in intestinal stem cells (ISCs in the adult gut. Sox21a is essential for the proliferation of these cells during both normal epithelium turnover and repair. Its expression is induced in response to tissue damage, downstream of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathways, to promote ISC proliferation. Although short-lived, Sox21a mutant flies show no developmental defects, supporting the notion that this factor is a specific regulator of adult stem cell proliferation.

  14. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  15. A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Gligorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR. The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B, we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa, CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a

  16. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Obesity Susceptibility in Adult Male Rat Offspring by Altering Early Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Xue, Jing-Ling; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate whether perinatal nicotine (NIC) exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis. NIC was sc administered (2.0 mg/kg per day) to pregnant rats from gestational day 9 to the time of weaning (postnatal day 28). At weaning, NIC-exposed male pups had an increased body weight and inguinal sc fat mass and a decreased average cell area of adipocyte, which was accompanied by an overexpression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Additionally, the hepatic lipogenic gene levels from NIC-exposed male pups were also affected. At 12 and 26 weeks of age, body weight and fat mass were increased, whereas there was no change in food intake in NIC-exposed male offspring. Adipogenic and lipogenic genes, glucose transporter 4, and leptin mRNA levels were increased, whereas adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased in the epididymal white adipose tissue of NIC-exposed males. The hepatic lipogenic gene expression of NIC-exposed males was increased. NIC-exposed male offspring showed normal glycemia and a higher serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Furthermore, the NIC-exposed male offspring showed higher serum lipids and Castelli index I and lower nonesterified fatty acid. At 26 weeks, in the ip glucose and insulin tolerance tests, the glucose clearance was delayed, and the area under the curve was higher in the NIC-exposed male offspring. In conclusion, perinatal NIC exposure increased obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis.

  17. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  18. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  19. Long term effects of parenting and family characteristics on delinquency of male young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Smeenk, W.; Loeber, R.; Southamer-Loeber, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Gerris, J.R.; Dubas, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from the criminology literature and family studies, we investigated the long-term effects of established family risk factors and parenting styles on male young adult delinquency. We used data sets from two longitudinal studies, the Pittsburgh Youth Study (N474) and the Child-Rearing and Fami

  20. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male miceJohn C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  2. Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on Young Adult Male Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, Birgitte; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between divorce and young adult male crime, controlling for two factors; socioeconomic status and paternal criminality. The subjects were drawn from the subject pool of a Danish longitudinal study. The initial significant effects of divorce disappeared when the controlling factors were introduced through…

  3. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  4. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.; Happé, F.; Wheelwright, S.J.; Ecker, C.; Lombardo, M.V.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.; Murphy, C.M.; Spain, D.; Lai, M-C.; Chakrabarti, B; Sauter, D.A.; MRC AIMS Consortium, [Unknown; Baron-Cohen, S.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of c

  5. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  6. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  7. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  8. Open source tracking and analysis of adult Drosophila locomotion in Buridan's paradigm with and without visual targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Colomb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects have been among the most widely used model systems for studying the control of locomotion by nervous systems. In Drosophila, we implemented a simple test for locomotion: in Buridan's paradigm, flies walk back and forth between two inaccessible visual targets [1]. Until today, the lack of easily accessible tools for tracking the fly position and analyzing its trajectory has probably contributed to the slow acceptance of Buridan's paradigm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present here a package of open source software designed to track a single animal walking in a homogenous environment (Buritrack and to analyze its trajectory. The Centroid Trajectory Analysis (CeTrAn software is coded in the open source statistics project R. It extracts eleven metrics and includes correlation analyses and a Principal Components Analysis (PCA. It was designed to be easily customized to personal requirements. In combination with inexpensive hardware, these tools can readily be used for teaching and research purposes. We demonstrate the capabilities of our package by measuring the locomotor behavior of adult Drosophila melanogaster (whose wings were clipped, either in the presence or in the absence of visual targets, and comparing the latter to different computer-generated data. The analysis of the trajectories confirms that flies are centrophobic and shows that inaccessible visual targets can alter the orientation of the flies without changing their overall patterns of activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using computer generated data, the analysis software was tested, and chance values for some metrics (as well as chance value for their correlation were set. Our results prompt the hypothesis that fixation behavior is observed only if negative phototaxis can overcome the propensity of the flies to avoid the center of the platform. Together with our companion paper, we provide new tools to promote Open Science as well as the collection and

  9. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  10. Male- and female-specific variants of doublesex gene products have different roles to play towards regulation of Sex combs reduced expression and sex comb morphogenesis in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thangjam Ranjita Devi; B V Shyamala

    2013-09-01

    Sexually dimorphic characters have two-fold complexities in pattern formation as they have to get input fromboth somatic sex determination as well as the positional determining regulators. Sex comb development in Drosophila requires functions of the somatic sex-determining gene doublesex and the homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Attempts have not been made to decipher the role of dsx in imparting sexually dimorphic expression of SCR and the differential function of sex-specific variants of dsx products in sex comb development. Our results in this study indicate that male-like pattern of SCR expression is independent of dsx function, and dsxF must be responsible for bringing about dimorphism in SCR expression, whereas dsxM function is required with Scr for the morphogenesis of sex comb.

  11. Depressive-Like Behavioral Response of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys during Routine Animal Husbandry Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Hennessy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors—lying on the substrate and day time sleeping—that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7 to 14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood.

  12. Inhibition of GSK-3 ameliorates Abeta pathology in an adult-onset Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyinkan Sofola

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abeta peptide accumulation is thought to be the primary event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, with downstream neurotoxic effects including the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 is increasingly implicated as playing a pivotal role in this amyloid cascade. We have developed an adult-onset Drosophila model of AD, using an inducible gene expression system to express Arctic mutant Abeta42 specifically in adult neurons, to avoid developmental effects. Abeta42 accumulated with age in these flies and they displayed increased mortality together with progressive neuronal dysfunction, but in the apparent absence of neuronal loss. This fly model can thus be used to examine the role of events during adulthood and early AD aetiology. Expression of Abeta42 in adult neurons increased GSK-3 activity, and inhibition of GSK-3 (either genetically or pharmacologically by lithium treatment rescued Abeta42 toxicity. Abeta42 pathogenesis was also reduced by removal of endogenous fly tau; but, within the limits of detection of available methods, tau phosphorylation did not appear to be altered in flies expressing Abeta42. The GSK-3-mediated effects on Abeta42 toxicity appear to be at least in part mediated by tau-independent mechanisms, because the protective effect of lithium alone was greater than that of the removal of tau alone. Finally, Abeta42 levels were reduced upon GSK-3 inhibition, pointing to a direct role of GSK-3 in the regulation of Abeta42 peptide level, in the absence of APP processing. Our study points to the need both to identify the mechanisms by which GSK-3 modulates Abeta42 levels in the fly and to determine if similar mechanisms are present in mammals, and it supports the potential therapeutic use of GSK-3 inhibitors in AD.

  13. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G. M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age groups power density in the delta and theta frequencies declined from NREM period 1 to 3. In the sigma frequencies, however, no systematic changes in power density were observed over the sleep episode....

  14. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.Pupa e adulto macho previamente desconhecidos de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. A pupa de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972 foi coletada em macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae na Ilha da Marchantaria próximo a Manaus, Brasil e o adulto macho criado foi descrito, fotografado e ilustrado pela primeira vez. Esta é a primeira descrição para a pupa do gênero Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  15. PREVALENCE OF TOBACCO USE AMONG THE ADULT MALES IN A SOUTH INDIAN VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Tobacco usage is widely prevalent in both the developed and developing countries. It is one of the important preventable causes of premature death in developing countries. It has been estimated that nearly 50% of men are dependent on some form of tobacco use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of tobacco usage among the adult male population in rural areas. The objectives were to find out the tobacco usage in various forms and the impact of pictorial warnings on the packing to quit tobacco. A cross sectional observational study was conducted in Pedaparimi village of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, Rural Field Practice area of NRI Medical College, Guntur for 3 months (from January to March 2014. Ten percent of the houses were studied using systematic random sampling method. The data was collected from 105 adult male respondents residing in the village

  16. Advancing maternal age is associated with lower bone mineral density in young adult male offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rudäng, R.; Mellström, D.; Clark, E.; Ohlsson, C; Lorentzon, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Advancing maternal age has been related to increased risk of fetal death and morbidity, as well as higher fracture risk during childhood, in the offspring. In the present study, we demonstrate that advancing maternal age is independently associated with reduced bone mass in the young adult male offspring. Introduction In Sweden the maternal age in both primi- and multipara mothers has steadily increased during the last three decades. It has been previously reported that advancing mate...

  17. Reproductive abnormalities in adult male mice following preimplantation exposures to estradiol or pesticide methoxychlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, Sergei Ya; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Amstislavsky, Vjacheslav S; Tibeikina, Marina A; Osipov, Kiril V; Eroschenko, Victor P

    2006-02-01

    Adult females of ICR strain of mice were bred, separated into different experimental groups, and treated as follows. On Days 2-4 of pregnancy, the mice received daily subcutaneous injections of either 0.05 ml sesame oil (vehicle) or same volume of 5.0mg of purified methoxychlor (MXC) suspended in the vehicle. Another group received a single subcutaneous injection of 1.0 microg of estradiol-17beta (E) on Day 2 of pregnancy only. Male offspring were tested at 3 and 6 months of age. At 3 months, E or MXC did not alter the weights of seminal vesicles, preputial glands, or testes, although after exposure for 30 min to a female in estrus behind a partition, testosterone levels were significantly reduced in treated males in comparison to control males exposed to the same partition test. At 6 months, the preputial glands and testes weight remained unchanged, while the seminal vesicles were significantly heavier in E- and MXC-treated males. Same partition tests again revealed that in E and MXC groups, testosterone levels remained significantly lower in comparison to control males. MXC or E exposures during preimplantation appear to induce long-term effects on the sexual development in 3 and 6 month-old-males by compromising their sexual arousal and altering seminal vesicles weights in the older group.

  18. Genetic correlation between the pre-adult developmental period and locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K H; Teramura, K; Muraoka, S; Okada, Y; Miyatake, T

    2013-04-01

    Biological clocks regulate various behavioural and physiological traits; slower circadian clocks are expected to slow down the development, suggesting a potential genetic correlation between the developmental period and circadian rhythm. However, a correlation between natural genetic variations in the developmental period and circadian rhythm has only been found in Bactrocera cucurbitae. The number of genetic factors that contribute to this genetic correlation is largely unclear. In this study, to examine whether natural genetic variations in the developmental period and circadian rhythm are correlated in Drosophila melanogaster, we performed an artificial disruptive selection on the developmental periods using wild-type strains and evaluated the circadian rhythms of the selected lines. To investigate whether multiple genetic factors mediate the genetic correlation, we reanalyzed previously published genome-wide deficiency screening data based on DrosDel isogenic deficiency strains and evaluated the effect of 438 genomic deficiencies on the developmental periods. We then randomly selected 32 genomic deficiencies with significant effects on the developmental periods and tested their effects on circadian rhythms. As a result, we found a significant response to selection for longer developmental periods and their correlated effects on circadian rhythms of the selected lines. We also found that 18 genomic regions had significant effects on the developmental periods and circadian rhythms, indicating their potential for mediating the genetic correlation between the developmental period and circadian rhythm. The novel findings of our study might lead to a better understanding of how this correlation is regulated genetically in broader taxonomic groups.

  19. Notch is required in adult Drosophila sensory neurons for morphological and functional plasticity of the olfactory circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kidd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs convey odor information to the central brain, but like other sensory neurons were thought to play a passive role in memory formation and storage. Here we show that Notch, part of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway, is required in adult Drosophila ORNs for the structural and functional plasticity of olfactory glomeruli that is induced by chronic odor exposure. Specifically, we show that Notch activity in ORNs is necessary for the odor specific increase in the volume of glomeruli that occurs as a consequence of prolonged odor exposure. Calcium imaging experiments indicate that Notch in ORNs is also required for the chronic odor induced changes in the physiology of ORNs and the ensuing changes in the physiological response of their second order projection neurons (PNs. We further show that Notch in ORNs acts by both canonical cleavage-dependent and non-canonical cleavage-independent pathways. The Notch ligand Delta (Dl in PNs switches the balance between the pathways. These data define a circuit whereby, in conjunction with odor, N activity in the periphery regulates the activity of neurons in the central brain and Dl in the central brain regulates N activity in the periphery. Our work highlights the importance of experience dependent plasticity at the first olfactory synapse.

  20. Multigenerational Effects of Rearing Atmospheric Oxygen Level on the Tracheal Dimensions and Diffusing Capacities of Pupal and Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, C Jaco; Kaiser, Alexander; Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-01-01

    Insects are small relative to vertebrates, and were larger in the Paleozoic when atmospheric oxygen levels were higher. The safety margin for oxygen delivery does not increase in larger insects, due to an increased mass-specific investment in the tracheal system and a greater use of convection in larger insects. Prior studies have shown that the dimensions and number of tracheal system branches varies inversely with rearing oxygen in embryonic and larval insects. Here we tested whether rearing in 10, 21, or 40 kPa atmospheric oxygen atmospheres for 5-7 generations affected the tracheal dimensions and diffusing capacities of pupal and adult Drosophila. Abdominal tracheae and pupal snorkel tracheae showed weak responses to oxygen, while leg tracheae showed strong, but imperfect compensatory changes. The diffusing capacity of leg tracheae appears closely matched to predicted oxygen transport needs by diffusion, perhaps explaining the consistent and significant responses of these tracheae to rearing oxygen. The reduced investment in tracheal structure in insects reared in higher oxygen levels may be important for conserving tissue PO2 and may provide an important mechanism for insects to invest only the space and materials necessary into respiratory structure.

  1. A correlation of reactive oxygen species accumulation by depletion of superoxide dismutases with age-dependent impairment in the nervous system and muscles of Drosophila adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Saori; Hirai, Jun; Yasukawa, Takashi; Nakahara, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2015-08-01

    The theory that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in internal organs is a major promoter of aging has been considered negatively. However, it is still controversial whether overexpression of superoxide dismutases (SODs), which remove ROS, extends the lifespan in Drosophila adults. We examined whether ROS accumulation by depletion of Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) or Mn-SOD (SOD2) influenced age-related impairment of the nervous system and muscles in Drosophila. We confirmed the efficient depletion of Sod1 and Sod2 through RNAi and ROS accumulation by monitoring of ROS-inducible gene expression. Both RNAi flies displayed accelerated impairment of locomotor activity with age and shortened lifespan. Similarly, adults with nervous system-specific depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 also showed reduced lifespan. We then found an accelerated loss of dopaminergic neurons in the flies with suppressed SOD expression. A half-dose reduction of three pro-apoptotic genes resulted in a significant suppression of the neuronal loss, suggesting that apoptosis was involved in the neuronal loss caused by SOD silencing. In addition, depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 in musculature is also associated with enhancement of age-related locomotion impairment. In indirect flight muscles from SOD-depleted adults, abnormal protein aggregates containing poly-ubiquitin accumulated at an early adult stage and continued to increase as the flies aged. Most of these protein aggregates were observed between myofibril layers. Moreover, immuno-electron microscopy indicated that the aggregates were predominantly localized in damaged mitochondria. These findings suggest that muscular and neuronal ROS accumulation may have a significant effect on age-dependent impairment of the Drosophila adults.

  2. Differential Effects of Family Structure on Religion and Spirituality of Emerging Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Paul J; Lace, John W

    2016-12-23

    This study examined measures of religion and spirituality in a sample of male and female emerging adult college students whose parents were either divorced or intact using the Personal Religious Inventory, the Duke University Religion Index, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Data were collected online, and 66% of participants received extra credit for participating. A main effect of sex was found, as females reported significantly higher scores than men on all but one measure of religion and spirituality, and the dataset was separated by sex. No differences were found between males from divorced and intact families. However, females from intact families scored significantly higher on all religion and spirituality measures than females from divorced families. This study suggests that females may respond differently than males to their parents' divorce in the context of religion and spirituality, and discusses possible reasons.

  3. Semen quality in adult male survivors 5 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X M; Chen, S M; Yue, H X; Lin, L; Wu, Y B; Liu, B; Jiang, M; Ma, Y X

    2016-12-01

    The influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on semen quality of adult male survivors is unclear. We investigated the semen quality included 673 male survivors from the worse-affected counties in the earthquake between Aug 2008 and July 2013. Semen parameters including pH, volume, concentration, motility and morphology were measured according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to examine the statistical differences between years, and a logistic regression was used to analyse the impacts caused by earthquake on the changes of semen quality. We found the medians (5th and 95th) were 2.5 ml (0.6-5.5) for semen volume, 59.0 × 10(6)  ml(-1) [(13.0-133.0)] × 10(6)  ml(-1) for semen concentration, 46% (13-64%) for sperm progressive motility and 3.0% (0-17.5%) for normal morphology for adult male survivors. Semen concentration, the percentage of sperm progressive motility, total motility and sperm normal morphology were all decreased in the first 3 years, and the differences among years 1, 2 and 3 were significant except the percentage of sperm progressive motility (P earthquake had a negative effect on semen quality. The main findings will provide further diagnosis and therapy basis of male fertility by data, for affected populations in the earthquake.

  4. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  5. Physiological responses of the adult male collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae), to severe dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Greene, L W; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic and hormonal responses of eight adult male collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) to an ad libitum diet intake, or 25% of an ad libitum intake, were examined. Blood samples for hematological, serum-biochemical and hormonal profiles were collected at three week intervals during the nine week experiment starting 4 August 1983. Males fed on the restricted diet lost an average of 26% of their body weight during the trial, compared to a slight weight gain for those fed ad libitum. Characteristics of the red and white blood cell populations were not influenced by diet intake, with the exception of mean corpuscular volume, which was consistently lower amongst males fed on the restricted diet. Restricted food intake resulted in significantly elevated serum values for urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen:creatinine, urea index, alpha globulin:beta globulin, gamma globulin:albumin, nonesterified fatty acids, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase isozymes (LD1 and LD2). Restricted food intake resulted in significantly lowered serum values for total alpha globulin, alpha-1 globulin, total beta globulin, beta-1 globulin, beta-2 globulin, glucose, triglycerides, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, copper and triiodothyronine. Serum levels of creatinine, total protein, albumin, alpha-2 globulin, uric acid, total bilirubin, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, calcium:phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and thyroxine were unaffected by diet intake level. Semen evaluation indicated spermatogenesis was not affected by dietary restriction despite reductions in scrotal circumference and ejaculate gel volume. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower among males fed on the restricted diet after nine weeks. These data suggest male libido might be depressed during poor range conditions, while maintenance of spermatogenesis might permit them to take immediate advantage of improved

  6. Male-specific phosphorylated SR proteins in adult flies of the Mediterranean fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Giuseppe; Louis, Christos; Zhang, Hongyou; Petrella, Valeria; Di Natale, Manuela; Perri, Maria; Salvemini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a widely used mechanism of gene regulation in sex determination pathways of Insects. In species from orders as distant as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, female differentiation relies on the activities of conserved splicing regulators, TRA and TRA-2, promoting female-specific expression of the global effector doublesex (dsx). Less understood is to what extent post-translational modifications of splicing regulators plays a role in this pathway. In Drosophila melanogaster phosphorylation of TRA, TRA-2 and the general RBP1 factor by the LAMMER kinase doa (darkener of apricot) is required for proper female sex determination. To explore whether this is a general feature of the pathway we examined sex-specific differences in phosphorylation levels of SR splicing factors in the dipteran species D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata (Medfly) and Musca domestica (Housefly). We found a distinct and reproducible pattern of male-specific phosphorylation on protein extracts enriched for SR proteins in C. capitata suggesting that differential phosphorylation may also contribute to the regulation of sex-specific splicing in the Medfly.

  7. Characterization of null and hypomorphic alleles of the Drosophila l(2)dtl/cdt2 gene: Larval lethality and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Roketa S; Swanson, Christina I; Gavilano, Lily; Smith, Kristen N; Malek, Pamela Y; Snow-Smith, Mayronne; Duronio, Robert J; Key, S Catherine Silver

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila lethal(2)denticleless (l(2)dtl) gene was originally reported as essential for embryogenesis and formation of the rows of tiny hairs on the larval ventral cuticle known as denticle belts. It is now well-established that l(2)dtl (also called cdt2) encodes a subunit of a Cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets a number of key cell cycle regulatory proteins, including p21, Cdt1, E2F1 and Set8, to prevent replication defects and maintain cell cycle control. To investigate the role of l(2)dtl/cdt2 during development, we characterized existing l(2)dtl/cdt2 mutants and generated new deletion alleles, using P-element excision mutagenesis. Surprisingly, homozygous l(2)dtl/cdt2 mutant embryos developed beyond embryogenesis, had intact denticle belts, and lacked an observable embryonic replication defect. These mutants died during larval stages, affirming that loss of l(2)dtl/cdt2 function is lethal. Our data show that L(2)dtl/Cdt2 is maternally deposited, remains nuclear throughout the cell cycle, and has a previously unreported, elevated expression in the developing gonads. We also find that E2f1 regulates l(2)dtl/cdt2 expression during embryogenesis, possibly via several highly conserved putative E2f1 binding sites near the l(2)dtl/cdt2 promoter. Finally, hypomorphic allele combinations of the l(2)dtl/cdt2 gene result in a novel phenotype: viable, low-fertility males. We conclude that "denticleless" is a misnomer, but that l(2)dtl/cdt2 is an essential gene for Drosophila development.

  8. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  9. Mass mortality of adult male subantarctic fur seals: are alien mice the culprits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Nico de Bruyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass mortalities of marine mammals due to infectious agents are increasingly reported. However, in contrast to previous die-offs, which were indiscriminate with respect to sex and age, here we report a land-based mass mortality of Subantarctic fur seals with apparent exclusivity to adult males. An infectious agent with a male-predilection is the most plausible explanation for this die-off. Although pathogens with gender-biased transmission and pathologies are unusual, rodents are known sources of male-biased infectious agents and the invasive Mus musculus house mouse, occurs in seal rookeries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular screening for male-biased pathogens in this potential rodent reservoir host revealed the absence of Cardiovirus and Leptospirosis genomes in heart and kidney samples, respectively, but identified a novel Streptococcus species with 30% prevalence in mouse kidneys. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Inter-species transmission through environmental contamination with this novel bacterium, whose congenerics display male-bias and have links to infirmity in seals and terrestrial mammals (including humans, highlights the need to further evaluate disease risks posed by alien invasive mice to native species, on this and other islands.

  10. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  11. The implication of salience network abnormalities in young male adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Guan, Yanyan; Cheng, Jiadong; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Tian, Jie

    2016-07-20

    Studying the neural correlates of smoking behaviors in young adulthood is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes. In previous addiction studies, the important roles of the salience network (SN) in drug cue processing and cognitive control have been revealed. Unfortunately, few studies focused on the resting-state functional connectivity and structural integrity abnormalities of SN in young adult smokers, and less is known about its association with smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits. Thirty-one young male adult smokers and 30 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in this study. The structural and functional connectivity differences of SN were investigated between young adult smokers and nonsmokers by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), which were then correlated with the smoking behavioral assessments (pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)) as well as impaired cognitive control measured by the Stroop task. Within SN, reduced RSFC and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) were found between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right insula in young adult smokers relative to nonsmokers. The RSFC between the ACC and right insula was negatively correlated with the number of errors during the incongruent condition of the Stroop task in young adult smokers. Additionally, the right insula-ACC RSFC was negatively correlated with pack-years in young adult smokers. Our results revealed abnormal RSFC and structural integrity within the SN in young adult smokers, which shed new insights into the neural mechanism of nicotine dependence.

  12. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

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    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  13. Subacute toxicity assessment of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Aline Lima; Cavalheiro, Gabriela Finoto; de Souza, Alexsandra Vila Maior; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB), an insecticide and acaricide insect growth regulator, can be used in agriculture against insect predators and in public health programs, to control insects and vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti larvae. Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this compound, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of subacute exposure to the DFB insecticide in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed (gavage) to 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DFB for 28 days. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the DFB-treated animals of the experimental groups. However, there was an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the group that received 8 mg/kg/DFB/day and urea at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/DFB/day, without altering other biochemical or hematological parameters. The subacute exposure to the lowest dose of DFB caused significant decrease in testis weight, daily sperm production, and in number of sperm in the epididymis in relation to the control group. However, no alterations were observed in the sperm morphology, testicular, epididymis, liver and kidney histology, or testosterone levels. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of DFB on male reproduction after the subacute exposure and special attention should be addressed to the effects of low doses of this pesticide.

  14. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  15. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  16. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  17. Identifying sexual differentiation genes that affect Drosophila life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tower John

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual differentiation often has significant effects on life span and aging phenotypes. For example, males and females of several species have different life spans, and genetic and environmental manipulations that affect life span often have different magnitude of effect in males versus females. Moreover, the presence of a differentiated germ-line has been shown to affect life span in several species, including Drosophila and C. elegans. Methods Experiments were conducted to determine how alterations in sexual differentiation gene activity might affect the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila females heterozygous for the tudor[1] mutation produce normal offspring, while their homozygous sisters produce offspring that lack a germ line. To identify additional sexual differentiation genes that might affect life span, the conditional transgenic system Geneswitch was employed, whereby feeding adult flies or developing larvae the drug RU486 causes the over-expression of selected UAS-transgenes. Results In this study germ-line ablation caused by the maternal tudor[1] mutation was examined in a long-lived genetic background, and was found to increase life span in males but not in females, consistent with previous reports. Fitting the data to a Gompertz-Makeham model indicated that the maternal tudor[1] mutation increases the life span of male progeny by decreasing age-independent mortality. The Geneswitch system was used to screen through several UAS-type and EP-type P element mutations in genes that regulate sexual differentiation, to determine if additional sex-specific effects on life span would be obtained. Conditional over-expression of transformer female isoform (traF during development produced male adults with inhibited sexual differentiation, however this caused no significant change in life span. Over-expression of doublesex female isoform (dsxF during development was lethal to males, and produced a limited

  18. Adult Drosophila melanogaster evolved for antibacterial defense invest in infection-induced expression of both humoral and cellular immunity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGraw Elizabeth A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve in flies selected for improved antibacterial defense. Here we use this experimental system to examine how insects invest in constitutive versus infection-induced transcription of immunity genes. These two strategies carry with them different consequences with respect to energetic and pleiotropic costs and may be more or less effective in improving defense depending on whether the genes contribute to humoral or cellular aspects of immunity. Findings Contrary to expectation we show that selection preferentially increased the infection-induced expression of both cellular and humoral immunity genes. Given their functional roles, infection induced increases in expression were expected for the humoral genes, while increases in constitutive expression were expected for the cellular genes. We also report a restricted ability to improve transcription of immunity genes that is on the order of 2-3 fold regardless of total transcription level of the gene. Conclusions The evolved increases in infection-induced expression of the cellular genes may result from specific cross talk with humoral pathways or from generalised strategies for enhancing immunity gene transcription. A failure to see improvements in constitutive expression of the cellular genes suggests either that increases might come at too great a cost or that patterns of expression in adults are decoupled from the larval phase where increases would be most effective. The similarity in fold change increase across all immunity genes may suggest a shared mechanism for the evolution of increased transcription in small, discrete units such as duplication of cis-regulatory elements.

  19. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Jasmin S; Nagel, Anja C; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-12-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) and a phospho-mimetic Su(H) (MAPK-ac) isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vg (BE) -lacZ). In general, Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H) (MAPK-ac) was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vg (BE) -lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DER (act) ) or the MAPK (rl (SEM) ) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones.

  20. Stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster under semi-natural condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha N Kannan

    Full Text Available Here we report the results of a study aimed at examining stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms under semi-natural conditions (henceforth SN, in four large outbred fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster populations, selected for emergence in a narrow window of time under laboratory (henceforth LAB light/dark (LD cycles. When assessed under LAB, selected flies display enhanced stability in terms of higher amplitude, synchrony and accuracy in emergence and activity rhythms compared to controls. The present study was conducted to assess whether such differences in stability between selected and control populations, persist under SN where several gradually changing time-cues are present in their strongest form. The study revealed that under SN, emergence waveform of selected flies was modified, with even more enhanced peak and narrower gate-width compared to those observed in the LAB and compared to control populations in SN. Furthermore, flies from selected populations continued to exhibit enhanced synchrony and accuracy in their emergence and activity rhythms under SN compared to controls. Further analysis of zeitgeber effects revealed that enhanced stability in the rhythmicity of selected flies under SN was primarily due to increased sensitivity to light because emergence and activity rhythms of selected flies were as stable as controls under temperature cycles. These results thus suggest that stability of circadian rhythms in fruit flies D. melanogaster, which evolved as a consequence of selection for emergence in a narrow window of time under weak zeitgeber condition of LAB, persists robustly in the face of day-to-day variations in cycling environmental factors of nature.

  1. Treatment for convicted adult male sex offenders: an overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Corabian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In countries with developed economies, a common approach to protecting communities from sexual offending is to provide specialized treatment for convicted sex offenders to reduce recidivism. Many psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy interventions are currently in widespread use as sex offender treatment (SOT options delivered within programs to prevent recidivism or reoffending among convicted adult male sex offenders. A number of systematic reviews (SRs have already evaluated the evidence from primary research studies on the effectiveness of these interventions.Methods: A structured overview of SRs published in English since January 1998 was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders.Results: Eight SRs met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from seven moderate-to-high quality SRs suggests that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT delivered within programs adhering to the risk/need/responsivity (RNR model has the potential to reduce recidivism. These findings must be tempered as they are mostly based on poor quality primary research. The reviewed evidence was inconclusive as to the components or framework of an effective SOT program or the setting in which a program should be delivered.Conclusions: This overview provides decision-makers in the SOT field with an accessible, good quality synthesis of the best evidence available on the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders. While further research is warranted, the available evidence suggests that CBT delivered within programs adhering to the RNR model represents the most promising approach.

  2. PES PLANUS (FLATFOOT IN MALE AND FEMALE ADULTS OF BAYELSA- NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare NW

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to provide and document an accurate record of the noticeable occurrence of pes planus amongst adults in Bayelsa State (Nigeria. A random sample of 510 persons (235 males and 275 females; aged 33 ± 15 years and totally Bayelsa's natives was analyzed. An ink imprint on white paper of their weight-bearing surface of the feet was carried out with diagnostic purposes. 48 males (20.4% and 81 females (29.5% revealed pes planus whereas the rest of the sample did not show it. The incidence of pes planus was 1:4. The well known frequent excess of bodyweight in these native groups may be responsible for this abnormality and obliges to pay due attention to the related habits. Furthermore, the obtained results could probably have anthropological and forensic medicine impact.

  3. Adult male circumcision with a circular stapler versus conventional circumcision: A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X D; Lu, J J; Liu, W H; Zhou, J; Yu, R K; Yu, B; Zhang, X J; Shen, B H

    2015-06-01

    Male circumcision is the most frequently performed procedure by urologists. Safety and efficacy of the circumcision procedure requires continual improvement. In the present study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of a new male circumcision technique involving the use of a circular stapler. In total, 879 consecutive adult male patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 441 underwent stapler circumcision, and 438 underwent conventional circumcision. The operative time, pain score, blood loss volume, healing time, treatment costs, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. The operative time and blood loss volume were significantly lower in the stapler group than in the conventional group (6.8 ± 3.1 vs 24.2 ± 3.2 min and 1.8 ± 1.8 vs 9.4 ± 1.5 mL, respectively; Pcircumcision required removal of residual staple nails. Overall, the present study has shown that stapler circumcision is a time-efficient and safe male circumcision technique, although it requires further improvement.

  4. Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia in an adult male due to a novel mutation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanda; Qing, Qi; Liu, Xuesong; Chen, Sibei; Chen, Ziyi; Niu, Xuefeng; Tan, Yaxia; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is caused by mutation in the gene coding for Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), which impairs peripheral B cell maturation and hypogammaglobulinemia. In this report, we present a case of XLA in a 22-year-old adult male. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation located at the conserved region (c.383T>C). The patient had a history of recurrent respiratory tract infection which eventually progressed to chronic type II respiratory failure. Several pathogenic bacteria were isolated on culture of respiratory secretions obtained on bronchoscopy. The patient improved on treatment with antibiotics. PMID:27867589

  5. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulatio...

  6. Adolescent TBI-induced hypopituitarism causes sexual dysfunction in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Tiffany; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2015-02-01

    Adolescents are at greatest risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been documented in both adults and juveniles and despite the necessity of pituitary function for normal physical and brain development, it is still unrecognized and untreated in adolescents following TBI. TBI induced hormonal dysfunction during a critical developmental window has the potential to cause long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits and the topic currently remains unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to determine if four mild TBIs delivered to adolescent male rats disrupts testosterone production and adult behavioral outcomes. Plasma testosterone was quantified from 72 hrs preinjury to 3 months postinjury and pubertal onset, reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors were assessed at 1 and 2 months postinjury. RTBI resulted in both acute and chronic decreases in testosterone production and delayed onset of puberty. Significant deficits were observed in reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors in adult rats at both 1 and 2 months postinjury. These data suggest adolescent RTBI-induced hypopituitarism underlies abnormal behavioral changes observed during adulthood. The impact of undiagnosed hypopituitarism following RTBI in adolescence has significance not only for growth and puberty, but also for brain development and neurobehavioral function as adults.

  7. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

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    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  8. Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex chromosome of In(1)B$^{M2}$(reinverted) of Drosophila melanogaster is associated with increased acetylation of histone 4 at lysine 16

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Kulkarni-Shukla; A. P. Barge; R. S. Vartak; Anita Kar

    2008-12-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, dosage compensation occurs through hypertranscription of sex-linked genes in males. The hypertranscription involves acetylation of histone 4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) on amale X-chromosome, brought about by a histone acetyltransferase encoded by the dosage compensation gene, males absent on the first (mof). We report a phenomenon in the strain In(1)B$^{M2}$(reinverted) of D. melanogaster where the global structure of the male X-chromosome can be altered at the third instar larval stage through a 4-h cold shock at 12±1°C. We show that the cold shock results in a transient hyperacetylation of H4K16 and an increased expression of MOF. Control proteins H4 acetylated at lysine 5, and the dosage compensation gene msl-2, do not show any change in expression after cold shock. Cytology of the male X-chromosome at different time points during cold shock and recovery, suggests that the hyperacetylation of H4 at lysine 16 causes the X-chromosome to corkscrew into itself, thereby achieving the cold-induced change in the higher order structure of the male polytene X-chromosome. Our studies suggest a role for H4K16 in maintaining the structure of the male X-chromosome in Drosophila.

  9. No effect of mitochondrial genotype on reproductive plasticity following exposure to a non-infectious pathogen challenge in female or male Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrand, M.; Cassidy, E. J.; Dowling, D. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial genetic variation shapes the expression of life-history traits associated with reproduction, development and survival, and has also been associated with the prevalence and progression of infectious bacteria and viruses in humans. The breadth of these effects on multifaceted components of health, and their link to disease susceptibility, led us to test whether variation across mitochondrial haplotypes affected reproductive success following an immune challenge in the form of a non-infectious pathogen. We test this, by challenging male and female fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), harbouring each of three distinct mitochondrial haplotypes in an otherwise standardized genetic background, to either a mix of heat-killed bacteria, or a procedural control, prior to measuring their subsequent reproductive performance. The effect of the pathogen challenge on reproductive success did not differ across mitochondrial haplotypes; thus there was no evidence that patterns of reproductive plasticity were modified by the mitochondrial genotype following a non-infectious pathogen exposure. We discuss the implications of our data, and suggest future research avenues based on these results. PMID:28181526

  10. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  11. The genetic basis of postzygotic reproductive isolation between Drosophila santomea and D. yakuba due to hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Amanda J; Llopart, Ana; Elwyn, Susannah; Coyne, Jerry A; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2006-05-01

    A major unresolved challenge of evolutionary biology is to determine the nature of the allelic variants of "speciation genes": those alleles whose interaction produces inviable or infertile interspecific hybrids but does not reduce fitness in pure species. Here we map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fertility of male hybrids between D. yakuba and its recently discovered sibling species, D. santomea. We mapped three to four X chromosome QTL and two autosomal QTL with large effects on the reduced fertility of D. yakuba and D. santomea backcross males. We observed epistasis between the X-linked QTL and also between the X and autosomal QTL. The X chromosome had a disproportionately large effect on hybrid sterility in both reciprocal backcross hybrids. However, the genetics of hybrid sterility differ between D. yakuba and D. santomea backcross males, both in terms of the magnitude of main effects and in the epistatic interactions. The QTL affecting hybrid fertility did not colocalize with QTL affecting sexual isolation in this species pair, but did colocalize with QTL affecting the marked difference in pigmentation between D. yakuba and D. santomea. These results provide the basis for future high-resolution mapping and ultimately, molecular cloning, of the interacting genes that contribute to hybrid sterility.

  12. Correlated changes in life history traits in response to selection for faster pre-adult development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pankaj; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2014-02-15

    Insects including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are under intense pressure to develop rapidly because they inhabit ephemeral habitats. We have previously shown that when selection for faster development was artificially imposed on D. melanogaster in the laboratory, reduction of pre-adult development time and shortening of the clock period occurs, suggesting a role for circadian clocks in the regulation of life history traits. Circadian clocks in D. melanogaster have also been implicated in the control of metabolic pathways, ageing processes, oxidative stress and defense responses to exogenous stressors. In order to rigorously examine correlations between pre-adult development time and other life history traits, we assayed pre-adult survivorship, starvation and desiccation resistance, body size and body weight, fecundity and adult lifespan in faster developing populations of D. melanogaster. The results revealed that selection for faster pre-adult development significantly reduced several adult fitness traits in the faster developing flies without affecting pre-adult survivorship. Although overall fecundity of faster developing flies was reduced, their egg output per unit body weight was significantly higher than that of controls, indicating that reduction in adult lifespan might be due to disproportionate investment in reproduction. Thus our results suggest that selection for faster pre-adult development in D. melanogaster yields flies with higher reproductive fitness. Because these flies also have shorter clock periods, our results can be taken to suggest that pre-adult development time and circadian clock period are correlated with various adult life history traits in D. melanogaster, implying that circadian clocks may have adaptive significance.

  13. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

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    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  14. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats.

  15. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed.

  16. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure.

  17. Desvenlafaxine may accelerate neuronal maturation in the dentate gyri of adult male rats.

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    Aditya Asokan

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been linked to the effects of anti-depressant drugs on behavior in rodent models of depression. To explore this link further, we tested whether the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI venlafaxine impacted adult hippocampal neurogenesis differently than its primary active SNRI metabolite desvenlafaxine. Adult male Long Evans rats (n = 5-6 per group were fed vehicle, venlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg or desvenlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg twice daily for 16 days. Beginning the third day of drug treatment, the rats were given a daily bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg injection for 5 days to label dividing cells and then perfused 2 weeks after the first BrdU injection to confirm total new hippocampal cell numbers and their phenotypes. The high desvenlafaxine dose increased total new BrdU+ cell number and appeared to accelerate neuronal maturation because fewer BrdU+ cells expressed maturing neuronal phenotypes and more expressed mature neuronal phenotypes in the dentate gyri of these versus vehicle-treated rats. While net neurogenesis was not increased in the dentate gyri of rats treated with the high desvenlafaxine dose, significantly more mature neurons were detected. Our data expand the body of literature showing that antidepressants impact adult neurogenesis by stimulating NPC proliferation and perhaps the survival of neuronal progeny and by showing that a high dose of the SNRI antidepressant desvenlafaxine, but neither a high nor low venlafaxine dose, may also accelerate neuronal maturation in the adult rat hippocampus. These data support the hypothesis that hippocampal neurogenesis may indeed serve as a biomarker of depression and the effects of antidepressant treatment, and may be informative for developing novel fast-acting antidepressant strategies.

  18. Severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with smoking, not with alcohol use

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    N Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol use can affect the presentation and course of psoriasis. There is a paucity of data on this subject from India. Aims: To find out whether increased severity of psoriasis in adult Indian males is associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the Department of Dermatology of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Male patients above 18 years of age attending a psoriasis clinic between March 2007 and May 2009 were studied. Severity of psoriasis (measured using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI among smokers and non-smokers was compared. We also studied the correlation between severity of psoriasis and nicotine dependence (measured using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and alcohol use disorders (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test- AUDIT. Statistical Analysis: Z-test, Odd′s ratio, Chi-square test, Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 338 patients, 148 were smokers and 173 used to consume alcohol. Mean PASI score of smokers was more than that of non-smokers (Z-test, z = −2.617, P = 0.009. Those with severe psoriasis were more likely to be smokers (χ2 = 5.47, P = 0.02, OR = 1.8, Confidence Interval 1.09-2.962. There was a significant correlation between PASI scores and Fagerström score (Spearman′s correlation coefficient = 0.164, P 0.05. Conclusions: Increased severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with tobacco smoking, but not with alcohol use.

  19. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

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    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  20. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  1. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  2. Role of the ATPase/helicase maleless (MLE in the assembly, targeting, spreading and function of the male-specific lethal (MSL complex of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morra Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male-specific lethal (MSL complex of Drosophila remodels the chromatin of the X chromosome in males to enhance the level of transcription of most X-linked genes, and thereby achieve dosage compensation. The core complex consists of five proteins and one of two non-coding RNAs. One of the proteins, MOF (males absent on the first, is a histone acetyltransferase that specifically acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16. Another protein, maleless (MLE, is an ATP-dependent helicase with the ability to unwind DNA/RNA or RNA/RNA substrates in vitro. Recently, we showed that the ATPase activity of MLE is sufficient for the hypertranscription of genes adjacent to a high-affinity site by MSL complexes located at that site. The helicase activity is required for the spreading of the complex to the hundreds of positions along the X chromosome, where it is normally found. In this study, to further understand the role of MLE in the function of the MSL complex, we analyzed its relationship to the other complex components by creating a series of deletions or mutations in its putative functional domains, and testing their effect on the distribution and function of the complex in vivo. Results The presence of the RB2 RNA-binding domain is necessary for the association of the MSL3 protein with the other complex subunits. In its absence, the activity of the MOF subunit was compromised, and the complex failed to acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16. Deletion of the RB1 RNA-binding domain resulted in complexes that maintained substantial acetylation activity but failed to spread beyond the high-affinity sites. Flies bearing this mutation exhibited low levels of roX RNAs, indicating that these RNAs failed to associate with the proteins of the complex and were degraded, or that MLE contributes to their synthesis. Deletion of the glycine-rich C-terminal region, which contains a nuclear localization sequence, caused a substantial level of retention of the

  3. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  4. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  5. Orbit/CLASP is required for germline cyst formation through its developmental control of fusomes and ring canals in Drosophila males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Miyauchi

    Full Text Available Orbit, a Drosophila ortholog of microtubule plus-end enriched protein CLASP, plays an important role in many developmental processes involved in microtubule dynamics. Previous studies have shown that Orbit is required for asymmetric stem cell division and cystocyte divisions in germline cysts and for the development of microtubule networks that interconnect oocyte and nurse cells during oogenesis. Here, we examined the cellular localization of Orbit and its role in cyst formation during spermatogenesis. In male germline stem cells, distinct localization of Orbit was first observed on the spectrosome, which is a spherical precursor of the germline-specific cytoskeleton known as the fusome. In dividing stem cells and spermatogonia, Orbit was localized around centrosomes and on kinetochores and spindle microtubules. After cytokinesis, Orbit remained localized on ring canals, which are cytoplasmic bridges between the cells. Thereafter, it was found along fusomes, extending through the ring canal toward all spermatogonia in a cyst. Fusome localization of Orbit was not affected by microtubule depolymerization. Instead, our fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments suggested that Orbit is closely associated with F-actin, which is abundantly found in fusomes. Surprisingly, F-actin depolymerization influenced neither fusome organization nor Orbit localization on the germline-specific cytoskeleton. We revealed that two conserved regions of Orbit are required for fusome localization. Using orbit hypomorphic mutants, we showed that the protein is required for ring canal formation and for fusome elongation mediated by the interaction of newly generated fusome plugs with the pre-existing fusome. The orbit mutation also disrupted ring canal clustering, which is essential for folding of the spermatogonia after cytokinesis. Orbit accumulates around centrosomes at the onset of spermatogonial mitosis and is required for the capture of one of the

  6. Development of a voxel phantom of Japanese adult male in upright posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Endo, A.; Saito, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Noguchi, H. [Safety Administration Department, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1184 (Japan); Emoto, Y.; Koga, S. [Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake-shi, Aichi-ken 470-1192 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    A Japanese voxel phantom in upright posture, JM2, has been developed on the basis of CT images of a healthy Japanese adult male. Body characteristics of JM2 were compared with those of the supine voxel phantom, JM, previously developed using CT images of the same person. Differences were found in the shapes of the spine and lower abdomen and the locations of several organs such as kidneys, liver and stomach between the two phantoms. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for 24 target and 11 sources organs were calculated for monoenergetic photon ranging from 0.01 to 4 MeV. It was found that the SAFs for the kidneys as source organ and the lower large intestine wall as target organ in JM2 were significantly higher than those in JM for all photon energies. The differences of the SAFs between the two phantoms were attributed to the differences in the organ distance and organ geometry depending on the posture. (authors)

  7. The Histopathological Effect of Sildenafil Citrate on Superior Colliculus of Adult Male Rat

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    Amany Shams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preclinical and very limited clinical studies suggest that sildenafil may have therapeutic potential in selected neurological disorders. However, many neurological side effects of sildenafil have been reported. This work aimed to clarify the histopathological effect of sildenafil citrate on the superior colliculus (SC of adult male albino rat. Material and methods: 24 adult male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups. The first 3 groups were received respectively sildenafil citrate orally at doses 0.25, 0.70 and 1.43mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days while the 4th group was used as control. At end of the treatment, the superior colliculi were undergone light and electron microscopic investigation. Results: In the control group, superficial part of the SC has neural cells and myelinated nerve fibers. With least dose of sildenafil, the superficial part of SC revealed disturbance in neural tissue with dilated capillaries and vacuoles. Some neurons showed deeply stained nuclei shrunken cytoplasm. Some cells showed enlarged mitochondria and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. With medium dose of sildenafil, SC showed more disturbances; stripped myelin sheaths or widely separated myelin lamellae, dilated blood vessels with large vacuoles around them and many neurons with apoptotic criteria. However, maximum dose of sildenafil induced massive destruction of edematous neural tissue; invasion of the surface with massive blood vessels, marked decrease in thickness of myelin sheaths and the neural cells revealed degenerative and apoptotic changes. The mean number and size of cells revealed significantly progressive decrease in all treated rats with increasing doses of the drug. Conclusion: Long-term, daily use of sildenafil can lead to pathological effect in the superior colliculus which may be implicated in visual disturbance and this effect is dose dependent, so neurological effect of sildenafil necessitates further investigations. [J

  8. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  9. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  10. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADH AND ALPHA-GPDH LOCI IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER - ADULT SURVIVAL AT HIGH-TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAN, L; VANDELDEN, W; KAMPING, A; BIJLSMA, R

    1992-01-01

    The role of high temperature resistance in the world-wide cline of Adh and alpha-Gpdh allele frequencies of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Experimental strains were used with different combinations of Adh and alpha-Gpdh alleles but with similar genetic background. The survival time of adu

  11. Uncomplicated Cystitis in an Adult Male Following Influenza B Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert J.; Koutsakos, Marios; Hurt, Aeron C.; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 31 Final Diagnosis: Uncomplicated cystitis Symptoms: Cough • dysuria • fever • hematuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Influenza B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness, circulating concurrently with influenza A viruses. However, virological and clinical knowledge of influenza B viruses is less well advanced than for influenza A, and in particular, complications associated with influenza B infection are not as commonly reported. Complications of influenza B infection predominantly include neurological and musculoskeletal pathologies, while a review of the literature shows that bacterial infections associated with influenza B viruses often involve Gram-positive organisms, with a smaller subset featuring Gram-negative species. Case Report: In this case report we highlight an uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract by Escherichia coli immediately following influenza B infection, in an otherwise healthy adult white male with no prior history of urinary tract infection or structural abnormalities of the renal tract. Conclusions: Bacterial infections complicating influenza B infection may include organisms not commonly associated with the respiratory system, such as Escherichia coli. In addition, bacterial complications of influenza B infection may affect non-respiratory systems, including the genitourinary tract. PMID:28223680

  12. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  13. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  14. Atypically rightward cerebral asymmetry in male adults with autism stratifies individuals with and without language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Dorothea L; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Auer, Tibor; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J; Bullmore, Edward T; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    In humans, both language and fine motor skills are associated with left-hemisphere specialization, whereas visuospatial skills are associated with right-hemisphere specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show a profile of deficits and strengths that involves these lateralized cognitive functions. Here we test the hypothesis that regions implicated in these functions are atypically rightward lateralized in individuals with ASC and, that such atypicality is associated with functional performance. Participants included 67 male, right-handed adults with ASC and 69 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical males. We assessed group differences in structural asymmetries in cortical regions of interest with voxel-based analysis of grey matter volumes, followed by correlational analyses with measures of language, motor and visuospatial skills. We found stronger rightward lateralization within the inferior parietal lobule and reduced leftward lateralization extending along the auditory cortex comprising the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and parietal operculum, which was more pronounced in ASC individuals with delayed language onset compared to those without. Planned correlational analyses showed that for individuals with ASC, reduced leftward asymmetry in the auditory region was associated with more childhood social reciprocity difficulties. We conclude that atypical cerebral structural asymmetry is a potential candidate neurophenotype of ASC.

  15. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  16. Anthropometric study of male external genitalia of 320 healthy Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, M L; Jain, S P; Saxena, S K

    1985-06-01

    Five basic measurements of the male external genitalia were studied in 320 healthy male medical students belonging to the various parts of Nigeria (West Africa). Their ages range from 17 to 23 years. The measurements were as follows: average length of the penis (81.6 +/- 0.94 mm); circumference of the penis (88.3 +/- 0.02 mm); circumference of the scrotum (212.6 +/- 2.48 mm); length of right testis (46.8 +/- 0.54 mm); width of right testis (32.4 +/- 0.37 mm); length of left testis (46.0 +/- 0.53 mm); and width of left testis (31.4 +/- 0.36 mm). The size of the genitalia increases with the increase in age in younger year groups. The adult stages of genitalia development are reached at the age of 21 years in 89.0% of the individuals. The growth of the genitalia is continued with the increasing height and weight, but this growth slows down after attaining a definite height and weight.

  17. Acoustic correlates of Japanese expressions associated with voice quality of male adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Hideki

    2001-05-01

    Japanese expressions associated with the voice quality of male adults were extracted by a series of questionnaire surveys and statistical multivariate analysis. One hundred and thirty-seven Japanese expressions were collected through the first questionnaire and careful investigations of well-established Japanese dictionaries and articles. From the second questionnaire about familiarity with each of the expressions and synonymity that were addressed to 249 subjects, 25 expressions were extracted. The third questionnaire was about an evaluation of their own voice quality. By applying a statistical clustering method and a correlation analysis to the results of the questionnaires, eight bipolar expressions and one unipolar expression were obtained. They constituted high-pitched/low-pitched, masculine/feminine, hoarse/clear, calm/excited, powerful/weak, youthful/elderly, thick/thin, tense/lax, and nasal, respectively. Acoustic correlates of each of the eight bipolar expressions were extracted by means of perceptual evaluation experiments that were made with sentence utterances of 36 males and by a statistical decision tree method. They included an average of the fundamental frequency (F0) of the utterance, speaking rate, spectral tilt, formant frequency parameter, standard deviation of F0 values, and glottal noise, when SPL of each of the stimuli was maintained identical in the perceptual experiments.

  18. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Oyinloye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies.

  19. Quercetin-induced changes in femoral bone microstructure of adult male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Babosová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites with antioxidant effects. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet is quercetin. It is found widely in fruits, vegetables and has a lot of beneficial effects on human health. Quercetin has a positive pharmacological effect on bone metabolism and it prevents the organism against bone loss. However, its impact on the size of basic structural units of the compact bone is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the impact of the quercetin on femoral bone microstructure in 5-month-old male rabbits. Five rabbits of Californian broiler line were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (E group; n=3, animals were intramuscularly injected with quercetin at dose 1000 μg.kg-1 body weight (bw for 90 days, 3 times per week. Two rabbits without quercetin administration served as a control group (C group. According to our results, intramuscular application of quercetin had an insignificant effect on cortical bone thickness in male rabbits. In these rabbits, changes in qualitative histological characteristics were present in the middle part of the compacta, where primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was present and expanded there from the periosteum. Also, a lower number of secondary osteons was found in these animals. From the histomorphometrical point of view, significantly decreased sizes of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons (p <0.05 were found in rabbits administered by quercetin. Our findings indicate that subchronic administration of quercetin at the dose used in our study had considerable impact on both qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone in adult male rabbits.

  20. Persistence of an extreme male-biased adult sex ratio in a natural population of polyandrous bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztolányi, A; Barta, Z; Küpper, C; Székely, T

    2011-08-01

    In a number of insects, fishes and birds, the conventional sex roles are reversed: males are the main care provider, whereas females focus on matings. The reversal of typical sex roles is an evolutionary puzzle, because it challenges the foundations of sex roles, sexual selection and parental investment theory. Recent theoretical models predict that biased parental care may be a response to biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). However, estimating ASR is challenging in natural populations, because males and females often have different detectabilities. Here, we use demographic modelling with field data from 2101 individuals, including 579 molecularly sexed offspring, to provide evidence that ASR is strongly male biased in a polyandrous bird with male-biased care. The model predicts 6.1 times more adult males than females (ASR=0.860, proportion of males) in the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. The extreme male bias is consistent between years and concordant with experimental results showing strongly biased mating opportunity towards females. Based on these results, we conjecture that parental sex-role reversal may occur in populations that exhibit extreme male-biased ASR.

  1. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  2. An assessment of knowledge and attitude of vasectomy in adult males: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Vasectomy is a simple, reliable, safe, effective and permanent method of birth control for men. The failure rate is less than 1%. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of vasectomy in adult males residing in Pokhara, Nepal. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional survey approach was adopted for the present study. 100 adult males of 26-49 years of age were selected for this study. Data was collected from 31-03-2014 to 30-04-2014 by using structured questionnaire and finally analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPPS for Windows Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, IL, USA. Results In the present study majority of the participants had average level of knowledge 69%; 26% had poor and remaining 5% had good level of knowledge regarding vasectomy. Most of the participants had good attitude 60%, 40% of them had average attitude and none of them had poor attitude regarding vasectomy. Conclusion Majority of adult males had average knowledge on vasectomy. So, adult males should be educated about the advantages of vasectomy. This may bring changes in controlling population explosion, sharing the decisions of contraception burden equally with their partners, more awareness of reproductive roles and closes the gap in male and female sterilization rates.

  3. Male Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Lisa B.; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L.; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pret...

  4. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Hock Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%, which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9% and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%. Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60, primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30, secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11, with tertiary education as the reference group. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28, with married as the reference group, ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91, Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91, with Indian as the reference group, age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94; 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28; 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20 ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51, with 60 year-old and above as the reference group and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22 urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population

  5. Experimentally increased codon bias in the Drosophila Adh gene leads to an increase in larval, but not adult, alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hense, Winfried; Anderson, Nathan; Hutter, Stephan; Stephan, Wolfgang; Parsch, John; Carlini, David B

    2010-02-01

    Although most amino acids can be encoded by more than one codon, the synonymous codons are not used with equal frequency. This phenomenon is known as codon bias and appears to be a universal feature of genomes. The translational selection hypothesis posits that the use of optimal codons, which match the most abundant species of isoaccepting tRNAs, results in increased translational efficiency and accuracy. Previous work demonstrated that the experimental reduction of codon bias in the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene led to a significant decrease in ADH protein expression. In this study we performed the converse experiment: we replaced seven suboptimal leucine codons that occur naturally in the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene with the optimal codon. We then compared the in vivo ADH activities imparted by the wild-type and mutant alleles. The introduction of optimal leucine codons led to an increase in ADH activity in third-instar larvae. In adult flies, however, the introduction of optimal codons led to a decrease in ADH activity. There is no evidence that other selectively constrained features of the Adh gene, or its rate of transcription, were altered by the synonymous replacements. These results are consistent with translational selection for codon bias being stronger in the larval stage and suggest that there may be a selective conflict over optimal codon usage between different developmental stages.

  6. Analysis of neurotransmitter tissue content of Drosophila melanogaster in different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Madelaine E; Privman, Eve; Venton, B Jill

    2015-01-21

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development.

  7. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013.

  8. Effect of Selegiline on Pituitary- Gonad Axis and Spermatogenesis in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Selegiline is an inhibitor of B-Mono amino oxidase (MAO-B. In view of its usages in treatment of nervous illnesses such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and depression the side effects of selegiline on the endocrine axises are very important. In this research the effect of selegiline on pituitary- gonad axis and spermatogenesis in adult male rats were studied. For experimental and control groups 32 adult male rats from wistar race were divided into 4 groups of 8. The experimental groups (B,C,D were given oral doses of 5,10,15 (mg/kg.B.W selegiline for the period of 30 days and the control group (A received saline. The blood samples were taken 8 hour after receiving last dose at 30th day and the concentration of LH, FSH and testosterone was measured by RIA. In adition at the 30th day the testes were separated and histological changes was studied among experimental and control groups. The results were evaluated by using ANOVA and Duncan test. The statistical analysis of the results indicated that receiving different dosages of selegiline showed a significant increase in concentration of LH hormone in comparison with control group, but concentration of FSH did not show significant difference compared to the control group. In addition concentration of testosterone in response to different dosages in relative to the control group showed a significant decrease.According to the results we suggest that through LH increase, selegiline causes a decrease in concentration of testosterone via down-regulation receptors on leydig cells. Furthermore selegiline causes increase in dopamine concentration in striatum area as an inhibitor of MAO-B and intern causes decrease in concentration of prolactin. The decrease in prolactin secretion reduce the effect of LH hormone on leydig cell. In addition histological studies showed a significant effects caused by selegiline such as decreased number of spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules, leydig cells and reduced

  9. Male reproductive health after childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Lisa B; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-09-20

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors.

  10. Ref(2)P, the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of mammalian p62, is required for the formation of protein aggregates in adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezis, Ioannis P; Simonsen, Anne; Sagona, Antonia P; Finley, Kim; Gaumer, Sébastien; Contamine, Didier; Rusten, Tor Erik; Stenmark, Harald; Brech, Andreas

    2008-03-24

    P62 has been proposed to mark ubiquitinated protein bodies for autophagic degradation. We report that the Drosophila melanogaster p62 orthologue, Ref(2)P, is a regulator of protein aggregation in the adult brain. We demonstrate that Ref(2)P localizes to age-induced protein aggregates as well as to aggregates caused by reduced autophagic or proteasomal activity. A similar localization to protein aggregates is also observed in D. melanogaster models of human neurodegenerative diseases. Although atg8a autophagy mutant flies show accumulation of ubiquitin- and Ref(2)P-positive protein aggregates, this is abrogated in atg8a/ref(2)P double mutants. Both the multimerization and ubiquitin binding domains of Ref(2)P are required for aggregate formation in vivo. Our findings reveal a major role for Ref(2)P in the formation of ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates both under physiological conditions and when normal protein turnover is inhibited.

  11. Reproductive biology of Oligosarcus argenteus (Gunther, 1864 adult males and description of the gonadal maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oligosarcus argenteus belongs to the Acestrorhynchinae subfamily, being restricted to South America, and found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins, in lotic and lentic environments, where they are able to reproduce. With the purpose of studying the reproductive biology of the males from this species, many morphological parameters were analyzed during a 24 month period, as well as characterizing the different testicular maturation stages. A maturity scale, with three stages (I - Initial Maturing, II - Intermediate Maturing, III - Final Maturing was proposed for the adult males of Oligosarcus argenteus. The reproductive period was established by the bimonthly frequency of spermatogenesis and by the gonadal maturation stages.Oligosarcus argenteus é uma espécie pertencente à subfamília Acestrorhynchinae, restrita à América do Sul, sendo comumente encontrada nas várias bacias hidrográficas brasileiras, em ambientes lóticos e lênticos, onde se reproduzem. Com o objetivo de estudar a biologia reprodutiva de machos desta espécie, vários parâmetros morfológicos foram analisados durante um período de 24 meses, assim como foram caracterizados os diferentes estádios de maturação testicular. Estes foram descritos, considerando-se exemplares adultos, em: Estádio I - Maturação Inicial, Estádio II - Maturação Intermediária e Estádio III - Maturação Final. Pela freqüência bimestral das células germinativas e dos estádios de maturação gonadal, a época de reprodução foi determinada.

  12. The inhibitory effects on adult male reproductive functions of crude garlic (Allium sativum) feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imen Hammami; Afef Nahdi; Claire Mauduit; Mohamed Benahmed; Mohamed Amri; Awatef Ben Amar; Semy Zekri; Ahmed El May; Michele Veronique El May

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of crude garlic on adult male rat reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (untreated) and groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fed for 30 days with 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% crude garlic, respectively. Testes and accessory organs were weighed and some markers were assessed. Light and electron microscopy observations were also performed. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the body weight of groups 4 (14%; P < 0.01) and 5 (20%; P < 0.01); of the prostate weight in group 5 (29.1%; P < 0.05) and of seminal vesicle weight in groups 3 (14.4%; P < 0.01), 4 (18.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (27.3%; P < 0.01). In contrast, testis and epididymis weights were unchanged. In epididymis tissue, the alpha glucosidase activity and the spermatozoa density were unchanged. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone serum levels in groups 3 (77.3%; P < 0.01), 4 (77.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (90.9%; P < 0.01), associated with a significant increase in LH serum levels (P < 0.01). Testicular histology showed a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of empty seminiferous tubules. Moreover, testicular function was affected; a significant decrease in phosphatase acid activity (P < 0.01) and testosterone (P < 0.05) contents were observed. Conclusion: Crude garlic consumption during 1 month reduced testosterone secretion and altered spermatogenesis at 10%, 15% and 30% doses. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 593-601)

  13. The satellite cell in male and female, developing and adult mouse muscle: distinct stem cells for growth and regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Neal

    Full Text Available Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist treatment during mouse embryogenesis impairs social behavior and cognitive function of adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanna M; Cuasay, Katrina; Abebe, Daniel T

    2007-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a regulator of rodent embryogenesis during the period of neural tube closure. VIP enhanced growth in whole cultured mouse embryos; treatment with a VIP antagonist during embryogenesis inhibited growth and development. VIP antagonist treatment during embryogenesis also had permanent effects on adult brain chemistry and impaired social recognition behavior in adult male mice. The neurological deficits of autism appear to be initiated during neural tube closure and social behavior deficits are among the key characteristics of this disorder that is more common in males and is frequently accompanied by mental retardation. The current study examined the blockage of VIP during embryogenesis as a model for the behavioral deficits of autism. Treatment of pregnant mice with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10 had no apparent effect on the general health or sensory or motor capabilities of adult offspring. However, male offspring exhibited reduced sociability in the social approach task and deficits in cognitive function, as assessed through cued and contextual fear conditioning. Female offspring did not show these deficiencies. These results suggest that this paradigm has usefulness as a mouse model for aspects of autism as it selectively impairs male offspring who exhibit the reduced social behavior and cognitive dysfunction seen in autism. Furthermore, the study indicates that the foundations of some aspects of social behavior are laid down early in mouse embryogenesis, are regulated in a sex specific manner and that interference with embryonic regulators such as VIP can have permanent effects on adult social behavior.

  15. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  16. Preventive exercises reduced injury-related costs among adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krist, M.R.; Beijsterveldt, A.M.C van; Backx, F.J.G.; Wit, G.A. de

    2013-01-01

    QUESTION: Is an injury prevention program consisting of 10 exercises designed to improve stability, muscle strength, co-ordination, and flexibility of the trunk, hip and leg muscles (known as The11) cost effective in adult male amateur soccer players?DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a cluster-

  17. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the i

  18. Estimating the resources needed and savings anticipated from roll-out of adult male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Auvert (Bertran); E. Marseille (Elliot); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); J. Lloyd-Smith (James); R. Sitta (Remi); D. Taljaard (Dirk); C. Pretorius (Carel); B. Williams (Brian); J.G. Kahn (James)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Trials in Africa indicate that medical adult male circumcision (MAMC) reduces the risk of HIV by 60%. MAMC may avert 2 to 8 million HIV infections over 20 years in sub-Saharan Africa and cost less than treating those who would have been infected. This paper estimates the fina

  19. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  20. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both chil-dren and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantiifed using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identiifed as regions with signiifcant group-wise differences. The identiifed regions were correlated with clinical scores relfecting de-pression and anxiety and signiifcant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain cir-cuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  1. Contact Karate Promotes Post-Exercise Hypotension in Young Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhaes Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Worldwide, systemic arterial hypertension is a leading cause of death and non-communicable cardiovascular disease. A major factor contributing to this disease is a sedentary lifestyle. However, physical exercise, such as martial arts, may be an option for blood pressure (BP control. The magnitude of post-exercise hypotension is associated with a prolonged decrease in BP in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. Objectives The present study aimed to verify the effects of a Contact Karate (CK session on BP responses during a post-exercise recovery period in young adults. Patients and Methods Thirty-two male CK athletes volunteered (28.2 ± 6.7 years; 77.0 ± 5.7 kg; and 176.0 ± 4.7 cm and underwent one CK session (50 minutes and a control session in which no exercise was performed and the individuals remain seated during the whole time. BP was measured during rest (before sessions, as well as on the 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th minutes of the post-exercise recovery. Results The systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP were significantly lower at the post-exercise period compared to pre-exercise rest (P < 0.05, with the largest reductions being observed at the 60th minutes of recovery [SBP (rest: 125.9 ± 4.7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 111.7 ± 5.4 mmHg; DBP (rest: 78.8 ± .7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 69.8 ± 2.7 mmHg] and at the same periods of post-exercise recovery of the control session. Conclusions A single CK session can promote a decrease in BP for at least 60 minutes after performing this type of exercise in young adults.

  2. Di-n-butyl phthalate causes estrogenic effects in adult male Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama; Ogino, Yukiko; Gregg, Adrienne; Chapman, John; McLaughlin, Mike J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a class of synthetic industrial chemicals commonly found in the aquatic environment worldwide. PAEs have been recognised as anti-androgens in male mammals but little is known about their endocrine disrupting effects in fish. This study investigated the effects of 7-day exposures to nominal (measured) concentrations of 125 (62), 250 (140), 500 (230) and 1,000 (383) μg/L of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) on the biomarkers of reproduction in adult male Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) using molecular, biochemical and histological endpoints. None of the tested concentrations of DnBP had any effect on survival or the vital body indices of the fish. The sizes of spermatogonia, Type A and B spermatocytes and spermatids were significantly smaller relative to the controls after treatment with DnBP. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in fish treated with 250-1,000 μg/L of DnBP in comparison to the unexposed fish. At the end of the exposure period, the expressions of the transcripts for the androgen receptors α and β were significantly elevated in the livers of the fish treated with 500 and 1,000 μg/L of DnBP. In addition, there was also an increase in the circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in the plasma in the higher treatment groups. An induction in the activity of aromatase was noted in the brains of 1,000 μg/L DnBP-treated fish. This was accompanied by an increase in the hepatic expression of the genes (here and later, whenever the phrase gene expression is used as a synonym for gene transcription although it is acknowledged that it is also regulated, e.g., by translation, mRNA stability and protein stability) encoding for the oestrogen receptors α and β and choriogenin L. Collectively, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in the testes, the upregulation of the genes for the oestrogen receptors and choriogenin in the liver, an induction in the brain

  3. Embryonic co-exposure to methoxychlor and Clophen A50 alters sexual behavior in adult male quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Krister; Axelsson, Jeanette; Brunström, Björn

    2005-04-01

    Embryonic exposure to estrogens and estrogenic pollutants is known to demasculinize sexual behavior in adult male Japanese quail. In the present study, we administered the insecticide methoxychlor to quail eggs at a dose of 150 microg/g egg and then studied sexual behavior and other reproductive variables in adult males. In a second experiment we administered the same dose of methoxychlor together with 10 microg/g egg of the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Clophen A50 (CA50) and also CA50 alone. Neither methoxychlor nor CA50 had any significant effects by themselves, but when they were administered together a significant reduction in male sexual behavior was observed. It seems likely that induction of biotransformation enzymes in the embryos by CA50 resulted in increased conversion of methoxychlor to the more estrogenic metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE).

  4. Phthalates in Commercial Chinese Rice Wines: Concentrations and the Cumulative Risk Assessment to Adult Males in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Lu, Wen Wei; Chen, Bo; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations of 16 phthalates in 164 commercial Chinese rice wines (CRW) were detected by GC-MS, and consumption data on CRW in different packaging types was investigated from 634 adult males in Shanghai using a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the principles of probabilistic modelling and cumulative risk assessment, the exposure and health risk of phthalates from CRW to adult males in Shanghai was evaluated. DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP were detected in the samples, the range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6.10% for BBP to 15.24% for DIBP, and the detected concentrations were 51.06-200.34 ng/mL. All the respondents consumed CRW, 90.69% of them consumed CRW 0.01-49.9 mL/d, the minimum value of the average daily intake of CRW was 6.25 mL/d, the median was 13.72 mL/d and the maximum was 300 mL/d. The median exposure level of the 6 detected Phthalates to adult males in Shanghai were 6.58-7.10 ng/(d•kg), and the maximum exposure level were 137.38-540.47 ng/(d•kg). The cumulative exposure health risk index (HI) based on the median and maximum exposure level of the 6 Phthalates (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP) were 0.001147 and 0.063396, both were far less than 1. In conclusion, CRW were generally consumed by the adult males in Shanghai, although multiple phthalates were detected in commercial CRW, health risk of such exposure levels from commercial CRW to the target adult males in Shanghai was very low.

  5. Nicotine enhances the expression of a sucrose or cocaine conditioned place preference in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalari, Deanne M; Marfo, Nana Yaa A; Smith, Tracy T; Levin, Melissa E; Weaver, Matthew T; Thiels, Edda; Sved, Alan F; Donny, Eric C

    2014-09-01

    Nicotine has been shown to enhance the motivational properties of non-nicotine stimuli. This reinforcement-enhancing property of nicotine has the potential to promote the use of other illicit substances as well as maladaptive patterns of food intake. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether nicotine enhances preference for contexts paired with cocaine or sucrose utilizing a place conditioning procedure. Separate groups of adult male rats were administered sucrose or cocaine in one of two compartments of a standard CPP chamber on four consecutive days. Preference was then assessed following no injection, a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of nicotine, and a s.c. saline injection. The animals preferred the chamber paired with either sucrose or cocaine, as evident from an increased time spent in the paired chamber compared to baseline. Nicotine further increased the time spent in the sucrose- or cocaine-paired chamber, consistent with a reinforcement-enhancement effect. Previous results demonstrate an interaction between nicotine and intake of other drugs or food. The present findings provide an additional mechanism that may underlie these effects and which may have implications for drug dependence and obesity.

  6. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Liang, Chaozhao; Su, Puyu; Peng, Zhen; Shi, Kai; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Lu, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Jishuang; Xia, Lei; Yang, Jiajia; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  7. Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Maryam; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Eidi, Akram; Sepehrara, Leili

    2003-10-08

    The present study investigated the interaction between histamine and opioid systems on water intake in adult male rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections were carried out in all experiments. Water intake was measured 1 h after drug injections. Administration of histamine (40-80 microg/rat) and naloxone (0.5-1 microg/rat) increased, while morphine (2.5 microg/rat), pyrilamine (25-50 microg/rat), the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, and ranitidine (10-20 microg/rat), the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, decreased water intake in isolated rats. Blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors attenuated the histamine-induced response. Pyrilamine, but not ranitidine, increased the inhibitory effect induced by morphine. Also, pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors decreased the naloxone-induced effect on water intake. It is concluded that the histaminergic system may have a close interaction with morphine and naloxone on drinking behavior.

  8. Construction of an extended library of adult male 3D models: rationale and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Bremaud, M.; Desbrée, A.; Farah, J.; Huet, C.; Franck, D.

    2011-12-01

    In order to best cover the possible extent of heights and weights of male adults the construction of 25 whole body 3D models has been undertaken. Such a library is thought to be useful to specify the uncertainties and relevance of dosimetry calculations carried out with models representing individuals of average body heights and weights. Representative 3D models of Caucasian body types are selected in a commercial database according to their height and weight, and 3D models of the skeleton and internal organs are designed using another commercial dataset. A review of the literature enabled one to fix volume or mass target values for the skeleton, soft organs, skin and fat content of the selected individuals. The composition of the remainder tissue is fixed so that the weight of the voxel models equals the weight of the selected individuals. After mesh and NURBS modelling, volume adjustment of the selected body shapes and additional voxel-based work, 25 voxel models with 109 identified organs or tissue are obtained. Radiation transport calculations are carried out with some of the developed models to illustrate potential uses. The following points are discussed throughout this paper: justification of the fixed or obtained models' features regarding available and relevant literature data; workflow and strategy for major modelling steps; advantages and drawbacks of the obtained library as compared with other works. The construction hypotheses are explained and justified in detail since future calculation results obtained with this library will depend on them.

  9. Effects of Adult Male Circumcision on Premature Ejaculation: Results from a Prospective Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE. Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P<0.001 for all. Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P<0.001 for all. These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  10. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver.

  11. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

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    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  12. Screening Neuropharmacological Activities of Kaempferia parviflora (Krachai Dam in Healthy Adult Male Rats

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    Thaneeya Hawiset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the global prevalence of psychological disorders is increasing continually, the efficacies of therapeutic strategies are still very limited. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and substance possessing antioxidant activity can alleviate the mentioned conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that Kaempferia parviflora, a medicinal plant claimed for nerve tonic, also possessed the neuropharmacological activities which provide the advantage for psychiatric disorders. Approach: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 grams, were orally given the ethanolic extract of K. parviflora at doses of 150, 200 and 250 mg kg-1 BW once daily for 2 weeks. Then, they were determined the neuropharmacological activities including anxiolytic, anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement after single dose, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Results: K. parviflora possessed anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anxiolytic like activity. Conclusion: Our results suggested that K. parviflora might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for psychiatric disorder and cognitive enhancement. However, further investigations about precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  13. Effects of cyclophosphamide on the kaolin consumption (pica behavior) in five strains of adult male rats.

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    Tohei, Atsushi; Kojima, Shu-ichi; Ikeda, Masashi; Hokao, Ryoji; Shinoda, Motoo

    2011-07-01

    It is known that pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin, can be induced by administration of toxins or emetic agents in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cyclophosphamide on pica behavior and on the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids (5HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the following five strains of adult male rats: Sprague Dawley (SD), Wistar, Fischer 344 (F344), Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Long Evans (LE). Cyclophosphamide (25 mg or 50 mg/kg) was injected (i.p.) into the rats and kaolin and food intake were measured at 24 hr after injection. The animals were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) at 3 hr after injection of cyclophosphamide, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna. WI and LE rats clearly showed pica behavior as compared with the other strains. In LE rats, the concentration of 5HIAA in CSF also increased in a dose-dependent manner of cyclophosphamide. The pretreatment with ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist) restored both changes (kaolin consumption and 5HIAA levels) induced by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the LE rat is sensitive to cyclophosphamide, that pica induced by cyclophosphamide mimics many aspects of emesis including the serotonergic response in the central nervous system and that use of the pica model would be a practical method for evaluating the effects of antiemetic drugs in addition to the mechanism of emesis.

  14. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

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    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulations. Blood samples for plasma phenytoin levels were collected at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24 hours. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the two brands of phenytoin sodium calculated were area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC 0–24, Area under the Curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞, peak plasma concentration (Cmax and time of peak concentration (tmax. Formulation B failed to comply in terms of Area under the Curve (AUC, an important pharmacokinetic parameter to test bioequivalency, which was tested at significance level 0.05. This showed that the test formulation is not bioequivalent with the innovator. Taken together, our preliminary findings suggest that further studies in a large population is needed before switching phenytoin brands once a patient is carefully titrated to a given phenytoin brand.

  15. Androgens inhibit the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in adult male mice.

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    Sinnesael, Mieke; Laurent, Michaël R; Jardi, Ferran; Dubois, Vanessa; Deboel, Ludo; Delisser, Peter; Behets, Geert J; D'Haese, Patrick C; Carmeliet, Geert; Claessens, Frank; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Androgens are well known to enhance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy; however, whether androgens also influence bone's adaptive response to mechanical loading remains unclear. We studied the adaptive osteogenic response to unilateral in vivo mechanical loading of tibia in adult male mice in both a long- and a short-term experimental set-up. Mice were divided into four groups: sham operated, orchidectomized (ORX), T (ORX+T), or nonaromatizable dihydrotestosterone (ORX+DHT) replacement. Significant interactions between androgen status and osteogenic response to mechanical loading were observed. Cortical thickness increased by T (0.14 vs 0.11 mm sham, P<.05) and DHT (0.17 vs 0.11 mm sham, P<.05). However, T partially (+36%) and DHT completely (+10%) failed to exhibit the loading-related increase observed in sham (+107%) and ORX (+131%, all P<.05) mice. ORX decreased periosteal bone formation, which was restored to sham levels by T and DHT. However, both androgens completely suppressed the loading-related increase in periosteal bone formation. Short-term loading decreased the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes in sham, whereas in control fibulas, ORX decreased and T increased the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes. Loading no longer down-regulated sclerostin in the ORX or T groups. In conclusion, both T and DHT suppress the osteogenic response to mechanical loading.

  16. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

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    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana.

  17. Maternal High Fat Diet Alters Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Catalytic Activity in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Chantal A.; Hedges, Christopher P.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Markworth, James F.; Durainayagam, Brenan R.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle. PMID:27917127

  18. Morphological Study of Adult Male Worms of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 by Scanning Electron Microscopy

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    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubercles, spines and sensory receptors are the most studied structures of adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni isolated in other countries. The purpose of this investigation was to properly define these structures in Brazilian worms. Specimens 7-8 weeks after infection were recovered from albino SW mice and from a wild rodent (Nectomys squamipes and processed for scanning electron microscopy studies. Photomicrographs of the anterior region with the aspects related to the outer and inner regions of both suckers were considered. The ventral portion of the middle region was represented by the anterior of gynaecophoric canal while the dorsal surface was studied in its ventral and dorsal regions mainly focusing the aspect of the tubercles, spines and sensorial papillae. The outer surface of the oral sucker is spiny and spines are bigger, sharp with sensory receptors in their posterior edge. Tubercles with spines or receptors are more concentrated in the middle region and in one of the margins of the gynaecophoric canal. An excretory pore-like structure in the posterior portion was observed. The gynaecophoric canal has few sensory structures, spines broadned in their mid-region and are sharp pointed at the distal end. It was concluded that the presently studied characters are similar to those previously reported

  19. Altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns in adult males with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

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    Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Ohno, Taisei; Itahashi, Takashi; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Kanai, Chieko; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2014-04-01

    Functions of the orbitofrontal cortex include diverse social, cognitive and affective processes, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recently, altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns have been revealed in several psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, indicating a possibility that altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral morphology reflects abnormal neurodevelopment. However, the presence of sulcal alterations in ASD remains unexplored. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging, subtypes of the 'H-shaped' sulcus (Type I, II and III, in order of frequency), posterior orbital sulcus (POS) and intermediate orbital sulcus were identified in each hemisphere of adult males with ASD (n = 51) and matched normal controls (n = 55) based on the study by Chiavaras and Petrides. ASD showed a significantly altered distribution of H-shaped sulcal subtypes in both hemispheres, with a significant increase of Type III. A significant alteration in the distribution of sulcal subtypes was also identified in the right hemisphere POS of ASD. Categorical regression analysis revealed that Type I and II expressions predicted a reduced total Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Furthermore, Type I expression was associated with a reduced 'attention to detail' subscale score. The results demonstrate that altered sulcogyral morphology can be a marker for abnormal neurodevelopment leading to the increased risk of developing autism.

  20. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors.

  1. Maternal resveratrol intake during lactation attenuates hepatic triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis in adult male rat offspring

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    Masato Tanaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene is a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine and has been shown to exert protective effects on the liver preventing lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet. However, no studies have shown that the nutritional resveratrol intake by the parental generation has modified lipogenesis in an adult offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal resveratrol intake during lactation affects lipogenesis in adult male rat offspring, and if it does, what is the molecular mechanistic basis. Six male pups born from mothers given a control diets during lactation (CC group and six male pups born from mothers given a control diet as well as resveratrol during lactation (CR group were fed a standard diet until sacrifice at 36 weeks. Adult male offspring from mothers given resveratrol during lactation (CR group had lower body weight from the fourth week of lactation until adulthood, but no significant change was observed in the relative food intake. Low levels of plasma triacylglycerol were found in the CR group compared to the CC group. Histopathological analysis of the livers of adult male rat offspring revealed lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in the CC group, whereas lipid droplets were rare in the CR group. Hepatic protein levels of AMPK-phosphorylated at ser403, Sirt1, and Nampt in the CR group were upregulated significantly compared to the CC group. These results indicated the maternal resveratrol intake during lactation-induced activation of AMPK through Sirt1 upregulation. In this study, significant upregulation of the levels of precursor of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c and downregulation of the ratio of active-SREBP-1c/precusor-SREBP-1c were observed in the CR group compared to the CC group. These results suggested that proteolytic processing of SREBP-1c was suppressed by AMPK in the livers of the CR group. It is well known that SREBP-1c

  2. Anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcohlic juglans regia male flower extract on blood glucose level and on liver enzymes activity in intact and diabetogenized adult male rat

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    Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin secretion or function. Walnut is a nutrient used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. In the current study, anti-diabetic effects of the Hydroalcoholic extract of walnut male flowers on diabetogenized rats by using Streptozocin were evaluated.   Materials and Methods: Seventy two adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-225 g each were randomly selected and divided into three main groups, i.e. control, diabetic, and non-diabetic(intact The control group included 8 rats (n=8. The diabetic and non-diabetic groups covered 32 rats each. Each of these groups were divided into four 8 rats including the control, diabetic, experimental 1, 2, and 3 which received 2, 4, or 6 g/kg of the extract per day for 15 days ,respectively. The three diabetic groups were each treated with the above doses of the extract, and the fourth group received no treatment. Diabetes was induced in diabetic rats through intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of Streptozotocin. At the end, blood samples were taken from the experimental and control groups and the serum levels of insulin and glucose were measured.   Results: A significant reduction in blood sugar and increase of insulin in diabetics receiving Hydroalcoholic extract of male flowers walnut was observed compared with non-diabetic ones.   Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of male Walnut flowers, due to increasing insulin, causes reduction of blood sugar.

  3. Male-specific lethal 2, a dosage compensation gene of Drosophila, undergoes sex-specific regulation and encodes a protein with a RING finger and a metallothionein-like cysteine cluster.

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    Zhou, S; Yang, Y; Scott, M J; Pannuti, A; Fehr, K C; Eisen, A; Koonin, E V; Fouts, D L; Wrightsman, R; Manning, J E

    1995-06-15

    In Drosophila the equalization of X-linked gene products between males and females, i.e. dosage compensation, is the result of a 2-fold hypertranscription of most of these genes in males. At least four regulatory genes are required for this process. Three of these genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) and male-specific lethal 3 (msl-3), have been cloned and their products have been shown to interact and to bind to numerous sites on the X chromosome of males, but not of females. Although binding to the X chromosome is negatively correlated with the function of the master regulatory gene Sex lethal (Sxl), the mechanisms that restrict this binding to males and to the X chromosome are not yet understood. We have cloned the last of the known autosomal genes involved in dosage compensation, male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2), and characterized its product. The encoded protein (MSL-2) consists of 769 amino acid residues and has a RING finger (C3HC4 zinc finger) and a metallothionein-like domain with eight conserved and two non-conserved cysteines. In addition, it contains a positively and a negatively charged amino acid residue cluster and a coiled coil domain that may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Males produce a msl-2 transcript that is shorter than in females, due to differential splicing of an intron of 132 bases in the untranslated leader. Using an antiserum against MSL-2 we have shown that the protein is expressed at a detectable level only in males, where it is physically associated with the X chromosome. Our observations suggest that MSL-2 may be the target of the master regulatory gene Sxl and provide the basic elements of a working hypothesis on the function of MSL-2 in mediating the 2-fold increase in transcription that is characteristic of dosage compensation.

  4. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

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    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  5. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAND LENGTH AND HEIGHT IN ADULT MALES OF NORTH INDIAN PUNJABI POPULATION

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    Maheshwar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stature of an individual is an inherent characteris tic, the estimate of which is considered to be an important a ssessment in identification of unknown human remains 12 .The stature prediction occupies relatively a central position both in anthropological research and in the identification n ecessitated by the medical jurisprudence or by medico legal experts. Estimation of stature of an individual from the skeletal material or from the mutilated or amputated limbs or parts of limbs ha s obvious significance in the personal identification in the events of the murders, accide nts or natural disasters mainly concerns with forensic identification analysis 8 . Whether this is true for the North Indian Punjabi m ale population is not known till date. AIMS: The present study was done with an aim to establish relationship between height and hand length in adult males of north Indian Punjabi population, as it is not seen in the accessible literature till date to the best of our knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Height of 150 healthy male students between 18 to 25 years of age was measured with the help of an anthropometric rod. The height of all the students was measured in anatomical position keeping all the subjects erect . The height measured was vertical distance from the vertex to floor. Hand length is the direct linear distance between the distal wrist crease and the distal ends of most anterior projecting poin t i.e., tip of the middle finger. It is also the distance between midpoint of line joining the two st ylion and Dactylion of middle finger. Result: - A positive correlation between height and hand leng th was observed and it was statistically significant. Regression equation for height estimat ion was formulated using hand length. For statistical analysis IBM ( Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS + Version 20 was used. The mean difference of the height was 1773.273 ± 78.832 mm and Hand length (Right and Left were 196

  7. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

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    Marco Neira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®, rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86. Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha, which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Adult male mice emit context-specific ultrasonic vocalizations that are modulated by prior isolation or group rearing environment.

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    Jonathan Chabout

    Full Text Available Social interactions in mice are frequently analysed in genetically modified strains in order to get insight of disorders affecting social interactions such as autism spectrum disorders. Different types of social interactions have been described, mostly between females and pups, and between adult males and females. However, we recently showed that social interactions between adult males could also encompass cognitive and motivational features. During social interactions, rodents emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, but it remains unknown if call types are differently used depending of the context and if they are correlated with motivational state. Here, we recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice in various behavioral conditions, such as social interaction, novelty exploration and restraint stress. We introduced a modulator for the motivational state by comparing males maintained in isolation and males maintained in groups before the experiments. Male mice uttered USVs in all social and non-social situations, and even in a stressful restraint context. They nevertheless emitted the most important number of calls with the largest diversity of call types in social interactions, particularly when showing a high motivation for social contact. For mice maintained in social isolation, the number of calls recorded was positively correlated with the duration of social contacts, and most calls were uttered during contacts between the two mice. This correlation was not observed in mice maintained in groups. These results open the way for a deeper understanding and characterization of acoustic signals associated with social interactions. They can also help evaluating the role of motivational states in the emission of acoustic signals.

  10. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  11. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

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    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history.

  12. Permethrin may disrupt testosterone biosynthesis via mitochondrial membrane damage of Leydig cells in adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yun; Ito, Yuki; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Yanagiba, Yukie; Kobayashi, Miya; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Li, ChunMei; Okamura, Ai; Miyata, Maiko; Ueyama, Jun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakajima, Tamie

    2007-08-01

    Permethrin, a popular synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control noxious insects in agriculture, forestry, households, horticulture, and public health throughout the world, poses risks of environmental exposure. Here we evaluate the reproductive toxicity of cis-permethrin in adult male ICR mice that were orally administered cis-permethrin (0, 35, or 70 mg/kg d) for 6 wk. Caudal epididymal sperm count and sperm motility in the treated groups were statistically reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Testicular testosterone production and plasma testosterone concentration were significantly and dose-dependently decreased with an increase in LH, and a significant regression was observed between testosterone levels and cis-permethrin residues in individual mice testes after exposure. However, no significant changes were observed in body weight, reproductive organ absolute and relative weights, sperm morphology, and plasma FSH concentration after cis-permethrin treatment. Moreover, cis-permethrin exposure significantly diminished the testicular mitochondrial mRNA expression levels of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and enzyme and protein expression levels of StAR and P450scc. At the electron microscopic level, mitochondrial membrane damage was found in Leydig cells of the exposed mouse testis. Our results suggest that the insecticide permethrin may cause mitochondrial membrane impairment in Leydig cells and disrupt testosterone biosynthesis by diminishing the delivery of cholesterol into the mitochondria and decreasing the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone in the cells, thus reducing subsequent testosterone production.

  13. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  14. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

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    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  15. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans.

  16. Protective effects of vitamin E and selenium on spermatogenesis in adult male rat insulin-resistant

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    Alireza Zakerabasali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease and is a multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin secretion and insulin factional or both. In this study, the protective role of vitamin E and sodium selenite in preventing the harmful effects of insulin resistance (diabetes type 2 on spermatogenesis was studied.   Materials & Methods: Male adults (180-200 g of Wistar rats were divided into five groups, each containing 7 rats (control, sham, and three experimental groups. The rats were fed daily with water-soluble fructose (10%, mg/kg 200 of vitamin E (gavage, and 5/0 mg/kg of sodium selenite (intraperitoneal injection or both for 110 days. Subsequently, sperm parameters, levels of testosterone, LH, and daily sperm production (DSP were checked. Additionally, testicular histopathology and malondialdehyde (MDA in the testis were examined.   Results: Sperm count, sperm motility and viability, and insulin resistance in the rats decreased DSP. A significant decrease was observed in the number of Leydig cells, spermatogonia, spermatogenesis, and spermatozoa in the testis of the insulin-resistant animals, whereas MDA and testosterone rose in the insulin-resistant rats. Vitamin E and sodium selenite intake reduced the levels of MDA and harmful effects of fructose on testicles, as well as sperm parameters and testicular pathology. A simultaneous intake of vitamin E and sodium selenite conferred the highest level of protection.   Conclusion: These findings suggest that vitamin E and sodium selenite can have a protective role in the testes of rats against oxidative stress induced by diabetes type 2.

  17. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

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    McGuire Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2 played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ~10 min, ~ 2 min rest periods in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05. Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05. Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  18. Safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Kenya.

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    Paul J Feldblum

    Full Text Available To assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult medical male circumcision (MMC in routine service delivery in Kenya.We enrolled 427 men ages 18-49 at one fixed and two outreach clinics. Procedures were performed by trained clinical officers and nurses. The first 50 enrollees were scheduled for six follow-up visits, and remaining men were followed at Days 7 and 42. We recorded adverse events (AEs and time to complete healing, and interviewed men about acceptability and pain.Placement and removal procedures each averaged between 3 and 4 minutes. Self-reported pain was minimal during placement but was fleetingly intense during removal. The rate of moderate/severe AEs was 5.9% overall (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%-8.5%, all of which resolved without sequelae. AEs included 5 device displacements, 2 spontaneous foreskin detachments, and 9 cases of insufficient foreskin removal. Surgical completion of MMC was required for 9 men (2.1%. Among the closely monitored first 50 participants, the probability of complete healing by Day 42 was 0.44 (95% CI 0.30-0.58, and 0.90 by Day 56. A large majority of men was favorable about their MMC procedure and would recommend PrePex to friends and family.The PrePex device was effective for MMC in Kenya, and well-accepted. The AE rate was higher than reported for surgical procedures there, or in previous PrePex studies. Healing time is longer than following surgical circumcision. Provider experience and clearer counseling on post-placement and post-removal care should lead to lower AE rates.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01711411.

  19. Opposite effects of 5-HT/AKH and octopamine on the crop contractions in adult Drosophila melanogaster: Evidence of a double brain-gut serotonergic circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciau, Lorenzo; Murru, Ludovico; Stoffolano, John G.

    2017-01-01

    This study showed that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, the type of sugar—either present within the crop lumen or in the bathing solution of the crop—had no effect on crop muscle contraction. What is important, however, is the volume within the crop lumen. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that exogenous applications of serotonin on crop muscles increases both the amplitude and the frequency of crop contraction rate, while adipokinetic hormone mainly enhances the crop contraction frequency. Conversely, octopamine virtually silenced the overall crop activity. The present study reports for the first time an analysis of serotonin effects along the gut-brain axis in adult D. melanogaster. Injection of serotonin into the brain between the interocellar area shows that brain applications of serotonin decrease the frequency of crop activity. Based on our results, we propose that there are two different, opposite pathways for crop motility control governed by serotonin: excitatory when added in the abdomen (i.e., directly bathing the crop) and inhibitory when supplied within the brain (i.e., by injection). Finally, our results point to a double brain-gut serotonergic circuitry suggesting that not only the brain can affect gut functions, but the gut can also affect the central nervous system. On the basis of our results, and data in the literature, a possible mechanism for these two discrete serotonergic functions is suggested. PMID:28334024

  20. DIETARY SODIUM INTAKE IN A SAMPLE OF ADULT MALE POPULATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY.Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzullo, P; Venezia, Antonella; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Russo, Ornella; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Farinaro, Eduardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Galletti, Ferruccio; Rossi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess dietary habitual sodium intake, the association between daily sodium intake and anthropometric indices, food habits and hypertension in the sample of adult male population participating in the Olivetti Heart Study. Design, Setting and Participants: The study population was composed of 940 men participating in the 2002-04 follow-up examination of the Olivetti Heart Study. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and sodium excre...

  1. Sex ratios in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura from Mexico

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    Salceda Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most species show an equal proportion of individuals of both sexes. In diploid species sex ratio is determined by a genic balance between sex chromosomes. In Drosophila sex is determined by the ratio of X- chromosomes versus autosomes and in some species of the genus it is related to the presence of an inversion in the sex chromosome. The present work analyses the sex ratio in 27 natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that inhabit Mexico. Female flies captured in nature were counted and their sex ratio calculated and been called generation P, then cultured individualy, allowed to leave adult offspring which was quantified in order to get its sex ratio and designated generation F1. sex ratio was calculated using the expression: number of males times 100 divided by the number of females proposed by Darwin (1871. The sex ratio of each population was taken using the average of all the individual counts from each sample. The values found varied among different generations and populations, so for generation P their values varieded 37.4 to 190.4 and in generation F1 from 31.3 up to 96.4 males for each 100 females. According to their geographical distribution four North to South transects were arranged and in them means varied from 60.8 to 81.7 males for each 100 females. All this means that in Mexican population are more females than males, exceptionally more males than females.

  2. Male circumcision for HIV prevention - a cross-sectional study on awareness among young people and adults in rural Uganda

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    Hizaamu Ramadhan NB

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical male circumcision is now part of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. It has been shown that awareness of the protective effect of male circumcision leads to high acceptability towards the introduction of medical male circumcision services within countries. The objective of this survey was to identify factors determining awareness of male circumcision for HIV prevention. Methods We interviewed 452 participants (267 adults >24 years of age; 185 youths 14-24 years living in three rural Ugandan districts in 2008. Using a standardized questionnaire, we assessed socio-demographic parameters, awareness of MC for HIV prevention, general beliefs/attitudes regarding MC and MC status. Determinants for awareness of MC for HIV prevention were examined with multiple logistic regression models. Results Out of all adults, 52.1% were male (mean ± SD age 39.8 ± 11 years, of whom 39.1% reported to be circumcised. Out of all youths, 58.4% were male (18.4 ± 2.5, 35.0% circumcised. Adults were more aware of MC for HIV prevention than youths (87.1% vs. 76.5%; p = 0.004. In adults, awareness was increased with higher educational level compared to no school: primary school (adjusted OR 9.32; 95%CI 1.80-48.11, secondary (5.04; 1.01-25.25, tertiary (9.91; 0.76-129.18, university education (8.03; 0.59-109.95. Younger age and male sex were further significant determinants of increased awareness, but not marital status, religion, district, ethnicity, employment status, and circumcision status. In youths, we found a borderline statistically significant decrease of awareness of MC for HIV prevention with higher educational level, but not with any other socio-demographic factors. Conclusions Particularly Ugandans with low education, youths, and women, playing an important role in decision-making of MC for their partners and sons, should be increasingly targeted by information campaigns about positive health effects of MC.

  3. Fast protein evolution and germ line expression of a Drosophila parental gene and its young retroposed paralog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrán, Esther; Bai, Yongsheng; Motiwale, Mansi

    2006-11-01

    This is the first detailed study of the evolution, phylogenetic distribution, and transcription of one young retroposed gene, CG13732, and its parental gene CG15645, whose functions are unknown. CG13732 is a recognizable retroposed copy of CG15645 retaining the signals of this process. We name the parental gene Cervantes and the retrogene Quijote. To determine when this duplication occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of Quijote, we employed polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and the available information on sequenced Drosophila genomes. Interestingly, these analyses revealed that Quijote is present only in 4 species of Drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila mauritiana) and that retroposed copies of Cervantes have also originated in the lineages leading to Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila erecta independently in the 3 instances. We name the new retrogene in the D. yakuba lineage Rocinante and the new retrogene in the D. erecta lineage Sancho. In this work, we present data on Quijote and its parental gene Cervantes. Polymorphism analysis of the derived gene and divergence data for both parental and derived genes were used to determine that both genes likely produce functional proteins and that they are changing at a fast rate (KA/KS approximately 0.38). The negative value of H of Fay and Wu in the non-African sample reveals an excess of derived variants at high frequency. This could be explained either by positive selection in the region or by demographic effects. The comparative expression pattern shows that both genes express in the same adult tissues (male and female germ line) in D. melanogaster. Quijote is also expressed in male and female in D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. We argue that the fast rate of evolution of these genes could be related to their putative germ line function and are further studying the independent recruitment of Cervantes-derived retrogenes in

  4. Using plain language skills to create an educational brochure about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kim; Wizowski, Lindsay; Duckworth, JoAnn; Cassano, Jane; Hahn, Shirley Ann; Neal, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Writing in plain language makes it easier for patients to read, understand, and make informed decisions about sperm banking. Greater attention to the issue and properly designed educational brochures for use by nurses in oncology and reproductive health is of evident importance but of unknown impact. A multidisciplinary clinical team followed an evidence-based, patient-centered approach to develop "plain language" patient education materials about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. A patient education booklet was produced and implemented as part of the planned patient education for AYA male oncology patients at McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The patient education booklet for use by health professionals as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion with AYA males has been produced with the hope that it will contribute to better informed decision making regarding sperm banking and increased use of this technology for fertility preservation.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in the human fetal and adult male reproductive tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, A; Liotta, D R; Yao, S; Liu, X H; Klausner, A P; Unger, P; Shapiro, E; Leav, I; Levine, A C

    2000-09-01

    The first rate-limiting step in the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGs is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase (Cox). Two isoforms of Cox have been identified, Cox-1 (constitutively expressed) and Cox-2 (inducible form), which are the products of two different genes. In this study we describe the immunohistochemical localization of Cox-1 and -2 in the human male fetal and adult reproductive tracts. There was no Cox-1 expression in fetal samples (prostate, seminal vesicles, or ejaculatory ducts), and only minimal expression in adult tissues. There was no expression of Cox-2 in the fetal prostate. In a prepubertal prostate there was some Cox-2 expression that localized exclusively to the smooth muscle cells of the transition zone. In adult hyperplastic prostates, Cox-2 was strongly expressed in smooth muscle cells, with no expression in the luminal epithelial cells. Cox-2 was strongly expressed in epithelial cells of both fetal and adult seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts. The Cox-2 staining intensity in the fetal ejaculatory ducts during various times of gestation correlated with previously reported testosterone production rates by the fetal testis. These data indicate that Cox-2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the fetal male reproductive tract, and its expression may be regulated by androgens. The distinct cell type-specific expression patterns of Cox-2 in the prostate (smooth muscle) vs. the seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts (epithelium) may reflect the different roles of PGs in these tissues.

  6. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, C.M.; Doroszuk, A.; Zwaan, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity

  7. Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically modulated impairments in visuospatial tasks controlled for psychomotor speed

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    Wong Ling M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study reported enhanced psychomotor speed, and subtle but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs. Because male carriers, unlike females, do not have a second, unaffected FMR1 allele, male fXPCs should exhibit similar, if not worse, impairments. Understanding male fXPCs is of particular significance because of their increased risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS. Methods Male fXPCs (n = 18 and healthy control (HC adults (n = 26 aged less than 45 years performed two psychomotor speed tasks (manual and oral and two visuospatial tasks (magnitude comparison and enumeration. In the magnitude comparison task, participants were asked to compare and judge which of two bars was larger. In the enumeration task, participants were shown between one and eight green bars in the center of the screen, and asked to state the total number displayed. Enumeration typically proceeds in one of two modes: subitizing, a fast and accurate process that works only with a small set of items, and counting, which requires accurate serial-object detection and individuation during visual search. We examined the associations between the performance on all tasks and the age, full-scale intelligent quotient, and CGG repeat length of participants. Results We found that in the magnitude comparison and enumeration tasks, male fXPCs exhibited slower reaction times relative to HCs, even after controlling for simple reaction time. Conclusions Our results indicate that male fXPCs as a group show impairments (slower reaction times in numerical visuospatial tasks, which are consistent with previous findings. This adds to a growing body of literature characterizing the phenotype in fXPCs who are asymptomatic for FXTAS. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these impairments

  8. Cav2-type calcium channels encoded by cac regulate AP-independent neurotransmitter release at cholinergic synapses in adult Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huaiyu; Jiang, Shaojuan Amy; Campusano, Jorge M; Iniguez, Jorge; Su, Hailing; Hoang, Andy An; Lavian, Monica; Sun, Xicui; O'Dowd, Diane K

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels containing alpha1 subunits encoded by Ca(v)2 family genes are critical in regulating release of neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In Drosophila, cac is the only Ca(v)2-type gene. Cacophony (CAC) channels are localized in motor neuron terminals where they have been shown to mediate evoked, but not AP-independent, release of glutamate at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Cultured embryonic neurons also express CAC channels, but there is no information about the properties of CAC-mediated currents in adult brain nor how these channels regulate transmission in central neural circuits where fast excitatory synaptic transmission is predominantly cholinergic. Here we report that wild-type neurons cultured from late stage pupal brains and antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) examined in adult brains, express calcium currents with two components: a slow-inactivating current sensitive to the spider toxin Plectreurys toxin II (PLTXII) and a fast-inactivating PLTXII-resistant component. CAC channels are the major contributors to the slow-inactivating PLTXII-sensitive current based on selective reduction of this component in hypomorphic cac mutants (NT27 and TS3). Another characteristic of cac mutant neurons both in culture and in whole brain recordings is a reduced cholinergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency that is mimicked in wild-type neurons by acute application of PLTXII. These data demonstrate that cac encoded Ca(v)2-type calcium channels regulate action potential (AP)-independent release of neurotransmitter at excitatory cholinergic synapses in the adult brain, a function not predicted from studies at the larval NMJ.

  9. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  10. Evaluation Of Gonadotropin And Testosterone Hormons In Adult Male Cholestatic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiri E

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids (EOP, nitric oxide (NO, and cytokins in the blood streams. Therefore we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and function of germ cells in adult male rats."nMaterial and Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: No-surgery, Sham-surgery, and surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animal were killed by ether, serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were determined by Radioimmunoassay, apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by in situ terminal deoxynucloetidyl Transfrase-mediated dUTP nike end labeling (TUNEL."nResults: The mean of FSH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 13.22+ 1.038, 18.14+ 1.276, and 16.92+ 1.072 ng/ml, respectively. The mean of LH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 0.83 + 0.21, 2.058 ± 0.26, and 1.84 + 0.17 ng/ml, respectively. In addition, the mean of testosterone level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 1.52 ± 0.16, 2.41 ± 0.18, and 2.31 + 0.14 ng/ml, respectively. The results of this study were indicated that serum FSH, LH and testosterone were significantly lower in cholestatic than control and sham groups (p=0.0195, P= 0.0029, and P=0.0023, respectively. However there was no significant difference in apoptotic index between all of groups (P=0.195. The apoptotic index in cholestatic, control and sham rats were 9.897± 1.374, 7.086 + 0.91, and 7.729 + 1.101, respectively. "nConclusion: These findings have been shown which as obstructive cholestasis was decreased the levels of serum gonadotropins and testosterone but it has no significant effector testicular germinal cells apoptosis."n"n"n"n 

  11. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate in adult males with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaydaa A Shehata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were assessed in 45 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and/or valproate and free of seizures for ≥1 year. Thirty-four newly diagnosed or untreated patients with epilepsy and 58 matched healthy subjects were also included for comparison. A battery of psychometric tests was utilized including Stanford-Binet (4th edition, Beck Inventory for Depression, Aggressive Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.Results: Compared to matched control subjects, treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance in different cognitive and behavioral functions testing. Treated patients had worse scores in memory for digits forward and backward, total short-term memory, extroversion and psychosis. The duration of AEDs intake was correlated with memory of objects (r = -0.323; P = 0.030, bead memory (r = -0.314; P = 0.036 and total nonverbal short-term memory (r = -0.346; P = 0.020. Treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance of similar extent in behavioral functions testing (depression, aggression and neurosis. The dose of AEDs was correlated with testing scores for neurosis (r = 0.307; P = 0.040, verbal aggression (r = 0.483; P = 0.001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.526; P = 0.000, and duration of drug intake was correlated with scores for depression (r = 0.384; P = 0.009, psychosis (r = 0.586; P = 0.0001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.300; P = 0.045.Conclusions: This study provides support for the notion that AEDs can impair performance

  12. Protein and carbohydrate composition of larval food affects tolerance tothermal stress and desiccation in adult Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laila H; Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2010-01-01

    as well as egg production and egg-to-adult viability. We raised larvae on a carbohydrate-enriched and a protein-enriched growth medium. We found that flies developed on the high protein medium had increased heat and desiccation tolerance compared to flies developed on the carbohydrate-enriched medium...... stress compared to males. Egg production was highest in females that had developed on the protein-enriched medium. However, there was a sex-specific effect of nutrition on egg-to-adult viability, with higher viability for males developing on the sucrose-enriched medium, while female survival was highest...... when developing on the protein-enriched medium. Our study indicates that larval nutrition has a strong impact on the ability to cope with stress, and that the optimal nutrient composition varies with the type of stress...

  13. The interaction of steroids with the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular system in the adult male rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.L.L. Verjans

    1976-01-01

    textabstractMajor functions of the mature male gonad are the production of gametes and steroid hormones. Extratesticular as well as intratesticular factors regulate these two male gonadal functions which are associated with two distinct cell compartments in the testis. It has been known for a long t

  14. Evolution of dosage compensation in Diptera: the gene maleless implements dosage compensation in Drosophila (Brachycera suborder) but its homolog in Sciara (Nematocera suborder) appears to play no role in dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M F; Esteban, M R; Doñoro, C; Goday, C; Sánchez, L

    2000-12-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster and in Sciara ocellaris dosage compensation occurs by hypertranscription of the single male X chromosome. This article reports the cloning and characterization in S. ocellaris of the gene homologous to maleless (mle) of D. melanogaster, which implements dosage compensation. The Sciara mle gene produces a single transcript, encoding a helicase, which is present in both male and female larvae and adults and in testes and ovaries. Both Sciara and Drosophila MLE proteins are highly conserved. The affinity-purified antibody to D. melanogaster MLE recognizes the S. ocellaris MLE protein. In contrast to Drosophila polytene chromosomes, where MLE is preferentially associated with the male X chromosome, in Sciara MLE is found associated with all chromosomes. Anti-MLE staining of Drosophila postblastoderm male embryos revealed a single nuclear dot, whereas Sciara male and female embryos present multiple intranuclear staining spots. This expression pattern in Sciara is also observed before blastoderm stage, when dosage compensation is not yet set up. The affinity-purified antibodies against D. melanogaster MSL1, MSL3, and MOF proteins involved in dosage compensation also revealed no differences in the staining pattern between the X chromosome and the autosomes in both Sciara males and females. These results lead us to propose that different proteins in Drosophila and Sciara would implement dosage compensation.

  15. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

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    Steven Mark Gillespie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring and secondary (impulsive, antisocial psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, was associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  16. Long term outcomes in 46, XX adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia reared as males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, A; Yau, M; Qamar, A; Gangishetti, P; Barhen, A; Al-Malki, S; Mistry, H; Anthony, W; Toralles, M B; New, Maria I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency and whose karyotype is 46, XX are usually assigned to the female gender. Reported herein are the long term outcomes in three patients with CAH whose karyotype is 46, XX and who were reared as males. A retrospective review of three CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype who were reared as males was conducted. Gender assignment, clinical and biochemical data, pre and post-genitoplasty genital examinations were reviewed. Gender identity was tested by an extensive questionnaire. Gender role, sexual preference, marital status and sexual satisfaction were evaluated by interview. The three patients were genotyped for the CYP21A2 gene confirming the diagnosis of CAH. Owing to genital virilization, cultural preferences for male gender and the lack of newborn screening programs the three patients reported herein were assigned to the male gender at birth before the diagnosis of CAH was established. In adulthood the patients remained significantly virilized. Thorough psychosexual assessments in adulthood revealed well established male gender identities compatible with their male gender assignments at birth. In all three patients, gender role and behavior were consistent with male gender identity including sexual intercourse with female partners. The three patients reported herein revealed that male gender assignment to CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype may have a successful outcome providing there is strong parental support and expert endocrine care. No standard guidelines have been published for the gender assignment of CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype and genital ambiguity. More studies concerning gender assignment in CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype reared as males are needed.

  17. PERSISTANT MULLERIAN DUCT SYNDROME IN AN ADULT MALE DIAGNOSED DURING HERNIORAPHY

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    Vidyadhar Kinhal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism in which Mullerian duct derivatives are seen in a genotypically as well as phenotypically normal male patient. Very few cases have been repo rted in the literature. P MDS is likely to be encountered during surgery for undescended testis and inguinal hernia. Thus awareness of this disorder and the options of surgical management are necessary. We report a case of PMDS in a 35 year - old - male with le ft cryptorchidism and right inguinal hernia with uterus as content

  18. A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Pennie J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1 published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2 male only studies (≥18 years or 3 where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i a significant change (p Results Nine studies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg and/or BMI (kg/m2 changes (p≤0.05. Four studies had effective interventions (p Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self-monitoring and tailored feedback. Conclusion Uncertainty remains as to the features of successful nutrition interventions for males due to limited details provided for nutrition intervention protocols, variability in mode of delivery and comparisons between delivery modes as well as content of information provided to participants between studies. This review offers knowledge to

  19. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  20. New functions of the Drosophila rhomboid gene during embryonic and adult development are revealed by a novel genetic method, enhancer piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R; Sturtevant, M A; Gollapudi, R R; Bier, E

    1994-08-01

    Localized expression of the Drosophila rhomboid (rho) gene has been proposed to hyperactivate EGF-Receptor signaling in specific cells during development of the embryo and adult. In this report we use a novel transposon based genetic method, enhancer piracy, to drive ectopic expression of a rho cDNA transgene by endogenous genomic enhancers. Many enhancer piracy transposon-rho insertions cause dominant phenotypes, over half of which cannot be duplicated by ubiquitous expression of rho. Genetic interactions between various dominant enhancer piracy alleles and mutations in the EGF-R/RAS signaling pathway indicate that many of these novel phenotypes result from ectopic activation of EGF-R signaling. Patterned mis-expression of the rho cDNA transgene correlates in several cases with localized dominant enhancer piracy phenotypes. Enhancer piracy lines reveal an unanticipated role for rho in imaginal disc formation and provide the first evidence that mis-expression of rho is sufficient for converting entire intervein sectors into veins. Enhancer piracy may prove to be a general strategy for obtaining dominant alleles of a gene of interest in diverse insects, worms, plants, and potentially in vertebrates such as mice and fish.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF ETHINYL ESTRADIOL ON SPERMATOGENESIS IN THE ADULT MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, increases in male infertility have been attributed to exposure to environmental estrogens. Decreased sperm concentrations and increased infertility have been reported in the human, while many reports have documented reproductive effects due to estrogenic exposure in ani...

  2. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  3. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

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    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  4. PERSISTANT MULLERIAN DUCT SYNDROME IN AN ADULT MALE DIAGNOSED DURING HERNIORAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyadhar Kinhal; Mahesh Desai; Syeda Siddiqua Banu; Varun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism in which Mullerian duct derivatives are seen in a genotypically as well as phenotypically normal male patient. Very few cases have been repo rted in the literature. P MDS is likely to be encountered during surgery for undescended testis and inguinal hernia. Thus awareness of this disorder and the options of surgical management are necessary. We report a case of PMDS in a 35 yea...

  5. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  6. Disentangling recoding processes and evaluative associations in a gender attitude implicit association test among adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    The course of male development of implicit gender attitudes between young age (N = 30, age 17-26 years) and old age (N = 34, age 56-78 years) was investigated. The findings demonstrated that younger males had a stronger implicit preference for females relative to males than did older participants, shedding light on the nature of age differences in gender attitudes in regard to implicit measures. Although younger and older participants demonstrated different levels of gender bias on an implicit association test (IAT), the application of the ReAL model [Meissner, F., & Rothermund, K. (2013). Estimating the contributions of associations and recoding in the implicit association test: The ReAL model for the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(1), 45-69.] showed that evaluative associations of both female and male were activated at equivalent levels among both the young and old age groups, but younger males were more able to recode the female gender and a positive evaluation into common categories. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses between younger and older males exaggerated the differences in the underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and concealed the differences in recoding processes. These findings have important implications for the measurement and interpretation of implicit gender attitudes.

  7. Direct evidence that genetic variation in glycerol-3-phosphate and malate dehydrogenase genes (Gpdh and Mdh1) affects adult ethanol tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eanes, Walter F; Merritt, Thomas J S; Flowers, Jonathan M; Kumagai, Seiji; Zhu, Chen-Tseh

    2009-02-01

    Many studies of alcohol adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster have focused on the Adh polymorphism, yet the metabolic elimination of alcohol should involve many enzymes and pathways. Here we evaluate the effects of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpdh) and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (Mdh1) genotype activity on adult tolerance to ethanol. We have created a set of P-element-excision-derived Gpdh, Mdh1, and Adh alleles that generate a range of activity phenotypes from full to zero activity. Comparisons of paired Gpdh genotypes possessing 10 and 60% normal activity and 66 and 100% normal activity show significant effects where higher activity increases tolerance. Mdh1 null allele homozygotes show reductions in tolerance. We use piggyBac FLP-FRT site-specific recombination to create deletions and duplications of Gpdh. Duplications show an increase of 50% in activity and an increase of adult tolerance to ethanol exposure. These studies show that the molecular polymorphism associated with GPDH activity could be maintained in natural populations by selection related to adaptation to alcohols. Finally, we examine the interactions between activity genotypes for Gpdh, Mdh1, and Adh. We find no significant interlocus interactions. Observations on Mdh1 in both Gpdh and Adh backgrounds demonstrate significant increases in ethanol tolerance with partial reductions (50%) in cytosolic MDH activity. This observation strongly suggests the operation of pyruvate-malate and, in particular, pyruvate-citrate cycling in adaptation to alcohol exposure. We propose that an understanding of the evolution of tolerance to alcohols will require a system-level approach, rather than a focus on single enzymes.

  8. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  9. Patterns of sugar feeding and host plant preferences in adult males of An. gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Poueme, Rodrigue S; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-12-01

    Sugar feeding by male mosquitoes is critical for their success in mating competition. However, the facets of sugar source finding under natural conditions remain unknown. Here, evidence obtained in Western Burkina Faso indicated that the distribution of An. gambiae s.s. (M and S molecular forms) males across different peri-domestic habitats is dependent on the availability of potential sugar sources from which they obtain more favorable sites for feeding or resting. Among field-collected anophelines, a higher proportion of specimens containing fructose were found on flowering Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), Dolonix regia (Fabaceae), Thevetia neriifolia (Apocynaceae), Senna siamea, and Cassia sieberiana (both Fabaceae) compared to that recorded on other nearby plants, suggesting that some plants are favored for use as a sugar source over others. Y-tube olfactometer assays with newly-emerged An. gambiae s.s. exposed to odors from individual plants and some combinations thereof showed that males use odor cues to guide their preference. The number of sugar-positive males was variable in a no-choice cage assay, consistent with the olfactory response patterns towards corresponding odor stimuli. These experiments provide the first evidence both in field and laboratory conditions for previously unstudied interactions between males of An. gambiae and natural sugar sources.

  10. Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the Fran(c)ois langur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hai ZHOU; Bang LUO; Cheng-Ming HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Infanticide by males is a common phenomenon in mammals,especially primates,as lactation lasts much longer than gestation in many species.Usually,infanticidal episodes occur soon after group takeovers,and are traditionally considered a male reproductive strategy (i.e.,support the sexual selection hypothesis,Hrdy,1974).To verify the validity of this conception,we observed one group of Fran(c)ois' langurs in the Nonggang Nature Reserve,China,between August 2003 and July 2004.During the study period,a Fran(c)ois' langur female with the youngest infant in the group was attacked three times by immigrating males,and later disappeared by the third day after the final attack.We suggest that these attacks on the female-infant dyad represent infanticide attempts by males,and may be the cause of the adult female and her infant's disappearance.Presumably,that female dispersed with her infant to avoid infanticide and was not killed.Though these observations do not completely verify the sexual selection hypothesis,they are not inconsistent with it.

  11. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  12. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on `Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantit...

  13. Age effect of deafening on stereotyped song maintenance in adult male bengalese finches Lonchura striata domestica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingyu SUN; Rui WANG; Shuli SHAO; Shaoju ZENG; Mingxue ZUO

    2009-01-01

    Birdsong is a complex learned vocal behavior that relies on auditory experience for development. However, it appears that among different species of close-ended songbirds, there are some variations in the necessity of auditory feedback for maintaining stereotyped aduh song. In zebra finches, the deterioration of adult songs following deafness depends on the birds' age. It is unknown whether this age effect is a general ride in other avian species as well. Therefore, we chose Bengalese finches, whose songs show more complexity and have much heavier dependency on auditory feedback than that of zebra finches, to compare the degree of song degradation after heating loss in old (over 18 months old) and young adult birds (5-6 months old). We found that beth syllable sequence and syllable phonology were much leas severely affected by deafening in old adults than that in young ones. Moreover, young adults almost lost their capability to sing trills over 6 months following deafening, while old birds continued to sing plenty of trills and trilled syllables after the same period of deafening. Our results suggest that age plays an important role in affecting the dependency of adult song maintenance on auditory feedback in Bengalese finches. Furthermore, the age dependency may be a general phenomenon in different species of close-ended songbirds.

  14. Prevalence of vocal fry in young adult male American English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Wolk, Lesley; Slavin, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess possible gender differences in the prevalence of vocal fry in the voices of young male college students. Results were compared with previously published findings derived from a matched sample of female speakers. Thirty-four male college students, native American English speakers, produced speech samples in two speaking conditions: (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) reading task. Data analyses included perceptual evaluations by two licensed speech-language pathologists. Results showed that vocal fry was perceived significantly more frequently in sentences than in isolated vowel productions. When vocal fry occurred in sentences, it was detected significantly more often in sentence-final position than in initial- and/or mid-sentence position. Furthermore, the prevalence of vocal fry in sentences was significantly lower for male speakers than has previously been reported for female speakers. Possible physiological and sociolinguistic explanations are discussed.

  15. Calorie restriction and corticosterone elevation during lactation can each modulate adult male fear and anxiety-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Bell, Veronica; Samuel, Anil; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G

    2014-09-01

    Early life events, such as calorie restriction (CR) and elevated glucocorticoids, can calibrate the lifelong behavioural and physiological profile of an individual. Stress reactivity in adulthood is particularly sensitive to early life events; however, the consequence to fear and anxiety-like behaviour is less clear. Consequently, the current study sought to examine the effects of post-natal CR and glucocorticoid elevation, long considered powerful programming stimuli, on the subsequent fear and anxiety behaviour of the adult offspring. Rat dams received either corticosterone (200 μg/ml) supplementation in drinking water (CORT) or a 25% CR from post-natal day (PND) 1 to 11. Responses to the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field and a predator odour (TMT; 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline) were characterised in the adult male offspring. Both treatment conditions resulted in enhanced fear responses to TMT, characterised by heightened risk assessment and increased avoidance of TMT. CORT nursed offspring further demonstrated an anxiogenic profile in the open field. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function was unchanged in CORT adult offspring, whilst corticosterone concentration was elevated by post-natal CR. CR and CORT treated dams both exhibited greater anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM. A modest and temporary enhancement of maternal care was observed in CR and CORT treated dams, with CR dams further exhibiting rapid pup retrieval latencies. The results indicate enhanced emotionality in the adult male progeny of dams exposed to CR and corticosterone supplementation during the post-natal period. The modest enhancement of maternal care observed by both treatments is unlikely to have influenced the behavioural profile of the offspring.

  16. Changing drinking styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of male and female drinking among young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Törrönen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations in which you need to play with different aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23 years) in Denmark...... aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23) in Denmark and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N=16)....

  17. Co-expression and interaction of cubilin and megalin in the adult male rat reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praet, Oliver; Argraves, W Scott; Morales, Carlos R

    2003-02-01

    Cubilin is a peripheral membrane protein that cooperates with the endocytic receptor megalin to mediate endocytosis of ligands in various polarized epithelia. Megalin is expressed in the male reproductive tract where it has been implicated in the process of sperm membrane remodeling. A potential role for cubilin in the male reproductive tract has not been explored. Using RT-PCR, we found that cubilin and megalin mRNAs are expressed in the efferent ducts, corpus and cauda epididymis, and proximal and distal vas deferens. Immunohistological analysis revealed that cubilin was expressed in nonciliated cells of the efferent ducts, principal cells of the corpus and cauda epididymis and vas deferens. Immunogold EM showed cubilin in endocytic pits, endocytic vesicles, and endosomes of these cells. The expression profile of cubilin in the male reproductive tract was coincident with that of megalin except in principal cells of the caput epididymis. Double immunogold labeling showed that cubilin and megalin co-localized within the endocytic apparatus and recycling vesicles of efferent duct cells. Neither protein was found in lysosomes. Injection of RAP, an antagonist of megalin interaction with cubilin, reduced the level of intracellular cubilin in cells of the efferent ducts and vas deferens. In conclusion, cubilin and megalin are co-expressed in cells of the epididymis and vas deferens and the endocytosis of cubilin in these tissues is dependent on megalin. Together, these findings highlight the potential for a joint endocytic role for cubilin and megalin in the male reproductive tract.

  18. Properties of Isokinetic Fatigue at Various Movement Speeds in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David H.; Manning, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Eighteen male subjects, aged 20 to 28 years, engaged in three fatigue bouts using an isokinetic dynamometer to measure knee extension contractions. Peak torque varied inversely with movement speed, and the pattern of decrement was independent of speed. Time to peak torque did not change significantly across trials in isokinetic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  19. Priming of Non-Speech Vocalizations in Male Adults: The Influence of the Speaker's Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Armony, Jorge L.; Joanette, Yves; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Previous research reported a priming effect for voices. However, the type of information primed is still largely unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of speaker's gender and emotional category of the stimulus on priming of non-speech vocalizations in 10 male participants, who performed a gender identification task. We found a…

  20. Factors Associated with Knowledge of and Willingness for Adult Male Circumcision in Changsha, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiang Zeng

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of male genital diseases. MC is not commonly practiced among Chinese males and little is known about the factors associated with their knowledge of and willingness for MC. This study was to explore the knowledge regarding the foreskin among Chinese males and to identify factors associated with their willingness to undergo circumcision.A total of 237 patients with redundant prepuce/phimosis were interviewed through face-to-face interviews. The items on the questionnaire included: demographics, an objective scale assessing knowledge about the foreskin, willingness to have MC, the attitudes of sexual partners and doctors toward redundant prepuce/phimosis, and the approaches that patients used to acquire knowledge regarding the prepuce. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify factors that are associated with willingness to be circumcised (WTC.A total of 212 patients completed the interview. Multivariable logistic regression showed that three factors were significantly associated with WTC: being married (OR = 0.43, perceiving redundant prepuce/phimosis as a disease (OR = 1.93, and if a patient's partner supported MC (OR = 1.39. 58% (n = 122 had received information about the foreskin from another party: 18% (n = 37 from school, 8% (n = 17 from family, 17% (n = 36 from friends, 27% (n = 57 from health care providers. About 4% (n = 8 believed that their partners disliked their redundant prepuce/phimosis. 20% (n = 42 had received doctors' advice to undergo circumcision.Knowledge about the foreskin was low among Chinese males. Our study elucidates the factors associated with WTC and suggests that more education of the population about the foreskin can help improve the recognition of a correctible abnormality and help patients assess the potential role of MC in their health.

  1. Genomic organisation and characterisation of the neural sex-determination gene fruitless (fru) in the Hawaiian species Drosophila heteroneura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T; Kurihara, J; Yamamoto, D

    2000-04-04

    There are several mechanisms for the determination of sex. Sexual behaviour is part of the sex-determination cascade, and in Drosophila melanogaster male courtship is controlled in part by the fruitless gene. As part of a study of sexual behaviour in Hawaiian Drosophila, we have cloned the neural sex-determination gene fru from the Hawaiian picture-wing species Drosophila heteroneura. The fru gene has at least seven exons covering a region of 18kb and encodes three transcripts, fruA, fruB and fruC. Each transcript encodes a single ORF of 841, 678 and 691aa, respectively. The FRUA and FRUB proteins have a BTB protein-protein-binding domain and two zinc finger-like domains and are well conserved with the D. melanogaster proteins. The FRUC protein has a BTB domain but no zinc finger-like domains. The fru gene is expressed in 1-7 day old adult males as a 5.1kb transcript. This transcript is not seen in adult females, so the fru gene has a different pattern of sex-differential expression in the Hawaiian Drosophila compared with D. melanogaster.

  2. Early experience and plasticity of song in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, AE; TenCate, C; Slater, PJB

    1996-01-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn song primarily at 35-65 days of age, but birds deprived of experience at that stage may modify their songs later. Experiments on 5 groups examined the effect of varying early social experience on the plasticity of adult song. Major changes of song in adultho

  3. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne;

    2013-01-01

    of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis...

  4. A Telephone Intervention for Substance-Using Adult Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O'Rourke, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned…

  5. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  6. A Retrospective Study of Gay Gifted, Young Adult Males' Perceptions of Giftedness and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedillo, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, retrospective study investigated suicidal ideation among 32 young adult men. Participants were asked to report their experiences as adolescents. The primary focus of the study was to discover how gay gifted adolescents dealt with issues of suicide and suicidal ideation. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling…

  7. Spermatogenesis in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo): quantitative approach in immature and adult males subjected to various photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirault, Jérôme; Brillard, Jean-Pierre; Bakst, Murray R

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and quantitate the germ cell populations of the testes in sexually mature male turkeys (Trial 1), determine the duration of meiosis based on BrdU labeling and stereological analyses (Trial 2), and examine the impact of various photoperiods on germinal and somatic cell populations in immature and adult males (Trial 3). In Trial 1, both testes within a male had similar stereological components (P>0.05) for all parameters analyzed. In Trial 2, the duration of Type-1 spermatocytes and round spermatids in turkeys lasted 4.5+/-0.5 and 2.0+/-0.5 days, respectively. In Trial 3, the short photoperiod (7L:17D) delayed testicular growth (in the stereological parameters analyzed). In contrast, the effect of a moderately short photoperiod (10.5L:13.5D) was comparable to the effect of a long (14L:10D) or increasing photoperiod (7L:17D to 14L:10D) on the stereological parameters examined. With the exception of the short photoperiod, all other photoperiods used in this study induced comparable early testicular maturation, with maximum testis weight at 29-35 weeks of age. As the males got older, there was a progressive, linear decline in testis weight through 60 weeks, at which time there were no significant differences among photoperiods. In conclusion, the duration of meiosis in the turkey was similar to that observed in the fowl and guinea-fowl. The existence of a threshold of photosensitivity to gonad stimulation in male turkeys is suggested to be between 7.0 and 10.5 h of light.

  8. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloko Matshipi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  9. Brain serotonin synthesis in adult males characterized by physical aggression during childhood: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Booij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults exhibiting severe impulsive and aggressive behaviors have multiple indices of low serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. It remains unclear though whether low 5-HT mediates the behavior or instead reflects a pre-existing vulnerability trait. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ((11C-AMT was used to compare 5-HT synthesis capacity in two groups of adult males from a 21-year longitudinal study (mean age +/- SD: 27.1+/-0.7: individuals with a history of childhood-limited high physical aggression (C-LHPA; N = 8 and individuals with normal (low patterns of physical aggression (LPA; N = 18. The C-LHPA males had significantly lower trapping of (11C-AMT bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex and self-reported more impulsiveness. Despite this, in adulthood there were no group differences in plasma tryptophan levels, genotyping, aggression, emotional intelligence, working memory, computerized measures of impulsivity, psychosocial functioning/adjustment, and personal and family history of mood and substance abuse disorders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results force a re-examination of the low 5-HT hypothesis as central in the biology of violence. They suggest that low 5-HT does not mediate current behavior and should be considered a vulnerability factor for impulsive-aggressive behavior that may or may not be expressed depending on other biological factors, experience, and environmental support during development.

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  11. Trade-off between resource allocation and acquisition in anadromous adult male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vladic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual energetic limitations in variable environments lead to life-history trade-offs between investment in somatic growth and gonadal tissue, causing individuals to adopt specific behavioural tactics to attain reproduction. We investigated energy allocation in primary and secondary sexual traits in Atlantic salmon by estimating the life history characters (smolt size, sea age, first sea year growth rate by back-calculation of scales. Adult size increased with the fish sea age (years at sea and exerted a strong allometric effect on the energy investment pattern into secondary sexual traits. A compensatory mechanism at the ejaculate level is identified by which males investing less in secondary sexual traits produce ejaculates of higher quality. Distinct differences in investment into primary and secondary sexual traits between the fish that spent a single year in the sea before returning to the spawn (grilse and multi-sea-year adults were detected, indicating that their energy allocation strategy in reproductive effort reflects alternative developmental pathways. Grilse ejaculate investment depended more on the resource allocation, whereas multi-sea-year male ejaculate investment depended more on the resource acquisition.

  12. Subacute and Reproductive Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Hydroethanolic Extract of Jacaranda decurrens Roots in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Alencar Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença (Bignoniaceae is a species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Previous findings from our group reported scientifically that J. decurrens has anti-inflammatory efficacy. However, more toxicological studies are needed to support and ensure its safe use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of a prolonged treatment with hydroethanolic root extract of J. decurrens (EJD on hematological, biochemical, and reproductive parameters in adult male rats. The animals received by oral gavage 0; 250; 500; or 1000 mg/kg body weight of EJD for 28 days. After the treatment, biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and reproductive parameters were analyzed. The EJD treatment did not cause adverse effects on body weight gain, feed and water consumption, hematological and biochemical profiles, or histopathological analysis of liver and kidney. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in reproductive parameters, such as sperm production, number of sperm in the epididymis, and sperm morphology. These results demonstrate the absence of subacute toxicity as a result of the oral treatment with EJD for 28 days in adult male rats. However, other studies should be performed to evaluate the total safety of this plant.

  13. The Effect of Disulfiram on Serum Levels of Hormones in the Pituitary-Thyroid in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Disulfiram is used for treatment of alcohol intoxication.Based on the results of different studies, excessive amounts of the drug can affect the body's endocrine function. This study investigated the effect of disulfiram on the activity of the pituitary - thy-roid in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: In this study 50 adult male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200 to 220 g were used in the experimental, control and intact groups. Experimental groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg oral doses of disulfiram for 10 days and control group received 1 ml saline for 10 days and intact groups did not receive any thing. At the end of the tenth day ,the rats were bled from the heart and T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured by commercial kits Gama Counter and the results were analyzed using one-way (ANOVA with SPSS ver-sion 18. Results: Results show that there was no significant changes in T4 plasma level, but T3 and TSH level increased significantly when the control and intact groups were compared. Conclusion: Disulfiram had no significant effect in T4 plasma level but T3 and TSH level in-creased significantly. It probably happened due to increasing serotonin and reducing soma-tostatine and also enhancing the activity of 5-Deiodinase enzymes following the entry of cal-cium ions into the cells.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:43-47

  14. Male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of colorectal cancer screening among young adult African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.

  15. Temperament moderates the influence of periadolescent social experience on behavior and adrenocortical activity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, M J; McClintock, M K; Cavigelli, S A

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant behavioral and physiological maturation, particularly related to stress responses. Animal studies that have tested the influence of adolescent social experiences on stress-related behavioral and physiological development have led to complex results. We used a rodent model of neophobia to test the hypothesis that the influence of adolescent social experience on adult behavior and adrenocortical function is modulated by pre-adolescent temperament. Exploratory activity was assessed in 53 male Sprague-Dawley rats to classify temperament and then they were housed in one of the three conditions during postnatal days (PND) 28-46: (1) with familiar kin, (2) with novel social partners, or (3) individually with no social partners. Effects on adult adrenocortical function were evaluated from fecal samples collected while rats were individually-housed and exposed to a 1-hour novel social challenge during PND 110-114. Adolescent-housing with novel or no social partners led to reduced adult glucocorticoid production compared to adolescent-housing with familiar littermates. Additionally, highly-exploratory pre-weanling rats that were housed with novel social partners during adolescence exhibited increased exploratory behavior and a more rapid return to basal glucocorticoid production in adulthood compared to those housed with familiar or no social partners during adolescence and compared to low-exploratory rats exposed to novel social partners. In sum, relatively short-term adolescent social experiences can cause transient changes in temperament and potentially longer-term changes in recovery of glucocorticoid production in response to adult social challenges. Furthermore, early temperament may modulate the influence of adolescent experiences on adult behavioral and adrenocortical function.

  16. Schistosoma mansoni Egg, Adult Male and Female Comparative Gene Expression Analysis and Identification of Novel Genes by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Letícia; Amaral, Murilo S.; Beckedorff, Felipe; Silva, Lucas F.; Dazzani, Bianca; Oliveira, Katia C.; Almeida, Giulliana T.; Gomes, Monete R.; Pires, David S.; Setubal, João C.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is a public health problem. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread species responsible for schistosomiasis in the Americas, Middle East and Africa. Adult female worms (mated to males) release eggs in the hepatic portal vasculature and are the principal cause of morbidity. Comparative separate transcriptomes of female and male adult worms were previously assessed with using microarrays and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), thus limiting the possibility of finding novel genes. Moreover, the egg transcriptome was analyzed only once with limited bacterially cloned cDNA libraries. Methodology/Principal findings To compare the gene expression of S. mansoni eggs, females, and males, we performed RNA-Seq on these three parasite forms using 454/Roche technology and reconstructed the transcriptome using Trinity de novo assembly. The resulting contigs were mapped to the genome and were cross-referenced with predicted Smp genes and H3K4me3 ChIP-Seq public data. For the first time, we obtained separate, unbiased gene expression profiles for S. mansoni eggs and female and male adult worms, identifying enriched biological processes and specific enriched functions for each of the three parasite forms. Transcripts with no match to predicted genes were analyzed for their protein-coding potential and the presence of an encoded conserved protein domain. A set of 232 novel protein-coding genes with putative functions related to reproduction, metabolism, and cell biogenesis was detected, which contributes to the understanding of parasite biology. Conclusions/Significance Large-scale RNA-Seq analysis using de novo assembly associated with genome-wide information for histone marks in the vicinity of gene models constitutes a new approach to transcriptome analysis that has not yet been explored in schistosomes. Importantly, all data have been consolidated into a UCSC Genome Browser search

  17. Abdominal separation in an adult male patient with acute abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We report a male patient with prolonged post-prandial abdominal distension and a sudden onset of epigastric pain initially diagnosed as acute abdomen. The patient had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed peritonitis and abdominal computed tomography scan showed upper abdominal mesentery intorsion. The patient then underwent surgical intervention. It was found that the descending mesocolon dorsal root was connected to the ascending colon and formed a membrane encapsulating the small intestine...

  18. Fluconazole induced herpes labialis-like lesions in an adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Goel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluconazole is a bistriazole commonly prescribed for thetreatment of various fungal infections caused by yeasts and dermatophytes. However, there have been several reports of rare Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs like Fixed Dose Eruption (FDE, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Stevens Johnson Syndrome following oral administration of fluconazole. We report a rare case of fluconazole induced oral mucosal lesions, mimicking herpes labialis, in a 34 year old male patient receiving oral fluconazole for the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis.

  19. A HUGE SILENT INTRACRANIA L HYDATID CYST IN AN ADULT MALE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease of the brain is a rare parasitic infestation caused by larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. It has an insidious onset with a slow rate of growth resulting in late diagnosis. Its occurence is rare in India, being endemic in Mediterranean countries and Middle East. We report a case of a huge, slow - growing, silent intracranial left parieto - temporo - occipital hydatid cyst in an 18 year old male presenting as a large cystic space occupying lesion.

  20. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414) selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered...

  1. Sexual Well-Being in Adult Male Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Dudzińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency show impaired fecundity due to testicular adrenal rest tumors and/or suppression of the gonadal axis. Sexual well-being might be an additional factor; however, no data exists. Patients and Methods. Prospective longitudinal monocentric study included 20 male CAH patients (14 salt wasting, 6 simple virilizing; age 18–49 yr. Clinical assessment, testicular ultrasound, biochemical and hormonal parameters, three validated self-assessment questionnaires (SF-36, GBB-24, and HADS, and male Brief Sexual Function Inventory (BSFI were analyzed at baseline and after two years. Results. Basal LH and testosterone levels suggested normal testicular function. LH and FSH responses to GnRH were more pronounced in patients with a good therapy control according to androstenedione/testosterone ratio < 0.2. This group had significant higher percentage of patients on dexamethasone medication. GBB-24, HADS, and SF-36 showed impaired z-scores and no changes at follow-up. BSFI revealed impairments in dimensions “sexual drive,” “erections,” and “ejaculations,” whereas “problem assessment” and “overall satisfaction” revealed normal z-scores. Androstenedione levels correlated (P=0.036 inversely with z-scores for “sexual drive” with higher levels associated with impaired “sexual drive.” Conclusion. Male CAH patients showed a partly impaired sexual well-being which might be an additional factor for reduced fecundity.

  2. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway to prevent programmed hypertension in maternal fructose-fed male adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Kay L H; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Maternal high-fructose (HF) intake induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is associated with renal programming and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. We examined whether early treatment with a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) can prevent HF-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Four groups of male offspring were studied: control, HF, HF+AUDA and HF+15dPGJ2. In HF+AUDA group, mother rats received AUDA 25 mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the HF+15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5 mg/kg body weight by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension is associated with increased renal protein level of SEH and oxidative stress, which early AUDA therapy prevents. Comparison of AUDA and 15dPGJ2 treatments demonstrated that AUDA was more effective in preventing HF-induced programmed hypertension. AUDA therapy increases angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) protein levels and PGE2 levels in adult offspring kidney exposed to maternal HF. 15dPGJ2 therapy increases plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and decreases L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway, especially inhibition of SEH, on renal programming may aid in developing reprogramming strategy to prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to antenatal HF intake.

  3. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

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    Pavel Grigoriev

    Full Text Available Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s.We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980-2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time.Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005-2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality effects would not have occurred.

  4. Dose-dependent effect of Bisphenol-A on insulin signaling molecules in cardiac muscle of adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivashanmugam, Preethi; Mullainadhan, Vigneswari; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2017-03-25

    Environmental contaminant, Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen, an essential component used for the production of two classes of polymers such as polycarbonate and epoxy resin which disrupts the normal endocrine function. BPA has intense effects on mice endocrine pancreas, an essential tissue involved in glucose metabolism. It disrupts pancreatic β-cell insulin content, induces hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in male rats. Cardiac muscle is an insulin responsive organ and insulin has direct effects on glucose transport. The present study was designed to assess the effect of BPA on insulin signaling molecules in the cardiac muscle of adult male Wistar rat. Adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were selected and divided into following groups: Group 1: Control (vehicle treated), Group 2: Rats treated with 10 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day for 30 days orally, Group 3: Rats treated with 100 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day for 30 days orally, Group 4: Rats treated with 400 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day for 30 days orally. IR (insulin receptor) and pIR(Tyr1162) proteins were significantly decreased in the high dose group (400 mg). There was no change in IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate-1) and Akt proteins. Whereas, a decrease in pIRS1(Tyr632) (100 mg and 400 mg), pAkt (Ser473) (400 mg) and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) (cytosolic and plasma membrane) proteins was observed which may affect the cardiovascular function. It is concluded that BPA exposure has adverse effect on cardiac insulin signal transduction which may affect its function.

  5. Piloting PrePex for Adult and Adolescent Male Circumcision in South Africa--Pain Is an Issue.

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    Limakatso Lebina

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS have recommended the scale-up of Medical Male Circumcision (MMC in countries with high HIV and low MMC prevalence. PrePex device circumcision is proposed as an alternate method for scaling up MMC.Evaluate safety and feasibility of PrePex in South Africa.A multisite prospective cohort PrePex study in adults and adolescents at three MMC clinics. Participants were followed-up 8 times, up to 56 days after PrePex placement.In total, 398 PrePex circumcisions were performed (315 adults and 83 adolescents their median ages were 26 (IQR: 22-30 and 16 years (IQR: 15-17, respectively. The median time for device placement across both groups was 6 minutes (IQR: 5-9 with the leading PrePex sizes being B (30% and C (35% for adults (18-45 years, and A (31% and B (38% for adolescents (14-17 years. Additional sizes (size 12-20 were rarely used, even in the younger age group. Pain of device application was minimal but that of removal was severe. However, described pain abated rapidly and almost no pain was reported 1 hour after removal. The Adverse Events rate were experienced by 2.7% (11/398 of all participants, three of which were serious (2 displacements and 1 self-removal requiring prompt surgery. None of the Adverse Events required hospitalization. The majority of participants returned to work within a day of device placement.Our study shows that PrePex is a safe MMC method, for males 14 years and above. PrePex circumcision had a similar adverse event rate to that reported for surgical MMC, but device removal caused high levels of pain, which subsided rapidly.

  6. Preweaning growth hormone treatment ameliorates adipose tissue insulin resistance and inflammation in adult male offspring following maternal undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C M; Li, M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

    2013-08-01

    It is well established that early-life nutritional alterations lead to increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in adult life. Although it is clear that obesity gives rise to chronic low-grade inflammation, there is little evidence regarding the role of inflammation in the adipose tissue of undernourished (UN) offspring. GH reduces fat mass and has antiinflammatory properties. The present study examined the effect of maternal UN on adipose inflammation in adult offspring and whether GH treatment during a critical period of developmental plasticity could ameliorate metabolic dysfunction associated with a poor start to life. Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to chow (C) or UN (50% ad libitum; UN) diet throughout gestation. Male C and UN pups received saline (control saline [CS]/UN) or GH (2.5 μg/g/d; control growth hormone [CGH]/undernourished growth hormone [UNGH]) from days 3-21. Postweaning males were further randomized and fed either chow or high-fat diet until day 160. An ex vivo glucose uptake assay demonstrated adipose tissue from UN offspring displayed attenuated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake compared with CS, CGH, and UNGH. This was associated with increased insulin receptor, glucose transporter 4, and insulin receptor substrate 1 gene expression. Furthermore, UN demonstrated enhanced TNFα and IL-1β secretion from adipose explants and stromal vascular fraction cultures accompanied by increased adipose tissue gene expression of several key proinflammatory genes and markers of macrophage infiltration. Overall, UN offspring displayed a more potent immunophenotype, which correlated with decreased insulin sensitivity. Preweaning GH treatment negates these detrimental effects, indicating the potential for reversing metabolic dysfunction in UN adult offspring.

  7. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  8. Induction of blindness by formoguanamine hydrochloride in adult male roseringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anamika Sengupta; Yoshihiko Obara; Tapan K Banerji; Saumen K Maitra

    2002-12-01

    Formoguanamine (2,4-diamino-s-triazine) was known to be an effective chemical agent in inducing blindness in poultry chicks, but not in adult birds. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the influences, if any, of this chemical on the visual performance and retinal histology in an adult sub-tropical wild bird, the roseringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Formoguanamine (FG) hydrochloride was subcutaneously injected into adult parakeets at a dosage of 25 mg (dissolved in 0×75 ml physiological saline)/100 g body weight/day, for two consecutive days while the control birds were injected only with a placebo. The effects were studied after 10, 20 and 30 days of the last treatment of FG. Within 24 h of the treatment of FG, about 90% of the total birds exhibited lack of visual responses to any light stimulus and even absence of pupillary light reactions. The remaining birds became totally blind on the day following the last injection of FG and remained so till the end of investigation. At the microscopic level, conspicuous degenerative changes were noted in the outer pigmented epithelium and the photoreceptive layer of rods and cones in the retinas of FG treated birds. A significant reduction in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer was also found in the retinas of FG treated parakeets, compared to that in the control birds. However, the inner cell layers of the retina in the control and FG administered parakeets were almost identical. It deserves special mention that the effects of FG, noted after 30 days of last treatment, were not very different from those noted just after 10 days of treatment. Collectively, the results of the present investigation demonstrate that FG can be used as a potent pharmacological agent for inducing irreversible blindness through selective damage in retinal tissue even in the adult wild bird, thereby making FG treatment an alternative euthanasic device to a cumbersome, stressful, surgical method of enucleation of the ocular

  9. Alterations in male sexual behaviour, attractiveness and testosterone levels induced by an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2008-06-26

    Despite an abundance of research on calorie restriction (CR) altering gonadal and appetite regulating hormones, the sexual behavioural consequences of CR remain to be examined systematically. This study compared the sexual behaviour, partner preference, serum testosterone and leptin levels of male adult Hooded Wistar rats administered a CR (continuous 25%, 50% CR or a temporary restriction) with ad libitum fed controls. The temporary restriction (Previous CR) failed to alter sexual behaviour, partner preference and levels of testosterone and leptin. The moderately 25% CR males did not demonstrate an impairment in sexual behaviour but did demonstrate a reduced level of attractiveness to females in one measure of partner preference. Sexual performance was affected by a substantial CR, as the CR 50% group exhibited a longer latency to the first intromission, indicating alteration in sexual arousal. Females also consistently demonstrated a clear preference for the control group compared to the CR 50% group. These findings indicate a possible reduction in the overall reproductive potential of the substantially CR animals. Testosterone levels were equally suppressed by both the 25% and 50% CR, while leptin levels were only reduced in the CR 50% group. Leptin, rather than testosterone, may have influenced the impairment in sexual behaviour only demonstrated by the substantially CR animals. Testosterone, may, however, play a role in modulating the preference of control over CR males, as attractiveness was totally reduced by a substantial CR, and partially reduced by a moderate restricted regimen.

  10. Embryonic exposure to dimethoate and/or deltamethrin impairs sexual development and programs reproductive success in adult male offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slima, A; Ben Abdallah, F; Keskes-Ammar, L; Mallek, Z; El Feki, A; Gdoura, R

    2012-05-01

    Pesticides can be toxic to desirable plants and animals, including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive effects of low doses of pesticides on male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. Three groups of five female mice were treated daily by oral gavage with dimethoate (5 mg kg(-1) per day), deltamethrin (5 mg kg(-1) per day) and their mixture at 5 mg kg(-1) per day from day 3 to day 21 of pregnancy. Fertility, sexual behaviour and a number of reproductive endpoints, such as organ weights, sperm evaluations and testicular histology, were examined on four adult male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. When compared with control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg kg j(-1) causes a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes of exposed mice and it affects their fertility by reducing the density, mobility and vitality of sperm and increasing the number of abnormal forms of these cells (P ≤ 0.01). The same results were obtained in mice exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg j(-1) combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin. This study demonstrated that deltamethrin and combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin caused a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes, which affected the sperm parameters of male offspring of exposed mice to a low dose of these pesticides during pregnancy.

  11. Rutin ameliorates cisplatin-induced reproductive damage via suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, E H; Kandemir, F M; Özkaraca, M; Ömür, A D; Küçükler, S; Çomaklı, S

    2017-02-01

    Cisplatin (CP) treatment causes damage in the male reproductive system. Rutin (RUT) is a naturally occurring flavonoid glycoside that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate effects of RUT against cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Twenty-one adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The control group received physiological saline with oral gavage during 14 days, and physiological saline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) in 10th days of study. CP Group received physiological saline during 14 days, and 10 mg kg(-1) CP was injected IP in 10th day. RUT + CP group received RUT (150 mg kg(-1) ) during 14 days, and 10 mg kg(-1) CP was injected IP in 10th day. Spermatological parameters (including motility, cauda epididymal sperm density, dead sperm percentage and morphological sperm abnormalities), biochemical (MDA, GSH, GSH-px, SOD and CAT), histological (H&E dye) and immunochemistry evaluations of testicles were evaluated. CP treatment caused damage on some spermatological parameters, increased the oxidative stress and induced testicular degeneration and apoptosis when compared to the control group. However, RUT treatment mitigates these side effects when compared to the CP alone group. IT is concluded that RUT treatment may reduce CP-induced reproductive toxicity as a potential antioxidant compound.

  12. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking.

  13. Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-11-19

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  14. Testicular hormones do not regulate sexually dimorphic Pavlovian fear conditioning or perforant-path long-term potentiation in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaras, S G; Maren, S; DeCola, J P; Lane, N I; Gale, G D; Schlinger, B A; Fanselow, M S

    1998-04-01

    We recently reported that Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal perforant-path long-term potentiation (LTP) are sexually dimorphic in rats. Males show greater contextual fear conditioning, which depends on the hippocampus, as well as greater hippocampal LTP. In order to examine the role of circulating gonadal hormones in adult male rats, animals were castrated in two experiments, and Pavlovian fear conditioning and in vivo perforant-path LTP were examined. It was found that sexually-dimorphic LTP and fear conditioning are not regulated by the activational effects of testicular hormones in adult male rats. That is, in every respect, castrated male rats were similar to intact male rats in Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal LTP. It is likely that sexual dimorphism in this system is established earlier in development by the organizational effects of gonadal hormones.

  15. The developmental transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Connecticut; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brooks, Angela N.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Duff, Michael O.; Landolin, Jane M.; Yang, Li; Artieri, Carlo G.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Boley, Nathan; Booth, Benjamin W.; Brown, James B.; Cherbas, Lucy; Davis, Carrie A.; Dobin, Alex; Li, Renhua; Lin, Wei; Malone, John H.; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R.; Miller, David; Sturgill, David; Tuch, Brian B.; Zaleski, Chris; Zhang, Dayu; Blanchette, Marco; Dudoit, Sandrine; Eads, Brian; Green, Richard E.; Hammonds, Ann; Jiang, Lichun; Kapranov, Phil; Langton, Laura; Perrimon, Norbert; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Yi; Andrews, Justen; Bicke, Peter J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Brent, Michael R.; Cherbas, Peter; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Oliver, Brian; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-12-02

    . Whereas, 20% of Drosophila genes are annotated as encoding alternatively spliced premRNAs, splice-junction microarray experiments indicate that this number is at least 40% (ref. 7). Determining the diversity of mRNAs generated by alternative promoters, alternative splicing and RNA editing will substantially increase the inferred protein repertoire. Non-coding RNA genes (ncRNAs) including short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAS (miRNAs) (reviewed in ref. 10), and longer ncRNAs such as bxd (ref. 11) and rox (ref. 12), have important roles in gene regulation, whereas others such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs)and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are important components of macromolecular machines such as the ribosome and spliceosome. The transcription and processing of these ncRNAs must also be fully documented and mapped. As part of the modENCODE project to annotate the functional elements of the D. melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, we used RNA-Seq and tiling microarrays to sample the Drosophila transcriptome at unprecedented depth throughout development from early embryo to ageing male and female adults. We report on a high-resolution view of the discovery, structure and dynamic expression of the D. melanogaster transcriptome.

  16. 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassó-Matoses, M; Picó-Alfonso, A; Fernández-García, J; Lobato-Encinas, J; Mira-Llinares, A

    1992-01-01

    A 33-year-old male was referred for infertility. Examination revealed bilateral scrotal gonads of soft consistency and small size. Semen analysis showed azoospermia. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and normal testosterone values were found. Surgical exploration and histopathology diagnosed dysgenetic testes with complete epididymis, and remnants of Fallopian tubes attached to the albuginea, with normal vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed on deferentovesiculography. Karyotype was 45,X/46,XY del(Y)(q11) with only 15% of 46XY cells in gonadal tissue. The clinical spectrum of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and significance of this chromosomic anomaly is discussed.

  17. Passive Response to Stress in Adolescent Female and Adult Male Mice after Intermittent Nicotine Exposure in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis; Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-04-23

    Smoking is frequently co-morbid with depression. Although it is recognized that depression increases the risk for smoking, it is unclear if early smoking exposure may increase the risk for depression. To test this possibility we assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on the Forced Swim Test (FST), which is used as a measure of passive coping, and depressive-like behavior in rodents, and on the open field test (OFT), which is used as a measure of locomotion and exploratory behavior. Male and female mice received daily saline or nicotine (0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) injections from postnatal day (PD) 30 to PD 44. FST and OFT were performed either 1 or 30 days after the last injection (PD 45 and PD 74, respectively). In females, treatment with 0.3 mg/kg nicotine lead to increased FST immobility (64%) and decreased OFT locomotor activity (12%) one day following the last nicotine injection (PD 45); while no effects were observed in adulthood (PD 74). In contrast, on PD45, nicotine treatment did not change the male FST immobility but lead to lower OFT locomotor activity (0.6 mg/kg, 10%). In adulthood (PD 74), both nicotine doses lead to higher FST immobility (87%) in males while 0.6 mg/kg nicotine to lower OFT locomotor activity (13%). The results (i) identify females as more vulnerable to the immediate withdrawal that follows nicotine discontinuation in adolescence and (ii) suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may enhance the risk for passive response towards unavoidable stress in adult males.

  18. Distinct Testicular Steroidogenic Response Mechanisms Between Neonatal and Adult Heat-Acclimated Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kurowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In comparison to short-term gonad heat exposure, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate testicular steroidogenesis during long-term whole body heat acclimation. Material and Methods: Testicular slices from neonatal (NHA and adult (AHA heat-acclimated Wistar rats were analysed in vitro to assess the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of steroidogenic enzymes under basal and luteinising hormone (LH or prolactin (PRL stimulated conditions compared with control rats (CR. Furthermore, a de-acclimated group (DA was created by transferring adult NHA rats to control conditions. Results: Heat acclimation significantly increased plasma LH levels in the AHA group and LH and PRL in the NHA group compared with the CR group; however, after heat acclimation, the T and E2 levels did not differ from the control levels. All heat-acclimated groups showed high basal intra-testicular steroid production in vitro. Moreover, basal Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 levels were upregulated in vitro in the NHA and DA groups versus the CR group. LH in vitro stimulation upregulated Cyp11a1 expression in the NHA and AHA groups and PRL stimulation upregulated Cyp17a1 levels in the NHA and DA groups compared with the basal expression levels. In the AHA group, decreased basal Star and CYP11A activities but increased HSD3B1 and CYP17A1 activities were found. Conclusion: Our data revealed that despite the similar steroid levels in plasma and secreted in vitro by neonatal and adult heat-acclimated rat testicular slices, the molecular mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic response to heat acclimation during these different developmental stages were distinct.

  19. Analysis of Drosophila p8 and p52 mutants reveals distinct roles for the maintenance of TFIIH stability and male germ cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Becerra, Grisel; Juárez, Mandy; Valadez-Graham, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is activated by factors that interact within complex machinery to initiate transcription. An important component of this machinery is the DNA repair/transcription factor TFIIH. Mutations in TFIIH result in three human syndromes: xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome and trichothiodystrophy. Transcription and DNA repair defects have been linked to some clinical features of these syndromes. However, how mutations in TFIIH affect specific developmental programmes, allowing organisms to develop with particular phenotypes, is not well understood. Here, we show that mutations in the p52 and p8 subunits of TFIIH have a moderate effect on the gene expression programme in the Drosophila testis, causing germ cell differentiation arrest in meiosis, but no Polycomb enrichment at the promoter of the affected differentiation genes, supporting recent data that disagree with the current Polycomb-mediated repression model for regulating gene expression in the testis. Moreover, we found that TFIIH stability is not compromised in p8 subunit-depleted testes that show transcriptional defects, highlighting the role of p8 in transcription. Therefore, this study reveals how defects in TFIIH affect a specific cell differentiation programme and contributes to understanding the specific syndrome manifestations in TFIIH-afflicted patients.

  20. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  1. Systematic Literature Review of the Epidemiology of Nongenetic Forms of Hypogonadism in Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Zarotsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the literature on the prevalence, incidence, and proportion of patients receiving treatment for male hypogonadism and a systematic literature search was performed for articles published in the last 20 years. Of the 97 studies identified, 96 examined the prevalence, 2 examined the incidence, and 4 examined the proportion of males with hypogonadism patients receiving treatment. Based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, the prevalence of hypogonadism in the general population ranged from 2.1% to 12.8% of middle-aged to older men, with an estimated incidence of 12 new cases per 1,000 person-years. Prevalence was higher among patients with comorbid conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Approximately 10–12% of men with hypogonadism were receiving testosterone treatment. This literature review suggests that there is potentially a significant burden of hypogonadism in the general population. Burden seems to increase with age and in the presence of certain disease conditions. Data suggests that many hypogonadal men who may benefit from testosterone replacement are not receiving treatment. This may be the result of underdiagnosis of the disease, lack of awareness by patients or physicians, irregularities surrounding the diagnostic criteria, and deficiency of long-term safety studies.

  2. The cytogenetic theory of the pathogenesis of human adult male germ cell tumors. Review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, R S; Houldsworth, J

    1998-01-01

    Human male germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a biological paradox because, in order to develop into a pluripotential tumor, a germ cell destined to a path of limited or no proliferation must acquire the potential for unlimited proliferation. In addition, it must acquire the ability to elicit embryonal differentiation patterns without the reciprocal inputs from fertilization and the imprinting-associated genomic changes which are a part of normal embryonal development. Although much speculated about, the genetic mechanisms underlying these properties of male GCTs remain enigmatic. Recent cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses of these tumors are providing new insights and new testable hypotheses. Based on our recent work, we propose two such hypotheses. One relates to the mechanism of germ cell transformation and germ cell tumor development. We suggest that the invariable 12p amplification noted as early as in carcinoma in situ/intratubular germ cell neoplasia (CIS/ITGCN) lesions leads to deregulated overexpression of cyclin D2, a cell cycle G1/S checkpoint regulator with oncogeneic potential. Such overexpression reinitiates the cell cycle. We visualize this happening during the pachytene stage of meiosis through aberrant recombinational events which lead to 12p amplification. The other hypothesis relates to the origin of primary extragonadal GCTs. By comparing cytogenetic changes in primary mediastinal versus gonadal lesions, we propose that, in contrast to long-standing speculation that primary extra-gonadal tumors arise from embryonally misplaced primordial germ cells, these lesions arise from migration of transformed gonadal germ cells.