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Sample records for adult low-grade lytic

  1. Symptomatic Adjacent Segment Pathology after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Adult Low-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

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    Sakaura, Hironobu; Yamashita, Tomoya; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohzono, Kenji; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after fusion surgery for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) has been reported to be relatively low compared with other lumbar disease entities. However, there has been no study of symptomatic ASP incidence using posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with pedicle screw instrumentation. We investigated the incidence of symptomatic ASP after PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation for adult low-grade IS and identified s...

  2. TRANSFORAMINAL L U MBAR INTERBODY FUSION IN LOW GRADE COMBINED LYTIC AND DEGENERATIVE SPONDYLOLIDTHESIS : FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF 21 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spondylolisthesis is a heterogenous disorder characterised by subluxation of a vertebral body in sagittal plane occuring frequently at l4 - 5 and l5 - S1commonest being isthmic and degenerative variety. While majority are asymptomatic, a subset do produce pain with neurology. Complete decompression of roots is essential, as is the need for solid stabi lization. Several fusion techniques were reported in literature like PLF, TLIF, PLF, ALIF On theoretical grounds, TLIF has been suggested to be safe and result in an improved outcome compared to other techniques. Data to support this view, are lacking. M ETHODS: A total of 21 patients (age range, 27 - 62 years with adult isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis were operated. There were 8 males and 13 females with mean age of 46.8 pre - op and 2 - year follow - up, pain (VAS and functional disability were quan tified by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI.Radiological union assessed with xrays by Brantigen and Steffee criteria. The global outcome was excellent in 90%.and 92% fusion. 2 patients presented motor deficit which did not recover. RESULTS: The follow - up was for 2 years. The mean VAS score for low back pain improved from 7.0 preoperatively to 2.1, as did the mean VAS score for leg pain from 6.7 to 1.4 and the mean ODI from 59.5% to 11.3%. CONCLUSION: TLIF does affect the 2 - year outcome of surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis with decreased back pain and ODI’s, with advantages of minimal thecal retraction, restored segmental lordosis and preserved posterior tension band.

  3. Symptomatic adjacent segment pathology after posterior lumbar interbody fusion for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Yamashita, Tomoya; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohzono, Kenji; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after fusion surgery for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) has been reported to be relatively low compared with other lumbar disease entities. However, there has been no study of symptomatic ASP incidence using posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with pedicle screw instrumentation. We investigated the incidence of symptomatic ASP after PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation for adult low-grade IS and identified significant risk factors for symptomatic ASP. We retrospectively studied records of 40 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Japan. The patients were followed for ≥ 4 years. Patients' medical records were retrospectively examined for evidence of symptomatic ASP. Age at time of surgery, sex, fusion level, whole lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, preexisting laminar inclination angle, and facet tropism at the cranial fusion segment were analyzed to identify risk factors for symptomatic ASP. Four patients (ASP group) developed symptomatic ASP at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion. There were no significant differences in age, sex, fusion level, lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, or facet tropism at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion between the ASP and the non-ASP groups. In contrast, laminar inclination angle at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was significantly higher in the ASP group than in the non-ASP group. Four patients (10%) developed symptomatic ASP after PLIF with transpedicular fixation for adult low-grade IS. Preexisting laminar horizontalization at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was a significant risk factor for symptomatic ASP.

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults (change not displayed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Lu, J; Huang, X; Ding, L; Huang, Y; Wang, P; Peng, K; Zhang, D; Xu, Y; Xu, M; Chen, Y; Bi, Y; Wang, W; Xu, Y

    2016-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Low-grade albuminuria was recognized as an early indicator of CVD. Epidemiological studies investigating the association between NAFLD and low-grade albuminuria were limited. To determine whether NAFLD is independently associated with the presence of low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults. A cross-sectional community-based population study was performed in 8270 Chinese adults aged 40 years or older. A first-voided early morning spot urine sample was obtained for urinary albumin and creatinine measurements. The highest quartile of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was defined as low-grade albuminuria, after excluding the participants with micro- or macroalbuminuria. NAFLD was diagnosed by using ultrasonography findings after the exclusion of alcohol abuse and other liver diseases. The prevalence of low-grade albuminuria was significantly higher in participants with NAFLD than in those without NAFLD (33.6% vs. 21.3% in men and 30.4% vs. 22.8% in women, respectively). Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was significantly associated with increased odds ratio of low-grade albuminuria in men (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16-1.87) after adjusting for multiple confounders. The significant association was not detected in women. NAFLD was significantly associated with an increased risk of present low-grade albuminuria in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Awake surgery for hemispheric low-grade gliomas: oncological, functional and methodological differences between pediatric and adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, Gianluca; Roujeau, Thomas; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-10-01

    Brain mapping through a direct cortical and subcortical electrical stimulation during an awake craniotomy has gained an increasing popularity as a powerful tool to prevent neurological deficit while increasing extent of resection of hemispheric diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults. However, few case reports or very limited series of awake surgery in children are currently available in the literature. In this paper, we review the oncological and functional differences between pediatric and adult populations, and the methodological specificities that may limit the use of awake mapping in pediatric low-grade glioma surgery. This could be explained by the fact that pediatric low-grade gliomas have a different epidemiology and biologic behavior in comparison to adults, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I glioma) as the most frequent histotype, and with WHO grade II gliomas less prone to anaplastic transformation than their adult counterparts. In addition, aside from the issue of poor collaboration of younger children under 10 years of age, some anatomical and functional peculiarities of children developing brain (cortical and subcortical myelination, maturation of neural networks and of specialized cortical areas) can influence direct electrical stimulation methodology and sensitivity, limiting its use in children. Therefore, even though awake procedure with cortical and axonal stimulation mapping can be adapted in a specific subgroup of children with a diffuse glioma from the age of 10 years, only few pediatric patients are nonetheless candidates for awake brain surgery.

  6. Computed tomography- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults: a new technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Browaeys, Patrick; Nouri, Yasir; Ibba, Caroline; Hauger, Olivier; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Boileau, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults. Ten consecutive adult patients (four men and six women; mean age: 57.1 [range, 44-78 years]) were prospectively treated by percutaneous screw fixation for low-grade (six grade 1 and four grade 2) isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5. For each patient, two 4.0-mm Asnis III cannulated screws were placed to fix the pars interarticularis defects. All procedures were performed under local anaesthesia by using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. Post-operative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The procedure time ranged from 45 to 60 min. The mean screw length was 27 mm (range, 24-32 mm). The VAS and ODI measurements ± SD decreased from 7.8 ± 0.9 preoperatively to 1.5 ± 1.1 at the last 2-year follow-up, and from 62.3 ± 17.2 to 15.1 ± 6.0, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases). Neither slip progression nor screw failure was noted. This feasibility study showed that CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation could be a rapid, safe and effective method of treating low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. (orig.)

  7. Computed tomography- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults: a new technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Browaeys, Patrick; Nouri, Yasir; Ibba, Caroline [Hopital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Radiology, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier [Hopital Pellegrin, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Marcy, Pierre-Yves [Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Research Institute, Department of Radiology, Nice (France); Boileau, Pascal [Hopital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nice (France)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults. Ten consecutive adult patients (four men and six women; mean age: 57.1 [range, 44-78 years]) were prospectively treated by percutaneous screw fixation for low-grade (six grade 1 and four grade 2) isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5. For each patient, two 4.0-mm Asnis III cannulated screws were placed to fix the pars interarticularis defects. All procedures were performed under local anaesthesia by using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. Post-operative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The procedure time ranged from 45 to 60 min. The mean screw length was 27 mm (range, 24-32 mm). The VAS and ODI measurements {+-} SD decreased from 7.8 {+-} 0.9 preoperatively to 1.5 {+-} 1.1 at the last 2-year follow-up, and from 62.3 {+-} 17.2 to 15.1 {+-} 6.0, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases). Neither slip progression nor screw failure was noted. This feasibility study showed that CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation could be a rapid, safe and effective method of treating low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. (orig.)

  8. Prognostic significance of IDH mutation in adult low-grade gliomas: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hairui; Yin, Lianhu; Li, Showwei; Han, Song; Song, Guangrong; Liu, Ning; Yan, Changxiang

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have been identified in approximately 65-90 % of low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Various studies examining the relationship between IDH mutation with the clinical outcome in patients with LGGs have yielded inconclusive results. The purpose of the present meta-analysis of literature is to determine this effect. We conducted a meta-analysis of 10 studies (937 patients) that evaluated the correlation between IDH mutation and overall survival (OS). For the quantitative aggregation of the survival results, the IDH mutation effect was measured by hazard ratio (HR). Overall, the pooled HR was 0.585 (95 % CI, 0.376-0.911, p = 0.025, random effect model) for patients with IDH mutation vs patients without IDH mutation. IDH mutation was associated with better overall survival of LGGs. At least this trend was observed in our analysis.

  9. Low-grade inflammation may moderate the effect of behavioral treatment for chronic pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasselin, Julie; Kemani, Mike K; Kanstrup, Marie; Olsson, Gunnar L; Axelsson, John; Andreasson, Anna; Lekander, Mats; Wicksell, Rikard K

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present pilot study was to explore the moderating role of basal inflammation on the effects of behavioral pain treatment in 41 patients with long-standing pain. Baseline pro-inflammatory status moderated behavioral treatment outcomes: higher pre-treatment levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Interleukin (IL)-6 were related to less improvement in pain intensity, psychological inflexibility and in mental health-related quality of life. The treatment outcomes improved in the subgroup that had low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines at baseline, while the subjects with higher pro-inflammatory status did not. Altogether, results indicate that low-grade inflammation may influence the behavioral treatment outcomes and provide a possible explanation of the heterogeneity in treatment response.

  10. Adjacent disc and facet joint degeneration in young adults with low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chin-Chiang; Wang, Jung-Der; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Lin, Chii-Jeng; Huang, Kuo-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Premature adjacent-level degeneration has been attributed to vertebral fusion, but spondylolisthesis has not been reported as a pathological factor responsible for the degeneration of adjacent disc and facet joint. We hypothesized that the degeneration of disc and facet joints in the adjacent levels is correlated with spondylolisthesis. Magnetic resonance images of 35 symptomatic young adults (16-29 years old) with low-grade L5-S1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis (Meyerding Grade 1 or 2) and 50 symptomatic young referents (20-29 years old) with L5-S1 disc herniation without spondylolisthesis were recruited to compare the differences between disc and facet-joint degenerations at the olisthetic and adjacent levels using the Mantel extension test. There were statistically significant degenerative changes of the discs and facet joints at the olisthetic and adjacent levels of patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis compared with the reference group. There is a trend that the disc and facet joints degenerate the most at the olisthetic level and become less affected at adjacent levels away from the lesion of pars defect. Low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis was associated with significant degenerations of the disc and facet joints at olisthetic and adjacent levels in young adults. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test–retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score ≤−1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose–volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ) assuming an α/β ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose–response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD 2 to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in

  12. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test–retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score ≤−1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose–volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ) assuming an α/β ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose–response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD 2 to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in

  13. Low-grade inflammation in young adults exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate associations between fetal exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia and plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in adult offspring. METHOD: We studied 597 offspring, aged 18-27years, from four different groups concerning......)) was positively associated with levels of both IL-6 and hs-CRP (p for both=0.003). Offspring who had already developed overweight or conditions of abnormal glucose tolerance were characterized by higher levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP compared with the remaining offspring (all p...

  14. Aging and low-grade inflammation reduce renal function in middle-aged and older adults in Japan and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello-White, Reagan; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-grade inflammation on age-related changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in middle-aged and older white Americans, African-Americans, and Japanese adults. Serum creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were determined for 1570 adult participants in two surveys of aging in the USA and Japan (N = 1188 and 382, respectively). Kidney function declined with age in both countries and was associated with IL-6 and CRP. IL-6 and CRP also influenced the extent of the arithmetic bias when calculating the GFR using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formula with just serum creatinine. Younger African-Americans initially had the highest GFR but showed a steep age-related decrement that was associated with elevated inflammation. Japanese adults had the lowest average GFR but evinced a large effect of increased inflammatory activity when over 70 years of age. Importantly, our results also indicate that low-grade inflammation is important to consider when evaluating kidney function solely from serum creatinine.

  15. Molecular Transition of an Adult Low-Grade Brain Tumor to an Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Over a Time-Course of 14 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Yvonne; Meszaros, Zsolt; Jones, David T W; Koelsche, Christian; Boudalil, Miream; Fiesel, Petra; Schrimpf, Daniel; Piro, Rosario M; Brehmer, Stefanie; von Deimling, Andreas; Kerl, Ulrich; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Capper, David

    2017-08-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system is a highly malignant, pediatric brain tumor typically arising de novo. Inactivation of SMARCB1 is a defining molecular event. We present here a rare case of an adult (35 years) low-grade SMARCB1-deleted brain tumor with transition into prototypical AT/RT over 14 years. Molecular analysis was performed for 3 tumor presentations including copy number analysis, DNA methylation analysis (450k), and whole exome sequencing. We detected the identical somatic SMARCB1 deletion at all 3 time-points. In an unsupervised hierarchical clustering of methylation data together with 127 reference cases comprising 9 brain tumor classes all 3 manifestations clustered with AT/RT. Exome sequencing revealed an increase of mutational burden over time. The acquired mutations and additional copy number changes did not affect known cancer genes. In conclusion, we demonstrate molecular changes associated with histological and clinical transition of a low-grade brain tumor to an adult AT/RT. Our observation of a stable disease course for nearly 10 years in a tumor with SMARCB1 loss and an AT/RT-like DNA methylation profile indicates that caution may be required in the diagnostic interpretation of such findings in adult patients. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dosimetric advantages of proton therapy over conventional radiotherapy with photons in young patients and adults with low-grade glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrabi, S.B.; Herfarth, K.; Bougatf, N.; Mohr, A.; Haberer, T.; Combs, S.E.; Debus, J.; Adeberg, S.

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade glioma (LGG) is a very common brain tumor in pediatric patients typically associated with a very good prognosis. This prognosis makes it imperative that the risk of long-term treatment-related side effects be kept at an absolute minimum. Proton therapy (PRT) provides a radiation technique that has the potential to further reduce the genesis of radiogenic impairment. We retrospectively assessed 74 patients with LGG who underwent PRT. Conventional three-dimensional photon and PRT plans were generated after contouring structures of neurogenesis, crucial neuronal structures, and areas susceptible to secondary malignancies. Target volume coverage was evaluated using the homogeneity index (HI) and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC). Results were compared using the Wilcoxon-signed rank test, with p < 0.05 being statistically significant. Target volume coverage was comparable for the photon and proton plans. Overall, we could show an essential reduction in maximal, mean, and integral doses in critical neurologic structures, areas of neurogenesis, and structures of neurocognitive function. The study indicated specifically how contralaterally located structures could be spared with PRT. PRT is a highly conformal radiation technique offering superior dosimetric advantages over conventional radiotherapy by allowing significant dose reduction for organs at risk (OAR) that are essential for neurologic function, neurocognition, and quality of life, thus demonstrating the potential of this technique for minimizing long-term sequelae. (orig.) [de

  17. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wei, Dianjun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG) is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808) and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615) were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard β coefficient = 0.882). This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration.

  18. Dosimetric advantages of proton therapy over conventional radiotherapy with photons in young patients and adults with low-grade glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrabi, S.B.; Herfarth, K. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bougatf, N. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Mohr, A. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, T. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, S.E. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Oberschleissheim (Germany); Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (dktk), Partner Site Munich, Munich (Germany); Debus, J.; Adeberg, S. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Low-grade glioma (LGG) is a very common brain tumor in pediatric patients typically associated with a very good prognosis. This prognosis makes it imperative that the risk of long-term treatment-related side effects be kept at an absolute minimum. Proton therapy (PRT) provides a radiation technique that has the potential to further reduce the genesis of radiogenic impairment. We retrospectively assessed 74 patients with LGG who underwent PRT. Conventional three-dimensional photon and PRT plans were generated after contouring structures of neurogenesis, crucial neuronal structures, and areas susceptible to secondary malignancies. Target volume coverage was evaluated using the homogeneity index (HI) and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC). Results were compared using the Wilcoxon-signed rank test, with p < 0.05 being statistically significant. Target volume coverage was comparable for the photon and proton plans. Overall, we could show an essential reduction in maximal, mean, and integral doses in critical neurologic structures, areas of neurogenesis, and structures of neurocognitive function. The study indicated specifically how contralaterally located structures could be spared with PRT. PRT is a highly conformal radiation technique offering superior dosimetric advantages over conventional radiotherapy by allowing significant dose reduction for organs at risk (OAR) that are essential for neurologic function, neurocognition, and quality of life, thus demonstrating the potential of this technique for minimizing long-term sequelae. (orig.) [German] Niedriggradige Gliome (LGG) zaehlen zu den haeufigsten Hirntumoren im Kindesalter und sind ueblicherweise mit einer sehr guten Prognose vergesellschaftet. Es gilt daher, das Risiko fuer therapieassoziierte Spaetfolgen so gering wie moeglich zu halten. Mit der Protonenbestrahlung steht eine Bestrahlungsmodalitaet zur Verfuegung, mit der das Auftreten radiogener Spaetfolgen im Vergleich zu konventionellen Bestrahlungstechniken

  19. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of

  20. Neuropsychological status in children and young adults with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Sarin, Rajiv; More, Niteen; Siddha, Manish; Kamble, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To present prospective neuropsychological data at baseline and follow-up in children and young adults with benign and low-grade gliomas treated with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients (age 4-25 years) with residual/progressive benign and low-grade brain tumors considered suitable for SCRT underwent detailed and in-depth neuropsychological and cognitive testing at baseline before SCRT. The test battery included measurement of age-adjusted intelligence quotients (IQs) and cognitive parameters of visual, spatial, visuomotor, and attention concentrations. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for patients >16 years old. Patients were treated with high-precision conformal radiotherapy under stereotactic guidance to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All neuropsychological assessments were repeated at 6 and 24 months after SCRT completion and compared with the baseline values. Results: The baseline mean full-scale IQ before starting RT for patients 16 years, the corresponding value was 72 (range, 64-129). Of 20 evaluable patients, 14 (70%) had less than average IQs at baseline, even before starting radiotherapy. The verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ, as well as other cognitive scores, did not change significantly at the 6- and 24-month follow-up assessments for all patients. The memory quotient in older children and young adults was maintained at 6 and 24 months after SCRT, with a mean value of 93 and 100, respectively, compared with a mean baseline value of 81 before RT. The mean anxiety score in children measured by the C1 and C2 components of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was 48 and 40, respectively, which improved significantly to mean values of 30 and 26, respectively, at the 24-month follow-up assessment (p = 0.005). The mean depression score in patients >16 years old was 23 at baseline and had

  1. Low grade mosaic for a complex supernumerary ring chromosome 18 in an adult patient with multiple congenital anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogeboom A Jeannette M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cases have been reported of patients with a ring chromosome 18 replacing one of the normal chromosomes 18. Less common are patients with a supernumerary ring chromosomes 18. High resolution whole genome examination in patients with multiple congenital abnormalities might reveal cytogenetic abnormalities of an unexpected complexity. Results We report a 24 years old male patient with lower spinal anomalies, hypospadia, bifid scrotum, cryptorchism, anal atresia, kidney stones, urethra anomalies, radial dysplasia, and a hypoplastic thumb. Some of the anomalies overlap with the VACTERL association. Chromosome analysis of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed an additional ring chromosome in 13% of the metaphases. Both parents had a normal karyotype, demonstrating the de novo origin of this ring chromosome. FISH analysis using whole chromosome paints showed that the additional chromosomal material was derived from chromosome 18. Chromosome analysis of cultured fibroblasts revealed only one cell with the supernumerary ring chromosome in the 400 analyzed. To characterize the ring chromosome in more detail peripheral blood derived DNA was analyzed using SNP-arrays. The array results indicated a 5 Mb gain of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 18q10-q11.2. FISH analysis using BAC-probes located in the region indicated the presence of 6 signals on the r(18 chromosome. In addition, microsatellite analysis demonstrated that the unique supernumerary ring chromosome was paternally derived and both normal copies showed biparental disomy. Conclusions We report on an adult patient with multiple congenital abnormalities who had in 13% of his cells a unique supernumerary ring chromosome 18 that was composed of 6 copies of the 5 Mb gene rich region of 18q11.

  2. Lytic bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses resulting from the consumption of produce commodities contaminated with enteric pathogens continue to be a significant public health issue. Lytic bacteriophages may provide an effective and natural intervention to reduce bacterial pathogens on fresh and fresh-cut produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails specific for a single pathogen has been most frequently assessed on produce commodities to minimize the development of bacteriophage insensitive mutants (BIM) in target pathogen populations. Regulatory approval for the use of several lytic phage products specific for bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in foods and on food processing surfaces has been granted by various agencies in the US and other countries, possibly allowing for the more widespread use of bacteriophages in the decontamination of fresh and minimally processed produce. Research studies have shown lytic bacteriophages specific for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes have been effective in reducing pathogen populations on leafy greens, sprouts and tomatoes. PMID:24228223

  3. Quality of life after radiation therapy of cerebral low-grade gliomas of the adult: results of a randomised Phase III trial on dose response (EORTC trial 22844)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebert, G.M.; Curran, D.; Aaronson, N.K.; Bolla, M.; Menten, J.; Rutten, E.H.J.M.; Nordman, E.; Silvestre, M.E.; Pierart, M.; Karim, A.B.M.F.

    1998-01-01

    In 1985, the EORTC Radiotherapy Co-operative Group launched a randomised phase III study comparing high-dose (59.4 Gy in 6.5 weeks) versus low-dose (45 Gy in 5 weeks) radiotherapy with conventional techniques in patients diagnosed with low-grade cerebral glioma. The primary endpoint of the study was survival. No difference in survival was observed between the two treatment strategies. A quality of life (QoL) questionnaire consisting of 47 items assessing a range of physical, psychological, social, and symptom domains was included in the trial to measure the impact of treatment over time. Patients who received high-dose radiotherapy tended to report lower levels of functioning and more symptom burden following completion of radiotherapy. These group differences were statistically significant for fatigue/malaise and insomnia immediately after radiotherapy and in leisure time and emotional functioning at 7-15 months after randomisation. These findings suggest that for conventional radiotherapy for low-grade cerebral glioma, a schedule of 45 Gy in 5 weeks not only saves valuable resources, but also spares patients a prolonged treatment at no loss of clinical efficacy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Quality of life after radiation therapy of cerebral low-grade gliomas of the adult: results of a randomised Phase III trial on dose response (EORTC trial 22844)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiebert, G.M. [MEDTAP International, 27 Gilbert Street, London (United Kingdom); Curran, D. [EORTC Data Centre Brussels (Belgium); Aaronson, N.K. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bolla, M. [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire, Grenoble (France); Menten, J. [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven (Belgium); Rutten, E.H.J.M. [University Hospital St. Radboud, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nordman, E. [Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Silvestre, M.E. [Hospital Santa Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Pierart, M. [EORTC Data Centre, Brussels (Belgium); Karim, A.B.M.F. [Free University Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    In 1985, the EORTC Radiotherapy Co-operative Group launched a randomised phase III study comparing high-dose (59.4 Gy in 6.5 weeks) versus low-dose (45 Gy in 5 weeks) radiotherapy with conventional techniques in patients diagnosed with low-grade cerebral glioma. The primary endpoint of the study was survival. No difference in survival was observed between the two treatment strategies. A quality of life (QoL) questionnaire consisting of 47 items assessing a range of physical, psychological, social, and symptom domains was included in the trial to measure the impact of treatment over time. Patients who received high-dose radiotherapy tended to report lower levels of functioning and more symptom burden following completion of radiotherapy. These group differences were statistically significant for fatigue/malaise and insomnia immediately after radiotherapy and in leisure time and emotional functioning at 7-15 months after randomisation. These findings suggest that for conventional radiotherapy for low-grade cerebral glioma, a schedule of 45 Gy in 5 weeks not only saves valuable resources, but also spares patients a prolonged treatment at no loss of clinical efficacy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Relationship Between Physical Frailty and Low-Grade Inflammation in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, M.H.; Collard, R.M.; Comijs, H.C.; Naude, P.J.; Risselada, R.; Naarding, P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether physical frailty is associated with low-grade inflammation in older adults with depression, because late-life depression is associated with physical frailty and low-grade inflammation. DESIGN: Baseline data of a cohort study. SETTING: Primary care and specialized

  6. Relationship Between Physical Frailty and Low-Grade Inflammation in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Matheus H. L.; Collard, Rose M.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Naude, Petrus J. W.; Risselada, Roelof; Naarding, Paul; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    ObjectivesTo determine whether physical frailty is associated with low-grade inflammation in older adults with depression, because late-life depression is associated with physical frailty and low-grade inflammation. DesignBaseline data of a cohort study. SettingPrimary care and specialized mental

  7. Relationship between physical frailty and low-grade inflammation in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, M.H.; Collard, R.M.; Comijs, H.C.; Naude, P.J.; Risselada, R.; Naarding, P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether physical frailty is associated with low-grade inflammation in older adults with depression, because late-life depression is associated with physical frailty and low-grade inflammation. Design Baseline data of a cohort study. Setting Primary care and specialized mental

  8. Processing of low-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1975-01-01

    Four types of low grade ores are studied. Low grade ores which must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. It allows to obtain solutions or preconcentrates which may be delivered at the nearest plant. Normal grade ores contained in a low amplitude deposit which can be processed using leaching as far as the operation does not need any large expensive equipment. Medium grade ores in medium amplitude deposits to which a simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. Low grade ores in large deposits. The processing possibilities leading to use in place leaching are explained. The operating conditions of the method are studied (leaching agent, preparation of the ore deposit to obtain a good tightness with regard to the hydrological system and to have a good contact between ore and reagent) [fr

  9. Processing of low grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1978-10-01

    Four types of low-grade ores are studied: (1) Low-grade ores that must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal-grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. (2) Normal-grade ores contained in low-amplitude deposits. They can be processed using in-place leaching as far as the operation does not need any large and expensive equipment. (3) Medium-grade ores in medium-amplitude deposits. A simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. (4) Low-grade ores in large deposits. The report explains processing possibilities leading in most cases to the use of in-place leaching. The operating conditions of this method are laid out, especially the selection of the leaching agents and the preparation of the ore deposit

  10. Ongoing trials in low-grade lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Burchardt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many therapies available for the management of low-grade lymphoma. With follicular lymphoma, for example, combination of chemotherapy and rituximab (immuno-chemo - therapy and consecutive maintenance therapy for 2 years is the current standard of care. To date, the most widely used regimen seems to be rituximab combined with cyclo phosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP. Substitution of liposomal doxorubicin in place of conventional doxorubicin may improve outcomes in this indication, although evidence for its use in low-grade lymphoma is not as relevant as in aggressive lymphoma. Bendamustine, in combination with rituximab, has shown very good efficacy and tolerability in several lymphoma types, particularly follicular lymphoma and other low-grade lymphomas. Other combinations, such as those including bortezomib and lenalidomide, are under investigation in low-grade lymphoma, and the duration of rituximab maintenance therapy following bendamustine−rituximab-containing induction is being researched by the German Study Group for Indolent Lymphoma (StiL.

  11. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  12. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torriani, Martin; Ouellette, Hugue; Etchebehere, Mauricio; Amstalden, Eliane M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue tumor with a deceptively benign histologic appearance affecting predominantly young adults during the fourth decade of life. (MR) imaging features of a surgically confirmed case of LGFMS, affecting the shoulder is presented. A 30-year-old man presented with a 20-year history of a painless slow-growing mass in the right shoulder. Magnetic resonance images were obtained on a 2.0T scanner (Elscint, Haifa, Israel), demonstrating a well-defined soft tissue mass measuring 12.0 x 7.0 x 9.0 cm located between the deltoid muscle, rotator-cuff muscles, and proximal humerus. The differential diagnosis of LGFMS includes several benign and malignant neoplasms containing variable amounts of myxoid and fibrous tissue. Histologically, the most important differential diagnosis is with myxofibrosarcoma. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor with slow growth and deceptively benign histologic appearance. The possibility of LGFMS must be considered when elaborating differential diagnostic possibilities for young adults with a large soft tissue mass exhibiting MR imaging characteristics of intermixed fibrous and myxoid tissue

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torriani, Martin; Ouellette, Hugue [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology. Div. of Musculoskeletal Radiology; Etchebehere, Mauricio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Ortopedia; Amstalden, Eliane M.I. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia

    2006-06-15

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue tumor with a deceptively benign histologic appearance affecting predominantly young adults during the fourth decade of life. (MR) imaging features of a surgically confirmed case of LGFMS, affecting the shoulder is presented. A 30-year-old man presented with a 20-year history of a painless slow-growing mass in the right shoulder. Magnetic resonance images were obtained on a 2.0T scanner (Elscint, Haifa, Israel), demonstrating a well-defined soft tissue mass measuring 12.0 x 7.0 x 9.0 cm located between the deltoid muscle, rotator-cuff muscles, and proximal humerus. The differential diagnosis of LGFMS includes several benign and malignant neoplasms containing variable amounts of myxoid and fibrous tissue. Histologically, the most important differential diagnosis is with myxofibrosarcoma. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor with slow growth and deceptively benign histologic appearance. The possibility of LGFMS must be considered when elaborating differential diagnostic possibilities for young adults with a large soft tissue mass exhibiting MR imaging characteristics of intermixed fibrous and myxoid tissue.

  15. Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Louise; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have...... as the course of disease. The current literature seems to support the idea that treatment with radical tumour resection, where possible, yields better long term outcome for patients with LGA. However, adjuvant therapy is often necessary. Administering early postoperative radiotherapy to patients with partially...... resected LGA yields a longer period of progression-free survival, whereas patients with radically resected tumours should receive radiotherapy at the time of progression. Regarding chemotherapy, we found evidence to suggest that patients respond to both temozolomide (TMZ) and the combination...

  16. Holocord low grade astrocytoma - Role of radical irradiation and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, S.; Puri, T.; Julka, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal intradural tumors, especially those extending along the entire length of the spinal cord, termed as ‘holocord’ tumors are uncommon. Most of these are gliomas, with astrocytomas (low grade) predominating in children and ependymomas in adults. Other histologies, though reported, are even rarer. Management is debatable, with both surgery and radiotherapy of such extensive tumors posing challenges. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with holocord astrocytoma extending from cervicomedullary junction till lumbar spine, who recovered full neurological function following radical irradiation of entire spine followed by temozolomide-based chemotherapy. No grade 3/4 bone marrow morbidity was seen. Five years following treatment, she maintained normal neurological function and apparently normal pubertal and skeletal growth despite residual disease visible on imaging. Literature review of existing reports of holocord astrocytomas highlighting management and outcome is presented.

  17. Tlif Versus Plif In Management Of Low Grade Spondylolisthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Spinal fusion is commonly performed together with rigid instrumentation to treat low-grade spondylolisthesis. Several fusion methods have been reported for low-grade spondylolisthesis via various approaches including posterolateral fusion (PLF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar ...

  18. Desalination using low grade heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of

  19. Second Surgery in Insular Low-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given the technical difficulties, a limited number of works have been published on insular gliomas surgery and risk factors for tumor recurrence (TR are poorly documented. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine TR in adult patients with initial diagnosis of insular Low-Grade Gliomas (LGGs that subsequently underwent second surgery. Methods. A consecutive series of 53 patients with insular LGGs was retrospectively reviewed; 23 patients had two operations for TR. Results. At the time of second surgery, almost half of the patients had experienced progression into high-grade gliomas (HGGs. Univariate analysis showed that TR is influenced by the following: extent of resection (EOR (P<0.002, ΔVT2T1 value (P<0.001, histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (P=0.017, and mutation of IDH1 (P=0.022. The multivariate analysis showed that EOR at first surgery was the independent predictor for TR (P<0.001. Conclusions. In patients with insular LGG the EOR at first surgery represents the major predictive factor for TR. At time of TR, more than 50% of cases had progressed in HGG, raising the question of the oncological management after the first surgery.

  20. Low-grade systemic inflammation in overweight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M; Bouter, L M; McQuillan, G M; Wener, M H; Harris, T B

    OBJECTIVE: Human adipose tissue expresses and releases the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, potentially inducing low-grade systemic inflammation in persons with excess body fat. To limit potential confounding by inflammation-related diseases and subclinical cardiovascular disease, we tested

  1. The value of intraoperative sonography in low grade glioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Athanasios K; Anokhin, Maxim; Vavruska, Jan; Mahvash, Mehran; Scholz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    There is a number of different methods to localize a glioma intraoperatively. Neuronavigation, intraoperative MRI, 5-aminolevulinic acid, as well as intraoperative sonography. Every method has its advantages and disadvantages. Low grade gliomas do not show a specific signal with 5-aminolevulinic acid and are difficult to distinguish macroscopically from normal tissue. In the present study we stress out the importance of intraoperative diagnostic ultrasound for localization of low grade gliomas. We retrospectively evaluated the charts and MRIs of 34 patients with low grade gliomas operated in our department from 2011 until December 2014. The efficacy of ultrasound as an intraoperative navigational tool was assessed. In 15 patients ultrasound was used and in 19 not. Only histologically proven low grades gliomas (astrocytomas grade II) were evaluated. In none of the patients where ultrasound (combined with neuronavigation) was used (N=15) to find the tumors, the target was missed, whereas the exclusive use of neuronavigation missed the target in 5 of 19 cases of small subcortical low grade gliomas. Intraoperative ultrasound is an excellent tool in localizing low grade gliomas intraoperatively. It is an inexpensive, real time neuronavigational tool, which overcomes brain shift. Even when identifying the tumors with ultrasound is very reliable, the extend of resection and the decision to remove any residual tumor with the help of ultrasound is at the moment unreliable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A score of low-grade inflammation and risk of mortality: prospective findings from the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Pounis, George; De Curtis, Amalia; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2016-11-01

    Low-grade inflammation is associated with an increased risk of chronic degenerative disease, but its relationship with mortality is less well explored. We aimed at evaluating, at a large epidemiological level, the possible association of low-grade inflammation, as measured by a composite score, with overall mortality risk. We conducted a population-based prospective investigation on 20,337 adult subjects free from major hematological disease and acute inflammatory status, randomly recruited from the general population of the Moli-sani study. A low-grade inflammation score was obtained from the sum of 10-tiles of plasmatic (C-reactive protein) and cellular (leukocyte and platelet counts, granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio) biomarkers of low-grade inflammation; higher levels indicated increased low-grade inflammation. Hazard ratios were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models with 95% confidence intervals. At the end of follow-up (median 7.6 years), 837 all-cause deaths were recorded. As compared to subjects in the lowest quartile of the low-grade inflammation score, those in the highest category had a significantly increased risk in overall mortality (HR=1.44; 1.17-1.77), independently of possible confounders, including the presence of chronic diseases and a number of health-related behaviors. The magnitude of the association of low-grade inflammation with mortality was relatively higher in type 2 diabetic patients (HR=2.90; 1.74-4.84) and in individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease (HR=2.48; 1.50-4.11) as compared to their counterparts who were free from the disease. In conclusion, an elevated degree of low-grade inflammation, as measured by a composite score of inflammatory biomarkers, is an independent risk factor for total mortality in an apparently healthy adult general population. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. [Low grade endophthalmitis caused by P. acnes : Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fili, S; Schilde, T; Kontopoulou, K; Hayvazov, S; Kohlhaas, M

    2016-07-01

    Low grade endophthalmitis is usually a chronic indolent inflammation that may be misdiagnosed as noninfectious uveitis. Therefore, this form of endophthalmitis is often unsuccessfully treated with corticosteroids. We describe the case of a patient with low grade endophthalmitis caused by Propionibacterium acnes after cataract surgery. This case report presents the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis of this form of endophthalmitis as well as the benefits of a combined operative therapy with pars plana vitrectomy, intravitreal antibiotics and posterior capsulectomy for successful treatment in such cases.

  4. An unusual cystic appearance of disseminated low-grade gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.; Zimmerman, R.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Perilongo, G. [Dipt. di Pediatria, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Kaufman, B.A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, St Louis Children' s Hospital, St Louis, MO (United States); Holden, K.R. [Division of Pediatric Neurology, Room 511, Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425-2232 (United States); Carollo, C. [Division of Neuroradiology, Regione Veneto, Azienda Ospedalieri di Padova, Universita di Padova, Via Giustiniani 3, 35 128 Padua (Italy); Kling Chong, W.K. [Dept. of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    We report five cases of pediatric disseminated low-grade gliomas of the brainstem or spinal cord that exhibited an unusual, cystic pattern. Leptomeningeal disease was present in three of these at diagnosis, and was detected shortly afterwards in the other two. Four patients are alive up to 5 years later, following minimal to no intervention, while one is dead. (orig.)

  5. Intracranial Gossypiboma Mimicking a Recurrent Low Grade Astrocytoma : Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Young; Koo, Joon Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Il-San Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Gossypiboma is an inflammatory pseudomass formed by a retained surgical sponge or gauze with reactive tissue after surgery. Gossypiboma has been reported most frequently after abdominal or thoracic surgery. As such, gossypiboma following brain surgery is very rare. We report a case of gossypiboma mimicking tumor recurrence in the brain after a craniotomy and surgical excision of a low grade astrocytoma.

  6. An unusual cystic appearance of disseminated low-grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Perilongo, G.; Kaufman, B.A.; Holden, K.R.; Carollo, C.; Kling Chong, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    We report five cases of pediatric disseminated low-grade gliomas of the brainstem or spinal cord that exhibited an unusual, cystic pattern. Leptomeningeal disease was present in three of these at diagnosis, and was detected shortly afterwards in the other two. Four patients are alive up to 5 years later, following minimal to no intervention, while one is dead. (orig.)

  7. Utilisation of low grade fuels influidised bed combustors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This presentation highlights the utilisation of low grade fuels in Fluidised Bed Combustors (FBC) with regards to South African coal. It looks at types of coals and fuels tested, test facilities and examples of FBC’s at the CSIR. Benefits from...

  8. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Uranium resources of the world is estimated to be 5.5 million tonnes and the proven resources in India forms 3% of the world resources. The biggest uranium deposit is the Olympic dam deposit in Australia, which contains nearly one million tonnes of 0.04% U 3 O 8 , while the highest grade of nearly 20% is established in the McArthur river deposit, Canada. Another very high grade deposit, the Cigar lake deposit, is established in Canada with an average grade of nearly 18%. Most of the uranium deposits established in India so far falls under the category of low grade. These low grade uranium deposits are distributed mainly in Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India; in parts of Chhattisgarh; Southern parts of Meghalaya; Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh; in parts of Karnataka and Aravalli- and Delhi Supergroups, Rajasthan and Haryana. These deposits are mainly hydrothermal vein type, stratabound type and unconformity related. The Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand hosts a seventeen low grade uranium deposits, aggregating about 30% of Indian uranium resources. The uranium mineralisation hosted by Vempalle dolostone extends over 160 km belt along southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin in Andhra Pradesh and accounts 23% of the Indian resources. Though the dolostone hosted Tummalapalle uranium deposit was established in the early nineties, because of techno-economic constraints, the deposit remained dormant. As a consequence of the development of an innovative pressure alkali beneficiation process, the deposit became economically viable and a mine and mill are being constructed here. Recent exploration inputs are leading to prove a number of low grade uranium deposits in the extension areas of Tummalapalle. Nearly 10 blocks have been identified within a 30 km belt which are being actively explored and a large uranium deposit has already been proved in this province. The deposit at Tummalapalle and adjoining areas is likely to become the second biggest deposit in the world. The

  9. Actinide recovery from waste and low-grade sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Schulz, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Actinide and nuclear fuel cycle operations generate a variety of process waste streams. New methods are needed to remove and recover actinides. More interest is also being expressed in recovering uranium from oceans, phosphoric acid, and other low grade sources. To meet the need for an up-to-date status report in the area of actinide recovery from waste and low grade sources, these papers were brought together. The papers provide an authoritative, in-depth coverage of an important area of nuclear and industrial and engineering chemistry which cover the following topics: uranium recovery from oceans and phosphoric acid; recovery of actinides from solids and liquid wastes; plutonium scrap recovery technology; and other new developments in actinide recovery processes

  10. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks.

  11. Neurotrophic Factors NGF, GDNF and NTN Selectively Modulate HSV1 and HSV2 Lytic Infection and Reactivation in Primary Adult Sensory and Autonomic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy A. Yanez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex viruses (HSV1 and HSV2 establish latency in peripheral ganglia after ocular or genital infection, and can reactivate to produce different patterns and frequencies of recurrent disease. Previous studies showed that nerve growth factor (NGF maintains HSV1 latency in embryonic sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, adult sensory neurons are no longer dependent on NGF for survival, some populations cease expression of NGF receptors postnatally, and the viruses preferentially establish latency in different populations of sensory neurons responsive to other neurotrophic factors (NTFs. Thus, NGF may not maintain latency in adult sensory neurons. To identify NTFs important for maintaining HSV1 and HSV2 latency in adult neurons, we investigated acute and latently-infected primary adult sensory trigeminal (TG and sympathetic superior cervical ganglia (SCG after NTF removal. NGF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF deprivation induced HSV1 reactivation in adult sympathetic neurons. In adult sensory neurons, however, neurturin (NTN and GDNF deprivation induced HSV1 and HSV2 reactivation, respectively, while NGF deprivation had no effects. Furthermore, HSV1 and HSV2 preferentially reactivated from neurons expressing GFRα2 and GFRα1, the high affinity receptors for NTN and GDNF, respectively. Thus, NTN and GDNF play a critical role in selective maintenance of HSV1 and HSV2 latency in primary adult sensory neurons.

  12. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  13. Isolated lytic bone lesion in tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor C Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of lytic bone lesions include benign, malignant, and infectious processes. Lytic lesions due to tuberculosis (TB may closely mimic those due to tumors such as bone cyst, osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma, and metastatic bone disease radiologically. Histopathology and culture help in definitive diagnosis and prompt management. We describe an immunocompetent patient with isolated lytic bone lesion in the distal part of ulna due to TB to make the readers aware of such unusual presentations of TB.

  14. Persistent low-grade inflammation and regular exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Maj-brit; Feigh, Michael; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and dementia and evidence exists that inflammation is a causal factor in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Regular exercise offers protection...... against all of these diseases and recent evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to an anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise. Visceral adiposity contributes to systemic inflammation and is independently associated with the occurrence of CVD, type 2...

  15. Ethanol and other oxygenateds from low grade carbonaceous resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Anhydrous ethanol and other oxygenates of C2 up can be produced quite competitively from low grade carbonaceous resources in high yield via gasification, methanol synthesis, carbonylation of methanol an hydrogenation consecutively. Gas phase carbonylation of methanol to form methyl acetate is the key step for the whole process. Methyl acetate can be produced very selectively in one step gas phase reaction on a fixed bed column reactor with GHSV over 5,000. The consecutive hydrogenation of methyl or ethyl acetate produce anhydrous ethanol in high purity. It is also attempted to co-produce methanol and DME in IGCC, in which low grade carbonaceous resources are used as energy sources, and the surplus power and pre-power gas can be stored in liquid form of methanol and DME during base load time. Further integration of C2 up oxygenate production with IGCC can improve its economics. The attempt of above extensive technology integration can generate significant industrial profitability as well as reduce the environmental complication related with massive energy consumption.

  16. A comparison of two low grade heat recovery options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Conor; Thornley, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Low grade heat (LGH) recovery is one way of increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing associated greenhouse gas emissions. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and condensing boiler are two options that can be used to recover low grade heat ( 2 annually, but the high carbon intensity of the coking process means this has a negligible influence (<1%) on the overall process lifecycle impacts. However, if the electricity generated offsets the external purchasing of electricity this results in favourable economic payback periods of between 3 and 6 years. The operation of a condensing boiler within a woodchip boiler reduces the fuel required to achieve an increased thermal output. The thermal efficiency gains reduce the lifecycle impacts by between 11 and 21%, and reflect payback periods as low as 1.5–2 years, depending on the condenser type and wood supply chain. The two case studies are used to highlight the difficulty in identifying LGH recovery solutions that satisfy multiple environmental, economic and wider objectives

  17. Low-grade energy of the ground for civil engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potienko Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article researches issues related to the relevance of applying renewable energy sources for civil engineering. The aim of the work is the study of modern approaches to designing buildings, using low-grade energy of the ground. The research methodology is based on the complex analysis of international design experience and on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of objects that use low-grade heat. We have identified the prospects of applying it for domestic construction practice. The state policy in the field of the efficient use of energy resources has been analyzed, and the vector of energy-saving programs development for the Samara Region has been defined. The research describes the impact of using geothermal energy on the architectural and planning solutions of buildings, as well as the peculiar features of the latter’s design, which are related primarily to the increase of energy efficiency. As a result, in the article a conclusion is made that the objects under investigation may be considered as one of the vectors of sustainable architecture development.

  18. Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Parotid in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Khosla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA is a rare salivary gland neoplasm with an indolent course. It occurs primarily in the minor salivary glands but can rarely occur in the major salivary glands. It usually occurs in the fifth to seventh decades of life with female preponderance.   Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with recurrent painless swelling in the right preauricular region and with a history of surgical intervention at the same site in the past. His histopathology report was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma. The swelling recurred after one year of excision and a superficial parotidectomy was performed. The detailed histopathological examination was suggestive of Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. In view of close margins, the patient was given adjuvant radiotherapy. Thirty-three months post-surgery, he is alive and disease-free. We describe a rare case of PLGA of the parotid gland in a teenager with its clinical characteristics, histopathological features, and treatment.   Conclusion: The occurrence of PLGA in the parotid gland is rare with only a few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of PLGA is challenging due to morphological diversity.

  19. Low grade glioma : a measuring radiographic response to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, G.; Pahapill, P.; Macdonald, D.; Fisher, B.; Leighton, C.; Cairncross, G.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: We set out to determine the rate of response of low-grade (WHO Grade II) gliomas to radiotherapy and analyze the relationship between radiographic response, symptom control and patient survival. Methods: Patients were eligible for this study if they had received radiotherapy for pathologically confirmed, residual, supratentorial low-grade astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or mixed glioma, and imaging studies (baseline and follow-up) were available for review. Percent change in tumor size and rate and timing of response were determined by maximum linear measurement, area measurement, volume measurement using an ellipsoid model, and volume measurement by image segmentation. For each method, response to radiotherapy was defined firstly as a ≥ 50% decrease in tumor size (partial response), and secondly as a decrease equivalent to a 50% area decrease (normalized partial response). Relationships between radiographic response, clinical improvement and progression-free survival were analyzed using a Cox Proportional Hazard's model. Results: Twenty-one patients in a database (13 male, 8 female; ages 22-66 years) met the eligibility criteria. Twenty were imaged by computed tomography, 18 had an astrocytoma and 15 were irradiated soon after surgery. Responses were common and not felt to be due to a steroid effect. Use of normalized response criteria improved agreement between assessment of response as determined by the 4 methods. Median time to maximum radiographic improvement was 2.8 months (range, 1.5-11). Sixteen patients (76%) were improved neurologically, the median time to progression was 4.8 years and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 43%. We did not detect a statistically significant association between response (as measured by any method), symptomatology and progression-free survival. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas are moderately radioresponsive. Use of volume measurement may over-estimate the number of partial responses unless a volume reduction

  20. Conformal proton radiation therapy for pediatric low-grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, E.B.; Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA; Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire; Muenter, M.W.; Archambeau, J.O.; DeVries, A.; Loredo, L.N.; Grove, R.I.; Slater, J.D.; Liwnicz, B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of proton radiation therapy (PRT) for intracranial low-grade astrocytomas, the authors analyzed the first 27 pediatric patients treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Patients and Method: Between September 1991 and August 1997, 27 patients (13 female, 14 male) underwent fractionated proton radiation therapy for progressive or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma. Age at time of treatment ranged from 2 to 18 years (mean: 8.7 years). Tumors were located centrally (diencephatic) in 15 patients, in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in seven patients, and in the brainstem in five patients. 25/27 patients (92%) were treated for progressive, unresectable, or residual disease following subtotal resection. Tissue diagnosis was available in 23/27 patients (85%). Four patients with optic pathway tumors were treated without histologic confirmation. Target doses between 50.4 and 63.0 CGE (cobalt gray equivalent, mean: 55.2 CGE) were prescribed at 1.8 CGE per fraction, five treatments per week. Results: At a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years (0.6-6.8 years), 6/27 patients experienced local failure (all located within the irradiated field), and 4/27 patients had died. By anatomic site these data translated into rates of local control and survival of 87% (13/15 patients) and 93% (14/15 patients) for central tumors, 71% (5/7 patients) and 86% (6/7 patients) for hemispheric tumors, and 60% (3/5 patients) and 60% (3/5 patients) for tumors located in the brainstem. Proton radiation therapy was generally well tolerated. All children with local control maintained their performance status. One child with associated neurofibromatosis, Type 1, developed Moyamoya disease. All six patients with optic pathway tumors and useful vision maintained or improved their visual status. Conclusions: This report on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas confirms proton radiation therapy as a safe and efficacious 3-D conformal treatment

  1. Low Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS is a rare malignant tumor of the endometrium, occurring in the age group of 40–50 years. We report a case of low-grade ESS in a 39-year-old woman, presenting as rapid enlargement of a uterine fibroid polyp associated with irregular and excessive vaginal bleeding. Polypectomy followed by pan hysterectomy was performed. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed LGESS. As the tumor is rarely encountered, management protocols are still questionable. In our case, we tried a different post-surgical protocol and the patient is being closely followed up. Although rare, ESS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all women who present with a rapid enlargement of a uterine leiomyoma.

  2. Economics and the question of low-grade heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbet, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines, from the viewpoint of an economist, the issues involved in the increased waste heat production generated by the rapid acceleration of electrical production and nuclear generation. It reviews some of the literature on low-grade heat - its economic considerations and ecological impact - and examines the applicability of the traditional type of analytical decision tool (cost/benefit analysis) to the efficient design of heat rejection systems. It is recognized that decisions should be made on the basis of social costs and benefits as well as purely monetary considerations. The validity and shortcomings of cost/benefit analysis are presented. It is concluded that, for energy policy planning and waste heat management, economic feasibility studies should lay out the options together with the costs and risks. (author)

  3. The treatment of low-grade septic non-unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoni, F; D’Amato, R D; Mangiavini, L; Lombardo, M D; Peretti, G M

    Non-union (or pseudoarthrosis) is defined as a fracture that fails to consolidate after 6 months from the trauma. Current conservative treatments consist of biological (i.e. with calcium, Vitamin D) and mechanical stimulation. Moreover, surgical approaches include the use of endomidollar nail osteosynthesis, compression plates that are often associated with bone grafts. External fixation is a valid surgical alternative especially in case of septic non-unions. Indeed, compression-distraction osteosynthesis results in a significant improvement in bone vascularisation and exerts a powerful osteoinductive stimulus on the non-union site. In this review, we will describe a cohort of patients affected by low-grade septic non-unions and treated with external fixation.

  4. Intracardiac Low-grade Sarcoma Following Treatment for Ewing Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Michael V; Magnan, Heather; Slotkin, Emily K; Ambati, Srikanth R; Chou, Alexander J; Wexler, Leonard H; Meyers, Paul A; Walsh, Michael F; Heaton, Todd; Girardi, Leonard N; Wolden, Suzanne L; Price, Anita P; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Zehir, Ahmet; Hameed, Meera; Berger, Michael F; Kentsis, Alex; Shukla, Neerav

    2017-11-01

    A 16-year-old male was diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma of the ribcage with pulmonary metastases. Six months after completion of scheduled therapy, he was found to have a new intracardiac mass, presumed recurrent Ewing sarcoma. EWSR1 fusion was not detected by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction from blood plasma. After no improvement with salvage chemotherapy, he underwent surgical resection that identified a low-grade spindle cell sarcoma. Despite the near-synchronous presentation of 2 unrelated sarcomas, extensive genomic analyses did not reveal any unifying somatic or germline mutations nor any apparent cancer predisposition. This case also highlights the potential role of utilizing plasma cell-free DNA for diagnosing tumors in locations where biopsy confers high morbidity.

  5. Persistent low-grade inflammation and regular exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Maj-brit; Feigh, Michael; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and dementia and evidence exists that inflammation is a causal factor in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Regular exercise offers protection...... diabetes and dementia. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise may be mediated via a long-term effect of exercise leading to a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines with each bout of exercise....... against all of these diseases and recent evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to an anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise. Visceral adiposity contributes to systemic inflammation and is independently associated with the occurrence of CVD, type 2...

  6. Development of low grade waste heat thermoelectric power generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvit Punnachaiya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a 50 watt thermoelectric power generator using low grade waste heat as a heat source,in order to recover and utilize the excess heat in cooling systems of industrial processes and high activity radioisotope sources. Electricity generation was based on the reverse operation of a thermoelectric cooling (TEC device. The TEC devices weremodified and assembled into a set of thermal cell modules operating at a temperature less than 100°C. The developed powergenerator consisted of 4 modules, each generating 15 watts. Two cascade modules were connected in parallel. Each modulecomprised of 96 TEC devices, which were connected in series. The hot side of each module was mounted on an aluminumheat transfer pipe with dimensions 12.212.250 cm. Heat sinks were installed on the cold side with cooling fans to provideforced air cooling.To test electricity generation in the experiment, water steam was used as a heat source instead of low grade waste heat.The open-circuit direct current (DC of 250 V and the short-circuit current of 1.2 A was achieved with the following operatingconditions: a hot side temperature of 96°C and a temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of 25°C. The DC poweroutput was inverted to an AC power source of 220 V with 50 Hz frequency, which can continuously supply more than 50 wattsof power to a resistive load as long as the heat source was applied to the system. The system achieved an electrical conversionefficiency of about 0.47 percent with the capital cost of 70 US$/W.

  7. Risk Factors for Malignant Transformation of Low-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin S; Leyrer, Charles M; Parsons, Michael; Suh, John H; Chao, Samuel T; Yu, Jennifer S; Kotecha, Rupesh; Jia, Xuefei; Peereboom, David M; Prayson, Richard A; Stevens, Glen H J; Barnett, Gene H; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S

    2018-03-15

    The incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of low-grade glioma patients who undergo malignant transformation (MT) in the era of temozolomide are not well known. This study evaluates these factors in a large group of World Health Organization grade 2 glioma patients treated at a tertiary-care institution. Patient, tumor, and treatment factors were analyzed using an institutional review board-approved low-grade glioma database. Characteristics were compared using χ 2 and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Time to event was summarized using proportional hazards models. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed. Of a total of 599 patients, 124 underwent MT; 76 (61.3%) had biopsy-proven MT. The MT incidence was 21%, and the median time to MT was 56.4 months. The 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 30.6% ± 4.2% and 4.8% ± 1.9%, respectively, for MT patients and 60% ± 2.4% and 38% ± 2.7%, respectively, for non-MT patients. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 75% ± 4.0% and 46% ± 5.0%, respectively, for MT patients and 87% ± 1.7% and 78% ± 2.3%, respectively, for non-MT patients. On multivariate analysis, older age (P = .001), male sex (P = .004), multiple tumor locations (P = .004), chemotherapy alone (P = .012), and extent of resection (P = .045) remained significant predictors of MT. MT affects survival. Risk factors include older age, male sex, multiple tumor locations, use of chemotherapy alone, and presence of residual disease. Our finding that initial interventions could affect the rate of MT is provocative, but these data should be validated using data from prospective trials. In addition to improving survival, future therapeutic efforts should focus on preventing MT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Outcomes of Multidisciplinary Management in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kevin S., E-mail: koh2@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hung, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Robertson, Patricia L. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Garton, Hugh J.; Muraszko, Karin M. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes in pediatric low-grade gliomas managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of 181 children with Grade I-II gliomas. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Thirty-four (19%) of patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and because of their favorable prognosis were evaluated separately. In the 147 (81%) of patients without NF1, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 67 {+-} 4% (standard error) and 94 {+-} 2%, respectively. In this population, tumor location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus was associated with worse FFP (39% vs. 76%, p < 0.0003), but there was no difference in OS. Age {<=}5 years was associated with worse FFP (52% vs. 75%, p < 0.02) but improved OS (97% vs. 92%, p < 0.05). In those with tissue diagnosis, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with improved 7-year FFP (81% vs. 56%, p < 0.02) and OS (100% vs. 90%, p < 0.03). In a multivariate model, only location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus predicted worse FFP (p < 0.01). Fifty patients received radiation therapy (RT). For those with less than GTR, adjuvant RT improved FFP (89% vs. 49%, p < 0.003) but not OS. There was no difference in OS between patient groups given RT as adjuvant vs. salvage therapy. In NF1 patients, 94% of tumors were located in the optic pathway/hypothalamus. With a conservative treatment strategy in this population, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 73 {+-} 9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas in children {<=}5 years old with tumors in the optic pathway/hypothalamus are more likely to progress, but this does not confer worse OS because of the success of salvage therapy. When GTR is not achieved, adjuvant RT improves FFP but not OS. Routine adjuvant RT can be avoided and instead reserved as salvage.

  9. Bio-coal briquettes using low-grade coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiaty, L. M.; Fatimah, D.; Widodo

    2018-02-01

    The technology in using briquettes for fuel has been widely used in many countries for both domestic and industrial purposes. Common types of briquette used are coal, peat, charcoal, and biomass. Several researches have been carried out in regards to the production and the use of briquettes. Recently, researches show that mixing coal and biomass will result in an environmentally friendly briquette with better combustion and physical characteristics. This type of briquette is known as bio-coal briquettes. Bio-coal briquettes are made from agriculture waste and coal, which are readily available, cheap and affordable. Researchers make these bio-coal briquettes with different aims and objectives, depending on the issues to address, e.g. utilizing agricultural waste as an alternative energy to replace fossil fuels that are depleting its reserves, adding coal to biomass in order to add calorific value to bio-coal briquette, and adding biomass to coal to improve its chemical and physical properties. In our research, biocoal briquettes are made to utilize low grade coal. The biomass we use, however, is different from the ones used in past researches because it has undergone fermentation. The benefits of using such biomass are 1. Fermentation turns the hemi cellulose into a simpler form, so that the burning activation energy decreases while the calorific value increases. 2. Enzym produced will bind to heavy metals from coal as co-factors, forming metals that are environmentally friendly.

  10. Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

    2014-10-01

    A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

  11. The Association Between Low Grade Systemic Inflammation and Skin Diseases: A Cross-sectional Survey in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi-Päivikki Sinikumpu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Low grade inflammation is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. The association between skin diseases in general and systemic inflammation has not previously been studied at the population level. A whole-body investigation on 1,930 adults belonging to Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was performed and high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP level was measured as a marker of low grade inflammation in order to determine the association between low grade inflammation and skin diseases in an unselected adult population. After adjustment for confounding factors the following skin disorders were associated with low grade inflammation in multinomial logistic regression analysis: atopic eczema (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–3.9, onychomycosis (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.2 and rosacea (OR 1.7, 1.1–2.5. After additionally adjusting for body mass index and systemic diseases, the risks for atopic eczema (OR 2.4, 1.3–4.6 and onychomycosis (OR 1.9, 1.1–3.1 remained statistically significant. In conclusion, low grade inflammation is present in several skin diseases.

  12. Gut microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large diverse community of bacteria collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. Alterations in gut microbiota composition are associated with a variety of disease states including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Transplant of microbiota from diseased persons (or mice) to germfree mice transfers some aspects of disease phenotype, indicating that altered microbiota plays a role in disease establishment and manifestation. There are myriad potential mechanisms by which alterations in gut microbiota might promote disease, including increasing energy harvest, production of toxic metabolites, and molecular mimicry of host proteins. However, our research indicates that an overarching mechanism by which an aberrant microbiota negatively impacts health is by driving chronic inflammation. More specifically, we hypothesize that the histopathologically evident gut inflammation that defines IBD is a severe but relatively rare outcome of an altered host-microbiota relationship, while a much more common consequence of such disturbances is "low-grade" inflammation characterized by elevated proinflammatory gene expression that associates with, and may promote, metabolic syndrome. In this context, a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases may stem from inability of the mucosal immune system to properly manage a stable healthy relationship with the gut microbiota. While one's ability to manage their gut microbiota is dictated in part by genetics, it can be markedly influenced by the composition of the microbiota one inherits from their early environment. Moreover, the host-microbiota relationship can be perturbed by instigator bacteria or dietary components, which may prove to play a role in promoting chronic inflammatory disease states.

  13. Simultaneous multifocal polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J R; Pogrel, M A; Regezi, J A

    1995-07-01

    The polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a recently described variant of salivary gland adenocarcinoma with a comparatively good prognosis. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma occurs most frequently in the palate with a peak incidence between 30 and 70 years of age. The female/male ratio is approximately 2:1, and the tumors exhibit slow growth with a low recurrence rate. The simultaneous occurrence of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma has not been previously reported. This article reviews the existing literature and describes the first two reports of simultaneous intraoral polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

  14. Frontal brain asymmetry, childhood maltreatment, and low-grade inflammation at midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Davidson, Richard J; Graham, Eileen K; Mroczek, Daniel K; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E; van Reekum, Carien M; Miller, Gregory E

    2017-01-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry is thought to reflect variations in affective style, such that greater relative right frontal activity at rest predicts enhanced emotional responding to threatening or negative stimuli, and risk of depression and anxiety disorders. A diathesis-stress model has been proposed to explain how this neuro-affective style might predispose to psychopathology, with greater right frontal activity being a vulnerability factor especially under stressful conditions. Less is known about the extent to which greater relative right frontal activity at rest might be associated with or be a diathesis for deleterious physical health outcomes. The present study examined the association between resting frontal EEG asymmetry and systemic, low-grade inflammation and tested the diathesis-stress model by examining whether childhood maltreatment exposure interacts with resting frontal asymmetry in explaining inflammation. Resting EEG, serum inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen) and self-reported psychological measures were available for 314 middle-aged adults (age M=55.3years, SD=11.2, 55.7% female). Analyses supported the diathesis-stress model and revealed that resting frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly associated with inflammation, but only in individuals who had experienced moderate to severe levels of childhood maltreatment. These findings suggest that, in the context of severe adversity, a trait-like tendency towards greater relative right prefrontal activity may predispose to low-grade inflammation, a risk factor for conditions with inflammatory underpinnings such as coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-grade systemic inflammation: a partial mediator of the relationship between diabetes and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Jonathan; Trouiller, Philippe; Hulo, Sébastien; Chérot-Kornobis, Natalie; Ciuchete, Alina; Edmé, Jean-Louis; Matran, Régis; Amouyel, Philippe; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Dauchet, Luc

    2018-01-01

    An association has been consistently found between diabetes mellitus and decreased lung function. We evaluated to what extent low-grade inflammation (as measured by the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) could explain this relationship. A sample of 1878 middle-aged adults from the cross-sectional Enquête Littoral Souffle Air Biologie Environnement survey without self-reported pulmonary and atherosclerosis disease was included. A mediation analysis was performed to assess and quantify the hs-CRP level as a mediator of the relationship between diabetes and lung function. Diabetes was associated with higher hs-CRP level (+22.9%, 95% confidence interval = [5.1, 43.6]). The hs-CRP (>4 vs. ≤1 mg/L) was associated with lower percentage predicted values for the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) (-4% [-6.1, -1.9]) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (-4.4% [-6.5, -2.3]). Diabetes was associated with FEV1 (-3.5% [-5.8, -1.3]) and FVC (-3.6% [-5.9, -1.3]). The proportion of the effect that is mediated by hs-CRP was 12% [2.4, 37] and 13% [3.7, 39.4] for FEV1 and FVC, respectively. Our results suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation could only explain a small part of the relationship between diabetes and lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

  17. Resolution of low-grade proteinuria is associated with improved outcomes after renal transplantation-a retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuri, A; Tattersall, J E; Lewington, A J P; Newstead, C G; Baker, R J

    2015-03-01

    Low-grade proteinuria and systolic hypertension (SHT) are risk factors for allograft failure. Both are dynamic variables and their relationship is not independent. We have simultaneously analyzed the effects of proteinuria and SHT on graft outcomes in 805 adult Kidney Transplant Recipients and impact of their changes over time. Proteinuria and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded for years 1 and 3 posttransplantation. Subjects with proteinuria >1 g/day were excluded. Patients were divided into groups based on proteinuria (Absent(A) 150 mg/day or low-grade(P)150 mg-1 g/day) and blood pressure (Normotensive-SBP proteinuria had the worst graft survival. Patients with persistent proteinuria between years 1-2 and 2-3 had the poorest graft survival with an improvement if proteinuria regressed (P-A), especially in the Hypertensive group. The impact of proteinuria was highest in persistently hypertensive patients between years 1-3. Thus both proteinuria and SHT were associated with poor graft survival and the combination of the two led to the worst outcomes. Importantly, SHT was associated with significantly worse outcomes in patients with proteinuria. Patient cohort with SHT and low-grade proteinuria represent a selective group that might benefit from intervention. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Potential significance of 11C-methionine PET as a marker for the radiosensitivity of low-grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribom, Dan; Engler, Henry; Blomquist, Erik; Smits, Anja

    2002-01-01

    The role for radiotherapy in patients with low-grade gliomas remains controversial. Two large prospective studies have failed to demonstrate a radiotherapeutic dose-response effect, and EORTC trial 22845 found no difference in survival between patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy and those who received radiotherapy at tumour progression. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the patterns of carbon-11 methionine (MET) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) in tumours treated with immediate radiotherapy and in those treated with delayed radiotherapy at the time of tumour progression. The 21 adult patients studied had histologically confirmed low-grade gliomas and had undergone a pre-treatment PET scan and a follow-up PET scan at the time of progression. Eleven of the patients had undergone initial radiotherapy a median of 5 weeks after the surgical procedure. The median time to progression was 3.5 years for this group, compared with 1.6 years for the group with delayed radiotherapy (P=0.06). At the time of progression, non-irradiated tumours had a significantly higher MET uptake (P=0.02) and a larger uptake volume (P=0.008) compared with baseline, whereas irradiated tumours showed no statistically significant change. We observed a correlation between high pre-treatment uptake of MET and reduction in MET uptake in response to radiotherapy (P=0.008). All irradiated tumours recurred within the radiation field. In conclusion, our results demonstrate signs of a residual radiation effect at the time of tumour progression in low-grade gliomas with high pre-treatment uptake of MET. Pre-treatment methionine uptake may be a marker for the radiosensitivity of low-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  19. Exercise as a mean to control low-grade systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Neha; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2008-01-01

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs), which include cardiovascular disease, some cancers, for example, colon cancer, breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes, are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. It has now become clear that low-grade chronic inflammation is a key player in the pathogenesis...... CNCDs associated with low-grade inflammation....

  20. Marketing low-grade hardwoods for furniture stock - a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell

    1979-01-01

    A hardwood shortage of high-grade lumber exists while there is a surplus of low-grade hardwood timber. Two things are needed for the surplus to correct the shortage: a new manufacturing system and a new marketing technique. Utilization research at the Princeton Forestry Sciences Laboratory has developed the new system for converting low-grade hardwood for furniture use...

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes EBV lytic replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gwen Marie; Raghuwanshi, Sandeep K; Rowe, David T; Wadowsky, Robert M; Rosendorff, Adam

    2011-11-17

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers a homeostatic cellular response in mammalian cells to ensure efficient folding, sorting, and processing of client proteins. In lytic-permissive lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), pulse exposure to the chemical ER-stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) followed by recovery resulted in the activation of the EBV immediate-early (BRLF1, BZLF1), early (BMRF1), and late (gp350) genes, gp350 surface expression, and virus release. The protein phosphatase 1 a (PP1a)-specific phosphatase inhibitor Salubrinal (SAL) synergized with TG to induce EBV lytic genes; however, TG treatment alone was sufficient to activate EBV lytic replication. SAL showed ER-stress-dependent and -independent antiviral effects, preventing virus release in human LCLs and abrogating gp350 expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated B95-8 cells. TG resulted in sustained BCL6 but not BLIMP1 or CD138 expression, which is consistent with maintenance of a germinal center B-cell, rather than plasma-cell, phenotype. Microarray analysis identified candidate genes governing lytic replication in LCLs undergoing ER stress.

  2. Low-grade endotoxemia in patients with severe autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Orsi, Paolo; Boso, Marianna; Broglia, Davide; Brondino, Natascia; Barale, Francesco; di Nemi, Stefania Ucelli; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-03-08

    The objective of this study was to examine whether levels of endotoxin and other markers of immuno-inflammatory activation are altered in adult patients with severe autism. We determined circulating serum endotoxin levels, its soluble receptor (sCD14), and markers of immuno-inflammatory activation (IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10) in 22 adult patients with severe autism and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Compared with healthy subjects, serum levels of endotoxin were significantly higher in autistic patients and inversely and independently correlated with Socialization scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and ADI-R Domain A score (social). Whether increased endotoxin may contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammation and impaired reciprocal social interaction in autism should be further explored in future studies.

  3. Low-grade astrocytoma: surgical outcomes in eloquent versus non-eloquent brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Macedo Bianco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 81 patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA comparing the efficacy of aggressive versus less aggressive surgery in eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas was conducted. Extent of surgical resection was analyzed to assess overall survival (OS and progression- free survival (PFS. Degree of tumor resection was classified as gross total resection (GTR, subtotal resection (STR or biopsy. GTR, STR and biopsy in patients with tumors in non-eloquent areas were performed in 31, 48 and 21% subjects, whereas in patients with tumors in eloquent areas resections were 22.5, 35 and 42.5%. Overall survival was 4.7 and 1.9 years in patients with tumors in non-eloquent brain areas submitted to GTR/STR and biopsy (p=0.013, whereas overall survival among patients with tumors in eloquent area was 4.5 and 2.1 years (p=0.33. Improved outcome for adult patients with LGA is predicted by more aggressive surgery in both eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas.

  4. Extraction of a low grade zinc ore using gravity and froth flotation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction of a low grade zinc ore using gravity and froth flotation methods. Alabi Oladunni Oyelola, Dalhatu Aboki Abdu, Abere Dare Victor, Magnus T Igonwelundu, Bala Meshack Bosan, Araoye Babatunde Oyebode ...

  5. Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression : The Maastricht study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, F.E.P.; Schram, M.T.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Henry, R.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Schaper, N.C.; van der Kallen, C. J.; Koster, A.; Sep, S. J.; Denollet, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Pouwer, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of depression may involve low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the independent associations of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder, and the role of lifestyle factors in this

  6. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F.

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left

  7. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs ...... by one Freunds complete adjuvant intradermal injection on day 0, or by daily open applications of 10% sodium lauryl sulfate in petrolatum to the neck area of the animals....

  8. Transition from low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma to high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Takao; Omatsu, Mutsuko; Hamatani, Shigeharu; Shiokawa, Akira; Kushima, Miki; Ota, Hidekazu

    2010-07-01

    We report on a case of a primary low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) that progressed to a secondary high-grade ESS. In the secondary tumor, the immunohistochemical profile and focal tumor cell proliferation pattern suggested that this tumor was not truly undifferentiated, but possessed features of endometrial stroma. Low-grade ESS of our patient's primary tumor showed p53 protein overexpression, which is unusual in low-grade ESS, and her secondary high-grade ESS showed more prominent p53 immunoreactivity. This indicates that low-grade ESS that shows p53 immunoreactivity might progress to high-grade ESS, and it is considered that such cases of low-grade ESS should pay attention to the prognosis. Immunoreactivity for epidermal growth factor receptor was observed in both tumors, suggesting a relationship between the primary and secondary tumors in our case. Further study requires more immunohistochemical data for cases in which low-grade ESS transitions to high-grade ESS; in particular, data on epidermal growth factor receptor expression are necessary to define new therapeutic strategies for ESS.

  9. Molecular mechanism of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases

    OpenAIRE

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Ryde, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    The lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper metalloenzymes that can enhance polysaccharide depolymerization through an oxidative mechanism and hence boost generation of biofuel from e.g. cellulose. By employing density functional theory in a combination of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM), we report the complete description of the molecular mechanism of LPMOs. The QM/MM scheme allows us to describe all reaction steps with a detailed protein environment and we s...

  10. Isolation of lytic bacteriophage against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers-Stomps, C; Høj, L; Bourne, D G; Hall, M R; Owens, L

    2010-05-01

    The isolation of lytic bacteriophage of Vibrio harveyi with potential for phage therapy of bacterial pathogens of phyllosoma larvae from the tropical rock lobster Panulirus ornatus. Water samples from discharge channels and grow-out ponds of a prawn farm in northeastern Australia were enriched for 24 h in a broth containing four V. harveyi strains. The bacteriophage-enriched filtrates were spotted onto bacterial lawns demonstrating that the bacteriophage host range for the samples included strains of V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Bacteriophage were isolated from eight enriched samples through triple plaque purification. The host range of purified phage included V. harveyi, V. campbellii, V. rotiferianus and V. parahaemolyticus. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that six purified phage belonged to the family Siphoviridae, whilst two belonged to the family Myoviridae. The Myoviridae appeared to induce bacteriocin production in a limited number of host bacterial strains, suggesting that they were lysogenic rather than lytic. A purified Siphoviridae phage could delay the entry of a broth culture of V. harveyi strain 12 into exponential growth, but could not prevent the overall growth of the bacterial strain. Bacteriophage with lytic activity against V. harveyi were isolated from prawn farm samples. Purified phage of the family Siphoviridae had a clear lytic ability and no apparent transducing properties, indicating they are appropriate for phage therapy. Phage resistance is potentially a major constraint to the use of phage therapy in aquaculture as bacteria are not completely eliminated. Phage therapy is emerging as a potential antibacterial agent that can be used to control pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems. The development of phage therapy for aquaculture requires initial isolation and determination of the bacteriophage host range, with subsequent creation of

  11. Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sean; Roberts, Cheryl; Handy, Eric; Sharma, Manan

    2013-01-01

    The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (4.10 CFU/cm2) following exposure to 50 μg/ml chlorine for 30 sec. After immersion studies, lettuce was spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (2.38 CFU/cm2). Phage-treated, inoculated lettuce pieces were stored at 4°C for and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 populations for up to 7 d. Immersion of lettuce in 9.8 log PFU/ml EcoShield™ for 2 min significantly (p bacteriophages on the surface of fresh cut lettuce, potentially contributing to the efficacy of the lytic phages on lettuce. Spraying phages on to inoculated fresh cut lettuce after being washed in hypochlorite solution was significantly more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations (2.22 log CFU/cm2) on day 0 compared with control treatments (4.10 log CFU/cm2). Both immersion and spray treatments provided protection from E. coli O157:H7 contamination on lettuce, but spray application of lytic bacteriophages to lettuce was more effective in immediately reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations fresh cut lettuce. PMID:23819106

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes EBV lytic replication

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Gwen Marie; Raghuwanshi, Sandeep K.; Rowe, David T.; Wadowsky, Robert M.; Rosendorff, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers a homeostatic cellular response in mammalian cells to ensure efficient folding, sorting, and processing of client proteins. In lytic-permissive lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), pulse exposure to the chemical ER-stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) followed by recovery resulted in the activation of the EBV immediate-early (BRLF1, BZLF1), early (BMRF1), and late (gp350) genes, gp350 surface expression, and virus release. The protein phosphatase 1 a (PP1a)...

  13. CD8+mycosis fungoides: A low-grade lymphoproliferative disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Escala, Maria Estela; Kantor, Robert W; Cices, Ahuva; Zhou, Xiaolong A; Kaplan, Jason B; Pro, Barbara; Choi, Jaehyuk; Guitart, Joan

    2017-09-01

    The prognosis of the CD8 + subtype of mycosis fungoides (MF) is controversial. Although most authors believe that determining the presence of this cell surface antigen has no prognostic value, others have observed a more indolent course for CD8 + MF compared with CD4 + MF. To review the cases of CD8 + MF in the pediatric and adult populations seen at our institution. This is a retrospective review of clinical and pathologic data. Age, stage at presentation, and outcomes of patients at our institution were compared with those of 2 large MF cohorts that predominantly were CD4 + from the relevant literature. Sixty-seven patients of a median age of 46 years were included. A higher frequency of early-stage disease was observed for CD8 + MF patients at diagnosis when compared with other cohorts, including 31 (47%) patients with stage IA, 33 (50%) with stage IB, and 2 (3%) with stage IIB (P = .001, P = .001, and P = .002, respectively). With a median follow-up (5.5 years, range 0.2-21 years) similar to other cohorts, a higher rate of complete remission was achieved (65.5%, P = .001), and a lower rate of progression was observed (P = .004). This is a retrospective review. Our experience with CD8 + MF confirms a more indolent course of disease with this MF variant. Our results warrant a conservative treatment approach limited to skin-directed therapies and observation in most patients. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Massive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma presenting as acute respiratory distress in a 12-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Michael A.; Giles, Henry W.; Daley, William P.

    2009-01-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma that usually presents in young adults as a painless, slow-growing mass. Evans first described LGFMS in 1987 as a spindle-cell sarcoma with bland histological features and paradoxically aggressive behavior. Although young adults are most frequently affected, recent reports describe pediatric cases being increasingly more common. Males and females are affected approximately equally and common locations include the deep soft tissue of the lower extremity, particularly the thigh and trunk. Primary occurrence within the chest cavity is exceedingly rare. Local recurrence and metastasis are not uncommon and present the clinician and radiologist with challenges regarding follow-up recommendations. Review of the literature reveals many cases of slowly progressive symptoms related to a mass effect. We present a healthy 12-year-old African-American girl who interestingly developed acute symptoms of shortness of breath and chest pain while playing with her brother. (orig.)

  15. Low-Grade Albuminuria Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Micro-albuminuria has been well established as one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS. However, the association of MetS and its components with low-grade albuminuria among those with normal urinary albumin excretion has not been clearly elucidated in Chinese population.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 9,579 participants with normal urinary albumin excretion, who were recruited from Jia Ding District, Shanghai, China. The single-void first morning urine sample was collected for urinary albumin and creatinine measurements, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR was calculated as urinary albumin divided by creatinine. Low-grade albuminuria was classified as sex-specific upper UACR quartile in this population. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of MetS and its components increased across the UACR quartiles (all P trend <0.01. A multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of MetS was gradually elevated according to the UACR quartiles (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] were 1.14, 1.24 and 1.59 for UACR quartiles 2, 3 and 4, compared with the lowest quartile; P trend<0.0001. In the further stratified logistic regression analyses, the associations between low-grade albuminuria and MetS were significant in both sex strata (male and female, both age strata (<60 and ≥60 years, both body mass index strata (<24 and ≥24 kg/m(2, and both diabetes strata (yes and no. Compared to the lowest UACR quartile, the participants in the highest quartile of UACR had the highest prevalence of central obesity (OR = 1.43; 95%CI = 1.25-1.63, high blood pressure (OR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.43-1.87, hyperglycemia (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.30-1.78 and high triglycerides (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.04-1.37.Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with the increasing prevalence of MetS and its

  16. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laack, Nadia N.; Brown, Paul D.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Furth, Alfred F. M.S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hammack, Julie E.; Arusell, Robert M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content

  17. Stress induces endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation by increasing barrier permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin ede Punder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are the leading causes of work absence, disability and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases.

  18. Low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A National Cancer Database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Brandon-Luke L; Shilpi, Arunima; Buchanan, Samuel; Goodman, Chelain; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2017-08-01

    To provide refined prognostic information from large cohorts of women with low-grade or high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). We performed an observational retrospective cohort analysis of women diagnosed with low-grade or high-grade ESS from the 1998-2013 National Cancer Database. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable accelerated failure time survival analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors after multiple imputation of missing data. Recursive partitioning methods were used to rank prognostic factors in high-grade ESS. Matched cohort analyses were performed to hypothesis-test effects of adjuvant treatments. We identified 2414 and 1383 women with low-grade or high-grade ESS, respectively. Women with high-grade ESS had markedly decreased survival compared to women with low-grade ESS (five-year survival (95% CI): 32.6 (30.1-35.3%) versus 90.5% (89.3-91.8%), PTR) (95% CI): 1.36 (1.17-1.58), PTR (95% CI): 1.57 (1.32-1.87), P<0.001) were associated with increased survival for high-grade ESS. The contrasting excellent versus poor prognosis of low-grade versus high-grade ESS, respectively, was confirmed. The best treatment of high-grade ESS is early and complete surgical resection including lymphadenectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy may increase survival of women with high-grade ESS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy for incompletely resected supratentorial low-grade glioma. A phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, B.; Milicic, B.; Stojanovic, M.; Nikolic, N.; Dagovic, A.; Shibamoto, Y.; Grujicic, D.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: In order to investigate the feasibility, toxicity and antitumor efficacy of hyperfractionated radiation therapy, 37 adult patients with incompletely resected supratentorial low-grade glioma were entered into a phase II study. Materials and methods: The radiation therapy dose was 55 Gy in 50 fractions in 25 treatment days over 5 weeks to the tumor plus a 2-cm margin, with an additional 17.6 Gy given in 16 fractions in 8 treatment days over 1.5 weeks to the tumor plus a 1-cm margin, using 1.1 Gy b.i.d. fractionation with a 6 h interfraction interval. The total tumor dose was 72.6 Gy in 66 fractions in 33 treatment days over 6.5 weeks. Results: The median survival time (MST) for all 37 patients has not yet been attained, while 5- and 7-year survival rates were 75% and 69%, respectively. The median time to tumor progression (MTP) has also not yet been attained, while 5- and 7-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were both 70%. There was no difference in survival or PFS regarding histology, although patients with oligodendroglioma and mixed glioma had similar survival, both being higher than that of ordinary astrocytoma. On univariate analysis of potential prognostic factors, age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), neurologic status and extent of surgery were found to influence survival. The toxicity of HFX RT was generally assessed as mild to moderate. Conclusion: HFX RT is feasible with mild to moderate toxicity. Further studies are warranted with more patients and longer follow-up before testing it against standard fractionation RT in this patient population. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Role of PGC-1α in acute and low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper

    inflammation as well as in the inflammatory response in mouse skeletal muscle. 2) Long-term exercise training and/or resveratrol supplementation prevents age-associated low-grade- and skeletal muscle inflammation in mice with PGC-1α being required for these improvements. 3) Exercise training and/or resveratrol......, visceral adipose tissue TNFα mRNA and skeletal muscle TNFα protein were all increased in old mice (15 month old) compared with young mice (3 month old), confirming that aging is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and tissue inflammation in mice. Study II and III demonstrated that exercise......The aim of the present thesis was to examine the role of the exercise-induced transcriptional co-activator, PGC-1α, in acute and low-grade inflammation. To investigate this, the following three hypotheses were tested: 1) Skeletal muscle PGC-1α plays an important role in acute LPS-induced systemic...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of intracranial arachnoid cysts. With emphasis on differentiation from low-grade glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tooru; Matsushima, Toshio; Nakagaki, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Masashi; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Fukushima, Takeo; Kuromatsu, Chiharu; Takagi, Tosuke; Koga, Toshihiko

    1987-06-01

    Twenty intracranial arachnoid cysts and one low-grade glioma were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Six arachnoid cysts were examined by metrizamide CT cisternography. All arachnoid cysts showed a CSF-like pattern on MRI images. In the spin echo image (SE 2000/80), the cysts showed a similar signal intensity as the surrounding normal brain, and separation was difficult. There were no MRI difference between communicating and noncommunicating cysts. One low-grade glioma showing a well-defined low density area without contrast enhancement on X-CT scans had a signal intensity higher than that of the surrounding normal brain in spin echo images (SE 2000/80). It seems easy to differentiate a low-grade glioma from an arachnoid cyst, which showed normal signal intensity in spin echo images (SE 2000/80).

  2. Thermophysical properties of the products of low-grade fuels thermal recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the work is caused by reorientation of the modern power engineering to use of local low grade fuel resources. Some types of low grade fuels (peat, brown coal, sapropel, wood chips are considered in this work. Thermotechnical characteristics of the investigated fuels and products of their thermal recycling are determined. Thermal recycling process is accompanied by release of fuel dissociation heat (0.33-3.69 MJ/kg. The results of thermal low grade fuel recycling are solid carbonaceous product (semi-coke with a calorific value higher in 1.5-7 times than the value of natural fuels; pyrolysis resin with calorific value 29.4-36.8 MJ/kg; combustible gas with calorific value 15.16-19.06 MJ/m3.

  3. Persistent Depressive Symptoms are Independent Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation Onset Among Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gazelato de Mello Franco

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. Objectives: This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. Methods: From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+ and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-. All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. Results: The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001. After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04. Conclusions: Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals.

  4. Mutation of NRAS is a Rare Genetic Event in Ovarian Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Deyin; Rahmanto, Yohan Suryo; Zeppernick, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Activating mutations involving the members of the RAS signaling pathway, including KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF, have been reported in ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma and its precursor lesion, serous borderline tumor (SBT). Whether additional genetic alterations in the RAS oncogene family accumulate...... during the progression of serous borderline tumor (SBT) to invasive low grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) remains largely unknown. While mutations of KRAS and BRAF occur at a very early stage of progression, even preceding the development of SBT, additional driving events, such as NRAS mutations, have been...

  5. Phage lytic proteins: biotechnological applications beyond clinical antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most bacteriophages encode two types of cell wall lytic proteins: Endolysins (lysins) and virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases. Both enzymes have the ability to degrade the peptidoglycan of Gram positive bacteria resulting in cell lysis when they are applied externally. Bacteriophage lytic p...

  6. Low-grade heat utilization in Canada and the northern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effer, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Some reasons for the slow progress in low-grade heat utilization are examined. Economically, most schemes are, at best, only marginally attractive and problems of integration with the source of the low-grade heat are often formidable. The temperature, quality, variability and reliability of the warm water discharge is often less than ideal. A power utility or other producer of low-grade heat must be convinced that its utilization does not result in unacceptably lower efficiency or reliability of its process. Social or political factors are considered most likely to provide the incentive for making significant advances in low-grade heat utilization. Studies carried out in Canada and the Northern United States are reviewed and include aquaculture, open field soil warming, controlled greenhouses, spray irrigation for frost protection, ice control in waterways, organic waste treatment, residential heating, recreation and integrated systems. It is concluded that agricultural uses may have greatest potential for development in cold climates in North America. (author)

  7. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation and the progression of retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Gall, M.A.; Tarnow, L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Lauritzen, E.; Lund-Andersen, H.; Emeis, J.; Parving, H.H.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To study whether microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with the presence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 328) attending a diabetes clinic were followed for 10 years and examined annually during

  8. Evolution of DNA repair defects during malignant progression of low-grade gliomas after temozolomide treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thuijl, Hinke F.; Mazor, Tali; Johnson, Brett E.; Fouse, Shaun D.; Aihara, Koki; Hong, Chibo; Malmström, Annika; Hallbeck, Martin; Heimans, Jan J.; Kloezeman, Jenneke J.; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Lamfers, Martine L M; Saito, Nobuhito; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Mukasa, Akitake; Berger, Mitchell S.; Söderkvist, Peter; Taylor, Barry S.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Wesseling, Pieter; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Chang, Susan M.; Ylstra, Bauke; Costello, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) increases the overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), but its role in the clinical management of diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG) is still being defined. DNA hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with an improved

  9. Evolution of DNA repair defects during malignant progression of low-grade gliomas after temozolomide treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thuijl, Hinke F.; Mazor, Tali; Johnson, Brett E.; Fouse, Shaun D.; Aihara, Koki; Hong, Chibo; Malmström, Annika; Hallbeck, Martin; Heimans, Jan J.; Kloezeman, Jenneke J.; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Lamfers, Martine L. M.; Saito, Nobuhito; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Mukasa, Akitake; Berger, Mitchell S.; Söderkvist, Peter; Taylor, Barry S.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Wesseling, Pieter; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Chang, Susan M.; Ylstra, Bauke; Costello, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) increases the overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), but its role in the clinical management of diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG) is still being defined. DNA hypermethylation of the O (6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with an

  10. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Discriminating Low-Grade From High-Grade Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.K.; Kobus, T.; Litjens, G.J.S.; Hambrock, T.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Maas, M.C.; Scheenen, T.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and validate the optimal combination of parameters derived from 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging for discriminating low-grade from high-grade prostate cancer (PCa).The study was

  11. Biological formation of caproate and caprylate from acetate: fuel and chemical production from low grade biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This research introduces an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology for anaerobic digestion to recover valuable products from low grade biomass. In this mixed culture fermentation, organic waste streams are converted to caproate and caprylate as precursors for biodiesel or chemicals. It

  12. Heat-to-current conversion of low-grade heat from a thermocapacitive cycle by supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härtel, Andreas; Janssen, Mathijs; Weingarth, Daniel; Presser, Volker; van Roij, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy is abundantly available, and especially low-grade heat is often wasted in industrial processes as a by-product. Tapping into this vast energy reservoir with cost-attractive technologies may become a key element for the transition to an energy-sustainable economy and society. We

  13. Transition of low-grade to high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, M; Sonoyama, A; Hirano, H; Kizaki, T; Ohara, N

    2013-01-01

    The transition of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) to high-grade ESS remains a rare clinical event. A patient presented with abdominal pain and abnormal genital bleeding. She underwent a supracervical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and resection of peritoneal disseminated lesions. Pathological examination revealed low-grade ESS in the uterus and omentum. Immunohistochemical examination showed immunoreactivity for CD10 and Ki-67 (MIB1) in the uterus and omentum. However, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, alpha-SMA, desmin, h-caldesmon, and CAM5-2 were negative. P53 immunoreactivity was noted only in the omental lesion. Despite performing six courses of adjuvant chemotherapy, she recurred in the abdomen. She underwent ileostomy and resection of peritoneal disseminated lesions. Pathology showed high-grade ESS in the recurrent lesion of the ileum, which was characterized by severe cytologic atypia, high mitotic index, multifocal necrosis, increased Ki-67 index, and immunoreactivity for p53. Although rare, the transition of low-grade ESS to high-grade ESS may occur and suggests the worsening of the prognosis. Pathological examination and immunohistochemistry are useful for the diagnosis of the transition of low-grade ESS to high-grade ESS.

  14. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, van B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain

  15. Investigation of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstocks for biodiesel production: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansir, Nasar; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Umer; Lokman, Ibrahim M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid acid catalysts are proficient to esterifying high free fatty acid feedstocks to biodiesel. • Heterogeneous catalysts have the advantage of easy separation and reusability. • Heterogeneous basic catalysts have limitations due to high FFA of low cost feedstocks. • Solid catalysts having acid and base sites reveal better catalyst for biodiesel production. - Abstract: The conventional fossil fuel reserves are continually declining worldwide and therefore posing greater challenges to the future of the energy sources. Biofuel alternatives were found promising to replace the diminishing fossil fuels. However, conversion of edible vegetable oils to biodiesel using homogeneous acids and base catalysts is now considered as indefensible for the future particularly due to food versus fuel competition and other environmental problems related to catalyst system and feedstock. This review has discussed the progression in research and growth related to heterogeneous catalysts used for biodiesel production for low grade feedstocks. The heterogeneous base catalysts have revealed effective way to produce biodiesel, but it has the limitation of being sensitive to high free fatty acid (FFA) or low grade feedstocks. Alternatively, solid acid catalysts are capable of converting the low grade feedstocks to biodiesel in the presence of active acid sites. The paper presents a comprehensive review towards the investigation of solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstock, their category, properties, advantages, limitations and possible remedy to their drawbacks for biodiesel production.

  16. MYC expression and translocation analyses in low-grade and transformed follicular lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, Sietse M.; van Pel, Roel; Nagel, Inga; Bens, Susanne; Siebert, Reiner; Rosati, Stefano; van den Berg, Eva; Bosga-Bouwer, Anneke G.; Kibbelaar, Robby E.; Hoogendoorn, Mels; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Kluin, Philip M.; Nijland, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    AimsLow-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) (grade 1/2, FL1/2) has an annual risk of transformation of approximate to 3%, which is associated with aberrations in CDKN2A/B, TP53, and MYC. As in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, high MYC expression in transformed FL (tFL) might predict a MYC breakpoint.

  17. Waist circumference is related to low-grade inflammation in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Resaland, GK

    2010-01-01

    .51) compared with controls. All CVD risk factors differed between the HW group and controls. The CVD risk factors were not associated with TNFalpha or IL-6, but CRP, HGF and PAI-1 were related to the metabolic risk score. Conclusions. Low grade systemic inflammation is already present in youth with high waist...

  18. Screening of various low-grade biomass materials for low temperature gasification: Method development and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Ravenni, Giulia; Holm, Jens Kai

    2015-01-01

    method and the subsequent use of the method to identify promising e but currently unproven, low-grade biomass resources for conversion in Pyroneer systems. The technical assessment is conducted by comparing the results from a series of physical-mechanical and thermochemical experiments to a set of proven...

  19. Management of spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis in fine athletes. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, Theodoros; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2015-07-01

    To provide evidence-based data about the aetiology, incidence, diagnosis and treatment of isthmic lumbar spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis and return to athletic activities in fine athlete. This is a comprehensive literature review. A thorough MEDLINE search in the period from 1973 to 2014 with the keywords: athlete, spondylolysis, low-grade spondylolisthesis, treatment and return to athletic activities was conducted. A total of 228 articles were initially enrolled from the search, and 74 case series and reviews were finally included because they referred to incidence, diagnosis, treatment and return to play in fine athletes with symptomatic isthmic spondylolysis and low-grade (Meyerding I and II) spondylolisthesis. There were 13 studies reporting surgical treatment (194 patients of average age 19 years) and 14 studies with conservative treatment (589 patients of average age 15.7). The percentage of athletes who were successfully treated with conservative or operative treatment was 85 and 87.8%, respectively. Conservative treatment including physiotherapy and bracing is the mainstay in the treatment of symptomatic spondylolysis and low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in fine athletes. If consequent treatment fails, the operative treatment (pars repair and short fusion) is decided. Return to play following surgery varies from 6 to 12 months with prohibition in collision sports. Return to play is mostly depended on specific sport activity.

  20. Using low-grade hardwoods for CLT production: a yield analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann

    2017-01-01

    Low-grade hardwood logs are the by-product of logging operations and, more frequently today, urban tree removals. The market prices for these logs is low, as is the value recovered from their logs when producing traditional forest products such as pallet parts, railroad ties, landscaping mulch, or chips for pulp. However, the emergence of cross-laminated timber (CLT)...

  1. Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

  2. Giant low-grade primary myofibroblastic sarcoma of the posterior chest wall.

    OpenAIRE

    Katalinić, Darko; Šantek, Fedor

    2017-01-01

    Primary myofibroblastic sarcoma is an extremely rare, highly malignant neoplasm, and only few cases had been reported in the literature worldwide. In the present study, we report an unusual case of a low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma located in the posterior chest wall with intrathoracic propagation and discuss its clinical and pathological features.

  3. Giant low-grade primary myofibroblastic sarcoma of the posterior chest wall

    OpenAIRE

    Katalinic, Darko; Santek, Fedor

    2017-01-01

    Primary myofibroblastic sarcoma is an extremely rare, highly malignant neoplasm, and only few cases had been reported in the literature worldwide. In the present study, we report an unusual case of a low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma located in the posterior chest wall with intrathoracic propagation and discuss its clinical and pathological features.

  4. Giant low-grade primary myofibroblastic sarcoma of the posterior chest wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalinic, Darko; Santek, Fedor

    2017-05-03

    Primary myofibroblastic sarcoma is an extremely rare, highly malignant neoplasm, and only few cases had been reported in the literature worldwide. In the present study, we report an unusual case of a low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma located in the posterior chest wall with intrathoracic propagation and discuss its clinical and pathological features.

  5. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyrev Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  6. The Spectrum of Triple-Negative Breast Disease: High- and Low-Grade Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Felipe C; Pareja, Fresia; Weigelt, Britta; Rakha, Emad; Ellis, Ian O; Schnitt, Stuart J; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2017-10-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is viewed clinically as an aggressive subgroup of breast cancer. In fact, most triple-negative breast cancers are poor-prognosis tumors with a complex genomic landscape. However, triple-negative disease is vastly heterogeneous, encompassing multiple entities with marked genetic, transcriptional, histologic, and clinical differences, with neoplasms in this group ranging from low to high grade. Among the less common low-grade triple-negative lesions, two large subgroups, both with a rather indolent behavior, can be distinguished: a low-grade triple-negative breast neoplasia family, which includes nonobligate precursors of triple-negative breast cancer, and, despite being low-grade, harbors the complex genomic landscape of usual triple-negative breast cancer, and the salivary gland-like tumors of the breast, lacking all the cardinal molecular features of conventional triple-negative breast cancer and underpinned by specific fusion genes or hotspot mutations, which may be of diagnostic and possibly therapeutic utility. Progression to high-grade triple-negative breast cancer likely occurs in both subgroups but at different rates. In this review, we describe the heterogeneity of triple-negative disease, focusing on the histologic and molecular features of the low-grade lesions. Recognition that triple-negative breast cancer is an operational term and that triple-negative disease is heterogeneous and includes low-grade forms driven by distinct sets of genetic alterations is germane to the successful implementation of precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mediterranean diet, dietary polyphenols and low grade inflammation: results from the MOLI-SANI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Pounis, George; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Low grade inflammation is characterized by raised concentrations of inflammatory markers in the absence of any overt symptoms and is recognized as a risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Many studies suggest that low grade inflammation is mitigated by health promoting behaviours such as healthy eating patterns, physical activity, body weight maintenance and tobacco cessation. To date, large scale studies were mainly focused on circulating markers and little evidence is available on cellular biomarkers. The MOLI-SANI study is a prospective cohort study that has recruited 24 325 men and women aged ≥35 years from the general population of the Molise Region, a Southern Italian area, with the purpose of investigating genetic and environmental risk/protection factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and cancer. Within this cohort, a composite score of low grade inflammation based on the use of plasmatic (C-reactive protein) and cellular (leukocyte and platelet counts and granulocyte : lymphocyte ratio) biomarkers has been proposed and validated. This score accounts for all possible synergistic effects of such inflammatory markers, thus overcoming any potential bias linked to the multi-collinearity of these variables. Of notice, the MOLI-SANI study was the first to address the relationship between the traditional Mediterranean diet and platelet and leucocyte counts as emerging cellular biomarkers of low grade inflammation. The present review paper will discuss the main findings derived from the MOLI-SANI study on the association of low grade inflammation with a Mediterranean eating pattern, with a particular emphasis on the associated dietary polyphenols. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of paediatric low grade brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphanidou-Vlachou, E., E-mail: eleni.orphanidou@googlemail.com [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Auer, D., E-mail: dorothee.auer@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Academic Radiology, School of Medical and Surgical Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Brundler, M.A., E-mail: marie-anne.brundler@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Davies, N.P., E-mail: nigel.davies@nhs.net [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T., E-mail: tim.jaspan@nuh.nhs.uk [Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); MacPherson, L., E-mail: Lesley.MacPherson@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Natarajan, K., E-mail: Kal.Natarajan@uhb.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-06-15

    Introduction: Low grade gliomas are the commonest brain tumours in children but present in a myriad of ways, each with its own treatment challenges. Conventional MRI scans play an important role in their management but have limited ability to identify likely clinical behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a method for detecting differences between the various low grade gliomas and related tumours in children. Patients and methods: Short echo time single voxel {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 or 3.0 T was performed prior to treatment on children with low grade brain tumours at two centres and five MR scanners, 69 cases had data which passed quality control. MRS data was processed using LCModel to give mean spectra and metabolite concentrations which were compared using T-tests, ANOVA, Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Significant differences were found in concentrations of key metabolites between glioneuronal and glial tumours (T-test p < 0.05) and between most of the individual histological subtypes of low grade gliomas. The discriminatory metabolites identified, such as choline and myoinositol, are known tumour biomarkers. In the set of pilocytic astrocytomas and unbiopsied optic pathway gliomas, significant differences (p < 0.05, ANOVA) were found in metabolite profiles of tumours depending on location and patient neurofibromatosis type 1 status. Logistic regression analyses yielded equations which could be used to assess the probability of a tumour being of a specific type. Conclusions: MRS can detect subtle differences between low grade brain tumours in children and should form part of the clinical assessment of these tumours.

  9. Exercise as a Mean to Control Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Mathur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs, which include cardiovascular disease, some cancers, for example, colon cancer, breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes, are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. It has now become clear that low-grade chronic inflammation is a key player in the pathogenesis of most CNCDs. Given that regular exercise offers protection against all causes of mortality, primarily by protection against atherosclerosis and insulin resistance, we suggest that exercise may exert some of its beneficial health effects by inducing anti-inflammatory actions. Recently, IL-6 was introduced as the first myokine, defined as a cytokine, which is produced and released by contracting skeletal muscle fibres, exerting its effects in other organs of the body. We suggest that skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ and that myokines may be involved in mediating the beneficial effects against CNCDs associated with low-grade inflammation.

  10. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...... Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...

  11. Monitoring temozolomide treatment of low-grade glioma with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, P. S.; Viviers, L; Abson, C

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of low-grade glioma treatment response remains as much of a challenge as the treatment itself. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and imaging were incorporated into a study of patients receiving temozolomide therapy for low-grade glioma in order to evaluate and monitor...... tumour metabolite and volume changes during treatment. Patients (n=12) received oral temozolomide (200 mg m(-2) day(-1)) over 5 days on a 28-day cycle for 12 cycles. Response assessment included baseline and three-monthly magnetic resonance imaging studies (pretreatment, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) assessing...... months, a significant reduction in the mean choline signal was observed compared with the pretreatment (P=0.035) and 3-month scan (P=0.021). The reduction in the tumour choline/water signal paralleled tumour volume change and may reflect the therapeutic effect of temozolomide...

  12. Is male factor infertility associated with midlife low-grade inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore...... to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection...... in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6...

  13. Beneficiation and leaching study of a muti-Au carrier and low grade refractory gold ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. J.; Song, Y. S.; Chen, Y.; Cai, L. L.; Zhou, G. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Detailed mineralogy and beneficiation and leaching study of a muti-Au carrier, low grade refractory gold ore from a beneficiation plant in Henan Province, China, was investigated. Mineral liberation analysis, scanning electron microscopy, element phase analysis and etc. by a mineral liberation analyser were used for mineralogical characterization study of this ore. The present work describes an experimental study on the effect of traditional parameters (such as grinding fineness and reagent regimes), middling processing method and flowsheet construction on the total recovery and the assay of the floatation concentrate. Two-step floatation and part of middling combined to the floatation tailing for gold leaching process resulted in high gold grade (g.t-1) and gold recovery (%) for this refractory gold ore. This process opens the possibilities of maximizing Au grade and recoveries in a muti-Au carrier and low grade refractory gold ore where low recoveries are common.

  14. Intraosseous polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of mandible: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare type of minor salivary gland malignancy. The characteristic features of these tumors are the varied histomorphology and the malignant, albeit indolent behavior. It occurs commonly in the minor salivary glands, with the palate (58.5% being the most common intra oral site. Maxillary area (2%, mandibular mucosal area (1.5% and posterior trigone region (0.5% are the least affected areas. An occasional case has been reported arising from an intraosseous location i.e the maxilla, and only two cases have been reported in the English literature originating from the mandible. One such very rare case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the mandible, which radiographically has a soap bubble appearance, is reported here.

  15. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dede, Ercan M.; Schmalenberg, Paul; Wang, Chi-Ming; Zhou, Feng; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  16. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation and the progression of retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Gall, Mari-Anne; Tarnow, L

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To study whether microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with the presence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 328) attending a diabetes clinic were followed for 10 years and examined annually during......E-selectin), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) and inflammatory activity (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) were determined. RESULTS: The prevalence of retinopathy was 33.8%. The median diabetes duration at baseline was 7 years (interquartile range 2-12 years). The highest tertiles of baseline urinary.......65 (1.21-2.25). CONCLUSIONS: In this population of patients with Type 2 diabetes who attended a diabetes clinic, there was some evidence for a role of endothelial dysfunction in the progression of retinopathy. We could not demonstrate a role for low-grade inflammation. Our study emphasizes...

  17. Contemporary management of low--grade glioma: a paradigm shift in neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Supratentorial diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas represent a distinct but heterogenous group of tumours, with the propensity to grow and to differentiate into malignant tumours. They have been historically viewed in the 'benign' spectrum of intrinsic brain tumours, so a watch-and-wait policy was often adopted. With recent advances in our understanding of the natural history of these tumours, combined with advances in surgical technique, an aggressive approach is now recommended. Increasing quality evidence of the impact of tumour resection and multicentre trials of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy have led to a new algorithm for low-grade glioma management. This review aims to outline the emerging evidence that has shifted neuro-oncology practice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. A characterisation of low-grade inflammation and metabolic complications in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove

    2016-01-01

    that both chronic low-grade inflammation from HIV infection and treatment with HAART trigger cellular homeostatic stress responses with adverse effects on glucose metabolism. The physiological outcome is such that the total energy storage in the adipocytes is decreased, and the remaining adipocytes resist......HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome frequently presents as a relative lack of peripheral adipose tissue storage combined with an increase in visceral fat, associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. This thesis discusses explanations for the links between abnormalities in glucose...... metabolism, the steroid synthesis pathway, the growth hormone-insulin growth factor-1 axis, and chronic changes in adipose tissue distribution. Specifically, the mechanisms by which low-grade inflammation may affect the normal stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose and fat storage are reviewed. We propose...

  19. Low-grade chondrosarcoma vs enchondroma: challenges in diagnosis and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.L.; De Beuckeleer, L.H.; De Schepper, A.M.A.; Van Marck, E.

    2001-01-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a swelling at the right thoracic wall. Computed tomography showed an aggressive process involving the cortex of the rib with concomitant soft tissue mass. However, a needle biopsy specimen revealed an enchondroma and consequently the physician decided to apply a ''wait-and-see'' strategy. After 3 years of careful follow-up by MR imaging, the patient complained of subtle enlargement of the lesion, which was later confirmed on repeated CT scan. Despite an aggressive appearance on control MR imaging, histopathological examination after incisional biopsy could not differentiate between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma. Wide excision including previous biopsy trajectory was performed. Diagnosis of a low-grade (grade I) chondrosarcoma was made on findings of the excisional specimen and seeding of cartilage tissue along the previous incisional biopsy trajectory was found. (orig.)

  20. An intrathoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising from the chest wall with massive pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yoshiaki; Eguchi, Takashi; Shiina, Takayuki; Hamanaka, Kazutoshi; Amano, Jun; Asaka, Shiho; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of an intrathoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising from the chest wall and associated with massive pleural effusion. A 70-year-old man presented with a persistent cough. A chest computed tomography scan revealed a large mass in the right pleural cavity with massive pleural effusion. No malignant cells were recognized in the pleural effusion by thoracentesis. A malignant soft tissue tumor was suspected, and surgery was performed. The tumor arose from the posterior chest wall and was resected with the connected chest wall. The definitive diagnosis was a low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Because the posterior margin of the chest wall was microscopically tumor positive, postoperative irradiation was performed. The patient has now been followed up for 30 months with no evidence of recurrence.

  1. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: ultrasound and magnetic resonance findings in two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Sung Hye; Choe, Hyung Sim; Lee, In Jae; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Radiology, Anyang, Kyungki-do (Korea); Park, Hye Rim [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Pathology, Anyang, Kyungki-do (Korea)

    2005-09-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare, slow-growing, yet metastasizing neoplasm characterized by histopathological fibrous/myxoid zonal alternations, which occasionally display an intralesional multinodular appearance. We report on the radiological features of two cases of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Case 1 was a large ovoid mass with a well-defined margin in the thigh, showing the characteristic multiple, intralesional variable-sized nodules on high-frequency ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), some of the nodules showing a target-like appearance. Case 2 was a dumbbell-shaped chest wall mass showing invasive features without the intralesional multinodular appearance on MRI. The gross radiological appearances of our two cases were somewhat dissimilar, but they shared a pattern of low/high signal zonal distinction without hemorrhage or necrosis within the masses on MRI. (orig.)

  2. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: ultrasound and magnetic resonance findings in two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Sung Hye; Choe, Hyung Sim; Lee, In Jae; Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Hye Rim

    2005-01-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare, slow-growing, yet metastasizing neoplasm characterized by histopathological fibrous/myxoid zonal alternations, which occasionally display an intralesional multinodular appearance. We report on the radiological features of two cases of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Case 1 was a large ovoid mass with a well-defined margin in the thigh, showing the characteristic multiple, intralesional variable-sized nodules on high-frequency ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), some of the nodules showing a target-like appearance. Case 2 was a dumbbell-shaped chest wall mass showing invasive features without the intralesional multinodular appearance on MRI. The gross radiological appearances of our two cases were somewhat dissimilar, but they shared a pattern of low/high signal zonal distinction without hemorrhage or necrosis within the masses on MRI. (orig.)

  3. Association Between Periodontitis and Low-Grade Albuminuria in Non-Diabetic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Hui Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical association between periodontitis and a high urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR in individuals without diabetes mellitus. Methods: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used for this analysis. A high UACR was defined as UACR≥3.9 mg/g for men and UACR≥7.5 mg/g for women. The WHO community periodontal index (CPI was used to define periodontitis and assess its severity. Results: The numbers of participants without and with periodontitis were 3,046 and 8,571, respectively. The UACR values were higher in participants with periodontitis than in those without periodontitis. Logistic regression showed that the OR for a high UACR with the presence of periodontitis was 1.14 (P=0.044 on multivariate analysis. CPI score was positively associated with UACR. Conclusions: Periodontitis was associated with UACR in the non-diabetic participants in this study. Therefore, participants with periodontitis should be closely monitored for UACR, which can function as an early marker for renal injury.

  4. Low-grade and character-marked hardwoods: A research review and synthesis of solid wood manufacturing and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matt Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research from the past half-century addressing hardwood utilization and markets in North America. This synthesis is the first to our knowledge to consider two major (and related) aspects of this research concurrently: low-grade hardwood utilization and marketing of character-marked wood features. We first consider low-grade hardwood...

  5. Platelet turnover in stable coronary artery disease - influence of thrombopoietin and low-grade inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Bøjet Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newly formed platelets are associated with increased aggregation and adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of platelet turnover in patients with CAD are largely unknown. AIM: To investigate associations between platelet turnover parameters, thrombopoietin and markers of low-grade inflammation in patients with stable CAD. Furthermore, to explore the relationship between platelet turnover parameters and type 2 diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, smoking, age, gender and renal insufficiency. METHODS: We studied 581 stable CAD patients. Platelet turnover parameters (immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell-ratio were determined using automated flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-2100. Furthermore, we measured thrombopoietin and evaluated low-grade inflammation by measurement of high-sensitive CRP and interleukin-6. RESULTS: We found strong associations between the immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell ratio (r = 0.61-0.99, p<0.0001. Thrombopoietin levels were inversely related to all of the platelet turnover parameters (r = -0.17--0.25, p<0.0001. Moreover, thrombopoietin levels were significantly increased in patients with diabetes (p = 0.03 and in smokers (p = 0.003. Low-grade inflammation evaluated by high-sensitive CRP correlated significantly, yet weakly, with immature platelet count (r = 0.10, p = 0.03 and thrombopoietin (r = 0.16, p<0.001. Also interleukin-6 correlated with thrombopoietin (r = 0.10, p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: In stable CAD patients, thrombopoietin was inversely associated with platelet turnover parameters. Furthermore, thrombopoietin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and in smokers. However, low-grade inflammation did not seem to have a

  6. Effect of Oxygen and Micro-Cracking on the Flotation of Low Grade Nickel Sulphide Ore

    OpenAIRE

    Edison Muzenda; Ayo S Afolabi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of oxygen and micro-cracking on the flotation of low grade nickel sulphide ore. The ore treated contained serpentine minerals which have a history of being difficult to process efficiently. The use of oxygen as a bubbling gas has been noted to be effective because it increases the pulp potential. The desired effect of micro cracking the ore is that the nickel sulphide minerals will become activated and this activation will render these m...

  7. Low-grade chondrosarcoma of the cricoid cartilage: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chuan-Ping; Liu, Ji-Hua; Xu, Wen-Jian [The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Department of Radiology, Qingdao (China); Hou, Feng [The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Department of Pathology, Qingdao (China); Liu, Hua [The Shinanqu People Hospital, Department of Radiology, Qingdao (China)

    2017-11-15

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man with a 12-day history of vomiting whenever he had a meal. Computed tomography revealed a calcified mass in the right cricoid cartilage with intraluminal and extraluminal extension. The patient underwent surgical resection of the trachea with end-to-end anastomosis. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed a low-grade chondrosarcoma. Eighteen months after surgery, the patient is alive and disease-free. (orig.)

  8. Considerations on the utilisation of the extraction residue from U, Th production from low grade ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwyler, S.

    1979-11-01

    A literature review about processes for the winning of metals from the extraction residue of low grade U, Th-ores has been made. Among the metals recoverable aluminium is being considered as the most interesting one. The aluminium extraction processes discussed here include high temperature chlorination, the BAYER-process, acid and SO 3 digestion processes, winning of an AlSiFe-alloy by electrometallurgy. The merits of the different processes are compared. (Auth.)

  9. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of parotid gland: a rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arathi, N; Bage, Atul M

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare salivary gland malignant tumor of low aggressiveness, commonly occurring in minor salivary glands. Its occurrence in major salivary gland has been documented albeit rarely. The striking histological feature is architectural diversity combined with benign cytologic features. We report a case of PLGA arising from left parotid in a 25-year-old male patient. On light microscopy, varied patterns were seen .The cells were uniform with bland nuclei. Neural invasion was noted.

  10. Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, Jo?o Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to ...

  11. Sequential Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for Assessment of Tumor Progression in Patients with Low-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I E; Swinburne, N; Tsankova, N M; Hefti, M M; Aggarwal, A; Doshi, A H; Hormigo, A; Delman, B N; Nael, K

    2018-04-19

    Early and accurate identification of tumor progression in patients with low-grade gliomas is challenging. We aimed to assess the role of quantitative ADC analysis in the sequential follow-up of patients with low-grade gliomas as a potential imaging marker of tumor stability or progression. In this retrospective study, patients with a diagnosis of low-grade glioma with at least 12 months of imaging follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed sequential MR imaging in each patient to determine tumor progression using the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. Normalized mean ADC (ADC mean ) and 10th percentile ADC (ADC 10 ) values from FLAIR hyperintense tumor volume were calculated for each MR image and compared between patients with stable disease versus tumor progression using univariate analysis. The interval change of ADC values between sequential scans was used to differentiate stable disease from progression using the Fisher exact test. Twenty-eight of 69 patients who were evaluated met our inclusion criteria. Fifteen patients were classified as stable versus 13 patients as having progression based on consensus reads of MRIs and the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. The interval change of ADC values showed greater concordance with ultimate lesion disposition than quantitative ADC values at a single time point. The interval change in ADC 10 matched the expected pattern in 12/13 patients with tumor progression (overall diagnostic accuracy of 86%, P average, the ADC 10 interval change predicted progression 8 months before conventional MR imaging. The interval change of ADC 10 values can be used to identify progression versus stability of low-grade gliomas with a diagnostic accuracy of 86% and before apparent radiologic progression on conventional MR imaging. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland. A comparative histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Stewart, J C; Courtney, R M

    1991-04-01

    Sixteen polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas were reviewed and compared with 17 adenoid cystic carcinomas and with 21 other histologically similar minor salivary gland neoplasms. The polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas were for the most part distinctive in their microscopic appearance. Typically they exhibited infiltrative growth by small uniform cells in single-layered ducts. A syncytium of tumor cells was also characteristic, although solid and cribriform patterns were seen, making definitive diagnosis difficult with some tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, actin, vimentin, and keratins resulted in relatively distinctive antigenic profiles for the tumors studied. Of significance was strong S-100 protein and weak actin staining of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas, moderate actin staining of adenoid cystic carcinomas, moderate glial fibrillary acidic protein staining of monomorphic adenomas and pleomorphic adenomas, and nonreactivity of monomorphic adenomas for vimentin. It is believed that the immunoprofiles could be useful in the microscopic diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. The identification of antigens found normally in myoepithelial and epithelial cells supports the concept that these tumors are derived from pluripotential reserve cells.

  13. PET AND SPECT STUDIES IN CHILDREN WITH HEMISPHERIC LOW-GRADE GLIOMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Csaba; Bosnyák, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in the pre-treatment evaluation of low-grade gliomas. While glucose positron emission tomography (PET) can be helpful to differentiate low-grade from high-grade tumors, PET imaging with amino acid radiotracers has several advantages, such as better differentiation between tumors and non-tumorous lesions, optimized biopsy targeting and improved detection of tumor recurrence. This review provides a brief overview of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies followed by a more detailed review of clinical applications of glucose and amino acid PET imaging in low-grade hemispheric gliomas. We discuss key differences in the performance of the most commonly utilized PET radiotracers and highlight the advantage of PET/MRI fusion to obtain optimal information about tumor extent, heterogeneity and metabolism. Recent data also suggest that simultaneous acquisition of PET/MR images and the combination of advanced MRI techniques with quantitative PET can further improve the pre- and post-treatment evaluation of pediatric brain tumors. PMID:27659825

  14. Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the chest wall: case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetaille Bruno

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcomas (ESOS are extremely rare. Case presentation We present the first case of low-grade ESOS of the chest wall, which occurred in a 30-year-old man. Because of initial misdiagnosis and patient's refusal of surgery, the diagnosis was done after a 4-year history of a slowly growing mass in soft tissues, leading to a huge (30-cm diameter calcified mass locally extended over the left chest wall. Final diagnosis was helped by molecular analysis of MDM2 and CDK4 oncogenes. Unfortunately, at this time, no surgical treatment was possible due to loco-regional extension, and despite chemotherapy, the patient died one year after diagnosis, five years after the first symptoms. Conclusion We describe the clinical, radiological and bio-pathological features of this unique case, and review the literature concerning low-grade ESOS. Our case highlights the diagnostic difficulties for such very rare tumours and the interest of molecular analysis in ambiguous cases.

  15. Low grade Schwann cell neoplasms with leptomeningeal dissemination: clinicopathologic and autopsy findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F.; Blakeley, Jaishri; Langmead, Shannon; Olivi, Alessandro; Tufaro, Anthony; Tabbarah, Abeer; Berkenblit, Gail; Sacks, Justin M.; Newsome, Scott D.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of low grade Schwann cell neoplasms is an exceptionally rare occurrence, and has not been well documented in the literature. We encountered two cases of leptomeningeal dissemination of low grade Schwann cell neoplasms. Patient 1 was a 63-year-old woman with NF1 and a progressive low grade MPNST developing from a diffuse/plexiform orbital neurofibroma that arose in childhood. The neoplasm demonstrated local and leptomeningeal dissemination intracranially leading to the patient’s death. There was partial loss of H3K27 tri-methylation, p16 and collagen IV. Patient 2 was a 60-year-old man without NF1 who presented with cranial nerve symptoms and a disseminated neoplasm with a Schwann cell phenotype. The neoplasm stabilized after irradiation and chemotherapy but the patient died of medical complications. Autopsy findings documented disseminated leptomeningeal disease in the intracranial and spinal compartment. H3K27M tri-methylation was preserved. The clinicopathologic and autopsy findings are studied and presented, and the literature is reviewed. PMID:27666764

  16. Technical criteria for terminating or reducing domestic safeguards on low-grade special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    A graded table for terminating or reducing domestic safeguards has been developed for use by programs and facilities within the Department of Energy in decisions regarding the need for or levels of protection of low-grade nuclear materials. Contained in this table are technical criteria which can allow for complete removal of safeguards over many special nuclear material forms and concentrations of typical low-grade materials either currently located at generating or processing sites and materials which may arise from processing operations related to stabilization and disposition activities. In addition, these criteria include higher concentration levels which may warrant maintaining some level of (albeit reduced) security on low-grade materials while allowing reductions in materials control and accountability requirements. These reductions can range from complete removal of these materials from materials control and accountability requirements such as measurements, physical inventories and recordkeeping, to deferring these measurements and physical inventories until a time that either the material is removed from the site or resubmitted for processing. It is important to note that other conditions contained in current Departmental safeguards and security policy be met prior to safeguards termination or reduction

  17. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  18. Structural characterization of Lytic Polysaccharide MonoOxygenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kristian Erik Høpfner

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a new class of copper-containingmetalloenzymes that have been found to oxidatively degrade polysaccharides (and recently alsooligosaccharides). They dependent on redox partners to provide them with electrons and they utilizemolecular oxygen to cleave...

  19. Modulated diesel fuel injection strategy for efficient-clean utilization of low-grade biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaole; Qian, Yong; Zhou, Qiyan; Lu, Xingcai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Influences of direct injection strategy on biogas RCCI mode are researched. • Excessive early pilot injection timing leads to the retard of combustion. • Overall indicated thermal efficiency of low-grade biogas can be higher than 40%. • Pilot injection timing has strong influence on particle size distribution. • Composition of biogas has a great influence on the gas emissions. - Abstract: Recently, as a kind of renewable fuel, low-grade biogas has been researched to apply in internal combustion engine. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to study the influence of injection strategies on the efficient utilization of low-grade biogas in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) mode with port fuel injection of biogas and in-cylinder direct injection of diesel based on a modified electronic controlled high-pressure directly injected compression ignition engine. Considered the high proportion of inert gas in biogas, a four-components simulated gas (H 2 :CO:CH 4 :N 2 = 5:40:5:50 vol%) has been selected as test fuels to simulate biogas. The effects of several injection control parameters such as pilot injection timing, main injection timing, common rail pressure and pilot injection ratio on the combustion and emissions are analyzed in detail. The research demonstrates that the main injection timing can effectively control the combustion phase and excessive early pilot injection timing leads to retard of combustion. CO emissions are relatively high due to homogenous charge of biogas. NOx and smoke emissions can be effectively controlled. In RCCI mode, the indicated thermal efficiency of biogas/diesel can reach 40%.

  20. Obesity, depression, and chronic low-grade inflammation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S; Janssen, O E; Hahn, S; Tan, S; Dietz, T; Mann, K; Pleger, K; Schedlowski, M; Arck, P C; Elsenbruch, S

    2008-02-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) present with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases at a young age, including obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation. Since depression is common in PCOS, this study aimed to address whether depression correlates with indices of chronic low-grade inflammation beyond the association with obesity. Serum concentrations of IL-6, the stimulated production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10, leukocyte numbers, and hsCRP were analyzed in 57 PCOS patients and 28 healthy women, together with clinical parameters, including body mass index (BMI), testosterone, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and psychological parameters, including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and health-related quality-of-life (SF-36) scores. PCOS patients demonstrated significantly increased hsCRP, IL-6, and leukocyte numbers. Group differences in IL-6 and leukocyte numbers, but not hsCRP, disappeared after controlling for BMI. The stimulated production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 was significantly decreased, irrespective of BMI. In PCOS, hsCRP, IL-6, and leukocyte numbers were correlated with BMI, HDL, diastolic blood pressure, and with insulin resistance. On the other hand, no correlations were found with depression scores or with PCOS-specific endocrine abnormalities. In regression models, BMI was a significant predictor of the key immune markers, and explained a large amount of variance, whereas BDI was not included in either model. These data confirm that obesity plays a pivotal role in inflammatory processes relevant to cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS. However, even lean PCOS patients may display subtle alterations in specific aspects of immunity. Our findings did not support a correlation of depression with chronic low-grade inflammation in PCOS.

  1. Incidence of kiaa1549-braf fusion gene in Egyptian pediatric low grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Hala; Yehia, Maha; Mahmoud, Madeha; El-Beltagy, Mohamed; Ghabriel, Myret; El-Naggar, Shahenda

    2015-01-01

    Low grade gliomas are the most common brain tumor in children. Tandem duplication involving the KIAA1549 and the BRAF kinase genes results in a gene fusion that has been recently characterized in a subset of low grade glioma While there is no clear evidence that the KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion has an effect on prognosis, it is an attractive target for therapy development and as a diagnostic tool. In the current study we examine the prevalence of KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion in pediatric patients diagnosed with low grade glioma in the Egyptian population and its relationship to clinical and histological subtypes. Sixty patients between the ages of 1 to 18 years were analyzed for the presence of KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene products using reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing. The clinicopathologic tumor characteristics were then analyzed in relation to the different fusion genes. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion genes were detected in 56.6% of patients. They were primarily associated with pilocytic astrocytoma (74.2%) and pilomyxoid astrocytoma (60%). Translocation 15-9 was the most common, representing (55.8%) of all positive samples followed by 16-9 (26.4%) and 16-11 (8.8%). Pilocytic astrocytomas presented primarily with 15-9 (32.2%), 16-9 (25.8%) and 16-11 (6.4%) while pilomyxoid astrocytomas presented with 15-9 (46.6%), 16-9 (6.6%) and 16-11 (6.6%) translocations. Gene fusion is found to be significantly increased in cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma tumors. Furthermore, 15-9 was found to have a higher incidence among our cohort compared to previous studies. While most of the gene fusion positive pilomyxoid astrocytomas were 15-9, we find the association none significant.

  2. Low-grade heat and its definitions of Coefficient-of-Performance (COP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin-Shu; Ma, Peizheng

    2015-01-01

    Use of fire for low grade heat, still widely practiced today, is wasteful because it is based on the principle of heat production – which should have become an outmoded idea post-Carnot for low grade heat application as an exergy analysis will readily conclude. Instead of application of exergy analysis, a new thermodynamic analysis resulting from the unification of Kelvin's energy principle and the entropy principle, formulated recently (called the entropic theory of heat), is applied here to reexamine the problem of building heating. Other than improving envelope heat resistance, conventional building efficiency gain is predominantly obtained by improving HVAC efficiency (i.e., boiler efficiency); our finding shows that there is in fact large room in improving the building heating operation surpassing 100% boiler efficiency, as demonstrated by the large value of the Kelvin limit (the theoretical upper bound of Thermal COP). This theoretical possibility of generous amount of heat from fire suggests additional possibilities of heat from primary energy other than fire, and the disclosure of these possibilities by applying the triad framework in the entropic theory of heat in terms of alternative definitions of Coefficient of Performance (COP). Consideration of such alternative COPs suggests real possibility of efficiently and cost effectively obtaining low grade heat from primary energy. - Highlights: • Importance of thinking heat extraction for high energy efficiency in buildings. • The concept of Thermal COP and the determination of its (maximum) Kelvin limit. • Key to find the sweet spot of using heat pump is thinking general heat extraction. • triadCOP &eThermalCOP are measure of energy transformation in the triad framework

  3. High precision conformal radiotherapy employing conservative margins in childhood benign and low-grade brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Sharma, Dayananda S.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To report local control and follow up outcome data of high precision conformal radiotherapy in childhood brain tumours. Materials and methods: Between December 1999 and December 2002, 26 children (17 boys and 9 girls, median age 11.5 years) with incompletely excised or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours [13 craniopharyngiomas, 11 low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 2 others] were treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (CRT) (12 patients) and stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) (14 patients). Gross tumour volume (GTV) included neuro-imaging based visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed. Clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of GTV + 5 mm margin and planning target volume (PTV) consisted of additional 5 mm margin for CRT and 2 mm for SCRT. Treatment was delivered with 3-9 conformal fixed fields to a median dose of 54 Gy/30 fractions. Results: The actuarial 2 and 3 year disease free and overall survival was 96 and 100%, respectively (median follow up: 25 months, range 12-47 months). Radiological follow up available in 25 patients revealed complete response in 1, partial regression in 10, stable disease in 13 and progression in 1 patient (within the CTV). One patient with craniopharyngioma on a routine imaging revealed a mild asymptomatic cyst enlargement, which resolved with conservative management. A patient with chiasmatic glioma developed cystic degeneration and hydrocephalus 9 months after SCRT requiring cyst drainage and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusion: High-precision conformal techniques delivering irradiation to a computer generated target volume employing 7-10 mm 3D margins beyond the visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed appear to be safe in children with incompletely resected or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours, based on these data

  4. A study of low grade exercise 123I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, Hirokazu; Hida, Satoshi; Morishima, Takayuki; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Ibukiyama, Chiharu

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether 123 I-BMIPP tomography with the use of low grade exercise was effective to detect coronary artery disease. A total of 46 patients with coronary artery disease were studied with coronary angiography, 201 Tl tomography with a symptom-limited exercise and 123 I-BMIPP tomography with a low grade exercise. On the BMIPP tomography, we managed the patients to keep their maximum heart rates from 100 to 110 beat/min in exercise loading of 30 W or 50 W by ergometer. A dose of 148 MBq of BMIPP was injected 4 min after starting the exercise and the exercise was then continued 4 min after the injection. The exercise Tl tomography was also performed with 111 MBq of Tl injected. We visually assessed and scored the both BMIPP and Tl tomography with a 4-point scale, and compared the sensitivity of two methods of tomography from the point of view of coronary artery stenosis. The exercise variables of the BMIPP tomography were significantly lower than those of the Tl tomography (heart rates, p<0.0001; double products, p<0.0001). The sensitivity of the BMIPP tomography in detecting coronary artery disease was similar with that of Tl tomography (85%, 85%, p=0.9999). As to coronary arteries as stenotic as 75%, the BMIPP tomography was significantly less sensitive than the Tl tomography (BMIPP, 50%; Tl, 88%; p<0.0143). The sensitivity of the two tests was similar for 90% stenosis (BMIPP, 89%; Tl, 94%; p=0.8380), and for 99% stenosis (BMIPP, 71%; Tl, 85%; p=0.4544). As for totally occlusive lesions, the difference of the sensitivity was disappeared (BMIPP, 100%; Tl, 100%; p=0.9999). Thus, the BMIPP tomography was useful to identify coronary artery disease according to the stenotic severity. We conclude that the BMIPP with the low grade exercise is safe, and thus clinically effective to identify coronary artery disease. (author)

  5. Low-grade inflammation is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, S. R.; Pedersen, O. B.; Petersen, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic inflammation can lead to anaemia of chronic disease due to the sequestration of iron caused by inflammatory cytokines and the protein hepcidin. However, the effect of low-grade inflammation (LGI) on haemoglobin among healthy individuals is not known. This study...... examines the effect of LGI on haemoglobin among Danish blood donors. Materials and Methods: We performed multivariable linear regression to assess the effect of LGI (i.e. high-sensitivity C-reactive protein above 3 mg/l but below 10 mg/l) on haemoglobin in 17 322 Danish blood donors. We also performed...

  6. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of parotid gland: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA is a rare salivary gland malignant tumor of low aggressiveness, commonly occurring in minor salivary glands. Its occurrence in major salivary gland has been documented albeit rarely. The striking histological feature is architectural diversity combined with benign cytologic features. We report a case of PLGA arising from left parotid in a 25-year-old male patient. On light microscopy, varied patterns were seen .The cells were uniform with bland nuclei. Neural invasion was noted.

  7. Effect of fusion mixture treatment on the surface of low grade natural ruby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakthivel, R.; Pradhan, K.C.; Nayak, B.B.; Dash, Tapan; Sahu, R.K.; Mishra, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The colour of low grade natural ruby is enhanced with fusion mixture treatment. Comparative optical absorption and photoluminesence properties of both untreated and treated ruby samples are studied. - Highlights: • Colour of the low grade natural ruby is improved with fusion mixture treatment. • Surface impurities are removed with fusion mixture. • Photoluminescence spectrum of ruby influenced by its Cr 3+ concentration. • X-ray diffraction study confirms the presence of corundum phases in ruby samples. • Treated ruby looks brighter than untreated ruby due to variation in Cr 3+ concentration. - Abstract: Improvement in aesthetic look of low grade natural ruby (gemstone) surface was clearly evident after fusion mixture treatment. Surface impurities of the gemstone were significantly reduced to give it a face lift. The processing consists of heat treatment (1000 °C) of the raw gemstone with fusion mixture (sodium and potassium carbonates), followed by hydrochloric acid digestion (90 °C) and ultrasonic cleaning.Both the untreated and the treated gemstone were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance),photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The paper consolidates the results of these studies and presents the effect of the typical chemical treatment (stated above) on the low grade natural ruby. While X-ray diffraction study identifies the occurrence of alumina phase in both the treated and the untreated gemstones, the UV–vis spectra exhibit strong characteristic absorption of Cr 3+ at 400 and 550 nm wavelength for the treated gemstone in contrast to weak absorption observed for the untreated gemstone at such wavelengths, thus showing the beneficial effect of fusion mixture treatment. Peaks observed for the gemstone (for both treated and untreated samples) in the excitation spectra of photoluminescence show a good correlation with observed UV–vis (diffuse reflectance) spectra

  8. Effect of fusion mixture treatment on the surface of low grade natural ruby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthivel, R., E-mail: velsak_r@yahoo.com; Pradhan, K.C.; Nayak, B.B.; Dash, Tapan; Sahu, R.K.; Mishra, B.K.

    2017-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The colour of low grade natural ruby is enhanced with fusion mixture treatment. Comparative optical absorption and photoluminesence properties of both untreated and treated ruby samples are studied. - Highlights: • Colour of the low grade natural ruby is improved with fusion mixture treatment. • Surface impurities are removed with fusion mixture. • Photoluminescence spectrum of ruby influenced by its Cr{sup 3+} concentration. • X-ray diffraction study confirms the presence of corundum phases in ruby samples. • Treated ruby looks brighter than untreated ruby due to variation in Cr{sup 3+} concentration. - Abstract: Improvement in aesthetic look of low grade natural ruby (gemstone) surface was clearly evident after fusion mixture treatment. Surface impurities of the gemstone were significantly reduced to give it a face lift. The processing consists of heat treatment (1000 °C) of the raw gemstone with fusion mixture (sodium and potassium carbonates), followed by hydrochloric acid digestion (90 °C) and ultrasonic cleaning.Both the untreated and the treated gemstone were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance),photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The paper consolidates the results of these studies and presents the effect of the typical chemical treatment (stated above) on the low grade natural ruby. While X-ray diffraction study identifies the occurrence of alumina phase in both the treated and the untreated gemstones, the UV–vis spectra exhibit strong characteristic absorption of Cr{sup 3+}at 400 and 550 nm wavelength for the treated gemstone in contrast to weak absorption observed for the untreated gemstone at such wavelengths, thus showing the beneficial effect of fusion mixture treatment. Peaks observed for the gemstone (for both treated and untreated samples) in the excitation spectra of photoluminescence show a good correlation with observed UV–vis (diffuse reflectance

  9. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.......We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...

  10. Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) adsorption on low grade manganese ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low grade manganese ore (LMO) of Orissa containing 58.37% SiO2, 25.05% MnO2, 8.8% Al2O3, and 5.03% Fe2O3 as the main constituents was taken to study its adsorption behaviour for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The XRD studies showed the crystalline phases to be quartz, ß-MnO2, d-MnO2 and ...

  11. Emerging role of functional brain MRI in low-grade glioma surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friismose, Ancuta; Traise, Peter; Markovic, Ljubo

    Learning objectives 1. To describe the use of functional MRI (fMRI) in cranial surgery planning for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG). 2. To show the increasing importance of fMRI in the clinical setting. Background LGG include brain tumors classified by the World Health Organization as grade I....... Language comprehension and visual tasks can be added to visualize Wernicke’s area or the visual cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to map nerve tract course relative to the tumour. Conclusion FMRI has proven its clinical utility in locating eloquent brain areas with relation to tumor site...

  12. Chlorination separation of uranium, thorium, and radium from low-grade ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastri, V.S.; Perumareddi, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Low-temperature chlorination of low-grade uranium ores containing uranium in the 0.02 to 0.06% range, thorium in the 0.036 to 0.12% range, and radium in the 70 to 200 pci/g range resulted in the extraction of >90% of the constituents. The residue left after chlorination was found to be innocuous and suitable for disposal as a waste acceptable to the environment. Use of sodium chloride in the charge was useful in reducing the chlorination temperature and in the formation of nonvolatile anionic chloro complexes of the metal ions in the ore

  13. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suárez-Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-(IL- 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r=0.5154, serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r=0.4481, body fat percentage (r=0.5625, serum glucose (r=0.3158, triglyceride (r=0.3714, and TNF-α (r=0.4717. Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans.

  14. A parametric study of a humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system using low grade heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.F.; Han, D.; Yue, C.; Pu, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The HDH desalination system coupling with the waste heat plate LGHC is proposed. • Performance of the desalination system and the plate LGHC is presented. • Influence from the operation pressure on the system performance is investigated. • Gained investment ratio is proposed to characterize the desalination system consumption. - Abstract: Humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system is applicable to recover the low grade heat source to heat the seawater before the humidifier. In the paper, plate heat exchangers are integrated to recover the waste heat from the exhaust in the water heated closed air open water (CAOW) HDH desalination system. The performance of the HDH desalination system as well as the plate type of low grade heat collector (LGHC) is investigated at different operation pressures. Gain investment ratio (GIR) is proposed and defined to depict the overall consumption of the whole system. The simulation results show that the modified heat capacity ratio of the dehumidifier (HCRd) is vital for the performance of the HDH desalination system as well as the plate LGHC with a top value of gain output ratio (GOR) at the balance point, HCRd = 1, and the maximum GOR, GOR = 2.44, results from the raised pressure of p = 0.15 MPa. Furthermore, taking the cost for the heat transfer surface area of the LGHC and the air and seawater pipes into consideration, it is revealed that the conditions, HCRd > 1, are more economical due to the increase of GIR, which indicates the profit of unit consumption is more significant.

  15. Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma arising in fibroadenoma of the breast-A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myong, Na-Hye; Min, Jun-Won

    2016-03-25

    Myofibroblastic sarcoma or myofibrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of myofibroblasts and known to develop rarely in the breast, but its underlying lesion and tumor cell origin have never been reported yet. A 61-year-old female presented with a gradually growing breast mass with well-demarcated ovoid nodular shape. The tumor was histologically characterized by fascicular-growing spindle cell proliferation with large areas of hyalinized fibrosis and focally ductal epithelial remnants embedded in myxoid stroma, mimicking a fibroadenomatous lesion. It had frequent mitoses of 5-16/10 high-power fields, hemorrhagic necrosis, and focally pericapsular invasion. The spindle cells were diffusely immunoreactive for fibronectin, smooth muscle actin, and calponin, which suggest a myofibroblastic origin. Multiple irregularly thickened vessels with medial or pericytic cell proliferation were found to be merged with the intrinsic tumor cells. The tumor could be diagnosed low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma arising in an old fibroadenoma. We report a case of a low-grade mammary myofibrosarcoma that showed a background lesion of fibroadenoma first in the worldwide literature and suggest the pericytes or medial muscle cells of the intratumoral vessels as the cell origin of the myofibroblastic sarcoma.

  16. Mutation of NRAS is a rare genetic event in ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Deyin; Suryo Rahmanto, Yohan; Zeppernick, Felix; Hannibal, Charlotte G; Kjaer, Susanne K; Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2017-10-01

    Activating mutations involving the members of the RAS signaling pathway, including KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF, have been reported in ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma and its precursor lesion, serous borderline tumor (SBT). Whether additional genetic alterations in the RAS oncogene family accumulate during the progression of SBT to invasive low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) remains largely unknown. Although mutations of KRAS and BRAF occur at a very early stage of progression, even preceding the development of SBT, additional driving events, such as NRAS mutations, have been postulated to facilitate progression. In this study, we analyzed NRAS exon 3 mutational status in 98 cases that were diagnosed with SBT/atypical proliferative serous tumor, noninvasive LGSC, or invasive LGSC. Of the latter, NRAS Q61R (CAA to CGA) mutations were detected in only 2 of 56 (3.6%) cases. The same mutation was not detected in any of the SBTs (atypical proliferative serous tumors) or noninvasive LGSCs. Mutational analysis for hotspots in KRAS and BRAF demonstrated a wild-type pattern of KRAS and BRAF in one of the NRAS-mutated cases. Interestingly, another LGSC case with NRAS mutation harbored a concurrent BRAF V600L mutation. These findings indicate that, although recurrent NRAS mutations are present, their low prevalence indicates that NRAS plays a limited role in the development of LGSC. Further studies to identify other oncogenic events that drive LGSC progression are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet-Induced Low-Grade Metabolic Acidosis and Clinical Outcomes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alves Carnauba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade metabolic acidosis is a condition characterized by a slight decrease in blood pH, within the range considered normal, and feeding is one of the main factors that may influence the occurrence of such a condition. The excessive consumption of acid precursor foods (sources of phosphorus and proteins, to the detriment of those precursors of bases (sources of potassium, calcium, and magnesium, leads to acid-base balance volubility. If this condition occurs in a prolonged, chronic way, low-grade metabolic acidosis can become significant and predispose to metabolic imbalances such as kidney stone formation, increased bone resorption, reduced bone mineral density, and the loss of muscle mass, as well as the increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis. Considering the increase in the number of studies investigating the influence of diet-induced metabolic acidosis on clinical outcomes, this review gathers the available evidence evaluating the association of this disturbance and metabolic imbalances, as well as related mechanisms. It is necessary to look at the western dietary pattern of most countries and the increasing incidence of non-comunicable diseases for the balance between fruit and vegetable intake and the appropriate supply of protein, mainly from animal sources, so that it does not exceed the daily recommendations.

  18. Is male factor infertility associated with midlife low-grade inflammation? A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Osler, Merete; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-05-19

    Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6 was significantly higher among men with male factor infertility compared with other men adjusted for potential confounders. This was not found for the two other inflammatory markers. The lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility were 10.2% and 17.9%, respectively. The findings suggest that male factor infertility might be associated with an increased level of interleukin-6.

  19. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Brandt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3 is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. Objective. To elucidate the association between plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. Study Design. Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TNF-α, or interleukin-6 (IL-6 as well as a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were used to examine if plasma fstl3 was acutely regulated in humans. Results. Plasma fstl3 was increased in obese subjects independent of glycemic state. Moreover, plasma fstl3 was positively correlated with fat mass, plasma leptin, fasting insulin, and HOMA B and negatively with HOMA S. Furthermore plasma fstl3 correlated positively with plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Infusion of LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 and insulin, increased plasma fstl3 in humans. Conclusion. Plasma fstl3 is increased in obese subjects and associated with fat mass and low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, TNF-α increased plasma fstl3, suggesting that TNF-α is one of the inflammatory drivers of increased systemic levels of fstl3.

  20. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the upper lip: 11 cases of an uncommon diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Brierley, Daniel; Wright, John M; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Almeida, Oslei Paes; Rocha, André Caroli; Van Heerden, Willie F; Hunter, Keith D

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this case study was to describe an international case series of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) affecting the upper lip. Over a 30-year-period, the files of five pathology services were reviewed for PLGA affecting the upper lip. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were reviewed by three oral and maxillofacial pathologists, and microscopic features were described. Clinical data were retrieved from patients' medical records. The review identified 11 cases of upper lip PLGAs, with a complete set of clinical data available for 5 cases. There was a male predominance (1.2:1), and the mean age was 58.7 years. Most cases presented as small asymptomatic swellings that resembled benign tumors. All patients underwent surgery, and no recurrences or metastases were reported in the 8 cases from which follow-up data were available. Microscopically, the typical polymorphic architectural arrangement of PLGA was seen in all cases, with lobular, trabecular, papillary, and cribriform patterns identified. Perineural invasion, normal gland entrapment, Indian filing, and concentric growth were frequently identified. PLGA must be included in the list of differential diagnoses of tumors affecting the upper lip because of its similar clinical presentation to benign entities. The follow-up data available from 8 of 11 cases suggest that these tumors follow a low-grade clinical course, similar to the majority of palatal cases of PLGA. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enchondroma versus Low-Grade Chondrosarcoma in Appendicular Skeleton: Clinical and Radiological Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio M. Ferrer-Santacreu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the validity of clinical and radiological features of enchondroma and low grade chondrosarcoma, and contrast the biopsy results with the clinical diagnosis based on the history and imaging. Material and Method. The study included 96 patients with cartilage type lesions suggestive of an enchondroma (E or an low grade chondrosarcoma (LGC according to the clinical and imaging data. The hypotheses were contrasted with the biopsy. Results. Of the 82 patients studied completely, 56 were considered E (68.29%, 8 as LGC (8.33% and in 18 (18.75% were doubtful cases and considered as suspected LGC. Of these, the biopsy showed 4 E (25%, 10 LGC (50% and 4 were not definitive. On the other hand, of the 56 cases diagnosed as E, 15 were biopsied, 5 of these biopsies turned out to be LGC (33.3%. The 8 cases diagnosed as LGC, were also biopsied and only 4 biopsies (50% confirmed the initial diagnosis. Features analyzed in the study showed no statistically significant difference. Correlation analysis between the diagnosis issued initially and the biopsy result gave a value of 0.69 (kappa coefficient, which was considered a good correlation. Conclusion. Features analyzed did not have any statistical significance. However, there was a good correlation between initial diagnosis and biopsy's result.

  2. Recovery of metals from low-grade ores by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamali, M.; Mulligan, C.N. [Concordia Univ., Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: mulligan@civil.concordia.ca

    2002-06-15

    The main concern of this study is to develop a feasible and economical technique to microbially recover metals from oxide low-grade ores. Owing to the significant quantities of metals that are embodied in low - grade ores and mining residues, these are considered new sources of metals. On the other hand, they potentially endanger the environment, as the metals they contain may be released to the environment in a hazardous form. Hence, mining industries are seeking an efficient technique to handle these ores. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques are either very expensive, energy intensive or have a negative impact on the environment. For these reasons, biohydrometallurgical techniques are coming into perspective. In this study, by employing Aspergillus niger, the feasibility of recovery of metals from a mining residue is shown. A. niger exhibits good potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for metal solubilization. Organic acid effectiveness was enhanced when sulphuric acid was added to the medium. Different agricultural wastes such as potato peels were tested. In addition to this, different auxiliary processes were tried in order to either elevate the efficiency or reduce costs. Finally, maximum solubilization of 68%, 46% and 34% were achieved for copper, zinc and nickel, respectively. Also iron codissolution was minimized as only 7% removal occurred. (author)

  3. Recovery of metals from low-grade ores by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali, M.; Mulligan, C.N.

    2002-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to develop a feasible and economical technique to microbially recover metals from oxide low-grade ores. Owing to the significant quantities of metals that are embodied in low - grade ores and mining residues, these are considered new sources of metals. On the other hand, they potentially endanger the environment, as the metals they contain may be released to the environment in a hazardous form. Hence, mining industries are seeking an efficient technique to handle these ores. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques are either very expensive, energy intensive or have a negative impact on the environment. For these reasons, biohydrometallurgical techniques are coming into perspective. In this study, by employing Aspergillus niger, the feasibility of recovery of metals from a mining residue is shown. A. niger exhibits good potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for metal solubilization. Organic acid effectiveness was enhanced when sulphuric acid was added to the medium. Different agricultural wastes such as potato peels were tested. In addition to this, different auxiliary processes were tried in order to either elevate the efficiency or reduce costs. Finally, maximum solubilization of 68%, 46% and 34% were achieved for copper, zinc and nickel, respectively. Also iron codissolution was minimized as only 7% removal occurred. (author)

  4. Low-Grade Glioma Segmentation Based on CNN with Fully Connected CRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeju; Shi, Zhifeng; Guo, Yi; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    This work proposed a novel automatic three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation method which would be widely used in the clinical diagnosis of the most common and aggressive brain tumor, namely, glioma. The method combined a multipathway convolutional neural network (CNN) and fully connected conditional random field (CRF). Firstly, 3D information was introduced into the CNN which makes more accurate recognition of glioma with low contrast. Then, fully connected CRF was added as a postprocessing step which purposed more delicate delineation of glioma boundary. The method was applied to T2flair MRI images of 160 low-grade glioma patients. With 59 cases of data training and manual segmentation as the ground truth, the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of our method was 0.85 for the test set of 101 MRI images. The results of our method were better than those of another state-of-the-art CNN method, which gained the DSC of 0.76 for the same dataset. It proved that our method could produce better results for the segmentation of low-grade gliomas. PMID:29065666

  5. Low-Grade Glioma Segmentation Based on CNN with Fully Connected CRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeju Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposed a novel automatic three-dimensional (3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI segmentation method which would be widely used in the clinical diagnosis of the most common and aggressive brain tumor, namely, glioma. The method combined a multipathway convolutional neural network (CNN and fully connected conditional random field (CRF. Firstly, 3D information was introduced into the CNN which makes more accurate recognition of glioma with low contrast. Then, fully connected CRF was added as a postprocessing step which purposed more delicate delineation of glioma boundary. The method was applied to T2flair MRI images of 160 low-grade glioma patients. With 59 cases of data training and manual segmentation as the ground truth, the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC of our method was 0.85 for the test set of 101 MRI images. The results of our method were better than those of another state-of-the-art CNN method, which gained the DSC of 0.76 for the same dataset. It proved that our method could produce better results for the segmentation of low-grade gliomas.

  6. Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report with cytohistological correlation and its immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrestha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare salivary gland malignant tumor of low aggressiveness, commonly occurring in minor salivary glands. Its origin in major salivary glands is considered exceedingly rare. We report a case of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma arising from left parotid in a 21-yearold female patient.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2012 Vol. 2, 331-334DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i4.6890

  7. Autologous antibody to src-homology 3-domain GRB2-like 1 specifically increases in the sera of patients with low-grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsutani Tomoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adult, and is usually not curable in spite of various therapeutic approaches. Clarification of the oncogenic process in its early stage is important for the diagnosis and effective therapy. Methods In the present study, we used the serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX to explore the subtle changes of the protein expression in low-grade glioma. The levels of serum autoantibodies to the SEREX-identified glioma-related antigens were analyzed by ELISA, and the epitope site was identified using deletion mutants and overlap peptide array. Changes in the serum autoantibody levels were examined in the rat glioma model using C6 and 9 L glioma cell lines. Results We identified 31 glioma-related antigens by SEREX. Among them, the serum level of autoantibody to src-homology 3-domain GRB2-like 1 (SH3GL1 was significantly higher in patients with low-grade glioma than healthy volunteers or high-grade gliomas. The 10 amino-acids at the C-terminal were identified as the epitope site by the overlap peptide array and the ELISA using deletion mutants. The tissue expression of SH3GL1 protein increased in proportion to glioma progression. The rat glioma models confirmed the increase of anti-SH3GL1 autoantibody level in the early stage and the suppression in the late stage. Conclusion SH3GL1 may be involved in the oncogenic process of gliomas and effectively elicit an autologous antibody response in low-grade gliomas. The immunological reaction to SH3GL1 would contribute to the establishment of a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for gliomas.

  8. Painful Lytic Lesions of the Foot : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vaishya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lytic lesions in the bones of foot raises a number of diagnostic possibilities ranging from infection, inflammatory pathology to neoplastic conditions. Although the radiological picture is not pathognomonic of any pathology, clinical history and histopathological examination can help to clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of multiple lytic lesions of the foot and discuss possible differential diagnoses. The patient was diagnosed as a case of madura foot and the lesions responded to surgical debridement and anti-fungal treatment with a good functional outcome. Madura foot is an uncommon, chronic granulomatous fungal or bacterial infection with a predilection in people who walk barefoot. Although known for a specific geographical distribution, madura foot should be kept as a possible diagnosis in patients presenting with lytic lesions of the foot due to population emigration across the world.

  9. Metastatic Breast Cancer or Multiple Myeloma? Camouflage by Lytic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hough

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a female with stage I infiltrating ductal carcinoma who received adjuvant therapy including trastuzumab. One year later she developed lytic lesions and was retreated with trastuzumab that was held after she developed symptomatic heart failure. Lytic lesions were attributed to relapse of breast cancer, and cardiac failure attributed to prior trastuzumab therapy. After complications necessitated multiple hospitalizations, a further workup revealed that the lytic lesions were not metastatic breast cancer but multiple myeloma. Her advanced multiple myeloma was associated with systemic amyloidosis involving gut and heart, which ultimately led to her demise. This report addresses the pitfalls of overlapping symptoms and the question of which patients with suspected metastatic disease should undergo a biopsy.

  10. Lytic and non-lytic permeabilization of cardiolipin-containing lipid bilayers induced by cytochrome C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    Full Text Available The release of cytochrome c (cyt c from mitochondria is an important early step during cellular apoptosis, however the precise mechanism by which the outer mitochondrial membrane becomes permeable to these proteins is as yet unclear. Inspired by our previous observation of cyt c crossing the membrane barrier of giant unilamellar vesicle model systems, we investigate the interaction of cyt c with cardiolipin (CL-containing membranes using the innovative droplet bilayer system that permits electrochemical measurements with simultaneous microscopy observation. We find that cyt c can permeabilize CL-containing membranes by induction of lipid pores in a dose-dependent manner, with membrane lysis eventually observed at relatively high (µM cyt c concentrations due to widespread pore formation in the membrane destabilizing its bilayer structure. Surprisingly, as cyt c concentration is further increased, we find a regime with exceptionally high permeability where a stable membrane barrier is still maintained between droplet compartments. This unusual non-lytic state has a long lifetime (>20 h and can be reversibly formed by mechanically separating the droplets before reforming the contact area between them. The transitions between behavioural regimes are electrostatically driven, demonstrated by their suppression with increasing ionic concentrations and their dependence on CL composition. While membrane permeability could also be induced by cationic PAMAM dendrimers, the non-lytic, highly permeable membrane state could not be reproduced using these synthetic polymers, indicating that details in the structure of cyt c beyond simply possessing a cationic net charge are important for the emergence of this unconventional membrane state. These unexpected findings may hold significance for the mechanism by which cyt c escapes into the cytosol of cells during apoptosis.

  11. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Chronic Low-Grade Neuroinflammation in the Dorsal Hippocampus of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapin, Emilie; Peyron, Christelle; Roche, Frédéric; Gay, Nadine; Carcenac, Carole; Savasta, Marc; Levy, Patrick; Dematteis, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) induces cognitive impairment that involves intermittent hypoxia (IH). Because OSA is recognized as a low-grade systemic inflammatory disease and only some patients develop cognitive deficits, we investigated whether IH-related brain consequences shared similar pathophysiology and required additional factors such as systemic inflammation to develop. Design: Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1 day, 6 or 24 w of IH (alternating 21–5% FiO2 every 30 sec, 8 h/day) or normoxia. Microglial changes were assessed in the functionally distinct dorsal (dH) and ventral (vH) regions of the hippocampus using Iba1 immunolabeling. Then the study concerned dH, as vH only tended to be lately affected. Seven proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) were assessed at all time points using semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Similar mRNA analysis was performed after 6 w IH or normoxia associated for the past 3 w with repeated intraperitoneal low-dose lipopolysaccharide or saline. Measurements and Results: Chronic (6, 24 w) but not acute IH induced significant microglial changes in dH only, including increased density and morphological features of microglia priming. In dH, acute but not chronic IH increased IL-1β and RANTES/CCL5 mRNA, whereas the other cytokines remained unchanged. In contrast, chronic IH plus lipopolysaccharide increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL10 mRNA whereas lipopolysaccharide alone did not affect these cytokines. Conclusion: The obstructive sleep apnea component intermittent hypoxia (IH) causes low-grade neuroinflammation in the dorsal hippocampus of mice, including early but transient cytokine elevations, delayed but long-term microglial changes, and cytokine response alterations to lipopolysaccharide inflammatory challenge. These changes may contribute to IH-induced cognitive impairment and pathological brain aging. Citation

  12. Longitudinal outcomes of radiofrequency ablation versus surveillance endoscopy for Barrett's esophagus with low-grade dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, A; Al-Qaisi, M; Kommineni, V T; Callaway, J K; Boroff, E S; Burdick, G E; Lam-Himlin, D M; Temkit, M; Vela, M F; Ramirez, F C

    2017-09-27

    Radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus with low-grade dysplasia is recommended in recent American College of Gastroenterology guidelines, with endoscopic surveillance considered a reasonable alternative. Few studies have directly compared outcomes of radiofrequency ablation to surveillance and those that have are limited by short duration of follow-up. This study aims to compare the long-term effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation versus endoscopic surveillance in a large, longitudinal cohort of patients with Barrett's esophagus, and low-grade dysplasia.We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with confirmed low-grade dysplasia at a single academic medical center from 1991 to 2014. Patients progressing to high-grade dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma within one year of index LGD endoscopy were defined as missed dysplasia and excluded. Risk factors for progression were assessed via Cox proportional hazards model. Comparison of progression risk was conducted using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Subset analyses were conducted to examine the effect of reintroducing early progressors and excluding patients diagnosed prior to the advent of ablative therapy. Of 173 total patients, 79 (45.7%) underwent radiofrequency ablation while 94 (54.3%) were untreated, with median follow up of 90 months. Seven (8.9%) patients progressed to high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma despite ablation, compared with 14 (14.9%) undergoing surveillance (P = 0.44). This effect was preserved when patients diagnosed prior to the introduction of radiofrequency ablation were excluded (8.9% vs 13%, P = 0.68). Reintroduction of patients progressing within the first year of follow-up resulted in a trend toward significance for ablation versus surveillance (11.1% vs 23.8%, P = 0.053).In conclusion, progression to high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma was not significantly reduced in the radiofrequency ablation cohort when compared to surveillance. Despite recent studies

  13. Histopathological Assessment and Immunohistochemical Study of Nasopharyngeal Low Grade MALT Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: MALT lymphoma arises in a variety of body tissues, but most often in the stomach. Though relatively rare, these MALT lymphomas may arise within several sites in the head and neck, and often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Immunohistochemical analysis are helpful in confirming the diagnosis between the MALT-lymphoma and the reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. MALT-type lymphoma demonstrated characteristic negative staining for CD3, CD5 and CD43, positive staining for CD20, and monotypic staining for either kappa or lambda light chain immunoglobulin markers, whereas reactive lymphoid hyperplasia all expressed Band T cell markers. Material and Methods: 41 cases of nasopharyngeal masses were obtained from the files at pathology department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine through the period from 2002 till 2006. 31 cases were corresponded histomorphologically to low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and 10 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the adenoid. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections using the labeled streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with DAB as chromogen. The following antibodies were evaluated CD20, CD3, Kappa, lambda and cytokeratin antibodies. Results: All cases of low grade MALT lymphoma show Iymphoepitheliallesion and proliferation of centrocyte like cells. 14 cases (45.1 %) show subepithelial plasma cells. Dutcher bodies were demonstrated in 10 cases (32.2%). Monocytoid B-cells were seen in 12 cases (38.7%). Six (60%) out of the ten cases of adenoids show transmigrating lymphocyte without formation of lymphoepithelial lesion. All cases with MALT-type lymphoma expressed CD20 and not CD3 whereas 10 cases of adenoid, all expressed Band T cell markers. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 31 cases of low grade MALT lymphoma were positive for immunoglobin

  14. Diagnostic challenges of low-grade central osteosarcoma of jaw: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyd Hosein; Jahanshahi, Gholamreza; Dehghan Marvasti, Farzad

    2015-06-01

    Low Grade Central Osteosarcoma (LGCO) is a rare subtype of osteosarcoma that is less aggressive than conventional osteosarcoma. The importance of LGCO lies in the fact that regarding microscopic and radiographic features, it occasionally simulates some benign jaw lesions and would consequently be misdiagnosed in many patients. The present study was conducted to collect the information and descriptive analyses related to ten cases reported between 1987 and 2010, including a sample reported by the authors emphasizing on diagnostic errors and the prevailing misdiagnosis. The aforementioned reports were gathered in full-texts through Google and PubMed search engines. The results of this study showed that the pathologists should exactly evaluate the clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features in order to observe the evidence of invasion.

  15. Processing of Low-Grade Uranium Ores. Proceedings of a Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The 22 specialists from 15 countries and one international organization who attended the meeting were asked to give an appraisal of the current situation with regard to the processing of low-grade uranium ores and make recommendations for a possible IAEA programme of activities. This publication covers the work of the panel. Contents: Status reports (13 reports); Technical reports (13 reports); Summaries of discussions; Recommendations of the panel. Each report is in its original language (16 English, 4 French, 2 Russian and 4 Spanish) and each technical report is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language if this is not English. The summaries of discussions and the panel recommendations are in English. (author)

  16. Processing of Low-Grade Uranium Ores. Proceedings of a Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a panel convened by the IAEA in Vienna, 27 June - 1 July 1966. The 22 specialists from 15 countries and one international organization who attended the meeting were asked to give an appraisal of the current situation with regard to the processing of low-grade uranium ores and make recommendations for a possible IAEA programme of activities. This publication covers the work of the panel. Contents: Status reports (13 reports); Technical reports (13 reports); Summaries of discussions; Recommendations of the panel. Each report is in its original language (16 English, 4 French, 2 Russian and 4 Spanish) and each technical report is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language if this is not English. The summaries of discussions and the panel recommendations are in English. (author)

  17. Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular...... disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay...... and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis...

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome and low-grade inflammation with special reference to YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, M; Wissing, M L M; Naver, K V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the plasma level of YKL-40 in a Danish polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) population and to investigate whether YKL-40 is associated with CVD risk factors such as waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance (IR), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, blood lipi......, triglycerides, and CRP. Total and free testosterone were independent predictors of YKL-40. CONCLUSION: YKL-40, the marker of low-grade inflammation is not increased in women with PCOS....... MEASURES: Plasma level of YKL-40 in four phenotypes of PCOS defined by BMI and IR. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed in the plasma level of YKL-40 across the four BMI/IR-phenotypes. Positive associations were observed between YKL-40 and BMI, total and free testosterone...

  19. The Role of Telomere Maintenance in the Spontaneous Growth Arrest of Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Tabori

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous tumor regression is a unique feature of pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG. We speculated that lack of telomere maintenance is responsible for this behavior. We first looked for evidence of telomerase activity and alternative-lengthening telomeres (ALT in 56 PLGG. Telomerase activity was observed in 0 of 11 PLGG in contrast to 10 of 13 high-grade pediatric brain tumors. There was no ALT in 45 of 45 samples. We applied Q-FISH to eight patients whose indolent PLGG underwent two metachronous biopsies over a lag of several years. Telomere shortening was observed in the second biopsy in all tumors but not in a normal brain control (P 8.0 conferred a high likelihood of late recurrences in PLGG. Our findings provide a plausible biological mechanism to explain the tendency of PLGG to exhibit growth arrest and spontaneous regression. Telomere maintenance may therefore represent the first known biologic prognostic marker in PLGG.

  20. Long-term results in patients with low-grade nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviles, A.; Diaz-Maqueo, J.C.; Sanchez, E.; Cortes, H.D.; Ayala, J.R.; Oncology Hospital, Mexico City; National Medical Center, Mexico City

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen patients with nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were randomized to receive either chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (total nodal or involved field irradiation). Although the complete remission rate was similar in the three programs (about 90%) the relapse-free survival rate (RFS) among patients with complete remission was significantly higher in the groups treated with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy than among those treated with chemotherapy alone. The 7-year RFS in the groups treated with total node irradiation and involved field irradiation was 71% and 66% respectively, compared to only 33% in the group treated by chemotherapy alone (p<0.01). The results suggest that combined chemoradiotherapy may achieve complete long-term remission and potential cure in more than 60% of patients with nodular low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Toxicity was moderate in all three arms. Bulky disease and a high level of lactic dehydrogenase were associated with a poor prognosis. (orig.)

  1. Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Caroline; Alvehus, Malin; Burén, Jonas; Ryberg, Mats; Larsson, Christel; Lindahl, Bernt; Mellberg, Caroline; Söderström, Ingegerd; Chorell, Elin; Olsson, Tommy

    2017-05-01

    Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed. Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters. Android fat decreased significantly more in the PD group (P = 0.009) during the first 6 months with weight maintenance at 24 months in both groups. Long-term significant effects (P obesity in postmenopausal women is linked to specific changes in inflammation-related adipose gene expression. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Morphological Evolution of Low-Grade Silica Fume at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhong; Li, Tong; Li, Xiaoping; Chou, Kuo-Chih; Hou, Xinmei

    2017-07-01

    To solve the environmental pollution problem caused by low-grade silica fume (SiO2, air was investigated using TG-DTA, SEM and TEM techniques. The structural development of silica fume was further analyzed using FT-IR and Raman spectrum. The results show that silica fume contains many defects of broken bands such as Si-O or ≡Si at room temperature. When exposed to the moister or water, the broken bonds tend to react with water and result in the formation of Si-OH and adjacent hydroxyl groups of Si-OH•OH-Si. At elevated temperature up to 900 °C, the structure of silica fume becomes compact due to the reconstruction of the broken bonds caused by the dehydration reaction.

  3. A mathematical model describes the malignant transformation of low grade gliomas: Prognostic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena U Bogdańska

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumours. Low grade gliomas (LGGs, WHO grade II gliomas may grow very slowly for the long periods of time, however they inevitably cause death due to the phenomenon known as the malignant transformation. This refers to the transition of LGGs to more aggressive forms of high grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO grade III and IV gliomas. In this paper we propose a mathematical model describing the spatio-temporal transition of LGGs into HGGs. Our modelling approach is based on two cellular populations with transitions between them being driven by the tumour microenvironment transformation occurring when the tumour cell density grows beyond a critical level. We show that the proposed model describes real patient data well. We discuss the relationship between patient prognosis and model parameters. We approximate tumour radius and velocity before malignant transformation as well as estimate the onset of this process.

  4. Recovery of molybdenum metal powder from a low grade molybdenite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, T.K.; Menon, P.R.; Shukla, P.P.; Gupta, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the development of a process for the production of molybdenum metal powder from a low grade molybdenite concentrate. The molybdenum value present in the concentrate was leached with a dilute hypochlorite solution generated in-situ by electrolysis of brine solution. The leach liquor was subsequently purified by carbon adsorption process. The leach liquor was chemically processed to recover the molybdenum value in the forms of calcium molybdate and ammonium molybdate salts. These molybdenum intermediates were hydrogen-reduced to metallic molybdenum powder. The experimental set up used, procedure followed and results obtained are discussed and a flowsheet indicating the entire processing scheme is included. 11 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Investigating depression-like and metabolic parameters in a chronic low-grade inflammation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, C. W.; Elfving, B.; Lund, S.

    2012-01-01

    that elevated markers of inflammation predict a poor response to treatment. Furthermore, increasing evidences show that metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 are associated with a low-grade inflammation. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a systemic...... levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6) together with the expression of enzymes involved in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway, will be analyzed in specific brain regions using real-time qPCR. Body weight and food intake was measured once a week, while fasting glucose and insulin...... sensitivity was assessed after four weeks of LPS administration. Findings and conclusion: Our results showed that a low dose of LPS increased immobility in the FST relative to vehicle treatment, indicative of depression-like behavior. We did not find any difference in body weight, fasting glucose and insulin...

  6. Roles of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Development of Ectopic Fat Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.

  7. Allergic Sensitization at School Age is a Systemic Low-grade Inflammatory Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L.; Stokholm, J.; Schoos, A.-M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Systemic low-grade inflammation has been demonstrated in a range of the frequent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) proposing a shared mechanism, but is largely unexplored in relation to allergic sensitization. We therefore aimed to investigate the possible association with childhood alle...... = 0.001], aeroallergens (aOR, 1.43; 1.15–1.77; P = 0.001), food allergens (aOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02–1.67; P = 0.04), sensitization without any clinical allergy symptoms (aOR = 1.40; 1.06–1.85; P = 0.02), and with similar findings for skin prick tests. The other inflammatory markers were...... not univariately associated with sensitization, but multiparametric PCA suggested a specific inflammatory response among sensitized children. Inflammatory markers at age 6 months were not associated with subsequent development of sensitization phenotypes. Conclusions Elevated hs-CRP is associated with allergic...

  8. Low-grade geothermal energy - Feasibility and demonstration at Regina, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, D. G.; Vigrass, L. W.

    The Geological Feasibility Project examining aquifers near Regina, Saskatchewan is surveyed. A preliminary investigation of the well data shows that the Cambrian and Ordoviciam sandstones at 2045-2209 m have a favorable combination of reservoir properties, temperature, and water chemistry. The estimated power requirement for pumping the source well is 72 kW. The rock temperature at the bottom hole is at least 62.5 C, and a stabilized surface temperature of 58.4 C is expected when pumped at 2400 cu m/d. The waters contain 10 to 12% solids, primarily sodium chloride. The results of a study of the transient heat characteristics of the well, as well as those of an investigation into the use of low-grade thermal energy for heating a planned enclosed sports complex are presented.

  9. Adhesive capsulitis: An age related symptom of metabolic syndrome and chronic low-grade inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Max

    2016-03-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is very poorly understood, particularly it's underlying etiology. Obesity and metabolic syndrome, which are strongly associated with chronic low grade inflammation, are becoming increasingly understood to underlie a raft of morbid states including upper limb pain syndromes, diabetes (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and central nervous system dysfunction and degeneration. Notwithstanding age, two of the strongest established risk factors for AC are DM and CVD. The hypothesis argues that similar to DM and CVD, the inflammation and capsular fibrosis seen in AC is precipitated by metabolic syndrome and chronic low grade inflammation. These pathophysiological mechanisms are highly likely to be perpetuated by upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, sympathetic dominance of autonomic balance, and neuro-immune activation. The hypothesis predicts and describes how these processes may etiologically underpin and induce each sub-classification of AC. An improved understanding of the etiology of AC may lead to more accurate diagnosis, improved management, treatment outcomes, and reduce or prevent pain, disability and suffering associated with the disease. The paper follows on with a discussion of similarities between the pathophysiology of AC to general systemic inflammatory control mechanisms whereby connective tissue (CT) fibrosis is induced as a storage depot for leukocytes and chronic inflammatory cells. The potential role of hyaluronic acid (HA), the primary component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and CT, in the pathophysiology of AC is also discussed with potential treatment implications. Lastly, a biochemical link between physical and mental health through the ECM is described and the concept of a periventricular-limbic central driver of CT dysfunction is introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of hyaluronan synthesis attenuates the tumorigenicity of low-grade chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Shunsuke; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Zhuo, Lisheng; Shinomura, Tamayuki; Ikuta, Kunihiro; Arai, Eisuke; Koike, Hiroshi; Kimata, Koji; Ushida, Takahiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-11-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has been shown to play crucial roles in the tumorigenicity of malignant tumors. Chondrosarcoma, particularly when low-grade, is characterized by the formation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) containing abundant HA, and its drug/radiation resistance has become a clinically relevant problem. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an HA synthesis inhibitor, 4-methylumbelliferone (MU), on ECM formation as well as antitumor effects in chondrosarcoma. We investigated the effects of MU on rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells with a grade I histological malignancy in vitro and in vivo grafted model. HA binding protein (HABP) stainability on and around the RCS cells was effectively reduced with treatment of MU. ECM formation was markedly suppressed by MU at a dose of 1.0 mM. Cell proliferation was significantly reduced by MU at 24 h. Cell motility and invasion were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by MU. No significant changes in mRNA expression of Has1-3 were observed. Furthermore, MU inhibited the growth of grafted tumors in vivo. Histologically, chondrosarcoma cells of control tumors showed a cell-clustering structure. HABP stainability was markedly decreased in the MU-treated group. These results suggest that MU exhibits antitumor effects on low-grade chondrosarcoma, via inhibition of HA accumulation and ECM formation. MU, which is an approved drug in bile therapy, could be a new off-label medication for chondrosarcomas. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Plasmablastic transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphomas: report on 6 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Daniel; Valera, Alexandra; Perez, Nhora Silva; Sua Villegas, Luz Fernanda; Gonzalez-Farre, Blanca; Sole, Carla; Gine, Eva; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Roue, Gaël; Martinez, Salome; Sant, Francesc; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Robak, Tadeusz; Czader, Magdalena; Villamor, Neus; Colomo, Lluis; Campo, Elias; Martinez, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Histologic transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis. Although plasma cell differentiation is common in these lymphomas, an overt plasmablastic transformation (PBL-T) has been only rarely reported. We report 6 cases of PBL-T occurring in 3 chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL) and 3 follicular lymphomas. Five patients were men, and the mean age was 65 years (range, 52 to 72 y). None of them had history of immunodeficiency. In 3 cases the PBL-T occurred 34 to 85 months after the initial diagnosis, and in 3 it was detected simultaneously with the small cell component at diagnosis. All patients received chemotherapy after transformation, and 4 died 4 to 24 months after this diagnosis. In 3 cases, PBL-T occurred in an extranodal site. All PBL-Ts had immunoblastic morphology with admixed plasma cells, were CD20 and PAX5 negative, expressed λ light chain, and 5 were CD138 positive. All cases were negative for HHV8, and only 1 PBL-T was Epstein-Barr virus positive. Evidence of a clonal relationship between the small cell and PBL-T components was found in 5 cases. In 2 CLL cases, both components had 13q deletions, and in all follicular lymphoma cases both components harbored the t(14;18) translocation. MYC translocations were observed in 2 cases transformed from a CLL. In conclusion, PBL-T expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of the transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphomas. These transformed tumors are clinically, histologically, and phenotypically similar to primary plasmablastic lymphomas, but they are not associated with immunodeficiency and rarely have Epstein-Barr virus infection or MYC alterations.

  12. Rare Earth Element Recovery from Low-Grade Feedstocks Using Engineered E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, A. W.; Park, D.; Jiao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical materials for emerging science and technology industries, especially in the field of clean energy. However, their supply is potentially at risk due to political and economic concerns. The exploitation of new, low-grade REE sources in the United States, such as geothermal brines and mine tailings, may help to mitigate that supply risk. To purify and concentrate REEs from these sources, we have developed a biosorption approach using engineered E. coli cells that express a lanthanide binding tag on the cell surface. This tag has a high selectivity for REEs that enhances the native cell wall adsorption properties; the terbium adsorption capacity was increased approximately 2-fold, and the REE surface affinity was increased compared to all non-REE metals except copper. This biosorption method offers advantages over conventional REE extraction methods as it is inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and effective with low-grade feedstocks. In order to expand this method to an industrial scale, the cells must be contained in a durable material that permits the cell surfaces to function in a variety of bioreactor systems and to be reused through multiple adsorption and desorption cycles. Polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) beads, with diameters from 200-400 um, can be impregnated with high concentrations of cells, and show promise in the selective adsorption of REEs from solution. In the future, the application of the adsorptive qualities of these engineered cells may be expanded to include other valuable metals, such as indium and gallium, to further develop the economic potential of this approach. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-736022.

  13. Behavior of Low Grade Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Made with Fresh and Recycled Brick Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shariful Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW have been widely accepted in construction sectors as the replacement of coarse aggregate in order to minimize the excessive use of natural resources. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to observe the influence of low grade steel fiber reinforcements on the stress-strain behavior of concrete made with recycled and fresh brick aggregates. In addition, compressive strength by destructive and nondestructive tests, splitting tensile strength, and Young’s modulus are determined. Hooked end steel wires with 50 mm of length and an aspect ratio of 55.6 are used as fiber reinforcements in a volume fraction of 0% (control case, 0.50%, and 1.00% in concrete mixes. The same gradation of aggregates and water-cement ratio (w/c=0.44 were used to assess the effect of steel fiber in all these concrete mixes. All tests were conducted at 7, 14, and 28 days to perceive the effect of age on different mechanical properties. The experimental results show that around 10%~15% and 40%~60% increase in 28 days compressive strength and tensile strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete, respectively, compared to those of the control case. It is observed that the effect of addition of 1% fiber on the concrete compressive strength is little compared to that of 0.5% steel fiber addition. On the other hand, strain of concrete at failure of steel fiber reinforced concrete has increased almost twice compared to the control case. A simple analytical model is also proposed to generate the ascending portions of the stress-strain curve of concrete. There exists a good correlation between the experimental results and the analytical model. A relatively ductile failure is observed for the concrete made with low grade steel fibers.

  14. Treatment of low-grade gastric malt lymphoma using Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma of the stomach usually occurs as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of treatment of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with the H. pylori eradication method. Methods. In the period 2002-2012 in 20 patients with dyspepsia, mean age 55.1 years, the endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma in the early stages were made. Histological preparations of endoscopic biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxyllineosin (HE, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Results. Endoscopic findings of gastritis were documented in 25% of the patients, and 75% of the patients had hypertrophic folds, severe mucosal hyperemia, fragility, nodularity, exulcerations and rigidity. Histopathologically, pathognomonic diagnostic criterion were infiltration and destruction of glandular epithelium with neoplastic lymphoid cells, the so-called lymphoepithelial lesions. In all 20 patients H. pylori was verified by rapid urease test and Giemsa stain. After the triple eradication therapy complete remission of MALT lymphoma was achieved in 85% of the patients, with no recurrence of lymphoma and H. pylori infection in the average follow-up period of 48 months. In 3 (15% of the patients, there was no remission of MALT lymphoma 12 months after the eradication therapy. Of these 3 patients 2 had progression of MALT lymphoma to diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Conclusion. Durable complete re-mission of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma is achieved in a high percentage after eradication of H. pylori infection, thus preventing the formation of diffuse large-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma.

  15. Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Greevenbroek, M M J; Schalkwijk, C G; Stehouwer, C D A

    2013-05-01

    The epidemic of overweight and obesity is a major problem because of the plethora of health and economic issues that it induces. Key among these is the sharply increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The development of T2D is characterised by two processes: 1) insulin resistance, resulting from impaired insulin signalling and leading to an increased demand for insulin, which must be met by increased insulin production by pancreatic β-cells (compensatory β-cell function); and 2) β-cell dysfunction, with T2D developing when the amount of insulin that is produced is insufficient to meet the demand. Overweight and obesity, especially in case of abdominal fat accumulation, are associated with systemic low-grade inf lammation. This low-grade inf lammation is characterised by, among other things, higher levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines and fatty acids. These can interfere with normal insulin function and thereby induce insulin resistance, and have also been implicated in β-cell dysfunction. This review focuses on the known and emerging relations between inflammation and T2D. We first discuss current views on the effects of fat distribution on adipose tissue inflammation and adipose tissue dysfunction. Next we focus on the detrimental roles of proinflammatory cytokines and fatty acids on insulin signalling and β-cell function. In the last part of this review we provide some insight into novel players in (the initiation of) inflammation in overweight and obesity, and their effects on T2D and vascular dysfunction.

  16. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  17. Biomarker expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: potential progression predictive factors for low-grade lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Satoru; Zen, Yoh; Inoue, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal whether 3 biomarkers (p16INK4a, ProEx C, and human papilloma virus DNA) are useful in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and whether they could predict disease progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-1. We analyzed 252 cervical specimens: nondysplastic mucosa (n = 9), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 229), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 14). Immunostaining for p16INK4a and ProEx C, and the hybridcapture II assay for human papilloma virus DNA were performed. Expression of p16INK4a and staining for ProEx C were significantly higher in intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 (96%-100%) than in nondysplastic mucosa (11%) or intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (40%-53%). Human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 69% of intraepithelial neoplasia-1, 95% of intraepithelial neoplasia-2, and 100% of intraepithelial neoplasia 3. Of 99 patients with intraepithelial neoplasia 1 for whom follow-up data was available, 62 (73%) showed spontaneous regression, 17 (20%) demonstrated persistent low-grade lesion, and 7 (7%) progressed to intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3. Expressions of p16INK4a and staining with ProEx C were significantly higher in the progression group than in the regression group. Testing for p16INK4a and ProEx C was sensitive (86%) and moderately specific (60% and 61%, respectively) in predicting the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1. Human papilloma virus DNA testing was highly sensitive (100%) but less specific (37%). In conclusion, this study revealed that p16INK4a and ProEx C are useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and have potential as predictors of progression of low-grade lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stand-Alone Lateral Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Marchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the stand-alone lateral interbody fusion as a minimally invasive option for the treatment of low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month followup. Prospective nonrandomized observational single-center study. 52 consecutive patients (67.6±10 y/o; 73.1% female; 27.4±3.4 BMI with single-level grade I/II single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis without significant spine instability were included. Fusion procedures were performed as retroperitoneal lateral transpsoas interbody fusions without screw supplementation. The procedures were performed in average 73.2 minutes and with less than 50cc blood loss. VAS and Oswestry scores showed lasting improvements in clinical outcomes (60% and 54.5% change, resp.. The vertebral slippage was reduced in 90.4% of cases from mean values of 15.1% preoperatively to 7.4% at 6-week followup (P<0.001 and was maintained through 24 months (7.1%, P<0.001. Segmental lordosis (P<0.001 and disc height (P<0.001 were improved in postop evaluations. Cage subsidence occurred in 9/52 cases (17% and 7/52 cases (13% spine levels needed revision surgery. At the 24-month evaluation, solid fusion was observed in 86.5% of the levels treated. The minimally invasive lateral approach has been shown to be a safe and reproducible technique to treat low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis.

  19. A green preparation of Mn-based product with high purity from low-grade rhodochrosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, F.; Ma, L.; Chenli, Z.; Mao, L.

    2018-01-01

    The low-grade rhodochrosite, the main resources for exploitation and applications in China, contains multiple elements such as iron, silicon, calcium and magnesium. So the conventional preparation of manganese sulphate and manganese oxide with high purity from electrolytic product is characterized by long production-cycle, high-resource input and high-pollution discharge. In our work, a sustainable preparation approach of high pure MnSO4 solution and Mn3O4 was studied by employing low-grade rhodochrosite (13.86%) as raw material. The repeated leaching of rhodochrosite with sulphuric acid was proposed in view of the same ion effect, in order to improve the solubility of Mn2+ and inhibit the dissolution of the impurities Ca2+ and Mg2+. With the aid of theoretical calculation, BaF2 was chosen to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ completely in the process of purifying. The results showed that the impurities such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ were decreased to less than 20ppm, and the Ni- and Fe- impurities were decreased to less than 1ppm, which meets the standards of high pure reagent for energy and electronic materials. The extraction ratio and the recovery ratio of manganese reached 94.3% and 92.7%, respectively. Moreover, the high pure Mn3O4 was one-step synthesized via the oxidation of MnSO4 solution with the ratios of OH-/Mn2+=2 and Mn2+/H2O2=1.03, and the recovery rate of manganese reaches 99%.

  20. Sustainability of Water Cooled Reactors - Energy Balance for Low Grade Uranium Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    2011-01-01

    The opponents of nuclear power claim that as uranium resources get exhausted the energy needed to mine low grade uranium ore will be larger than the energy that can be obtained from fission in a nuclear power plant. This would result in loss of sustainability of nuclear power, with the negative energy balance expected within the next 40-60 years. Since the opponents state clearly that the ore containing less than 0.013% U 3 O 8 cannot yield positive energy balance, the study of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Poland referenced three mines of decreasing ore grade: Ranger 0.234% U 3 O 8 , Rossing 0.028% U 3 O 8 and Trekkopje 0.00126% U 3 O 8 , that is with ore grade below the postulated cut off value. The study considered total energy needs for uranium mining, including not only electricity needed for mining and milling, for water treatment and delivery, but also fuel for transportation and ore crushing, explosives for rock blasting, chemicals for uranium leaching and the energy needed for mine reclamation after completed exploitation. It has been shown that the energy estimates of nuclear opponents are wrong for Ranger mine and go off much further for the mines with lower uranium ore grades. The reasons for erroneous reasoning of nuclear opponents have been found. Their errors arise from treating the uranium ore deposits as if their layout and properties were the same as those of uranium ore mined in the US in the 70-ies. This results in an oversimplified formula, which yields large errors when the thickness of the overlayer is less than it was in the US. In addition the energy needs claimed for mine reclamation are much too high. The study showed that the energy needed for very low grade uranium ore mining and milling increases but the overall energy balance of the nuclear fuel cycle remains strongly positive. (author)

  1. Effect of fusion mixture treatment on the surface of low grade natural ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, R.; Pradhan, K. C.; Nayak, B. B.; Dash, Tapan; Sahu, R. K.; Mishra, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    Improvement in aesthetic look of low grade natural ruby (gemstone) surface was clearly evident after fusion mixture treatment. Surface impurities of the gemstone were significantly reduced to give it a face lift. The processing consists of heat treatment (1000 °C) of the raw gemstone with fusion mixture (sodium and potassium carbonates), followed by hydrochloric acid digestion (90 °C) and ultrasonic cleaning.Both the untreated and the treated gemstone were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance),photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The paper consolidates the results of these studies and presents the effect of the typical chemical treatment (stated above) on the low grade natural ruby. While X-ray diffraction study identifies the occurrence of alumina phase in both the treated and the untreated gemstones, the UV-vis spectra exhibit strong characteristic absorption of Cr3+at 400 and 550 nm wavelength for the treated gemstone in contrast to weak absorption observed for the untreated gemstone at such wavelengths, thus showing the beneficial effect of fusion mixture treatment. Peaks observed for the gemstone (for both treated and untreated samples) in the excitation spectra of photoluminescence show a good correlation with observed UV-vis (diffuse reflectance) spectra. Photoluminescence emission spectra of the untreated gemstone show characteristic emission at 695 nm for Cr3+ ion (as in alumina matrix), but its emission intensity significantly reduces after fusion mixture treatment. It is found that the surface of the fusion mixture treated ruby gemstone looks much brighter than the corresponding untreated surface.

  2. Radiographic differentiation of enchondroma from low-grade chondrosarcoma in the fibula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendell, Scott D.; Collins, Mark S.; Adkins, Mark C.; Sundaram, Murali; Unni, Krishnan K.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate demographic and radiographic features that may differentiate between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma of the fibula. The radiographs of ninety-three histologically-confirmed cartilaginous tumors of the fibula were retrospectively reviewed along with demographic information as to patient age and gender. Fifty-four enchondromas and thirty-nine low-grade chondrosarcomas were included in the study. Multiple previously-established radiographic features distinguishing enchondroma from chondrosarcoma were evaluated in each fibular tumor in a consensus manner by two experienced, board-certified and fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Five radiographic features were shown to statistically favor chondrosarcoma over enchondroma in the fibula. These were soft-tissue mass (p<0.0001), periosteal reaction (p=0.008), cortical disruption in the juxta-articular fibula (p=0.0133), cortical thickening (p=0.032), and tumor size greater than 4 cm (p=0.0046). No statistically-significant demographic differences were found between patients with enchondroma and chondrosarcoma of the fibula. When two or more of the identified features of malignancy are identified in the same patient, chondrosarcoma is 2.4 times more likely than in those patients exhibiting none of the features of malignancy. Soft-tissue mass, periosteal reaction, cortical disruption in the juxta-articular fibula, cortical thickening, and tumor size greater than 4 cm indicate chondrosarcoma over enchondroma of the fibula. Radiographs demonstrating more than one of the identified malignant features are more likely to be due to chondrosarcoma than radiographs demonstrating none or only one of the identified features. No unique malignant features of chondrosarcoma in the fibula were observed when compared to previous descriptions of these tumors in the long and short tubular bones of the appendicular skeleton. (orig.)

  3. Persistent Depressive Symptoms are Independent Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation Onset Among Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; Laurinavicius, Antonio Gabriele; Lotufo, Paulo A; Conceição, Raquel D; Morita, Fernando; Katz, Marcelo; Wajngarten, Maurício; Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Bosworth, Hayden B; Santos, Raul Dias

    2017-06-29

    Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years) individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+) and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-). All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04). Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals. Sintomas depressivos estão associados de forma independente ao risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular (DCV) em indivíduos com DCV não diagnosticada. Os mecanismos subjacentes a essa associação, entretanto, não estão claros. Inflamação tem sido indicada como um possível elo mecanicista entre depressão e DCV. Este estudo avaliou a associação entre

  4. Magnetic resonance perfusion for differentiating low-grade from high-grade gliomas at first presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrigo, Jill M; Fountain, Daniel M; Provenzale, James M; Law, Eric K; Kwong, Joey Sw; Hart, Michael G; Tam, Wilson Wai San

    2018-01-22

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability. Occasionally, high-grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO Grade III and IV) may have the same MRI appearance as LGGs. Taking a watch-and-wait approach could be detrimental for the patient if the tumour progresses quickly. Advanced imaging techniques are increasingly used in clinical practice to predict the grade of the tumour and to aid clinical decision of when to intervene surgically. One such advanced imaging technique is magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion, which detects abnormal haemodynamic changes related to increased angiogenesis and vascular permeability, or "leakiness" that occur with aggressive tumour histology. These are reflected by changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) expressed as rCBV (ratio of tumoural CBV to normal appearing white matter CBV) and permeability, measured by K trans . To determine the diagnostic test accuracy of MR perfusion for identifying patients with primary solid and non-enhancing LGGs (WHO Grade II) at first presentation in children and adults. In performing the quantitative analysis for this review, patients with LGGs were considered disease positive while patients with HGGs were considered disease negative.To determine what clinical features and methodological features affect the accuracy of MR perfusion. Our search strategy used two concepts: (1) glioma and the various histologies of interest, and (2) MR perfusion. We used structured search strategies appropriate for each database searched, which included: MEDLINE

  5. MUREIN-METABOLIZING ENZYMES FROM ESCHERICHIA-COLI - EXISTENCE OF A 2ND LYTIC TRANSGLYCOSYLASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ENGEL, H; SMINK, AJ; VANWIJNGAARDEN, L; KECK, W

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the soluble lytic transglycosylase, a murein-metabolizing enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa (Slt70), Escherichia coli possesses a second lytic transglycosylase, which has been described as a membrane-bound lytic transglycosylase (Mlt; 35 kDa; EC 3.2.1.-). The mlt gene, which

  6. B-cell clonal detection in gastric low-grade lymphomas and regional lymph nodes: an immunohistologic and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, L; Algara, P; Villuendas, R; Martinez, P; Orradre, J L; Morente, M; Piris, M A

    1993-03-01

    Gastric low-grade B cell lymphomas originating in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues are composed of reactive hyperplastic germinal centers and interfollicular centrocyte-like cells. Their polymorphic, histologic composition and infrequent dissemination beyond the gastric wall led to the denomination of these tumors as "pseudolymphomas." To elucidate their clonal character, a Southern blot study of DNA and immunohistological study was carried out on 14 cases of surgical specimens from gastrectomy (11 low-grade and three high-grade tumors). Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were used on frozen and paraffin sections. A mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue origin for the tumors was assigned due to their centrocyte-like morphology and the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions. Southern blot analysis of DNA and immunohistological results confirm the monoclonal composition of gastric low-grade lymphomas in all cases. Although both types of technique correlated well on the predominant light-chain, Southern blot DNA study was nevertheless more sensitive than the immunohistochemical techniques. Surprisingly, in two cases of gastric low-grade lymphoma, Southern blot DNA analysis of histologically reactive regional lymph nodes showed an unexpected immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. This coincided with that found in the gastric wall. Results confirm the monoclonal nature of the low-grade gastric lymphoma. This supports consideration of this tumor as an indolent primary lymphoma of the stomach, confirming the suitability of excluding the term "pseudolymphoma." Involvement of regional lymph nodes may be a more frequent occurrence than previously detected through morphological study.

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus with a focus on cystic degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Eun; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Lee, Ah Won; Lee, Keun Ho; Kim, Mee Ran [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The goal of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic findings associated with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Ten pathologically confirmed cases of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma at our institution from January 2007 to April 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative transvaginal ultrasound. Two radiologists came to a consensus regarding the location, size, margin, and echogenicity of the tumor, as well as the presence of intratumoral cystic degeneration and its extent and configuration. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma manifested as an intramural mass protruding into the endometrial cavity (n=6) or as a purely intramural mass (n=4). The maximal diameter of the lesion ranged from 4 to 9.1 cm (mean, 6.2 cm). The imaging features of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma were variable: six cases involved predominantly solid masses containing cystic degeneration, one was a predominantly unilocular cystic mass, two were ill-defined infiltrative solid masses, and one was a well-defined solid mass. Among the seven cases with internal cystic degeneration, five patients showed a multiseptated cystic area or a cystic area with multiple small clusters, while a unilocular cystic area within the tumor was found in two patients. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is associated with variable ultrasonographic findings with regard to the location, margin, and configuration of the lesion. Multiseptated cystic areas and multiple small areas of cystic degeneration are common.

  8. Relative contribution of health-related behaviours and chronic diseases to the socioeconomic patterning of low-grade inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Pounis, George; De Curtis, Amalia; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-06-01

    To test the association of low-grade inflammation with socioeconomic status (SES) and determine the relative contribution of prevalent chronic diseases and health-related behaviours in explaining such association. Cross-sectional analysis on 19,867 subjects (age ≥35, 48.1% men) recruited within the Moli-sani study from 2005 to 2010 (Italy). A score of low-grade inflammation, including platelet and leukocyte counts, the granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein was applied. SES was measured by education, household income, and occupational social class. Low SES was associated with elevated levels of low-grade inflammation. Health behaviours (including adiposity, smoking, physical activity, and Mediterranean diet adherence) explained 53.5, 53.9, and 84.9% of the association between social class, income, and education with low-grade inflammation, respectively. Adiposity and body mass index showed a prominent role, while prevalent chronic diseases and conditions only marginally attenuated SES inequalities in inflammation. Low-grade inflammation was socioeconomically patterned in a large Mediterranean population. Potentially modifiable behavioural factors explained the greatest part of this association with a leading contribution of adiposity, body mass index, and physical activity.

  9. Adsorption of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) in Low-Grade Cooking Oil Used Activated Natural Zeolite as Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati Tres Ayu Putranti, Monika; Kompiang Wirawan, Sang; Made Bendiyasa, I.

    2018-01-01

    Adsorption of free fatty acid (FFA) in low-grade cooking oil using active natural zeolite adsorbent was done as an effort to improve the quality of low-grade cooking oil so that it can fulfill the standard of fried oil which has been set on SNI 01-3741-2013. Adsorption was carried out with natural zeolite which activated with HCl and NaOH solution followed by the calcination process. The results showed that the NaOH activated zeolite decreased FFA content in low-grade cooking oil more than the HCl activated natural zeolite, with optimum NaOH concentration was 0.75 M. In the adsorption equilibrium analysis with temperature variation (25 °C, 40 °C, 80 °C ), obtained that adsorption of FFA with NaOH activated natural zeolite follows Adsorption Isotherm Freundlich Model with equilibrium constant value was 20,5873; 0,9629 dan 0,8053.

  10. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    Pap smears. In all but two studies testing other situations, women more often expressed a preference for active follow-up than for observation; however, women appeared to be somewhat more willing to accept observation if reassured of the low risk of cervical cancer. Conclusions Even for low......Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace...... cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management...

  11. Production of alcohol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of low-grade wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio das Neves

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of low-grade wheat flour, namely low-grade 1 (LG1 and low-grade 2 (LG2, with different carbohydrate and fibrous content, were used as substrates. The samples were liquefied using various concentrations of alpha- or beta-amylase, in order to optimize the production of fermentable sugars; the enzyme alpha-amylase revealed higher performance. After liquefaction, the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was conducted in a jar fermentor. Amyloglucosidase was used for saccharification, and dry baker's yeast, S. cerevisiae, for fermentation simultaneously. Glucose was consumed promptly in both cases, LG1 and LG2; ethanol production was considerably higher in LG1 (38.6 g/L, compared to LG2 (24.9 g/L. The maximum ATP production was observed early in the SSF process. LG1 revealed higher potential as substrate for ethanol production.Dois lotes de amostras de resíduo de farinha de trigo com teor reduzido de amido, especificamente designadas como amostra 1 (LG1 e amostra 2 (LG2, foram utilizados como substrato para fermentação alcoólica. Inicialmente as amostras foram hidrolisadas utilizando-se diferentes concentrações de alfa- ou beta-amilase, com o objetivo de otimizar a produção de açúcares fermentáveis; a enzima alfa-amilase apresentou melhor desempenho. O processo simultâneo de sacarificação e fermentação foi conduzido logo após a hidrólise do amido, em um fermentador com volume de 2 L; o meio contendo amido hidrolisado foi inoculado com amiloglucosidase (enzima utilizada para sacarificação e levedura de panificação desidratada (para fermentação, simultaneamente. Amostras do meio de fermentação foram retiradas regularmente para análise dos teores de glucose, maltose, açúcares redutores e etanol. O teor de Adenosina Tri-Fosfato (ATP também foi analisado. O açúcar glucose foi completamente consumido no início da fermentação, tanto no caso da amostra LG1, quanto LG2, sendo que a produção de etanol

  12. Systemic low-grade inflammation in post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speer K

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Speer,1 Dominic Upton,2 Stuart Semple,1,3 Andrew McKune1–4 1Discipline of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 2Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 4Discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa Abstract: Studies examining post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD have either emphasized a relationship between PTSD and a systemically pro-inflammatory state or identified a link between PTSD and chronic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence for a relationship between individuals with PTSD and systemic low-grade inflammation that has been proposed to underlie chronic disease development in this population. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature (January 2006 to April 2017 in accordance with the PRISMA statement in the following four databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus with Full Text. The search strategy was limited to articles published in peer-reviewed journals and to human studies. Nine studies measuring systemic inflammation and discussing its role in chronic disease development were selected for inclusion in this review. The association between markers of systemic inflammation and PTSD was evaluated by the measurement of a variety of systemic inflammatory markers including acute-phase proteins, complement proteins, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, natural killer cells, and white blood cells. In general, systemic inflammatory biomarkers were elevated across the studies in the PTSD groups. There is evidence that PTSD is underpinned by the presence of a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. This inflammation may be the mechanism associated with increased risk for chronic disease in the PTSD population. From

  13. Utility of Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in the Management of Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Sedeno, Josep M; Mancebo, Gemma; Miralpeix, Ester; Lloveras, Belen; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Alameda, Francesc; Carreras, Ramon

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of human papillomavirus (HPV) partial genotyping test in the triage of newly diagnosed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs). We analyzed 143 patients with LSIL diagnosed de novo. Lesions were classified as positive for HPV 16 or HPV 18, positive for HPV but not HPV 16 or HPV 18 (HPVno16no18) or no HPV detected (HPVneg). Patients were followed for a period of 2 years or until the lesion progressed. We calculated absolute and relative risks for progression and regression according to the HPV result. The mean (SD) age was 33.8 (11.1) years. A total of 19.6% were positive for HPV 16, 4.9% for HPV 18, and 63.6% for HPVno16no18. The absolute risk of HPV 16 for progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more (CIN 2+) was 32.1%, 14.3% for HPV 18, and 5.8% for HPVno16no18. None of the HPVneg cases evolved to CIN 2+. The presence of HPV 16 conferred a 7.4 (95% CI = 2.7-20.3) times greater risk of developing CIN 2+ than its absence. The absolute risks for HPV 16, HPV 18, HPVno16no18, and HPVneg for regression were 53.6%, 57.1%, 75.4%, and 87.5%, respectively. Relative risks for regression were 0.7 (95% CI = 0.5-0.9) for HPV 16 and 1.3 (95% CI = 1.1-1.5) for HPVneg. The HPV 16 LSILs are more likely to progress to CIN 2+, so tight control and immediate colposcopy are crucial, whereas when HPV 16 is not present, follow-up could be less strict. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in which high-risk HPV is not detected do not progress to CIN 2+, so its control should be different from other LSIL, and conservative management could be an acceptable strategy.

  14. Low fitness is associated with abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation independent of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten

    2018-01-01

    fitness (fitness) is a determinant factor for the MHO individuals and aim to investigate the associations between fitness, abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation within different BMI categories. METHOD: Data from 10,976 individuals from the general population, DANHES 2007-2008, on waist...... (+5 mL min-1 kg-1) and hsCRP (-0.22 mg/L; 95% CI: -0.255 to -0.185 mg/L; pBMI. Similarly in women, an inverse association between fitness (+5 mL min-1 kg-1) and waist circumference (-1.15 cm; 95% CI: -1.25 to -1.0 cm; p... fitness (+5 mL min-1 kg-1) and hsCRP (-0.26 mg/L; 95% CI: -0.3 to -0.22 mg/L; pBMI. Additionally, significant positive associations between waist circumference and hsCRP were found for both men and women, independently of BMI. CONCLUSION: Fitness was found...

  15. Bioleaching of a low grade sphalerite concentrate produced from flotation tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mehrabani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, the zinc extraction was investigated, using bioleaching process from a low grade zinc concentrate which was produced from the accumulated flotation tailings. Zinc content was initially upgraded to 11.97% by flotation process. Bioleaching experiments were designed and carried out by a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirilium ferrooxidans, as well as a mixed moderate thermophile bacteria in the shake flasks. Effect of two types bacteria, indigenous bacteria accompany by concentrate sample, and added mixture of bacteria were evaluated. The term of indigenous bacteria refers to the bacteria which initially exist in the natural concentrate sample. The results showed that more than 87% and 94% of Zn was dissolved in the bioleaching condition of mesophile and moderate thermophile bacteria, respectively. Comparing bioleaching and leaching tests indicated that mesophile bacteria improved Zn extraction 36%, in which contribution of concentrate indigenous bacteria (test condition of non-inoculation and added mesophile mixed bacteria were equal to 34% and 66% of that improvement, respectively. In addition, moderate thermophile bacteria improved sphalerite leaching up to 38% in which contribution of concentrate indigenous bacteria and added moderate bacteria were about 50% separately.

  16. Selective Removal of Iron from Low-Grade Ti Ore by Reacting with Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, titanium metal production by molten salt electrolysis using CaCl2 as molten salt and TiO2 or rutile (94 to 96 pct TiO2) as feedstock has been drawing attention. However, when a low-grade Ti ore (mainly FeTiO3) is used as feedstock, removal of iron (Fe) from the ore is indispensable. In this study, the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, particle size of the ore, and source country for the ore on the removal of iron by selective chlorination using CaCl2 was assessed. Experimental results showed that the mass percent of iron in the ore decreased from 49.7 to 1.79 pct under certain conditions by selective removal of iron as FeCl2. As a result, high-grade CaTiO3 was produced when the ore particles smaller than 74 µm reacted with CaCl2 at 1240 K (967 °C) for 8 to 10 hours. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the removal of iron from the ore is feasible through the selective chlorination process using CaCl2 by optimizing the variables.

  17. Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72 °C produced a power density of 236 ± 8 Wm(-2), with a linear decrease in power to 95 ± 5 Wm(-2) at 23 °C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Wh m(-3) at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37 °C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma: A previously overlooked low-grade sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno

    2018-03-01

    Twelve cases of primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma (PCSC) have been published, 9 showing ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, a characteristic finding shared with secretory breast carcinoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. A 34-year-old female presented a solitary nodule on the right groin. Biopsy revealed a secretory carcinoma staining positive with CK7, CAM5.2, mammaglobulin and S100 and negative with GATA3, CK20, podoplanin, calponin and CDX2. ETV6-NTRK3 was demonstrated by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PCSC is a rare neoplasm, described in the skin in 2009, that affects more frequently females with a mean age of 42.3 years and it is most commonly located in axilla. Histopathologically, these tumor cells are characterized by bubbly eosinophilic secretions diastase-resistant and bland nuclei and they are arranged in various growth patterns, including microcystic, tubular, solid and papillary. S100, mammoglobin and CK7 are usually positive. We review the main histopathological features to rule out histopathologic mimics such as breast metastasis, salivary tumors, cribriform carcinoma and primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma. GATA3 negative staining, as in our case, can help to rule out breast metastasis. Moreover, long-term benign follow up (144 months) in this case as well as follow-up data on outcomes from literature review support that PCSC is a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Fast Thermal Calibration of Low-Grade Inertial Sensors and Inertial Measurement Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoji; Li, You; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Qingjiang; Ban, Yalong

    2013-01-01

    The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities) over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy. PMID:24036581

  20. Controllable Phase Transformation in Extracting Valuable Metals from Chinese Low-Grade Nickel Sulphide Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fuhui; Mu, Wenning; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Qian; Zhai, Yuchun; Luo, Shaohua

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a two-stage sulphuric acid roasting and water leaching system was chosen to extract valuable metals from Chinese low-grade nickel sulphide ore. By optimizing the two-stage roasting process, first roasting temperature at 295°C with particle size of 80-91 μm with an acid-ore ratio of 1.1:1 for 2 h, and second roasting temperature at 620°C for 2 h, it was found that more than 98% of the nickel and 99% of the copper but less than 14.38% of Fe were leached into the water. Attempts were made via x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, chemical phase analysis, and differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis to reveal the phase transformations for Ni, Cu, and Mg, which could be expressed as mineral phases → sulphates hydrate → sulphates and for iron as mineral phases → hydrated ferrous sulphate → ferric sulphates and ferric oxide → oxide. The results of this work suggest that a controllable phase transformation by using a two-stage sulphuric acid roasting process is a feasible method for efficiently extracting valuable metals from Chinese nickel sulphide ore.

  1. Extracting uranium from low-grade ore from the Coso Mountains, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maysilles, J.H.; Nichols, I.L.; Seidel, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is investigating several types of low-grade uranium deposits. Projections indicate that an increased percentage of future production will be derived from such sources. One material studied was from the Coso Mountains of California; this material contained 0.04 to 0.12 percent U 3 O 8 . The deposit contains at least two distinct types of mineralization. The material representing the bulk of this deposit was amenable to acid leaching; 80 to 85 percent U 3 O 8 extraction resulted from leaching with 20 to 40 pounds per ton of sulfuric acid. No oxidizing agent was required. This ore fraction could be treated by either agitation or percolation leaching. Uranium recovery and purification from the acid leach solution was accomplished using anion exchange followed by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. The second type of mineral was very refractory to acid leaching; a maximum extraction of only 44 percent was obtained with sulfuric acid. Nitric and hydrochloric acids were ineffective also

  2. A comparative study on pyrolysis characteristic Indonesia biomassa and low grade coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhityatama, G. I.; Hanif, F.; Cahyono, R. B.; Hidayat, M.; Akiyama, T.

    2017-05-01

    A comparative study on pyrolysis of biomass and low grade coal was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Each kind of biomass and coal has a characteristic pyrolysis behavior which is explained based on its individual component characteristics. All fuels experienced a small weight loss as temperatures approached 450K because of moisture evaporation. The coal had smallest total weight loss compared to biomass due to its high content of fixed carbon, suggesting that coal would produce high amounts of char and small amounts of volatile matter (e.g., tar and gas). The biomass exhibits similar tendency regarding the decomposition process which is the hemicelluloses break down first at temperatures of 470 to 530K, cellulose follows in the temperature range 510 to 620K, and lignin is the last component to pyrolyzer at temperatures of 550 to 770K. The thermal decomposition of biomass consisted of two predominant peaks corresponding first to the decomposition of cellulose and, second, to the decomposition of lignin. Meanwhile, the coal exhibited only single peak because these fuels were predominantly composed of carbon. Based on the kinetic analysis, coal have the smaller activation energy (55.32kJ/mol) compared to biomass (range from 89.80-172.86 kJ/mol). Pyrolysis process also created more pore material in the solid product. These results were important for the optimization of energy conversion from those solid fuels. Biomass resulted lower solid product and higher tar product, thus would be suitable for liquid and gas energy production.

  3. Safety of BTZ retreatment for patients with low-grade peripheral neuropathy during the initial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidisheva, Aleksandra P; Wang, James; Spektor, Tanya M; Bitran, Jacob D; Lutzky, Jose; Tabbara, Imad A; Ye, Joseph Z; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Stampleman, Laura V; Steis, Ronald G; Moezi, Mehdi M; Swift, Regina A; Maluso, Tina M; Udd, Kyle A; Eshaghian, Shahrooz; Nassir, Youram; Berenson, James R

    2017-10-01

    Neuropathy is an important complication that may limit treatment options for patients with multiple myeloma. Previous studies have focused on treatment efficacy and have shown that retreatment with bortezomib (BTZ) is an effective treatment option. The goal of this study was to focus on the clinical manifestations of peripheral neuropathy (PN) and to retrospectively compare the incidence and severity of PN between the initial BTZ regimen and upon retreatment. Furthermore, this study evaluated how certain factors affect BIPN, which will help determine what conditions should be considered prior to retreatment. Charts were reviewed from 93 patients who were retreated with a BTZ-containing regimen after previously being treated with this drug. Among the patients who developed PN, most patients in the study had low-grade neuropathy during the initial BTZ treatment (n = 52, 68%). The results showed no evidence of cumulative toxicity, and there was no significant difference in the incidence and severity of PN upon retreatment. Factors such as the presence of baseline PN, number of prior treatments, dose of BTZ, and comorbidities did not increase the severity of PN upon retreatment. The lapse of time between the two regimens also did not affect the severity of PN. The results suggest that retreatment with BTZ may be a feasible option, without additional risks of PN, for MM patients even with peripheral neuropathy during their initial treatment with this drug.

  4. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  5. Linking leach chemistry and microbiology of low-grade copper ore bioleaching at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Sun, He-yun; Tan, Qiao-yi; Gao, Hong-shan; Feng, Xing-liang; Ruan, Ren-man

    2018-03-01

    The effects of temperature on chalcocite/pyrite oxidation and the microbial population in the bioleaching columns of a low-grade chalcocite ore were investigated in this study. Raffinate from the industrial bioleaching heap was used as an irrigation solution for columns operated at 20, 30, 45, and 60°C. The dissolution of copper and iron were investigated during the bioleaching processes, and the microbial community was revealed by using a high-throughput sequencing method. The genera of Ferroplasma, Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum, Acidiplasma, and Sulfobacillus dominated the microbial community, and the column at a higher temperature favored the growth of moderate thermophiles. Even though microbial abundance and activity were highest at 30°C, the column at a higher temperature achieved a much higher Cu leaching efficiency and recovery, which suggested that the promotion of chemical oxidation by elevated temperature dominated the dissolution of Cu. The highest pyrite oxidation percentage was detected at 45°C. Higher temperature resulted in precipitation of jarosite in columns, especially at 60°C. The results gave implications to the optimization of heap bioleaching of secondary copper sulfide in both enhanced chalcocite leaching and acid/iron balance, from the perspective of leaching temperature and affected microbial community and activity.

  6. Opportunities for low-grade heat recovery in the UK food processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Richard; Harvey, Adam; Reay, David

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in the process industry is becoming an increasingly important issue due to the rising costs of both electricity and fossil fuel resources, as well as the tough targets for the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions outlined in the Climate Change Act 2008. Utilisation of waste heat sources is key to improving industrial energy efficiency, with an estimated 11.4 TWh of recoverable heat being wasted each year, a quarter of which is from the food and drinks processing sector. This paper examines the low-grade waste heat sources common to the food and drinks processing sector and the various opportunities for the use of this heat. A review of the best available technologies for recovery of waste heat is provided, ranging from heat transfer between source and sink, to novel technologies for the generation of electricity and refrigeration. Generally, the most economic option for waste heat recovery is heat exchange between nearby/same process source and sink, with a number of well-developed heat exchangers widely available for purchase. More novel options, such as the use of organic Rankine cycles for electricity generation prove to be less economical due to high capital outlays. However, with additional funding provision for demonstration of such projects and development of modular units, such technologies would become more common

  7. Multiphoton imaging of low grade, high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and intramucosal invasive cancer of esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is devastating because of its aggressive lymphatic spread and clinical course. It is believed to occur through low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), and intramucosal invasive cancer (IMC) before transforming to submucosal cancer. In particular, these early lesions (LGIN, HGIN and IMC), which involve no lymph node nor distant metastasis, can be cured by endoscopic treatment. Therefore, early identification of these lesions is important so as to offer a curative endoscopic resection, thus slowing down the development of ESCC. In this work, spectral information and morphological features of the normal esophageal mucosa are first studied. Then, the morphological changes of LGIN, HGIN and IMC are described. Lastly, quantitative parameters are also extracted by calculating the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of epithelial cells and the pixel density of collagen in the lamina propria. These results show that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to identify normal esophageal mucosa, LGIN, HGIN and IMC. With the development of multiphoton endoscope systems for in vivo imaging, combined with a laser ablation system, MPM has the potential to provide immediate pathologic diagnosis and curative treatment of ESCC before the transformation to submucosal cancer in the future.

  8. Current understanding of BRAF alterations in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic targeting in paediatric low grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Louise Penman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway is known to play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of many tumours as well as normal development. This often occurs through mutation of the genes encoding RAS and RAF proteins which are involved in signal transduction in this pathway. BRAF is one of three RAF kinases which act as downstream effectors of growth factor signalling leading to cell cycle progression, proliferation and survival. Initially reported as a point mutation (V600E in the majority of metastatic melanomas, other alterations in the BRAF gene have now been reported in a variety of human cancers including papillary thyroid cancer, colon carcinomas, hairy cell leukaemia and more recently in gliomas. The identification of oncogenic mutations in the BRAF gene have led to a revolution in the treatment of metastatic melanoma using targeted molecular therapies that affect the MAPK pathway either directly through BRAF inhibition or downstream through inhibition of MEK. This review describes the molecular biology of BRAF in the context of paediatric low grade gliomas, the role of BRAF as a diagnostic marker, the prognostic implications of BRAF and evidence for therapeutic targeting of BRAF.

  9. Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma of the Jaw: Late Recurrence from a Low Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, Catherine; Leong, Iona T; Holmes, Howard; Monteiro, Eric A; O'Sullivan, Brian; Dickson, Brendan C

    2017-12-22

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is an uncommon variant of fibrosarcoma that is characterized by a distinct morphology. It most frequently presents in the deep soft tissues of the lower extremities, often in intimate association with fascia and periosteum, although reports of the head and neck involvement have been reported. A minority of cases show morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular overlap with low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LG-FMS). Herein, we describe a case of a bland spindle cell neoplasm presenting in the jaw that was initially incompletely excised. Over the course of 20 years the tumor subsequently recurred with a SEF morphology. Molecular testing performed on both specimens subsequently confirmed the presence of an EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion. This report highlights the diagnostic difficulty with LG-FMS, particularly in unusual anatomic locations; reiterates the potential for the uncommon EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion product in LG-FMS; and, reaffirms the potential for progression and/or overlap between LG-FMS to SEF over time.

  10. Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma with Intravenous and Intracardiac Extension: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Kudaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A rare case of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS extending to inferior vena cava (IVC and cardiac chambers. Case Report. A 40-year-old woman had IVC tumor, which was incidentally detected by abdominal ultrasonography during a routine medical checkup. CT scan revealed a tumor in IVC, right iliac and ovarian veins, which was derived from the uterus and extended into the right atrium and ventricle. The operation was performed, the heart and IVC were exposed, and cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated. A right atriotomy was performed, and the intracardiac mass was removed. Then the tumor in IVC and the right internal iliac vein were removed after longitudinal venotomies in the suprarenal and infrarenal vena cava, the right common iliac vein. Next the pelvis was explored. Tumors were found originating from the posterior wall of the uterus and continuing into both the right uterine and ovarian vein. The patient underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Complete tumor resection was achieved. Histopathological analysis confirmed a diagnosis of LG-ESS. She showed no evidence of disease for 2 years and 3 months. Conclusions. Our case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in treating this rare cardiovascular pathological condition through preoperative assessment to final operation.

  11. Therapy-related AML/MDS after treatment of low-grade B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanada, Masamitsu

    2008-01-01

    Described is the therapy-related AML (acute myelogenetic leukemia)/MDS (myelo-dysplasia syndrome), which is manifested after various treatments of low-grade B-cell lymphoma and has strongly attracted attention because of the markedly improved prognosis due to recent advantages of the therapy for the disease. AML/MDS occurs several years after chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy which cause DNA damage in hematopoietic cells, and the AML/MDS risk is known increased in patients undergone especially with autologous transplantation of those cells. AML/MDS has the feature similar to that caused either by alkylating agent or by topoisomerase-2 inhibitor, and the disease by radiation belong to the former. Yet unclear is the problem whether malignant cells causing the disease after therapy are derived from the remaining cells in the graft or in the body. Although irradiations of total body and total lymphaden as well as chemotherapy are said to be related to AML/MDS and local irradiation does not contribute to its risk, the most important factor for the disease is considered to be the autotransplantation as the recurrence occurs in 50% after it. Thus the treatment history should be taken into consideration for suppressing AML/MDS, for which follow up with consideration for the disease is required particularly after autotransplantation. (R.T.)

  12. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-02-13

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72°C produced a power density of 236±8 Wm-2, with a linear decrease in power to 95±5 Wm-2 at 23°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  13. Bioleaching of a low grade sphalerite concentrate produced from tailings flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabani, J. V.; Shafaei, S. Z.; Noaparast, M.; Mousavi, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the zinc extraction from a low grade zinc concentrate produced from the accumulated flotation tailings was investigated using the bio leaching process. Zinc content was initially upgraded to 11.97% through flotation process. Bio leaching experiments were designed and carried out by a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferro oxidans, Acidithiobacillus thio oxidans, Leptospirilium ferro oxidans, as well as a mixed moderate thermophile bacteria in the shake flasks. The effect of two bacteria types, the indigenous bacteria accompanied by concentrate sample and added mixture of bacteria, were evaluated. The term of indigenous bacteria refers to the bacteria which initially exists in the natural concentrate sample. The results showed that more than 87% and 94% of Zn was dissolved in the bio leaching condition of mesophile and moderate thermophile bacteria, respectively. Comparing the bio leaching and leaching tests indicate that mesophile bacteria improves the Zn extraction by 36%, in which the contribution of concentrate indigenous bacteria (test condition of non-inoculation) and added mesophile mixed bacteria were equal to 34% and 66%, respectively. In addition, moderate thermophile bacteria improves the sphalerite leaching up to 38% in which contribution of the concentrate indigenous bacteria and added moderate thermophile bacteria were about 50% separately.

  14. Increased Plasma Ferritin Concentration and Low-Grade Inflammation-A Mendelian Randomization Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moen, Ingrid W; Bergholdt, Helle K M; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown why increased plasma ferritin concentration predicts all-cause mortality. As low-grade inflammation and increased plasma ferritin concentration are associated with all-cause mortality, we hypothesized that increased plasma ferritin concentration is genetically associated...... applied a Mendelian randomization approach, using the hemochromatosis genotype C282Y/C282Y as an instrument for increased plasma ferritin concentration, to assess causality. RESULTS: For a doubling in plasma ferritin concentration, the odds ratio (95% CI) for CRP ≥2 vs ....09-1.16), with a corresponding genetic estimate for C282Y/C282Y of 1.03 (1.01-1.06). For a doubling in plasma ferritin concentration, odds ratio (95% CI) for complement C3 >1.04 vs ≤1.04 g/L was 1.28 (1.21-1.35), and the corresponding genetic estimate for C282Y/C282Y was 1.06 (1.03-1.12). Mediation analyses showed that 74% (95...

  15. Beneficiation of low grade graphite ore of eastern India by two-stage grinding and flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasumathi N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low grade graphite run-of-mine (r.o.m ore from eastern India was studied for its amenability to beneficiation by flotation technique. The petrography studies indicate that the ore primarily consists of quartz and graphite with minor quantity of mica. It analyzed 89.89% ash and 8.59% fixed carbon. The ore was crushed in stages followed by primary coarse wet grinding to 212 μm (d80. Rougher flotation was carried out in Denver flotation cell to eliminate gangue as much as possible in the form of primary tailings with minimal loss of carbon. Diesel & pine oil were used as collector and frother respectively. Regrinding of rougher concentrate to150 μm (d80 was resorted to further liberate the graphite values and was followed by multi-stage cleaning. This two-stage grinding approach involving a primary coarse grinding and regrinding of rougher float followed by its multi-stage cleaning was found to yield required grade of concentrate for applications such as refractories, batteries and high temperature lubricants. This approach is supposed to retain the flake size of coarse, free and liberated graphite, if available, during primary coarse grinding and rougher flotation stage with minimal grinding energy costs as against the usual practice of single stage grinding in the case of many ores. A final concentrate of 8.97% weight recovery with 5.80% ash and 92.13% fixed carbon could be achieved.

  16. [Presence of high risk human papilomaviruses (HPV) in the low grade cervical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iljazović, Ermina; Mustadenagić-Mujanović, Jasminka; Karasalihović, Zinaida; Cickusić, E; Avdić, S

    2006-01-01

    Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) and atypical squamous cells undetermined significance (ASCUS) are the most frequent verified cellular abnormalities. Their management are still highly controversial mostly caused by uncertainty about their histology and nature of originate. Detection of HPV DNA in the absence of cytological abnormalities can also indicate presence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of this study was to show the association of the benign cellular changes, ASCUS and LGSIL with oncogenic types of HPV and to prove the necessity of more intensive screening of this group of patients. Cytology and pathomorphology analyses were performed first. Identification of the presence of human papiloma virus was carried out by the Digene Hybride Capture II test for all patients. Identification of different HPV types for the particular number of patients was carried out by RFLP (Rsetriction Fragments Length of Polymorphism). Out of the 101 patients in the first group 92 (91,08%) were HPV positive, and 41, 58% had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. Out of 509 patients of the second group 26.92% were positive for HRHPV, and 78,97% of them had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. HPV 16 was detected in 27.36% (ASCUS/LGSIL) of low risk cervical lesion of the first examined period. The combination of smears with the detection of high risk HPV types increases the triage sensitivity especially at patients with mild.

  17. Beneficiation of Low-Grade Phosphate Deposits by a Combination of Calcination and Shaking Tables: Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shariati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three quarters of the world’s phosphate deposits are of sedimentary origin and 75%–80% of those include carbonate gangue. In this study, carbonate sedimentary phosphate deposits of the Lar Mountains of southwest Iran are studied. These deposits consist mainly of calcite, fluorapatite, quartz, kaolinite and illite, with an average P2O5 grade of 9%–10% (low-grade. Various pre-processing and processing methods have been developed for concentrating low-grade phosphate up to marketable grade and this study aims to select the optimal method to produce an economically viable grade of phosphate concentrate from low-grade ore. Different concentration methods, including calcination and gravity separation, were applied on samples at both a laboratory and semi-industrial scale (pilot scale. Using an integrated method of calcination (performed in a rotary kiln and shaking table for concentrating the low-grade phosphate ore, the results show promise at producing grades of 30.77% P2O5 with 60.7%–63.2% recovery.

  18. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J A; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified,

  19. Polyphenol intake is associated with low-grade inflammation, using a novel data analysis from the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounis, George; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Costanzo, Simona; de Curtis, Amalia; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Sieri, Sabina; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2016-01-01

    The association of polyphenol content of human diet with low-grade inflammation is not yet fully understood. It was the objective of this study to evaluate the association of flavonoid and lignan intake with frequently used and easily applicable in clinical practice low-grade inflammation biomarkers, in a novel holistic approach. A total of 5,948 women and 5,965 men (aged ≥ 35 years) were analysed from the Moli-sani cohort, randomly recruited from the general population. The EPIC-FFQ was used for dietary assessment. Flavonol, flavone, flavanone, flavanol, anthocyanin, isoflavone and lignan intakes were calculated using Eurofir eBASIS and the polyphenol antioxidant content (PAC)-score was constructed to assess the total content of diet in these nutrients. CRP levels, WBC and PLT count and granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio were conceived as low-grade inflammation biomarkers. INFLA-score was constructed summarizing synergistic effects of these biomarkers. The INFLA-score was negatively associated with PAC-score in different levels of adjustment, in both genders (for all β-coefinflammation status (i.e. higher quartile of INFLA-score) in men and women (odds ratio [ORs] 0.92 to 0.95, pinflammation biomarkers in a large population based study. For the first time low-grade inflammation was evaluated in a holistic way through INFLA-score and was associated with polyphenol content of diet.

  20. Survey on current cognitive practices within the European Low-Grade Glioma Network: towards a European assessment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, Adrià; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Godden, John; Baron, Marie Hélène; Colle, Henry; Darlix, Amelie; de Aguiar, Vânia; Duffau, Hugues; Herbet, Guillaume; Klein, Martin; Lubrano, Vincent; Martino, Juan; Mathew, Ryan; Miceli, Gabriele; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Pallud, Johan; Papagno, Costanza; Rech, Fabien; Robert, Erik; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Santarius, Thomas; Satoer, Djaina; Sierpowska, Joanna; Smits, Anja; Skrap, Miran; Spena, Giannantonio; Visch, Evy; De Witte, Elke; Zetterling, Maria; Wager, Michel

    2017-07-01

    The European Low-Grade Glioma network indicated a need to better understand common practices regarding the managing of diffuse low-grade gliomas. This area has experienced great advances in recent years. A general survey on the managing of diffuse low-grade gliomas was answered by 21 centres in 11 European countries. Here we focused on specific questions regarding perioperative and intraoperative cognitive assessments. More centres referred to the same speech and language therapist and/or neuropsychologist across all assessments; a core of assessment tools was routinely used across centres; fluency tasks were commonly used in the perioperative stages, and object naming during surgery; tasks that tapped on attention, executive functions, visuospatial awareness, calculation and emotions were sparsely administered; preoperative assessments were performed 1 month or 1 week before surgery; timing for postoperative assessments varied; finally, more centres recommended early rehabilitation, whenever needed. There is an emerging trend towards following similar practices for the management of low-grade gliomas in Europe. Our results are descriptive and formalise current discussions in our group. Also, they contribute towards the development of a European assessment protocol.

  1. Microbiota, gastrointestinal infections, low-grade inflammation, and antibiotic therapy in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Schmulson

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Further studies are required to determine the nature of the gut microbiota in IBS and the differences in low-grade inflammation between PI-IBS and non PI-IBS. Rifaximin has shown itself to be an effective treatment for IBS, regardless of prior factors.

  2. The Presence and Duration of Overweight Are Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation in Prepubertal Chilean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Magel; Garmendia, María Luisa; Corvalán, Camila; Reyes, Marcela

    2016-11-01

    Overweight is associated with low-grade inflammation, but it is under debate whether the effect of fat mass accumulation is acute or chronic. We aimed to study the association of overweight duration with low-grade inflammation in children in whom overweight initiation can be established. Observational longitudinal study, including a subsample of 250 Chilean children from the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study followed-up yearly since preschool age (n = 1195). At 4 years, 324 children provided blood. From those, 272 participants were evaluated at 7 years. The current analysis includes 250 children with a blood sample at 4 and 7 years of age and C-reactive protein (CRP) overweight (BAZ ≥ 1) participants at 7 years, the duration of overweight (time since diagnosis) was computed and categorized according to tertiles: overweight (diagnosis and duration) and low-grade inflammation (CRP ≥ 1 mg/L) was studied (logistic regression models). Overweight was associated with CRP ≥ 1 mg/L at 7 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93 confidence interval (95% CI = 1.60-5.38)], but not at 4 years [OR = 1.26 (95% CI = 0.71-2.26)]. An overweight duration overweight durations (36-Overweight at 7 years of age was associated with low-grade inflammation only in the case of recent onset. Inflammatory disturbances may be associated with the early phases of excess weight.

  3. The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik; Møller, Holger Jon; Trolle, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163...

  4. Low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage disrupts cerebellar white matter in preterm infants: evidence from diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Takashi; Morimoto, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Tatsuji; Morioka, Shigemi; Kidowaki, Satoshi; Moroto, Masaharu; Yamashita, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Chiyonobu, Tomohiro; Tokuda, Sachiko; Hosoi, Hajime [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan); Yamada, Kei [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated that leakage of hemosiderin into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is caused by high-grade intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), can affect cerebellar development in preterm born infants. However, a direct effect of low-grade IVH on cerebellar development is unknown. Thus, we evaluated the cerebellar and cerebral white matter (WM) of preterm infants with low-grade IVH. Using DTI tractography performed at term-equivalent age, we analyzed 42 infants who were born less than 30 weeks gestational age (GA) at birth (22 with low-grade IVH, 20 without). These infants were divided into two birth groups depending on GA, and we then compared the presence and absence of IVH which was diagnosed by cerebral ultrasound (CUS) within 10 days after birth or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age in each group. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP), middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP), motor tract, and sensory tract were measured. In the SCP, preterm born infants with IVH had lower FA values compared with infants without IVH. In particular, younger preterm birth with IVH had lower FA values in the SCP and motor tract and higher ADC values in the MCP. Low-grade IVH impaired cerebellar and cerebral WM, especially in the SCP. Moreover, younger preterm infants exhibited greater disruptions to cerebellar WM and the motor tract than infants of older preterm birth. (orig.)

  5. Low-grade inflammation differentiates between symptoms of apathy and depression in community-dwelling older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurelings, Lisa S. M.; Richard, Edo; Eikelenboom, Piet; van Gool, Willem A.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation has repeatedly been associated with depression in old age, but the relationship with apathy is less clear. The present study assessed whether C-reactive protein (CRP) is differentially associated with symptoms of apathy and depression. A population-based cohort study

  6. Spatial and temporal evolution of distal 10q deletion, a prognostically unfavorable event in diffuse low-grade gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijl, H.F. van; Scheinin, I.; Sie, D.; Alentorn, A.; Essen, H.F. van; Cordes, M.; Fleischeuer, R.; Gijtenbeek, A.; Beute, G.; Brink, W.A. van den; Meijer, G.A.; Havenith, M.; Idbaih, A.; Hoang-Xuan, K.; Mokhtari, K.; Verhaak, R.; Valk, P. van der; Wiel, M.A. van de; Heimans, J.J.; Aronica, E.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Wesseling, P.; Ylstra, B.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe disease course of patients with diffuse low-grade glioma is notoriously unpredictable. Temporal and spatially distinct samples may provide insight into the evolution of clinically relevant copy number aberrations (CNAs). The purpose of this study is to identify CNAs that are indicative

  7. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-05-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome.

  8. First-line temozolomide chemotherapy in progressive low-grade astrocytomas after radiotherapy: molecular characteristics in relation to response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal, W.; Dubbink, H.J.; Zonnenberg, C.B.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Postma, T.J.B.M.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Boogerd, W.; Groenendijk, F.H.; Kros, J.M.; Kouwenhoven, M.C.; Marion, R. van; Heuvel, I. van; Holt, B. van der; Bromberg, J.E.; Sillevis Smitt, P.A.; Dinjens, W.N.; Bent, M.J. van den

    2011-01-01

    Only a few studies examined the effect of temozolomide (TMZ) in recurrent low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) after surgery, none of which included a homogeneous and sufficiently sized group of patients with progression after radiotherapy (RT). We evaluated a cohort of 58 patients treated with TMZ for

  9. Ki-ras gene mutations are invariably present in low-grade mucinous tumors of the vermiform appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauber, Peter; Berman, Errol; Marotta, Stephen; Sabbath-Solitare, Marlene; Bishop, Timothy

    2011-07-01

    Low-grade mucinous tumors of the appendix appear to have a simple histological structure. Paradoxically, reports have suggested a greater frequency of Ki-ras gene mutation in these lesions than in more complex lesions such as benign colonic adenomas and carcinomas. We assessed several molecular genetic changes, including Ki-ras gene mutations, in a large series of low-grade mucinous tumors of the appendix. We retrospectively ascertained low-grade mucinous tumors of the appendix from computerized pathology records. Extracted DNA was analyzed for APC and DCC gene loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite instability and for the presence of Ki-ras gene mutation using standard molecular techniques. Controls consisted of normal appendices, other appendiceal neoplasms, and ovarian mucinous cystadenomas. A total of 31 low-grade appendiceal mucinous tumors were identified. All were microsatellite stable and none demonstrated loss of heterozygosity for the APC or DCC genes. By contrast, all 31 lesions contained a Ki-ras gene mutation. The presence of a Ki-ras gene mutation in all lesions, with no other molecular changes identified, strongly suggests a possible etiological role of the Ki-ras mutation in the development of this particular lesion of the appendix. Based on other work regarding intestinal bacteria, we hypothesize a relationship between chronic inflammation of the appendix from bacterial overgrowth and Ki-ras gene mutation.

  10. The lytic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii: 15 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blader, Ira; Coleman, Bradley; Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the clinical and pathological consequence of acute infection with the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Symptoms result from tissue destruction that accompanies lytic parasite growth. This review updates current understanding of the host cell invasion, parasite replication and eventual egress that comprise the lytic cycle, as well as the ways T. gondii manipulates host cells to assure survival. Since the publication of a previous iteration of this review 15 years ago, important advances have been made in our molecular understanding of parasite growth and mechanisms of host cell egress, and knowledge of the parasite’s manipulation of the host has rapidly progressed. Here we cover molecular advances and current conceptual frameworks that include each of these topics, with an eye to what might be known 15 years from now. PMID:26332089

  11. Analysis of DTI-Derived Tensor Metrics in Differential Diagnosis between Low-grade and High-grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Chao-Yong; Xu, Quan; Sun, Jun; Chen, Huiyou; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yin, Xindao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It is critical and difficult to accurately discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas preoperatively. This study aimed to ascertain the role of several scalar measures in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, especially the axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), and linear tensor (Cl) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas (21 low-grade and 32 high-grade) were included. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and DTI were performed in all patients. The AD, RD, Cp, Cs, and Cl values in the tumor zone, peritumoral edema zone, white matter (WM) adjacent to edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were calculated. The DTI parameters and tumor grades were statistically analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. Results: The DTI metrics in the affected hemisphere showed significant differences from those in the NAWM, except for the AD values in the tumor zone and the RD values in WM adjacent to edema in the low-grade groups, as well as the Cp values in WM adjacent to edema in the high-grade groups. AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema revealed significant differences between the low- and high-grade gliomas. The areas under the curve (Az) of all three metrics were greater than 0.5 in distinguishing low-grade from high-grade gliomas by ROC curve analysis, and the best DTI metric was Cs in WM adjacent to edema (Az: 0.692). Conclusion: AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema will provide additional information to better classify gliomas and can be used as non-invasive reliable biomarkers in glioma grading.

  12. The significance of low-grade uptake in Tc-99m HMPAOWBC imaging for inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, K.; Beadsmoore, C.; Groves, A.; Solanki, C.; Middleton, S.; Freeman, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the significance of low-grade uptake of Tc-99m HMPAO WBC during investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A total of 1341 Tc-99m HMPAO WBC studies were performed in 1157 patients over a 2-year period. Ninety five (8%) patients were found to have low-grade (Grade 1) uptake within the abdomen or pelvis. Twenty-nine patients (31%) with low-grade uptake had previous IBD. Of the remaining 66 patients whose 5-year follow-up was completed, six developed IBD. None of the six, however, had any significant abnormality in the other initial investigations. Of the 5 patients with abnormal barium enema examination and low-grade uptake, two had diverticular disease, one nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLHP) and the remaining two, mucosal irregularities suggestive of IBD. The positive findings on sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and biopsy were inconclusive. One patient was positive for C. difficile on stool culture. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) intake, pelvic inflammatory disease and gastrointestinal bleeding were the other presumed causes of non-specific WBC uptake. The results demonstrate that low-grade uptake is common during Tc-99m HMPAO WBC imaging for IBD, the commonest cause probably being inactive disease. However, the presence of mild uptake alone is unreliable in the diagnosis of IBD and recurrent symptoms may warrant further evaluation to completely exclude the condition. Finally, it is important to be aware of the other causes of WBC uptake, especially NSAIDs, to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. (author)

  13. Triple-negative breast cancer: the importance of molecular and histologic subtyping, and recognition of low-grade variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Fresia; Geyer, Felipe C; Marchiò, Caterina; Burke, Kathleen A; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), defined by lack of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2, account for 12-17% of breast cancers and are clinically perceived as a discrete breast cancer subgroup. Nonetheless, TNBC has been shown to constitute a vastly heterogeneous disease encompassing a wide spectrum of entities with marked genetic, transcriptional, histological and clinical differences. Although most TNBCs are high-grade tumors, there are well-characterized low-grade TNBCs that have an indolent clinical course, whose natural history, molecular features and optimal therapy vastly differ from those of high-grade TNBCs. Secretory and adenoid cystic carcinomas are two histologic types of TNBCs underpinned by specific fusion genes; these tumors have an indolent clinical behavior and lack all of the cardinal molecular features of high-grade triple-negative disease. Recent studies of rare entities, including lesions once believed to constitute mere benign breast disease (e.g., microglandular adenosis), have resulted in the identification of potential precursors of TNBC and suggested the existence of a family of low-grade triple-negative lesions that, despite having low-grade morphology and indolent clinical behavior, have been shown to harbor the complex genomic landscape of common forms of TNBC, and may progress to high-grade disease. In this review, we describe the heterogeneity of TNBC and focus on the histologic and molecular features of low-grade forms of TNBC. Germane to addressing the challenges posed by the so-called triple-negative disease is the realization that TNBC is merely a descriptive term, and that low-grade types of TNBC may be driven by distinct sets of genetic alterations.

  14. Low-grade disease activity in early life precedes childhood asthma and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-08-01

    for promotion of or protection against asthma and allergies. Therefore, preventive initiatives to restore immune health, such as vitamin D supplementation, should be directed to the fetus and the earliest postnatal life. The eosinophil granulocyte has a major role in the allergic inflammatory cascade and eosinophilia is considered a hallmark of many allergic phenotypes. In paper III, we examined neonatal urinary biomarkers including eosinophil protein X (u-EPX), which is contained in the eosinophil granules. Elevated u-EPX in asymptomatic neonates was associated with development of allergic sensitization and nasal eosinophilia, but not with wheezing or asthma (III). These findings suggest the presence of an ongoing low-grade disease process in early life characterized by eosinophil activation prior to appearance of allergy-related conditions. In papers IV-V, we investigated perinatal and genetic predictors of neonatal fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the relationship between neonatal FeNO and wheezing later in child-hood. The a priori selected determinants encompassed asthma genetic risk variants, anthropometrics, demographics, socioeconomics, parental asthma and allergy, maternal smoking, paracetamol and antibiotic usage during pregnancy, and neonatal bacterial airway colonization. Among those, only the DENND1B risk allele and paternal history of asthma and allergy were associated with increased FeNO values (V) suggesting that raised FeNO in neonatal life is primarily an inherited trait. The neonatal FeNO levels were widely dispersed (1-67 ppb) and children with values in the upper quartile were at increased risk of recurrent wheezing in early childhood, but not persistent wheezing, reduced lung function or allergy-related endpoints (IV). This suggests that elevated neonatal FeNO represents an early asymptomatic low-grade disease process other than congenitally small airway calibre contributing to a transient wheezing phenotype. Reduced lung function in

  15. Quantitative texture analysis in the prediction of IDH status in low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakola, Asgeir Store; Zhang, Yi-Hua; Skjulsvik, Anne J; Solheim, Ole; Bø, Hans Kristian; Berntsen, Erik Magnus; Reinertsen, Ingerid; Gulati, Sasha; Förander, Petter; Brismar, Torkel B

    2018-01-01

    Molecular markers provide valuable information about treatment response and prognosis in patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG). In order to make this important information available prior to surgery the aim of this study was to explore if molecular status in LGG can be discriminated by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients with histopathologically confirmed LGG with available molecular status who had undergone a preoperative standard clinical MRI protocol using a 3T Siemens Skyra scanner during 2008-2015 were retrospectively identified. Based on Haralick texture parameters and the segmented LGG FLAIR volume we explored if it was possible to predict molecular status. In total 25 patients (nine women, average age 44) fulfilled the inclusion parameters. The textural parameter homogeneity could discriminate between LGG patients with IDH mutation (0.12, IQR 0.10-0.15) and IDH wild type (0.07, IQR 0.06-0.09, p=0.005). None of the other four analyzed texture parameters (energy, entropy, correlation and inertia) were associated with molecular status. Using ROC curves, the area under curve for predicting IDH mutation was 0.905 for homogeneity, 0.840 for tumor volume and 0.940 for the combined parameters of tumor volume and homogeneity. We could not predict molecular status using the four other chosen texture parameters (energy, entropy, correlation and inertia). Further, we could not separate LGG with IDH mutation with or without 1p19q codeletion. In this preliminary study using Haralick texture parameters based on preoperative clinical FLAIR sequence, the homogeneity parameter could separate IDH mutated LGG from IDH wild type LGG. Combined with tumor volume, these diagnostic properties seem promising. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic and Prognostic Implications of BRAF V600E in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Alvaro; Zapotocky, Michal; Mistry, Matthew; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Honnorat, Marion; Krishnatry, Rahul; Guerreiro Stucklin, Ana; Zhukova, Nataliya; Arnoldo, Anthony; Ryall, Scott; Ling, Catriona; McKeown, Tara; Loukides, Jim; Cruz, Ofelia; de Torres, Carmen; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Packer, Roger J; Tatevossian, Ruth; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Harreld, Julie H; Dalton, James D; Mulcahy-Levy, Jean; Foreman, Nicholas; Karajannis, Matthias A; Wang, Shiyang; Snuderl, Matija; Nageswara Rao, Amulya; Giannini, Caterina; Kieran, Mark; Ligon, Keith L; Garre, Maria Luisa; Nozza, Paolo; Mascelli, Samantha; Raso, Alessandro; Mueller, Sabine; Nicolaides, Theodore; Silva, Karen; Perbet, Romain; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Faure Conter, Cécile; Frappaz, Didier; Leary, Sarah; Crane, Courtney; Chan, Aden; Ng, Ho-Keung; Shi, Zhi-Feng; Mao, Ying; Finch, Elizabeth; Eisenstat, David; Wilson, Bev; Carret, Anne Sophie; Hauser, Peter; Sumerauer, David; Krskova, Lenka; Larouche, Valerie; Fleming, Adam; Zelcer, Shayna; Jabado, Nada; Rutka, James T; Dirks, Peter; Taylor, Michael D; Chen, Shiyi; Bartels, Ute; Huang, Annie; Ellison, David W; Bouffet, Eric; Hawkins, Cynthia; Tabori, Uri

    2017-09-01

    Purpose BRAF V600E is a potentially highly targetable mutation detected in a subset of pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs). Its biologic and clinical effect within this diverse group of tumors remains unknown. Patients and Methods A combined clinical and genetic institutional study of patients with PLGGs with long-term follow-up was performed (N = 510). Clinical and treatment data of patients with BRAF V600E mutated PLGG (n = 99) were compared with a large international independent cohort of patients with BRAF V600E mutated-PLGG (n = 180). Results BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 69 of 405 patients (17%) with PLGG across a broad spectrum of histologies and sites, including midline locations, which are not often routinely biopsied in clinical practice. Patients with BRAF V600E PLGG exhibited poor outcomes after chemotherapy and radiation therapies that resulted in a 10-year progression-free survival of 27% (95% CI, 12.1% to 41.9%) and 60.2% (95% CI, 53.3% to 67.1%) for BRAF V600E and wild-type PLGG, respectively ( P < .001). Additional multivariable clinical and molecular stratification revealed that the extent of resection and CDKN2A deletion contributed independently to poor outcome in BRAF V600E PLGG. A similar independent role for CDKN2A and resection on outcome were observed in the independent cohort. Quantitative imaging analysis revealed progressive disease and a lack of response to conventional chemotherapy in most patients with BRAF V600E PLGG. Conclusion BRAF V600E PLGG constitutes a distinct entity with poor prognosis when treated with current adjuvant therapy.

  17. Improvement in cognitive function after surgery for low-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilai, Ori; Ben Moshe, Shlomit; Sitt, Razi; Sela, Gal; Shofty, Ben; Ram, Zvi

    2018-03-23

    OBJECTIVE Cognition is a key component in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and is currently incorporated as a major parameter of outcome assessment in patients treated for brain tumors. The effect of surgery on cognition and HRQoL remains debatable. The authors investigated the impact of resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) on cognition and the correlation with various histopathological markers. METHODS A retrospective analysis of patients with LGG who underwent craniotomy for tumor resection at a single institution between 2010 and 2014 was conducted. Of 192 who underwent resective surgery for LGG during this period, 49 had complete pre- and postoperative neurocognitive evaluations and were included in the analysis. These patients completed a full battery of neurocognitive tests (memory, language, attention and working memory, visuomotor organization, and executive functions) pre- and postoperatively. Tumor and surgical characteristics were analyzed, including volumetric measurements and histopathological markers (IDH, p53, GFAP). RESULTS Postoperatively, significant improvement was found in memory and executive functions. A subgroup analysis of patients with dominant-side tumors, most of whom underwent intraoperative awake mapping, revealed significant improvement in the same domains. Patients whose tumors were on the nondominant side displayed significant improvement only in memory functions. Positive staining for p53 testing was associated with improved language function and greater extent of resection in dominant-side tumors. GFAP positivity was associated with improved memory in patients whose tumors were on the nondominant side. No correlation was found between cognitive outcome and preoperative tumor volume, residual volume, extent of resection, or IDH1 status. CONCLUSIONS Resection of LGG significantly improves memory and executive function and thus is likely to improve functional outcome in addition to providing oncological benefit. GFAP and pP53

  18. Gene expression profiles of ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma resemble those of fallopian tube epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunping; Lu, Nan; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Qing; Yuan, Cunzhong; Yan, Shi; Dongol, Samina; Li, Yingwei; Sun, Xiaomei; Sun, Chenggong; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Wenxin; Kong, Beihua

    2017-12-01

    The cell of origin of ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) remains unclarified. Our recent morphologic and immunophenotypic study suggests that most LGSCs may be derived from the fallopian tube. The purpose of the current study was to gain further insight into the origin of LGSC at the molecular level. RNA-seq analysis was performed on a total of 31 tissue samples including LGSC (n=6), serous borderline tumors (SBT, n=6), fallopian tube epithelia (FTE, n=5), ovarian surface epithelia (OSE, n=4), and human peritoneal mesothelia (HPM, n=4). HGSC cases (n=6) served as a positive control. Gene expression profiles were compared and analyzed. To validate the findings from the gene expression array study, we selected the highly differentially expressed genes (PAX8, CDH1, FOXA2, and ARX) as well as those corresponding proteins and examined their expression levels in tissue samples of ovarian serous tumors, fallopian tube, ovarian surface epithelia, and peritoneal mesothelia. Dendrograms revealed that OSE samples clustered with HPM, while ovarian serous tumors, including LGSC, SBT and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), clustered with FTE. Furthermore, LGSC showed a significantly closer relationship with FTE than with OSE and HPM samples. PAX8, CDH1, and FOXA2 were highly and specifically expressed in serous tumors and FTE samples but not in OSE samples. In contrast, ARX was mainly expressed in OSE samples but not in FTE and serous tumors. The findings of the current study provide further evidence at a molecular level that the fallopian tube is likely the cellular source of LGSC. This finding may enable new prevention strategies, improve early detection, and allow novel therapies to be tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutualism between autotrophic and heterophic bacteria in leaching of low grade ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Z.M.; Naeveke, R.

    1991-01-01

    During solubilization processes of low grade sulphidic ores, the auto trophic bacteria oxidize reduced sulphur compounds and ferrous iron to sulphates and ferric iron respectively. The ore leaching bio topes are not only colonized by auto trophic bacteria (Thiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum ferro oxidans and sulfolobus sp.) but the heterotrophic microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi of various species are also found in these habitats. The autotrophs, in addition to energy metabolism, also produce organic compounds which in excess amount inhibit their growth. Through the utilization of such compounds and also through the production of carbon dioxide and ammonia, these heterotorphs can help bio leaching processes. Effect of one of the heterotrophs; methylobacterium sp., a nitrogen scavenger, found in as association with the thio bacilli in one of the leaching bio tope in Germany was studied in leaching of a carbonate bearing complex (containing copper, iron, zinc and lead) sulphidic ore, in shake flask studies. T. ferro oxidans (Strain F-40) reported to be non nitrogen fixer and strain F-41, a nitrogen fixing thiobacillus were studied for leachability behaviour alone and in combination with T. thio oxidans (lacking nitrogen fixing ability) using media with and without added ammonium nitrogen. In addition the effect of methylobacterium sp. (alt-25) was also tested with the afore mentioned combinations. Nitrogen fixation by T. ferro oxidans did not suffice the nitrogen requirement and the leaching system in laboratory needed addition of nitrogen. The heterotrophic nitrogen scavenger also did not have a positive influence in nitrogen limited system. In case where ammonium nitrogen was also provided in the media, this heterotroph had a negative in own growth and leaving lesser amount available for thio bacilli. This high amount of acid is a limiting factor in bio leaching of high carbonate uranium ores. Uranium ore ecosystems have also been found to contain

  20. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netson, Kelli L. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  1. Direct reduction of low grade nickel laterite ore to produce ferronickel using isothermal - temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhan, Zulfiadi; Gibranata, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this study, low grade nickel laterite ore was processed by means of isothermal-temperature gradient method to produce ferronickel nugget. The ore and coal as reductant were ground to obtain the grain size of less than 0.25 mm and 0.425 mm, respectively. Both ground laterite ore and coal were mixed, agglomerated in the form of cylindrical pellet by using press machine and then reduced at temperature of 1000°C to 1400°C in a muffle furnace. The experiments were conducted at three stages each at different temperature profile: the first stage was isothermal at 1000°C; the second stage was temperature gradient at certain heating rate from 1000 to 1400°C; and the third stage was isothermal at 1400°C. The heating rate during temperature gradient stage was varied: 6.67, 8.33 and 10°C/minute. No fluxes were added in these experiments. By addition of 10 wt% of coal into the laterite nikel ore, product of ferronickel nugget was formed with the size varies from 1-2 mm. However, by increasing the coal content, the size of ferronickel nugget was decreased to less than 0.2 mm. The observation of the samples during the heating stage showed that ferronickel nugget grew and separated from the gangue during temperature gradient stage as it achieved the temperature of 1380°C. Furthermore, the experiment results indicated that the recovery of ferronickel can be increased at lower heating rate during temperature gradient stage and longer holding time for final isothermal stage. The highest nickel recovery was obtained at a heating rate of 6.67°C/minute.

  2. Exploratory Visual Analysis of Statistical Results from Microarray Experiments Comparing High and Low Grade Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H. Moore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological interpretation of gene expression microarray results is a daunting challenge. For complex diseases such as cancer, wherein the body of published research is extensive, the incorporation of expert knowledge provides a useful analytical framework. We have previously developed the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA software for exploring data analysis results in the context of annotation information about each gene, as well as biologically relevant groups of genes. We present EVA as a fl exible combination of statistics and biological annotation that provides a straightforward visual interface for the interpretation of microarray analyses of gene expression in the most commonly occurring class of brain tumors, glioma. We demonstrate the utility of EVA for the biological interpretation of statistical results by analyzing publicly available gene expression profi les of two important glial tumors. The results of a statistical comparison between 21 malignant, high-grade glioblastoma multiforme (GBM tumors and 19 indolent, low-grade pilocytic astrocytomas were analyzed using EVA. By using EVA to examine the results of a relatively simple statistical analysis, we were able to identify tumor class-specifi c gene expression patterns having both statistical and biological signifi cance. Our interactive analysis highlighted the potential importance of genes involved in cell cycle progression, proliferation, signaling, adhesion, migration, motility, and structure, as well as candidate gene loci on a region of Chromosome 7 that has been implicated in glioma. Because EVA does not require statistical or computational expertise and has the fl exibility to accommodate any type of statistical analysis, we anticipate EVA will prove a useful addition to the repertoire of computational methods used for microarray data analysis. EVA is available at no charge to academic users and can be found at http://www.epistasis.org.

  3. Low-grade Albuminuria and Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Children with in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazim, J; Małachowska, B; Fendler, W; Starzyk, J

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria reflects generalized vascular dysfunction and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The study aim was to examine the relationship between low-grade albuminuria and the selected risk factors for atherosclerosis, markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in diabetic children and adolescents. In 154 children with diabetes duration of at least 5 years we assessed: HbA1c, lipid profile, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein (a), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, uric acid, cystatin C, creatinine, 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and albuminuria. Median albuminuria in the whole group was 2.02 μg/min. No correlations were found between albuminuria and lipids, apolipoproteins, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, cystatin C and GFR, HbA1c, and uric acid. A significant negative correlation was found between AER and ADMA (R=-0.24, p=0.0023) and positive correlation with all ABPM variables: mean SBP (R=0.23, p=0.0049), mean DBP (R=0.24, p=0.0023), daytime MAP (R=0.31, p=0.0001), nocturnal MAP (r=0.31, palbuminuria and Lp(a) (R=0.15, p=0.059) and BMI Z-score (R=0.14, p=0.089).Children with albuminuria below 5 μg/min. had significantly lower level of fibrinogen (2.96±0.57 g/l vs. 3.29±0.66 g/l, p=0.0167) and mean 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean day and nocturnal blood pressure in comparison to the subjects with higher albuminuria. diabetic children with acceptable diabetes control but high-normal albuminuria together with higher level of Lp(a), fibrinogen and blood pressure may require more attention in terms of prevention of early macroangiopathy development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The immune protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque.

  5. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  6. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p product (control and PLR) showed no significant difference with length, diameter, weight and volume expansion ratio and water absorption index (WAI). Consumer acceptability was high for PLR products palathalikalu (95%), instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P products of convenience/commercial importance.

  7. Low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary displaying a macropapillary pattern of invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemelyanova, Anna; Mao, Tsui-Lien; Nakayama, Naomi; Shih, Ie Ming; Kurman, Robert J

    2008-12-01

    Invasive micropapillary serous carcinoma (MPSC) also designated "low-grade serous carcinoma" (LGSC) of the ovary is characterized by small micropapillae that infiltrate underlying tissue (ovarian stroma). On occasion these tumors in addition to the micropapillae contain large macropapillae lined by bland epithelium. In rare cases, the entire tumor is composed of macropapillae. In these cases, the question of whether this is an invasive carcinoma or an unusual type of adenofibroma has been raised. The goal of this study was to describe this unusual macropapillary pattern of invasion in LGSC. Cases of LGSC containing macropapillae were retrieved from the files of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. In addition to a detailed morphologic analysis, the mutational status of KRAS and BRAF in the macropapillary, noninvasive, and invasive MPSC components was analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. There were 14 cases containing macropapillae (11 cases of LGSC, 2 cases of atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST) with microinvasion, and 1 case of APST with a focus of LGSC with macropapillae in perivaginal soft tissue). In 3 cases, extraovarian metastases contained macropapillae. Molecular analysis of the primary tumor components (macropapillary, noninvasive, and invasive MPSC and/or APST) was performed in 7 cases and of a lymph node metastasis with macropapillae in 1 case. The identical KRAS mutation was detected in all of the analyzed components of the primary ovarian tumors in 4 cases. In one of these cases, macropapillae in the lymph node metastasis contained a KRAS mutation identical to the primary tumor. The BRAF mutation identified in 1 case was identical in all components of the ovarian tumor. The identical mutations in the macropapillae and the other tumor components in each case indicate that they are clonally related. The finding of macropapillae within lymph nodes supports the interpretation that the macropapillary component is another manifestation of invasion in LGSC. The

  8. Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pinto, Marcos; Conklin, Heather M.; Li, Chenghong; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test–Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

  9. Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pinto, Marcos [Department of Pediatric Psychology, Children' s Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

  10. Spontaneous regression of residual low-grade cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunny, Roxana S.; Saunders, Dawn E.; Hayward, Richard D.; Phipps, Kim P.; Harding, Brian N.

    2005-01-01

    Cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas (CLGAs) of childhood are benign tumours and are usually curable by surgical resection alone or combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. To undertake a retrospective study of our children with CLGA to determine the optimum schedule for surveillance imaging following initial surgery. In this report we describe the phenomenon of spontaneous regression of residual tumour and discuss its prognostic significance regarding future imaging. A retrospective review was conducted of children treated for histologically proven CLGA at Great Ormond Street Hospital from 1988 to 1998. Of 83 children with CLGA identified, 13 (15.7%) had incomplete resections. Two children with large residual tumours associated with persistent symptoms underwent additional treatment. Eleven children were followed by surveillance imaging alone for a mean of 6.83 years (range 2-13.25 years). Spontaneous tumour regression was seen in 5 (45.5%) of the 11 children. There were no differences in age, gender, symptomatology, histological grade or Ki-67 fractions between those with spontaneous tumour regression and those with progression. There was a non-significant trend that larger volume residual tumours progressed. Residual tumour followed by surveillance imaging may either regress or progress. For children with residual disease we recommend surveillance imaging every 6 months for the first 2 years, every year for years 3, 4 and 5, then every second year if residual tumour is still present 5 years after initial surgery. This would detect not only progressive or recurrent disease, but also spontaneous regression which can occur later than disease progression. (orig.)

  11. The case for focal brachytherapy for the management of low grade prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Enari, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Radical therapy of low to intermediate prostate cancer patients can cause substantial adverse events relating to genitourinary and rectal toxicity. Yet there is little evidence that such treatment results in increased life expectancy. On the other hand, watchful waiting is associated with active surveillance and the patient must accept that the cancer remains untreated and has a risk of progression. Focal therapy of low grade prostate cancer provides an intermediate approach to the management of this cancer. The approach is to treat only those positive segments on biopsy and so reduce the likelihood of adverse events. However, continued surveillance is required because of the increased risk of disease progression. Focal therapy needs to be evaluated using available ablative therapies. Recent studies of focal HIFU for 20 patients showed PSA reduced from 7.3 to 1.5 ng/mL at 12 months. 1/20 patients had inadequate erections and 2120 required pads. 17/19 had no histological evidence of cancer and none had evidence of high volume or Gleason = 7 cancer in the treated lobe. Seed brachytherapy is commonly used for radical prostate treatment of low volume disease. As the same template can be used for seed therapy as is used for biopsy, the technique is ideally suited for focal brachytherapy. As any treatment involving less than the entire gland involves the risk of leaving viable cancer cells outside the treatment zone, a phase 3 randomised clinical trial between radical and focal brachytherapy is advocated to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the latter relative to radical therapy.

  12. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  13. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy in lytic bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.H.; Lazaro, S. de; Gil, S.; Gomez, F.; Gonzalez, M.; Ambit, S.; Piqueras, R.; Bardon, F.

    1996-01-01

    Percutaneous biopsy (PB) of bone lesions is a widely used diagnostic technique that involves fluoroscopic or computerized tomography guidance. Among the bone lesions that can be studied by biopsy, the most common types in practice are lytic lesions composed to some degree of soft tissue. The objective of this report is to propose the use of ultrasonography (US) inthe guidance of PB in this type of lesions. We employed US to guide PB of lytic bone lesions in 62 patients. The lesions were located as follows; rib (n=3D23), dorsal vertebra (n=3D10), lumbarvertebra (n=3D5), sacrum (n=3D2), ilium (n=3D7), sternum (n=3D5), humerus (n=3D3),femur (n=3D3), ischium (n=3D2), sternoclavicular joint (n=3D1) and clacaneus (n=3D1). The definitive diagnosis was metastasis of diverse origin in 36 cases, lung carcinoma in 7, plasmacytoma in 6, myeloma in 1, Ewing's tumor in 2. non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 2, neuro fibrosarcoma in 1, sarcoma in 1, osteoblastoma in 1, desmoplastic fibroma in 1, nonspecific osteomyelitis in3 and inflammatory arthritis in 1. The correct histological diagnosis was obtained in 93.5% of cases. The only complication was a case of minor pneumothorax that did not require drainage. US is a highly safe method of guidance in PB of lytic bone lesions that clearly identifies changes in the cortical tissue and the associated soft tissue component. (Author)

  14. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascelli, Samantha; Fasulo, Daniel; Noy, Karin; Wittemberg, Gayle; Pignatelli, Sara; Piatelli, Gianluca; Cama, Armando; Garré, Maria Luisa; Capra, Valeria; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa; Raso, Alessandro; Mosci, Sofia; Nozza, Paolo; Biassoni, Roberto; Morana, Giovanni; Huber, Martin; Mircean, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) encompass a heterogeneous set of tumours of different histologies, site of lesion, age and gender distribution, growth potential, morphological features, tendency to progression and clinical course. Among LGGs, Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children. They are typically well-circumscribed, classified as grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), but recurrence or progressive disease occurs in about 10-20% of cases. Despite radiological and neuropathological features deemed as classic are acknowledged, PA may present a bewildering variety of microscopic features. Indeed, tumours containing both neoplastic ganglion and astrocytic cells occur at a lower frequency. Gene expression profiling on 40 primary LGGs including PAs and mixed glial-neuronal tumours comprising gangliogliomas (GG) and desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) using Affymetrix array platform was performed. A biologically validated machine learning workflow for the identification of microarray-based gene signatures was devised. The method is based on a sparsity inducing regularization algorithm l 1 l 2 that selects relevant variables and takes into account their correlation. The most significant genetic signatures emerging from gene-chip analysis were confirmed and validated by qPCR. We identified an expression signature composed by a biologically validated list of 15 genes, able to distinguish infratentorial from supratentorial LGGs. In addition, a specific molecular fingerprinting distinguishes the supratentorial PAs from those originating in the posterior fossa. Lastly, within supratentorial tumours, we also identified a gene expression pattern composed by neurogenesis, cell motility and cell growth genes which dichotomize mixed glial-neuronal tumours versus PAs. Our results reinforce previous observations about aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in LGGs

  15. Bacterial bioleaching of low grade nickel limonite and saprolite ores by mixotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaerun Siti Khodijah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of indigenous bacteria should be considered to establish a successful biohydrometallurgical process. In this study, mixrotrophic iron-oxidizing bacterial consortia consisting of Comamonas testosteroni, Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans and Pantoea septic which were isolated from Indonesian mineral ores were examined to determine their abilities to recover nickel from limonite and saprolite ores in the bioleaching experiments using stirred tank reactors. The nickel bioleaching experiments inoculated with the bacterial consortia were carried out using coarse limonite ores and weathered saprolite ores with pulp density of 10% w/v. Abiotic controls were also carried out replacing the inocula by the sterile medium. The bioleaching processes were monitored by measuring Ni and Fe contents and pH of the leaching solution as well as the total bacterial enzymatic activity measured as FDA hydrolytic activity. The effect of leaching on the mineralogy of laterite ores was investigated by the scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. After 28 days of incubation, the FDA hydrolytic activity was observed in both bioleaching experiments containing limonite (17.2 μg fluorescein/mL and saprolite ores (16.9 μg fluorescein/mL. The leached Ni and Fe in the bioleaching experiments containing limonite ores (30% Ni and 5.6% Fe was greater than that in abiotic controls (1% Ni and 0.1% Fe with the pH range of 2.5 to 3.5. However, the bacterial consortia were less capable of bioleaching of Ni (2.5% with the similar leached Fe (6% from the saprolite ores. In abiotic controls, the medium pH remained relatively constant (pH 6. It was concluded that these bacterial isolated as the consortium were capable of nickel bioleaching (precious metal more effectively than iron (gangue metal, thus being applicable to the commercial processing of the difficult-to-process low-grade nickel laterite ores

  16. Surgical Workflow Analysis: Ideal Application of Navigated Linear Array Ultrasound in Low-Grade Glioma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothes, Thomas Ernst; Siekmann, Max; König, Ralph Werner; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Coburger, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Background  Intraoperative imaging in low-grade glioma (LGG) surgery can facilitate residual tumor control and improve surgical outcome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ideal application and typical interactions of intraoperative MRI (iMRI), conventional low-frequency intraoperative ultrasound (cioUS), and high-frequency linear array intraoperative ultrasound (lioUS) to optimize surgical workflow. Methods  Prospectively, we included 11 patients with an LGG. Typical procedural workflow in the iMRI suite was recorded with a compatible software. We took notes of duration, frequency of application, the surgeon's evaluation of image quality, and the respective benefit of lioUS (15 MHz), cioUS (7 MHz), and iMRI (1.5 T). With the help of the workflow software, we meticulously analyzed ∼ 55 hours of surgery. Results  During the interventions, lioUS was used more often (76.3%) than cioUS (23.7%) and showed a better mean image quality (1 = best to 6 = worst) of 2.08 versus 3.26 with cioUS. The benefit of the lioUS application was rated with an average of 2.27, whereas the cioUS probe only reached a mean value of 3.83. The most common application of lioUS was resection control (42.6%); cioUS was used mainly for orientation (63.2%). Overall, lioUS was used more often and was rated better for both the purposes just described regarding image quality and benefit. Estimated residual tumor based on lioUS alone was lower than the final residual tumor detected with iMRI (7.5% versus 14.5%). The latter technique was rated as the best imaging modality for resection control in all cases followed by lioUS. Conclusion  We provide proof of principle for workflow assessment in cranial neurosurgery. Although iMRI remains the imaging method of choice, lioUS has shown to be beneficial in a combined setup. Evaluation of lioUS was significantly superior to cioUS in most indications except for subcortical lesions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Extraction of uranium from low-grade uranium ores in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiegiel, K.; Zakrzewska, G.; Samczynski, Z.; Chajduk, E.; Chwastowska, J.; Bartosiewicz, I.; Frackiewicz, K.; Zielinska, B.; Szczyglow, K.; Herdzik-Koniecko, I.; Gajda, D.; Jaworska, A.; Miskiewicz, A.; Bieluszka, P.; Abramowska, A.; Olszewska, W.; Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Danko, B.; Wolkowicz, S.; Miecznik, J.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2014 Polish Government adopted the Program of Polish Nuclear Energy. One of the objectives of this Program is the assessment of domestic uranium deposits as a potential source of uranium for Polish nuclear reactors. Presently, mining of Polish low-grade uranium ores is unprofitable. However, studies on the prospects of recovery of uranium from domestic resources are in progress, keeping in mind the inevitable growing uranium demand and perspectives of the global uranium market. The most perspective deposits are in the Lower Ordovician Dictyonema Shale of the Podlasie Depression (north-east Poland) with uranium concentration of 75-250 ppm and the Lower and Middle Triassic rocks of the central parts of Peribaltic Syneclise, where concentrations reach 1.5% U (recent analysis of archive samples). Uranium usually is accompanied by other rare metals e.g. V, Mo, Ln, Ag or Co that can be recovered in technological process to improve the profitability of the whole venture. The characteristics of the material originating from uranium ores vary significantly from deposit to deposit. The effect of ore mineralogy and mineral liberation on the leaching behaviour of uranium is not well defined. The procedure of uranium extraction must be designed to fit specific characteristics of the ore; however the general scheme of the process is similar for most of the ore materials. The main objectives of this research were: to assess the possibility of exploitation of uranium resources in Poland, and to work out methods of uranium extraction from the ores to produce yellow cake – U 3 O 8 . In the present work at the beginning of the extraction process, uranium was leached from the ground ore by using sulphuric acid or carbonate (CO 3 2- ) solutions. In comparison with acid processing, alkaline leaching had the advantage of being selective for uranium. The post-leaching solutions were concentrated and purified using solvent extraction or ion exchange chromatography. Novel

  18. Directions and prospects of using low grade process fuel to produce alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Дубовиков

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption across the globe is constantly increasing for a variety of reasons: growing population, industrialization and fast economic growth. The most widespread gaseous fuel – natural gas – has the low production cost. It is 2-3 times cheaper than liquid fuel production and 6-12 times cheaper than coal production. When natural gas is transported to distances from 1.5 to 2.5 thousand km by the pipeline, its cost with account of transportation is 1.5-2 times less than the cost of coal and the fuel storage facilities are not needed. Plants powered by natural gas have the higher efficiency as compared to the plants operating on other types of fuel. They are easier and cheaper to maintain and are relatively simple in automation, thus enhancing safety and improving the production process flow, do not require complicated fuel feeding or ash handling systems. Gas is combusted with a minimum amount of polluting emissions, which adds to better sanitary conditions and environment protection. But due to depletion of major energy resources many experts see the future of the global energy industry in opportunities associated with the use of solid energy carriers. From the environmental perspective solid fuel gasification is a preferred technology. The use of synthetic gas was first offered and then put to mass scale by English mechanical engineer William Murdoch. He discovered a possibility to use gas for illumination by destructive distillation of bituminous coal. After invention of the gas burner by Robert Bunsen, the illumination gas began to be used as a household fuel. The invention of an industrial gas generator by Siemens brothers made it possible to produce a cheaper generator gas which became a fuel for industrial furnaces. As the calorific value of generator gas produced through gasification is relatively low compared to natural gas, the Mining University studied possibilities to use different types of low grade process fuel at the

  19. Low-grade sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from Lubango, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaingona-Daniel, Elsa P S; Gomes, Larissa Rodrigues; Gama, Bianca E; Almeida-de-Oliveira, Natália K; Fortes, Filomeno; Ménard, Didier; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria de Fátima

    2016-06-07

    mutations in isolates from Lubango are suggestive of a low-grade SP resistance and IPT for pregnant women and infant based on SP treatment could be effective. Routine molecular studies targeting polymorphism in these two genes need to be routinely conducted at country level.

  20. MYC expression and translocation analyses in low-grade and transformed follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukema, Sietse M; van Pel, Roel; Nagel, Inga; Bens, Susanne; Siebert, Reiner; Rosati, Stefano; van den Berg, Eva; Bosga-Bouwer, Anneke G; Kibbelaar, Robby E; Hoogendoorn, Mels; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Kluin, Philip M; Nijland, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) (grade 1/2, FL1/2) has an annual risk of transformation of ≈3%, which is associated with aberrations in CDKN2A/B, TP53, and MYC. As in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, high MYC expression in transformed FL (tFL) might predict a MYC breakpoint. We quantified MYC expression by immunohistochemistry and digital analysis in 41 paired biopsies from 20 patients with FL1/2 with subsequent transformation and in four isolated biopsies of tFL. As controls, 28 biopsies of FL1/2 without transformation (median follow-up of 105 months) and nine biopsies of FL3A/B were analysed. In the 20 FL1/2-tFL pairs, MYC expression was significantly higher in tFL than in the initial FL1/2 biopsies (median 54% versus 6%; 7% in FL3A, and 35% in FL3B). MYC breaks (MYC-R) were detected in eight of 21 (38%) tFLs analysed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), with a median MYC score of 86%. In two of the analysed tFL cases, the translocation was already detected in antecedent FL1/2. MYC partners were immunoglobulin (IG) loci in three of eight cases (one IGL, one IGH, and one IGK) and non-IG in five of eight cases (two PAX5, one BCL6, and two unknown). Of the eight MYC-R+ cases, six were BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit, one was BCL2+/BCL6+/MYC+ triple-hit, and one was MYC+ single-hit. All three IG-MYC+ cases showed a MYC expression level of >85%, whereas the five cases with a non-IG MYC partner had a wider range of expression (median 68%, range 13-86%). Among the 13 MYC-R- tFLs, two groups with almost dichotomous MYC expression could be observed (three cases showed ≥90% MYC expression), suggesting alternative mechanisms of MYC activation. we show an increase in MYC expression from FL1/2 to tFL. MYC breakpoints were present in ≈40% of the cases, which is markedly higher than in de novo DLBCL. MYC expression was uniformly high in cases with an IG-MYC translocation but much more heterogeneous and in part independent of the presence of a MYC break in non-IG-MYC and

  1. Utility of Paired BACTEC MYCO/F LYTIC Blood Culture Vials for Detection of Bacteremia, Mycobacteremia, and Fungemia

    OpenAIRE

    Archibald, Lennox K.; Dobbie, Hamish; Kazembe, Peter; Nwanyanwu, Okey; McKnight, Celeste; Byrne, Terry; Addison, Rachel M.; Bell, Michael; Reller, L. Barth; Jarvis, William R.

    2001-01-01

    In previous bloodstream infection studies in Malawi, we inoculated blood from a single venesection into a single BACTEC MYCO/F LYTIC (MFL) vial. Inoculation of one vial, however, would be expected to reduce the sensitivity of bloodstream pathogen detection with MFL vials. To ascertain the degree of this loss of sensitivity, blood was drawn from each of 228 febrile, adult inpatients in Malawi and 5 ml of each blood sample was inoculated into each of two MFL vials. Of 228 paired vials, 51 (22%)...

  2. Early versus delayed postoperative radiotherapy for treatment of low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J Manuel; Venteicher, Andrew S; Patil, Chirag G

    2015-01-01

    Background In most people with low-grade gliomas (LGG), the primary treatment regimen remains a combination of surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy. However, the optimal timing of radiotherapy is controversial. It is unclear whether to use radiotherapy in the early postoperative period, or whether radiotherapy should be delayed until tumour progression occurs. Objectives To assess the effects of early postoperative radiotherapy versus radiotherapy delayed until tumour progression for low-grade intracranial gliomas in people who had initial biopsy or surgical resection. Search methods We searched up to September 2014 the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 8, 2014), MEDLINE (1948 to Aug week 3, 2014), and EMBASE (1980 to Aug week 3, 2014) to identify trials for inclusion in this Cochrane review. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared early versus delayed radiotherapy following biopsy or surgical resection for the treatment of people with newly diagnosed intracranial LGG (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, mixed oligoastrocytoma, astroblastoma, xanthoastrocytoma, or ganglioglioma). Radiotherapy may include conformal external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with linear accelerator or cobalt-60 sources, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and risk of bias, and extracted study data. We resolved any differences between review authors by discussion. Adverse effects were also extracted from the study report. We performed meta-analyses using a random-effects model with inverse variance weighting. Main results We included one large, multi-institutional, prospective RCT, involving 311 participants; the risk of bias in this study was unclear. This study found that early postoperative radiotherapy is associated with an increase in time to

  3. Long-term Behavior of Serous Borderline Tumors Subdivided Into Atypical Proliferative Tumors and Noninvasive Low-grade Carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Russell; Hannibal, Charlotte G; Junge, Jette

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) have been the subject of considerable controversy, particularly with regard to terminology and behavior. It has been proposed that they constitute a heterogenous group of tumors composed, for the most part, of typical SBTs that are benign and designated...... "atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST)" and a small subset of SBTs with micropapillary architecture that have a poor outcome and are designated "noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (niLGSC)". It also has been argued that the difference in behavior between the 2 groups is not due to the subtype...... renamed "low-grade serous carcinoma" (LGSC). The argument as to whether it is the appearance of the primary tumor or the presence of extraovarian LGSC that determines outcome remains unsettled. The current study was initiated in 2004 and was designed to determine what factors were predictive of outcome...

  4. Low grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma pelvic recurrence masquerading as high grade invasive carcinoma, ten years after radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi Amir

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor recurrence following radical cystectomy for a low-grade superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is exceedingly uncommon and has not been reported previously. Case presentation We describe a case of a young male presenting with anorexia, weight loss and a large, painful locally destructive pelvic recurrence, ten years after radical cystoprostatectomy. The pathology was consistent with a low-grade urothelial carcinoma. After an unsuccessful treatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the patient underwent a curative intent hemipelvectomy with complete excision of tumor and is disease free at one year follow-up. Conclusion A literature review related to this unusual presentation is reported and a surgical solutions over chemotherapy and radiotherapy is proposed.

  5. Office-Based Transurethral Devascularisation of Low Grade Non-Invasive Urothelial Cancer Using Diode Laser. A Feasibility Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Gregers G.; Mogensen, Karin; Lindvold, Lars René

    2015-01-01

    ‐based setting, without the need for sedation and pain control and where the patient can leave immediately after treatment. An in vitro model was developed to examine the dose/response relationship between laser power, treatment time, and distance between laser fibre and target, using a 980 nm diode laser...... completely disappeared two weeks after treatment. This diode laser technique may provide almost pain‐free office‐based treatment of low grade urothelial cancer using flexible cystoscopes in conscious patients. A prospective randomised study will be scheduled to compare the technique with standard TUR......Frequent recurrence of non‐muscle invasive bladder tumours (NMIBC) requiring transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TUR‐BT) and lifelong monitoring makes the lifetime cost per patient the highest of all cancers. A new method is proposed for the removal of low grade NMIBCs in an office...

  6. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  7. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, B.G.; Hegi, M.E.; Bent, M.J. van den; Deimling, A. von; Gorlia, T.; Hoang-Xuan, K.; Brandes, A.A.; Kantor, G.; Taphoorn, M.J.; Hassel, M.B.; Hartmann, C.; Ryan, G.; Capper, D.; Kros, J.M.; Kurscheid, S.; Wick, W.; Enting, R.; Reni, M.; Thiessen, B.; Dhermain, F.; Bromberg, J.E.; Feuvret, L.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Chinot, O.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Rossiter, J.P.; Dif, N.; Balana, C.; Bravo-Marques, J.; Clement, P.M.; Marosi, C.; Tzuk-Shina, T.; Nordal, R.A.; Rees, J.; Lacombe, D.; Mason, W.P.; Stupp, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and

  8. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Brigitta G.; Hegi, Monika E.; van den Bent, Martin J.; von Deimling, Andreas; Gorlia, Thierry; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Brandes, Alba A.; Kantor, Guy; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.; Hassel, Mohamed Ben; Hartmann, Christian; Ryan, Gail; Capper, David; Kros, Johan M.; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wick, Wolfgang; Enting, Roelien; Reni, Michele; Thiessen, Brian; Dhermain, Frederic; Bromberg, Jacoline E.; Feuvret, Loic; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Chinot, Olivier; Gijtenbeek, Johanna M. M.; Rossiter, John P.; Dif, Nicolas; Balana, Carmen; Bravo-Marques, Jose; Clement, Paul M.; Marosi, Christine; Tzuk-Shina, Tzahala; Nordal, Robert A.; Rees, Jeremy; Lacombe, Denis; Mason, Warren P.; Stupp, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and assessed

  9. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033) : a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Brigitta G.; Hegi, Monika E.; van den Bent, Martin J.; von Deimling, Andreas; Gorlia, Thierry; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Brandes, Alba A.; Kantor, Guy; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.; Ben Hassel, Mohamed; Hartmann, Christian; Ryan, Gail; Capper, David; Kros, Johan M.; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wick, Wolfgang; Enting, Roelien; Reni, Michele; Thiessen, Brian; Dhermain, Frederic; Bromberg, Jacoline E.; Feuvret, Loic; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Chinot, Olivier; Gijtenbeek, Johanna M. M.; Rossiter, John P.; Dif, Nicolas; Balana, Carmen; Bravo-Marques, Jose; Clement, Paul M.; Marosi, Christine; Tzuk-Shina, Tzahala; Nordal, Robert A.; Rees, Jeremy; Lacombe, Denis; Mason, Warren P.; Stupp, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and

  10. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G. Baumert (Brigitta); M.E. Hegi (Monika); M.J. van den Bent (Martin); A. von Deimling (Andreas); T.S. Gorlia (Thierry); K. Hoang-Xuan (Khê); A. Brandes (Alba); R. Kantor (Rami); M.J. Taphoorn (Martin); Hassel, M.B. (Mohamed Ben); C. Hartmann (Christian); Ryan, G. (Gail); D. Capper (David); J.M. Kros (Johan); S. Kurscheid (Sebastian); W. Wick (Wolfgang); R. Enting (Roelien); M. Reni (Michele); Thiessen, B. (Brian); F.G. Dhermain (Frederic); J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); Feuvret, L. (Loic); J.C. Reijneveld; O. Chinot; J. Gijtenbeek (Johanna); Rossiter, J.P. (John P); Dif, N. (Nicolas); Balana, C. (Carmen); Bravo-Marques, J. (Jose); P.M.J. Clement (Paul); C. Marosi (Christine); Tzuk-Shina, T. (Tzahala); Nordal, R.A. (Robert A); Rees, J. (Jeremy); D. Lacombe (Denis); W.P. Mason (Warren); R. Stupp (Roger)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade

  11. Impact of adhesive capsulitis and economic evaluation of high-grade and low-grade mobilisation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Wilbert B; Vermeulen, Henricus M; Rozing, Piet M; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of adhesive capsulitis on costs and health and to compare the cost-utility of high-grade and low-grade mobilisation techniques. In a randomised controlled trial, 92 patients with adhesive capsulitis received either high-grade mobilisation techniques or low-grade mobilisation techniques and were followed for one year. Outcome measures were quality adjusted life years (QALYs) according to the Short Form 6D (SF-6D) and societal costs estimated from cost questionnaires. Estimated costs and QALYs in both randomisation groups were similar, except for the number of treatment sessions (18.6 for high-grade mobilisation techniques versus 21.5 for low-grade mobilisation techniques), with an estimated cost difference of 105 euros in favour of high-grade mobilisation techniques (p = 0.001, 95% CI 43 euros to 158 euros). In the entire sample, the average valuation of health improved from 0.597 at baseline to 0.745 after a year. The burden due to adhesive capsulitis was estimated at 0.048 QALY and 4,521 euros per patient. About half these costs were due to absenteeism which, during the first quarter, amounted to 38% of the total working hours. In conclusion, the cost-utility analysis does not allow for an evidence-based recommendation on the preferred treatment. Based on the clinical outcome measures, high-grade mobilisation techniques are still preferred to low-grade mobilisation techniques. The estimated substantial burden, both to the patient and to society, suggests that effective early treatment of adhesive capsulitis is warranted to attempt to accelerate recovery.

  12. To Make Long Character-Marked Cuttings From Low-Grade Yellow-Poplar Lumber - Rip First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1979-01-01

    Long, character-marked furniture cuttings are easily obtained when low-grade (2A and 2B Common) yellow-poplar lumber is first ripped into strips and then crosscut to remove objectionable defects. Overall yields of character-marked material using this procedure were 78% from 1 Common and 2A Common and 70% from 2B Common yellow-poplar lumber. Furthermore, 82% of the 1...

  13. Pharmacokinetic MRI of the prostate. Parameters for differentiating low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Taupitz, M.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Luedemann, L.; Rost, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate whether pharmacokinetic MRI parameters ''perfusion, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), interstitial volume, permeability, extraction coefficient, delay, and dispersion'' allow the differentiation of low-grade (Gleason score ≤ 6) and high-grade (Gleason score ≥ 7) prostate cancer. Materials and method: forty-two patients with prostate cancer verified by biopsy (PSA 2.7 to 31.4ng/ml) and scheduled for prostatectomy underwent MRI at 1.5 Tesla using the dynamic contrast-enhanced inversion-prepared dual-contrast gradient echo sequence (temporal resolution, 1.65 s) and a combined endorectal body phased array coil. Parametric maps were computed using a sequential 3-compartment model and the corresponding post-processing algorithms. A total of 41 areas of prostate cancer (15 low-grade, 26 high-grade cancers) in 32 patients were able to be correlated with the prostatectomy specimens and were included in the analysis. Results: low-grade prostate cancers had a higher mean blood volume (1.76% vs. 1.64%, p = 0.039), longer MTT (6.39 s vs. 3.25 s, p -1 vs. 3.86 min -1 , p = 0.011) than high-grade cancers. No statistically significant difference was found for perfusion (p = 0.069), interstitial volume (p = 0.849), extraction coefficient (p = 0.615), delay (p = 0.489), and dispersion (p = 0.306). (orig.)

  14. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, CO2/N2 = 3:7 and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days. We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP.

  15. Intralesional curettage and cementation for low-grade chondrosarcoma of long bones: retrospective study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermerkaya, Musa Ugur; Bekmez, Senol; Karaaslan, Fatih; Danisman, Murat; Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Gedikoglu, Gokhan; Ayvaz, Mehmet; Tokgozoglu, Ahmet Mazhar

    2014-11-10

    Various treatment strategies for low-grade chondrosarcomas with variable outcomes have been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the oncological and functional outcomes associated with intralesional curettage followed by adjuvant therapy comprising high-speed burring, thermal cauterization, and bone cementation with polymethylmethacrylate. We performed a retrospective review of 21 consecutive patients with intramedullary low-grade chondrosarcoma of long bones treated by intralesional curettage and adjuvant therapy comprising high-speed burring, thermal cauterization, and cementation at our institution from 2007 to 2012. The average age of the patients was 48.7 (range, 18-71) years. There were 7 male and 14 female patients. The mean follow-up period was 58.4 (range, 26-85) months after surgery. The treated lesions were located in the proximal humerus (n=10), proximal tibia (n=6), and distal femur (n=5). At the average follow-up time point of 58.4 (range, 26-85) months, no patient had developed local recurrence and no distant metastases were observed. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score among all 21 patients was 95% (84-100). The combination of intralesional curettage, application of high-speed burring, thermal cauterization, and cementation is an effective treatment strategy for low-grade intramedullary chondrosarcoma of long bones. Excellent oncological and functional results can be obtained.

  16. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  17. Pattern of Tumor Shrinkage during Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Is Associated with Prognosis in Low-Grade Luminal Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Ippei; Araki, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kokoro; Shibayama, Tomoko; Takahashi, Shunji; Gomi, Naoya; Kokubu, Yumi; Oikado, Katsunori; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji; Ohno, Shinji; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Sata, Naohiro; Ito, Yoshinori

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between tumor shrinkage patterns shown with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and prognosis in patients with low-grade luminal breast cancer. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The low-grade luminal breast cancer was defined as hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative with nuclear grades 1 or 2. The patterns of tumor shrinkage as revealed at MR imaging were categorized into two types: concentric shrinkage (CS) and non-CS. Among 854 patients who had received NAC in a single institution from January 2000 to December 2009, 183 patients with low-grade luminal breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated for the development set. Another data set from 292 patients who had received NAC in the same institution between January 2010 and December 2012 was used for the validation set. Among these 292 patients, 121 patients with low-grade luminal breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Results In the development set, the median observation period was 67.9 months. Recurrence was observed in 31 patients, and 16 deaths were related to breast cancer. There were statistically significant differences in both the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates between patterns of tumor shrinkage (P breast cancer. DFS rate was significantly longer in patients with the CS pattern (72.8 months; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.9, 75.6 months) than in those with the non-CS pattern (56.0 months; 95% CI: 49.1, 62.9 months; P ≤ .001). The CS pattern was associated with an excellent prognosis (median OS, 80.6 months; 95% CI: 79.3, 81.8 months vs 65.0 months; 95% CI: 60.1, 69.8 months; P = .004). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CS pattern had the only significant independent association with DFS (P = .007) and OS (P = .037) rates. Conclusion

  18. Analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and survival in low-grade and anaplastic gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi; Wibom, Carl; Sjöström, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the variation in DNA repair genes in adults with WHO grade II and III gliomas and their relationship to patient survival. We analysed a total of 1,458 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected to cover DNA repair genes, in 81 grade ...

  19. Factors associated with psychological distress following colposcopy among women with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology: a prospective study within the Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears (TOMBOLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; Cotton, Seonaidh; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Gray, Nicola; Thornton, Alison; Cruickshank, Margaret; Little, Julian

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about psychological after-effects of colposcopy and associated investigations and treatment in women with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology. We investigated psychological distress following colposcopy and related procedures. Nine hundred and eighty-nine women aged 20-59 years with routine cytology showing low-grade abnormalities were recruited to the Trial of Management of Borderline and other Low-grade Abnormal smears and attended colposcopy. If the cervical transformation zone (TZ) was colposcopically abnormal, women had immediate loop excision or diagnostic punch biopsies, with treatment if these showed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3). Women completed socio-demographic and psychosocial questionnaires at recruitment and before colposcopy. Six weeks after their last procedure, women completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with significant psychological distress (IES ≥ 9). Analyses were stratified by colposcopic impression. The response rate was 74%. Six weeks after the last procedure, 86 (21%) of 391 women with a normal TZ had significant distress compared with 144 (42%) of 337 with an abnormal TZ. In both groups, significant distress was associated with anxiety pre-colposcopy and pain or discharge afterwards. Additional variables predicting distress in women with a normal TZ were worries about having sex and dissatisfaction with support from others. In women with an abnormal TZ, additional predictors of distress were younger age, CIN2/3, bleeding following colposcopy and worries about having cancer. Substantial proportions of women experience psychological distress after colposcopy and related procedures, even when the colposcopy is normal. This is an important cost of cervical screening. Interventions to alleviate these adverse psychological effects are required. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Immunology: Is Actin at the Lytic Synapse a Friend or a Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, John A

    2018-02-19

    Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells defend us against disease by secreting lytic granules. Whether actin facilitates or thwarts lytic granule secretion has been an open question. Recent results now indicate that the answer depends on the maturation stage of the immune cell-target cell contact. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Activity and selectivity of histidine-containing lytic peptides to antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharidia, Riddhi; Tu, Zhigang; Chen, Long; Liang, Jun F

    2012-09-01

    Lytic peptides are a group of membrane-acting peptides that are active to antibiotic-resistant bacteria but demonstrate high toxicity to tissue cells. Here, we reported the construction of new lytic peptide derivatives through the replacement of corresponding lysine/arginine residues in lytic peptide templates with histidines. Resulting lytic peptides had the same lethality to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but showed greatly improved selectivity to bacteria. When incubated with co-cultured bacteria and tissue cells, these histidine-containing lytic peptide derivatives killed bacteria selectively but spared co-cultured human cells. Membrane insertion and peptide-quenching studies revealed that histidine protonation controlled peptide interactions with cell membranes determined the bacterial selectivity of lytic peptide derivatives. Compared with parent peptides, lytic peptide derivatives bound to bacteria strongly and inserted deeply into the bacterial cell membrane. Therefore, histidine-containing lytic peptides represent a new group of antimicrobial peptides for bacterial infections in which the antibiotic resistance has developed.

  2. Genipin as a novel chemical activator of EBV lytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myoungki; Lee, Minjung; Ryu, Eunhyun; Moon, Aree; Jeong, Choon-Sik; Jung, Yong Woo; Park, Gyu Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus that causes acute infection and establishes life-long latency. EBV causes several human cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma. Antiviral agents can be categorized as virucides, antiviral chemotherapeutic agents, and immunomodulators. Most antiviral agents affect actively replicating viruses, but not their latent forms. Novel antiviral agents must be active on both the replicating and the latent forms of the virus. Gardenia jasminoides is an evergreen flowering plant belonging to the Rubiaceae family and is most commonly found growing wild in Vietnam, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan, Myanmar, and India. Genipin is an aglycone derived from an iridoid glycoside called geniposide, which is present in large quantities in the fruit of G. jasminoides. In this study, genipin was evaluated for its role as an antitumor and antiviral agent that produces inhibitory effects against EBV and EBV associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). In SNU719 cells, one of EBVaGCs, genipin caused significant cytotoxicity (70 μM), induced methylation on EBV C promoter and tumor suppressor gene BCL7A, arrested cell-cycle progress (S phases), upregulated EBV latent/lytic genes in a dose-dependent manner, stimulated EBV progeny production, activated EBV F promoter for EBV lytic activation, and suppressed EBV infection. These results indicated that genipin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and EBVaGC.

  3. Overall Reduction Kinetics of Low-grade Pyrolusite Using a Mixture of Hemicellulose and Lignin as Reductant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Fei Long

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is widely used in many fields. Many efforts have been made to recover manganese from low-grade pyrolusite due to the depletion of high-grade manganese ore. Thus, it is of practical significance to develop a clean, energy-saving and environmentally friendly technical route to reduce the low-grade pyrolusite. The reported results show that biomass wastes from crops, crop waste, wood and wood waste are environmentally friendly, energy-saving, and low-cost reducing agents for roasting reduction of low-grade pyrolusite. Kinetics of the reduction reactions is necessary for an efficient design of biomass reduction of pyrolusite. Therefore, it is important to look for a general kinetics equation to describe the reduction of pyrolusite by different kinds of biomass, because there is a wide variety of biomass wastes, meaning that it is impossible to investigate the kinetics for each biomass waste. In this paper, thermal gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were applied to study the overall reduction kinetics of pyrolusite using a mixture of hemicellulose and lignin, two major components of biomass. Overall reduction process is the overlap of the respective reduction processes. A new empirical equation based on the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami equation can be used to describe the respective reduction kinetics using hemicellulose and lignin as reductants, and the corresponding apparent activation energy is 30.14 kJ mol−1 and 38.91 kJ mol−1, respectively. The overall kinetic model for the reduction of pyrolusite by the mixture of hemicellulose and lignin can be simulated by the summation of the respective kinetics by considering their mass-loss fractions, while a unit step function was used to avoid the invalid conversion data. The obtained results in this work are necessary to understand the biomass reduction of pyrolusite and provide valuable assistance in the development of a general kinetics equation.

  4. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman-Lindén

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF-induced metabolic alterations. Methods: Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2 during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results: HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions: Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain.

  5. Orange juice intake during a fatty meal consumption reduces the postprandial low-grade inflammatory response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerletti, C; Gianfagna, F; Tamburrelli, C; De Curtis, A; D'Imperio, M; Coletta, W; Giordano, L; Lorenzet, R; Rapisarda, P; Reforgiato Recupero, G; Rotilio, D; Iacoviello, L; de Gaetano, G; Donati, M B

    2015-02-01

    Evidence associates polyphenol-rich foods to reduction of low-grade inflammation and mortality for cardiovascular disease, the mechanisms underlying such effects being still unclear. Consumption of a fatty meal by healthy volunteers induces rapid and reversible low-grade inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of orange juice on cellular modifications induced by a fatty meal. 18 apparently healthy subjects consumed a fatty meal, during which they drunk orange juice, either blond or red, or water, according to a randomized cross-over design. Two hours after the end of the fatty meal, both white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts significantly increased (12.5 and 5%, respectively), while mean platelet volume decreased and a 25% release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from polymorphonuclear leukocyte occurred. Both juices significantly prevented WBC increase and MPO degranulation, in respect to control. Triglycerides significantly increased (42%) after the fatty meal, but at a lower extent when red orange juice was consumed with the meal (20%), in respect to blond orange juice or control. This effect was statistically significant in the subgroup of 8 subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Vascular stiffness (augmentation index), measured by Endo-PAT2000, significantly decreased after the meal only in conjunction with red orange juice. In healthy subjects the concomitant intake of orange juice may prevent the low-grade inflammatory reaction induced by a fatty meal, at cellular and possibly at vascular function levels. The relative role of different polyphenols on the observed effects of orange juices remains to be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anterior lumbar inter-body fusion with instrumentation compared with posterolateral fusion for low grade isthmic-spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Varun; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Spondylolisthesis presenting as low back pain is not an uncommon condition. Many of such patients are treated conservatively. For those that require surgical management, various treatment options are in vogue e.g. Postero-lateral fusion (PLF) with decompression or posterior fusion with instrumentation and anterior lumbar inter-body fusion (ALIF). Each technique has produced satisfactory outcome with benefits and disadvantages. To compare the outcome of surgical management of low grade spondylolisthesis with two treatments modalities--Postero-lateral fusion (PLF) and Anterior lumbar inter-body fusion (ALIF) with posterior instrumentation in similar patient profile. Prospective study to compare the results of two surgical treatment modalities. The selected group of patients for surgery based on definite criteria was operated by the same surgeon by two modalities: Postero-lateral fusion with decompression and Anterior Lumbar Inter-body fusion with posterior instrumentation. The outcomes were compared. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Follow up was done at twelve weekly intervals up to 2 years. Both groups showed good recovery in pain as seen in Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry low back pain scoring. Intra-operative bleeding was observed to be higher in Postero-lateral fusion group. Average length of hospital stay for the patients of PLF group was 6.6 days (Range: 4-7 days) as compared to 12.5 days (Range: 10-16 days) in case of ALIF group. Treatment cost was found to be higher in patients who undergone ALIF with instrumentation. ALIF with posterior instrumentation in low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis provides satisfactory outcome in patients requiring surgical treatment. The results of pain relief and disability index are comparable to time tested posterolateral fusion. ALIF shows a tendency to faster pain relief and return to activity with less intraoperative blood requirement in low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.

  7. A normal colposcopy examination fails to provide psychological reassurance for women who have had low-grade abnormal cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, S C; Sharp, L; Little, J; Gray, N M; Walker, L G; Whynes, D K; Cruickshank, M E

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, each year, large numbers of women are referred for colposcopy following low-grade abnormal cervical cytology. Many have no visible abnormality on examination. The risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) in these women is low. It is unknown whether, for women, a normal colposcopy resolves the anxiety which often follows the receipt of an abnormal cytology result. We investigated the prevalence of adverse psychological outcomes over 30 months following a normal colposcopy. This cohort study was nested within the UK TOMBOLA randomized controlled trial. Women aged 20-59 years, with recent low-grade cytology, who had a satisfactory colposcopy examination and normal transformation zone, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Process Outcome Specific Measure (POSM) at recruitment and during follow-up (12, 18, 24 and 30 months post-recruitment). Outcomes included percentages reporting significant anxiety (HADS anxiety subscale score ≥11), significant depression (HADS depression subscale score ≥8) or worries about the result of the next cytology test, cervical cancer, having sex, future fertility and general health at each time point (point prevalence) and during follow-up (cumulative prevalence). The study included 727 women. All psychological measures (except depression) had high prevalence at recruitment, falling substantially by 12 months. During follow-up, the cumulative prevalence of significant anxiety was 27% and significant depression was 21%. The most frequently reported worry was that the next cytology test would be abnormal (cumulative prevalence of 71%; point prevalence of ≥50% at 12 and 18 months). The cumulative prevalence values of worries about cervical cancer, having sex and future fertility were 33%, 20% and 16%, respectively. For some women who have low-grade cytology, a normal colposcopy does not appear to provide psychological reassurance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Energy Efficiency and Performance Limiting Effects in Thermo-Osmotic Energy Conversion from Low-Grade Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Anthony P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-11-07

    Low-grade heat energy from sources below 100 °C is available in massive quantities around the world, but cannot be converted to electricity effectively using existing technologies due to variability in the heat output and the small temperature difference between the source and environment. The recently developed thermo-osmotic energy conversion (TOEC) process has the potential to harvest energy from low-grade heat sources by using a temperature difference to create a pressurized liquid flux across a membrane, which can be converted to mechanical work via a turbine. In this study, we perform the first analysis of energy efficiency and the expected performance of the TOEC technology, focusing on systems utilizing hydrophobic porous vapor-gap membranes and water as a working fluid. We begin by developing a framework to analyze realistic mass and heat transport in the process, probing the impact of various membrane parameters and system operating conditions. Our analysis reveals that an optimized system can achieve heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiencies up to 4.1% (34% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and an operating pressure of 5 MPa (50 bar). Lower energy efficiencies, however, will occur in systems operating with high power densities (>5 W/m 2 ) and with finite-sized heat exchangers. We identify that the most important membrane properties for achieving high performance are an asymmetric pore structure, high pressure resistance, a high porosity, and a thickness of 30 to 100 μm. We also quantify the benefits in performance from utilizing deaerated water streams, strong hydrodynamic mixing in the membrane module, and high heat exchanger efficiencies. Overall, our study demonstrates the promise of full-scale TOEC systems to extract energy from low-grade heat and identifies key factors for performance optimization moving forward.

  9. 201Tl-SPECT in low-grade gliomas: diagnostic accuracy in differential diagnosis between tumour recurrence and radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Rio, Manuel; Martinez del Valle Torres, Dolores; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Antonio; Llamas-Elvira, Jose Manuel; Lozano, Simeon Ortega; Font, Carlos Ramos; Lopez Ramirez, Escarlata; Katati, Majed

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the usefulness of a simple 201 Tl single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technique in the differential diagnosis between tumour recurrence and radionecrosis during the follow-up of patients treated for low-grade gliomas. The study population comprised 84 patients treated for low-grade gliomas who showed suspicion of tumour recurrence during their follow-up. All patients were examined by neuro-anatomical imaging procedures (CT, MRI) and 201 Tl-SPECT. 201 Tl-SPECT images were assessed by visual analysis based only on the information on the prescription form and by estimation of the uptake index (ratio of mean counts in the lesion to those in the contralateral mirror area). Examiners were blinded to the results of other tests. Under these conditions, the neuro-anatomical procedures yielded 26.2% inconclusive reports, with a global diagnostic accuracy of 0.61, a sensitivity of 0.63 and a specificity of 0.59. The global diagnostic accuracy for 201 Tl-SPECT was 0.83, with a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.76. Diagnostic pitfalls were observed in regions with physiological 201 Tl uptake, i.e. the posterior cranial fossa, diencephalon, lateral ventricles and cavernous and longitudinal venous sinuses. An uptake index cut-off value of 1.25 showed a sensitivity of 0.90 and specificity of 0.80 for detection of tumour activity. 201 Tl-SPECT has adequate diagnostic accuracy to be part of routine algorithms in the follow-up of patients with low-grade glioma suspected of tumour recurrence, as an alternative to neuro-anatomical procedures and not solely as a complementary test. (orig.)

  10. Elevated Remnant Cholesterol Causes Both Low-Grade Inflammation and Ischemic Heart Disease, Whereas Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Causes Ischemic Heart Disease Without Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown....

  11. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Nita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP. Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2 and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages; however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages.

  12. Anatomical location differences between mutated and wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 in low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinhua; Shi, Zhifeng; Ji, Chunhong; Lian, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Anatomical location of gliomas has been considered as a factor implicating the contributions of a specific precursor cells during the tumor growth. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is a pathognomonic biomarker with a significant impact on the development of gliomas and remarkable prognostic effect. The correlation between anatomical location of tumor and IDH1 states for low-grade gliomas was analyzed quantitatively in this study. Ninety-two patients diagnosed of low-grade glioma pathologically were recruited in this study, including 65 patients with IDH1-mutated glioma and 27 patients with wide-type IDH1. A convolutional neural network was designed to segment the tumor from three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging images. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping was then employed to study the tumor location distribution differences between gliomas with mutated and wild-type IDH1. In order to characterize the location differences quantitatively, the Automated Anatomical Labeling Atlas was used to partition the standard brain atlas into 116 anatomical volumes of interests (AVOIs). The percentages of tumors with different IDH1 states in 116 AVOIs were calculated and compared. Support vector machine and AdaBoost algorithms were used to estimate the IDH1 status based on the 116 location features of each patient. Experimental results proved that the quantitative tumor location measurement could be a very important group of imaging features in biomarker estimation based on radiomics analysis of glioma.

  13. Thermal Capacitive Electrochemical Cycle on Carbon-Based Supercapacitor for Converting Low-grade Heat to Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge to efficiently convert low-grade heat (<100°C to electricity. Currently available heat-to-current converters, such as thermoelectric generators, operating in a low-grade heat regime reach efficiencies no higher than a few percent (<3%. Herein, we illustrated a thermal capacitive electrochemical cycle (TCEC using electrochemical cell, where the connection to the hot or cold reservoirs alternates in a cyclic charging–heating–discharging–cooling mode to convert heat into electricity, which performs as an electrochemical heat engine. TCEC technology is a cost-effective method for exploiting the temperature-dependent electrostatic potential in an electric double layer (EDL at carbon electrode/electrolyte interfaces; it produces net electricity by altering the EDL thickness via heating and cooling. In this paper, TCEC on supercapacitor was confirmed on commercial supercapacitor, which showed a poor conversion efficiency. To improve the performance, we redesigned the cell by employing the pouch cell setup with activated carbon as electrode materials and homemade temperature controlling system, which boosted the efficiency from 0.5% of commercial supercapacitor to 3.05% when cycling between 10 and 65°C. A higher efficiency of 3.95% could be reached by using microwaved exfoliated graphene nanosheets (MEG and nitric acid-treated MEG, which could help in decreasing the energy loss caused by charge leakage.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of a Kalina-based combined cooling and power cycle driven by low-grade heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Liyan; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Hongyang; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Kalina-based combined cooling and power cycle is proposed to recover low-grade heat source. • The effects of several parameters on cycle performance are examined. • An optimization is conducted by GA to obtain optimum performance. - Abstract: This paper investigates a Kalina-based combined cooling and power (CCP) cycle driven by low-grade heat source. The proposed cycle consists of a Kalina cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle. By establishing the mathematical model, numerical simulation is conducted and parametric analysis is performed to examine the effects of five key parameters on the thermodynamic performances of Kalina-based CCP cycle. A performance optimization is conducted by genetic algorithm to obtain the optimum exergy efficiency. According to parametric analysis, an optimum expander inlet pressure can be achieved; exergy efficiency increases with expander inlet pressure and concentration of ammonia-water basic solution, but exergy efficiency decreases when terminal temperature difference of high-temperature recuperator and low-temperature recuperator increases. Refrigeration exergy increases with expander inlet pressure and decreases as expander inlet temperature and concentration of ammonia-water basic solution rise. However, the refrigeration exergy keeps constant as the terminal temperature difference of high-temperature recuperator and low-temperature recuperator vary. Furthermore, the optimized Kalina-based CCP cycle is compared with a separate generation system which is also optimized. The optimization results show that the exergy efficiency and net power output of Kalina-based CCP are higher than those of separate generation system.

  15. Experimental Analysis of Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger for Power Generation from Salinity Gradient Solar Pond Using Low-Grade Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Baharin, Nuraida `Aadilia; Remeli, Muhammad Fairuz; Oberoi, Amandeep; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-05-01

    Salinity gradient solar ponds act as an integrated thermal solar energy collector and storage system. The temperature difference between the upper convective zone and the lower convective zone of a salinity gradient solar pond can be in the range of 40-60°C. The temperature at the bottom of the pond can reach up to 90°C. Low-grade heat (solar ponds is currently converted into electricity by organic Rankine cycle engines. Thermoelectric generators can operate at very low temperature differences and can be a good candidate to replace organic Rankine cycle engines for power generation from salinity gradient solar ponds. The temperature difference in a solar pond can be used to power thermoelectric generators for electricity production. This paper presents an experimental investigation of a thermoelectric generators heat exchanger system designed to be powered by the hot water from the lower convective zone of a solar pond, and cold water from the upper convective zone of a solar pond. The results obtained have indicated significant prospects of such a system to generate power from low-grade heat for remote area power supply systems.

  16. Boosting up the electrical performance of low-grade PEDOT:PSS by optimizing non-ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Cho, Sunghwan; Lee, Su Jeong; Lee, Gilwoon; Kong, Minsik; Moon, Sungmin; Myoung, Jae-Min; Jeong, Unyong

    2017-10-26

    Although PEDOT:PSS has already been applied to various electronic devices, commercialized PEDOT:PSS products having high conductivity are expensive, which is a considerable burden on device manufacturing. In this study, we optimize non-ionic surfactants mixed in a PEDOT:PSS solution to upgrade a low-grade product of low conductivity to the level of a high-grade product of high conductivity. This study systematically investigates the phase diagram, morphology, conductivity, and mechanical stability of the PEDOT:PSS films according to the hydrophilicity of non-ionic surfactants. This study reveals that the conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS film varies greatly depending on the chemical structure of the surfactant and its weight fraction in the thin film. Under the optimum conditions (chemical structure and weight fraction) of the surfactant, the conductivity of the low value product could be improved to the conductivity level of the high value product. The electrical properties of the films were excellently stable even under the extreme cyclic bending tests at a bending radius of 1.5 mm. The low-grade and high grade products showed the same electrical performance when they were used in the Ag nanowires/PEDOT:PSS hybrid transparent electrodes. The results are expected to be applied immediately not only in the laboratory but also in various industrial fields.

  17. Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabishvili, Maia; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Kropinski, Andrew M; Mast, Jan; De Vos, Daniel; Verbeken, Gilbert; Noben, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively), high burst size (125 and 145, respectively), stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections.

  18. Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Merabishvili

    Full Text Available Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively, high burst size (125 and 145, respectively, stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections.

  19. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...... subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity....

  20. In vitro atrazine-exposure inhibits human natural killer cell lytic granule release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Barnett, John B.

    2007-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a known immunotoxicant and an inhibitor of human natural killer (NK) cell lytic function. The precise changes in NK cell lytic function following atrazine exposure have not been fully elucidated. The current study identifies the point at which atrazine exerts its affect on the stepwise process of human NK cell-mediated lyses of the K562 target cell line. Using intracellular staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, it was determined that a 24-h in vitro exposure to atrazine did not decrease the level of NK cell lytic proteins granzyme A, granzyme B or perforin. Thus, it was hypothesized that atrazine exposure was inhibiting the ability of the NK cells to bind to the target cell and subsequently inhibit the release of lytic protein from the NK cell. To test this hypothesis, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were employed to analyze NK cell-target cell co-cultures following atrazine exposure. These assays demonstrated no significant decrease in the level of target cell binding. However, the levels of NK intracellular lytic protein retained and the amount of lytic protein released were assessed following a 4-h incubation with K562 target cells. The relative level of intracellular lytic protein was 25-50% higher, and the amount of lytic protein released was 55-65% less in atrazine-treated cells than vehicle-treated cells following incubation with the target cells. These results indicate that ATR exposure inhibits the ability of NK cells to lyse target cells by blocking lytic granule release without affecting the ability of the NK cell to form stable conjugates with target cells

  1. Midline 1 directs lytic granule exocytosis and cytotoxicity of mouse killer T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boding, Lasse; Hansen, Ann K; Meroni, Germana

    2014-01-01

    upregulated in murine cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs), and that it controls TCR signaling, centrosome trafficking and exocytosis of lytic granules. In accordance, we find that the killing capacity of MID1(-/-) CTLs is impaired. Transfection of MID1 into MID1(-/-) CTLs completely rescued lytic granule exocytosis......, and vice versa, knock-down of MID1 inhibited exocytosis of lytic granules in wild-type CTLs, cementing a central role for MID1 in the regulation of granule exocytosis. Thus, MID1 orchestrates multiple events in CTL responses, adding a novel level of regulation to CTL activation and cytotoxicity...

  2. Proximal sacral deformity: a common element in lytic isthmic spondylolisthesis at L5 and in degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-L5 segment. Two apparently very different etiopathogenic entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Goyanes, A; Barahona-Lorenzo, D; Díez-Ulloa, M A

    A radiographic study was carried out to investigate the relationship between proximal sacral sagittal anatomy (either kyphosis or lordosis) and either isthmic or degenerative spondylolisthesis. In addition, we studied whether there is a relationship between proximal sacral kyphosis and the degree of such listhesis in the case of L5 isthmic spondylolisthesis. Lateral standing x-rays were used from 173 patients, ninety of whom had degenerative spondylolisthesis L4-L5, and eighty-three an isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5 (67 low-grade and 16 high-grade) and compared with a control group of 100 patients adjusted by age and gender, without any type of spondylolisthesis. Listhesis was graded using Meyerding's classification and the proximal sacral kyphosis angle (CSP) was measured between S1 and S2 posterior walls, according to Harrison's method. In our series, there was a proximal sacral kyphosis in both types of spondylolisthesis, greater in the lytic type. By contrast, the control group had a proximal sacral lordosis. The differences were statistically significant. Therefore, we concluded that there was a proximal sacral kyphosis in patients with both degenerative and isthmic lytic spondylolisthesis, but with our results, we were not able to ascertain whether it is a cause or a consequence of this listhesis. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Depressive symptoms in obesity: Relative contribution of low-grade inflammation and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ines; Huet, Lison; Dexpert, Sandra; Beau, Cédric; Forestier, Damien; Ledaguenel, Patrick; Aubert, Agnès; Sauvant, Julie; Aouizerate, Bruno; Magne, Eric; Capuron, Lucile

    2018-05-01

    Recent reports suggest that the risk of depressive symptoms in obesity is potentiated in subjects presenting a metabolically unhealthy phenotype. Inflammation is often considered a defining criteria of metabolic health. However, this factor may drive the association of metabolic health with depressive symptoms given its well-known role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed at determining the relative contribution of inflammation and metabolic abnormalities to depressive symptoms in obesity. One-hundred severely obese adults (BMI ≥ 35-40 kg/m 2 ) and 25 non-obese control individuals (BMI symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured as a marker of systemic inflammation. Metabolically unhealthy obesity was defined as obesity associated with two or more metabolic alterations, including low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, high fasting glucose and hypertension. Total MADRS scores were significantly higher in obese subjects with significant inflammation (hs-CRP ≥ 5 mg/L) compared to those with low inflammation (hs-CRP obese controls. Interestingly, hs-CRP levels significantly predicted MADRS scores in the whole population under study and in the group of obese subjects. Overall, no association was found between MADRS scores and individual metabolic alterations or the composite measure of metabolically unhealthy obesity. Similarly, the association of hs-CRP with MADRS scores in obese patients was not modulated by metabolic health factors. These results indicate that systemic inflammation represents a stronger contributor of obesity-related depressive symptoms than metabolic health per se. This supports the notion that inclusion of inflammation in the definition of metabolically unhealthy obesity drives the association found between poor metabolic health

  4. Clinical Outcomes and Late Endocrine, Neurocognitive, and Visual Profiles of Proton Radiation for Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, Benjamin A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Pulsifer, Margaret B. [Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ebb, David H. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jones, Robin M. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Butler, William E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Huang, Mary S. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Marcus, Karen J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Oberg, Jennifer A. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Yock, Torunn I., E-mail: tyock@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Primary low-grade gliomas are common brain tumors of childhood, many of which require radiation therapy (RT) as definitive treatment. Increased conformality of RT could decrease the incidence and severity of late effects. We report our experience with 32 pediatric patients treated with proton RT. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas of the brain or spinal cord were treated with proton RT from 1995 to 2007. Sixteen patients received at least 1 regimen of chemotherapy before definitive RT. The median radiation dose was 52.2 Gy{sub RBE} (48.6-54 Gy{sub RBE}). Results: The median age at treatment was 11.0 years (range, 2.7-21.5 years), with a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range, 3.2-18.2 years). The 6-year and 8-year rates of progression-free survival were 89.7% and 82.8%, respectively, with an 8-year overall survival of 100%. For the subset of patients who received serial neurocognitive testing, there were no significant declines in Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=.80), with a median neurocognitive testing interval of 4.5 years (range, 1.2-8.1 years) from baseline to follow-up, but subgroup analysis indicated some significant decline in neurocognitive outcomes for young children (<7 years) and those with significant dose to the left temporal lobe/hippocampus. The incidence of endocrinopathy correlated with a mean dose of ≥40 Gy{sub RBE} to the hypothalamus, pituitary, or optic chiasm. Stabilization or improvement of visual acuity was achieved in 83.3% of patients at risk for radiation-induced injury to the optic pathways. Conclusions: This report of late effects in children with low-grade gliomas after proton RT is encouraging. Proton RT appears to be associated with good clinical outcome, especially when the tumor location allows for increased sparing of the left temporal lobe, hippocampus, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  5. Clinical Outcomes and Late Endocrine, Neurocognitive, and Visual Profiles of Proton Radiation for Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberger, Benjamin A.; Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Ebb, David H.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Jones, Robin M.; Butler, William E.; Huang, Mary S.; Marcus, Karen J.; Oberg, Jennifer A.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Primary low-grade gliomas are common brain tumors of childhood, many of which require radiation therapy (RT) as definitive treatment. Increased conformality of RT could decrease the incidence and severity of late effects. We report our experience with 32 pediatric patients treated with proton RT. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas of the brain or spinal cord were treated with proton RT from 1995 to 2007. Sixteen patients received at least 1 regimen of chemotherapy before definitive RT. The median radiation dose was 52.2 Gy RBE (48.6-54 Gy RBE ). Results: The median age at treatment was 11.0 years (range, 2.7-21.5 years), with a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range, 3.2-18.2 years). The 6-year and 8-year rates of progression-free survival were 89.7% and 82.8%, respectively, with an 8-year overall survival of 100%. For the subset of patients who received serial neurocognitive testing, there were no significant declines in Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=.80), with a median neurocognitive testing interval of 4.5 years (range, 1.2-8.1 years) from baseline to follow-up, but subgroup analysis indicated some significant decline in neurocognitive outcomes for young children (<7 years) and those with significant dose to the left temporal lobe/hippocampus. The incidence of endocrinopathy correlated with a mean dose of ≥40 Gy RBE to the hypothalamus, pituitary, or optic chiasm. Stabilization or improvement of visual acuity was achieved in 83.3% of patients at risk for radiation-induced injury to the optic pathways. Conclusions: This report of late effects in children with low-grade gliomas after proton RT is encouraging. Proton RT appears to be associated with good clinical outcome, especially when the tumor location allows for increased sparing of the left temporal lobe, hippocampus, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis

  6. Longterm neurocognitive sequellae of a prospectively followed cohort of low grade tumor patients treated by conformal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.; Ruffer, J.; Hopwood, C.; Montenegro, L.; Mollman, J.; Judy, K.; Alavi, J.; Corn, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Although many advances have been made in the use of therapeutic irradiation to treat patients with brain tumors, the neurocognitive effects of conformal radiation therapy (CRT) are poorly known and controversial. Retrospective studies of radiotherapy in children and adults have revealed both leukoencephalopathy and cognitive impairments in follow-up of months to 20 years after treatment. Most prospective studies have examined neurocognitive effects at one year post CRT, and our previous findings (1993,1995) suggest that this endpoint misses the first two phases of the delayed effects of CRT. We also propose that the effects of CRT can be characterized in terms of dissociated curvilinear slopes of neurocognitive impairments, which allow specific hypotheses about the multiple phases of the delayed effects. Materials/Methods: We have examined our neurocognitive model of radiotherapy effects in our current group of 20 patients who have supratentorial, low grade, primary brain tumors. Total CRT doses ranged between 46 to 63 Gy (med. dose of 54 Gy, with fractionations of 1.8-2.0 Gy). Healthy control subjects were matched to patients with respect to age and education. Patients were tested with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at baseline (6 weeks post resection/biopsy, immediately prior to CRT), at three month intervals for one year, and yearly; current analyses reflect three years post baseline. To test the hypothesis that long-term memory is generally impaired versus selective impairment of verbal/semantic memory processes, we used parallel tests of verbal/semantic and visual/perceptual long-term memory which require association to encode and retrieve the stimuli. The visual long-term memory test was available on 10 patients. Results: A specific treatment-dependent deficit in long-term memory retrieval of word lists was found in 18 of 20 patients at six weeks post completion of CRT, though it was a temporary impairment which rebounded by one

  7. Conventional chemotherapy and perspectives for molecular-based oncological treatment in pediatric hemispheric low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Baro; Alonso, Vanesa Pérez

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG) are the most common primary central nervous system tumor in children. Patients in whom gross total resection can be achieved have an excellent overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) and do not require adjuvant therapy. However, children with unresectable tumors often experience multiple progressions and require additional treatment. Radiotherapy results in long-term tumor control, but it is associated with significant toxicity, making chemotherapy the preferred therapeutic option. Several chemotherapy combinations have been found to be successful in PLGG, but 5-year EFS has been below 60 % with most of them. Recent molecular advances have led to a better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the biology of LGG, allowing the development of promising tumor-specific, molecularly targeted therapies.

  8. Role of spleen-derived IL-10 in prevention of systemic low-grade inflammation by obesity [Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Koro; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Anai, Manabu; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2017-04-29

    Obesity can be associated with systemic low-grade inflammation that leads to obesity-related metabolic disorders. Recent studies raise the possibility that the inflammation in hypothalamus, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. We focus on the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced from spleen in obesity because it is indicated that obesity decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. Obesity results in decrease of IL-10 synthesis from spleen, probably due to reduction of B-cells expression by promoting oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen. Splenectomy (SPX) aggravates the inflammatory response in hypothalamus, liver and WAT. These SPX-induced alterations are inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, in IL-10 deficiency, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in these multiple organs. We show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 on inflammatory responses in obesity.

  9. Stochastic modelling of slow-progressing tumors: Analysis and applications to the cell interplay and control of low grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Clara Rojas; Fernández Calvo, Gabriel; Ramis-Conde, Ignacio; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan

    2017-08-01

    Tumor-normal cell interplay defines the course of a neoplastic malignancy. The outcome of this dual relation is the ultimate prevailing of one of the cells and the death or retreat of the other. In this paper we study the mathematical principles that underlay one important scenario: that of slow-progressing cancers. For this, we develop, within a stochastic framework, a mathematical model to account for tumor-normal cell interaction in such a clinically relevant situation and derive a number of deterministic approximations from the stochastic model. We consider in detail the existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the deterministic model and study the stability analysis. We then focus our model to the specific case of low grade gliomas, where we introduce an optimal control problem for different objective functionals under the administration of chemotherapy. We derive the conditions for which singular and bang-bang control exist and calculate the optimal control and states.

  10. Low-Grade Malignant Triton Tumor of the Neck: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taissir Omar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is termed malignant triton tumor (MTT, a rare neoplasm that poses a diagnostic dilemma in the differential diagnosis of neck masses and portends poor prognosis. We report a sporadic case of MTT of the neck in a 23-year-old female. We present the pathological findings. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the neurogenic origin with S-100 expression and the rhabdomyoblastic differentiation with desmin and vimentin positivity. Radical surgical excision was done. After 4 years there were no signs of recurrence or distant metastasis. The clinical, microscopic, and long-term follow-up of this case are consistent with those of a low-grade malignancy.

  11. Titrimetric determination of uranium in low-grade ores by the ferrous ion-phosphoric acid reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchen, A.; Zechanowitsch, G.

    1980-01-01

    The modification and extension of the U.S.A.E.C. ferrous ion-phosphoric acid reduction method for the determination of uranium in high-grade or relatively pure material to a method for the determination of uranium with a high accuracy and precision, in ores containing 0.004 to 7% U is described. It is simple, rapid and requires no prior separations from elements that, in other methods, frequently interfere. For sample materials having very high concentrations of interfering elements, a prior concentration step using extraction with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide is described, but it is shown that, for most low-grade ores, this step is unnecessary. (author)

  12. Dietary Xylooligosaccharide Downregulates IFN-γ and the Low-Grade Inflammatory Cytokine IL-1β Systemically in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla H. F.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Christensen, Annette G.

    2013-01-01

    weaning. We found that the XOS diet significantly increased Bifidobacterium throughout the intestine compared with control-fed mice, with the highest proportions found in the ileum after XOS feeding (P innate immune-related genes were unaffected by XOS feeding......Dietary carbohydrates improve growth conditions for distinct populations of bacteria that may affect mucosal and systemic immunity. In this study, we fed in a parallel experiment a 10% xylooligosaccharide (XOS)–supplemented diet or a control diet to 2 groups of male C57BL/6NTac mice for 10 wk from.......001) expression, supporting our hypothesis that increased production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the gut, which are transported across the intestine and into the systemic compartments, results in downregulation of low-grade inflammatory cytokines. The defensin regenerating islet-derived protein 3γ (Reg...

  13. Heterogeneous 40Ar/39Ar laser probe apparent ages in low-grade mylonitic rocks: Constraining a meaningful geological age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arancibia, G

    2001-01-01

    Obtaining meaningful geological ages from mylonitic rocks has been a major problem for structural geologist, because apparent ages have usually no geologic significance. Over the last years, in situ high spatial resolutions 40 Ar/ 39 Ar studies (e.g. Ruffet et al., 1991; Reddy et al., 1996; Pickles et al., 1997), permit obtain apparent ages of mineral and link them directly with textural, microstructural and chemical patterns that can previously be obtained by optical and scanning electron (SEM) microscopes and electron microprobe. In this work, heterogeneous 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser probe ages from low-grade volcanic mylonites show complex argon distributions patterns. Inverse isochron analysis suggests that most obtained apparent ages contain argon excess and only younger ages have a meaningful geologically interpretation (au)

  14. RECOVERY OF IRON FROM LOW-GRADE HEMATITE ORE USING COAL-BASED DIRECT REDUCTION FOLLOWED BY MAGNETIC SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alavifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, iron recovery from a low-grade hematite ore (containing less than 40% iron, which is not applicable in common methods of ironmaking, was studied. Non-coking coal was used as reducing agent. Reduction experiments were performed under various coal to hematite ratios and temperatures. Reduction degree was calculated using the gravimetric method. Reduced samples were subjected to magnetic separation followed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Total iron content, degree of metallization and recovery efficiency in magnetic part were determined by quantitative chemical analysis, which were obtained about 82%, 95% and 64% respectively under optimal conditions. CaO as an additive improved ore reducibility and separation efficiency. The microstructure of reduced samples and final products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Final product with a high degree of metallization can be used in steel making furnaces and charging of blast furnaces which can improve production efficiency and decrease coke usage.

  15. Relative cerebral blood volume measurements of low-grade gliomas predict patient outcome in a multi-institution setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caseiras, Gisele B.; Chheang, Sophie; Babb, James; Rees, Jeremy H.; Pecerrelli, Nicole; Tozer, Daniel J.; Benton, Christopher; Zagzag, David; Johnson, Glyn; Waldman, Adam D.; Jaeger, H.R.; Law, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Background/purpose: The prognostic value of defining subcategories of gliomas is still controversial. This study aims to determine the utility of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in predicting clinical response in patients with low-grade glioma at multiple institutions. Materials and methods: Sixty-nine patients were studied with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI at two institutions. The pathologic diagnoses of the low-grade gliomas were 34 astrocytomas, 20 oligodendroglioma, 9 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ganglioglioma and 5 with indeterminate histology. Wilcoxon tests were used to compare patients in different response categories with respect to baseline rCBV. Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank tests were used to predict the association of rCBV with time to progression. Results: At both institutions, patients with an adverse event (progressive disease or death) had a significantly higher baseline rCBV than those without (complete response or stable disease) (p value = 0.0138). The odds ratio for detecting an adverse event when using rCBV was 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.14-3.08). rCBV was significantly negatively associated with time to progression (p = 0.005). The median time to progression among subjects with rCBV > 1.75 was 365 days, while there was 95% confidence that the median time to progression was at least 889 days among subjects with rCBV < 1.75. Conclusion: Our study suggests not only that rCBV measurements correlate well with time to progression or death, but also that the findings can be replicated across institutions, which supports the application of rCBV as an adjunct to pathology in predicting glioma biology.

  16. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis CNCM-I2494 restores gut barrier permeability in chronically low-grade inflamed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMartín

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic DNBS-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis subsp lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4+ lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes (MLN. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4+ Th1 cells by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10. Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis subsp lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability.

  17. Membrane-Based Osmotic Heat Engine with Organic Solvent for Enhanced Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulsky, E; Boo, C; Lin, SH; Elimelech, M

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher ORE energy efficiency with the LiCl methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery <90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  18. Factors Influencing Neurocognitive Outcomes in Young Patients With Benign and Low-Grade Brain Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Conformal Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Mallick, Indranil; Dutta, Debnarayan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To present the effect of radiotherapy doses to different volumes of normal structures on neurocognitive outcomes in young patients with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients (median age, 13 years) with residual/progressive brain tumors (10 craniopharyngioma, 8 cerebellar astrocytoma, 6 optic pathway glioma and 4 cerebral low-grade glioma) were treated with SCRT to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Prospective neuropsychological assessments were done at baseline before RT and at subsequent follow-up examinations. The change in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores was correlated with various factors, including dose-volume to normal structures. Results: Although the overall mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) at baseline before RT remained unchanged at 2-year follow-up after SCRT, one third of patients did show a >10% decline in FSIQ as compared with baseline. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients aged 10% drop in FSIQ than older patients (53% vs. 10%, p = 0.03). Dosimetric comparison in patients showing a >10% decline vs. patients showing a 43.2 Gy to >13% of volume of the left temporal lobe were the ones to show a significant drop in FSIQ (p = 0.048). Radiotherapy doses to other normal structures, including supratentorial brain, right temporal lobe, and frontal lobes, did not reveal any significant correlation. Conclusion: Our prospectively collected dosimetric data show younger age and radiotherapy doses to left temporal lobe to be predictors of neurocognitive decline, and may well be used as possible dose constraints for high-precision radiotherapy planning.

  19. Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Neuburger, Daniela; Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

  20. Membrane-based osmotic heat engine with organic solvent for enhanced power generation from low-grade heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaulsky, Evyatar; Boo, Chanhee; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl-methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl-water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher OHE energy efficiency with the LiCl-methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl-water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery<90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  1. Presence of Antigen-Experienced T Cells with Low Grade of Differentiation and Proliferative Potential in Chronic Chagas Disease Myocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza-Meckert, Patricia; Viotti, Rodolfo; Garelli, Fernando; Favaloro, Liliana E.; Favaloro, Roberto R.; Laguens, Rubén; Laucella, Susana A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main consequence of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection is the development of myocarditis in approximately 20–30% of infected individuals but not until 10–20 years after the initial infection. We have previously shown that circulating interferon-γ-secreting T cells responsive to Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in chronic Chagas disease patients display a low grade of differentiation and the frequency of these T lymphocytes decreases along with the severity of heart disease. This study thought to explore the expression of inhibitory receptors, transcription factors of type 1 or regulatory T cells, and markers of T cell differentiation, immunosenescence or active cell cycle in cardiac explants from patients with advanced Chagas disease myocarditis. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of different markers for T and B cells as well as for macrophages was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques in cardiac explants from patients with advanced chronic Chagas disease submitted to heart transplantation. Most infiltrating cells displayed markers of antigen-experienced T cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+) with a low grade of differentiation (CD27+, CD57−, CD45RA−, PD-1−). A skewed T helper1/T cytotoxic 1 profile was supported by the expression of T-bet; whereas FOXP3+ cells were scarce and located only in areas of severe myocarditis. In addition, a significant proliferative capacity of CD3+ T cells, assessed by Ki67 staining, was found. Conclusions/Significance The quality of T cell responses and immunoregulatory mechanisms might determine the pattern of the cellular response and the severity of disease in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. PMID:25144227

  2. Structure and boosting activity of a starch-degrading lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo Leggio, Leila; Simmons, Thomas J.; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are recently discovered enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. LPMOs are fundamental in the effective utilization of these substrates by bacteria and fungi; moreover, the enzymes have significant industrial importance. We report here...

  3. Potential of a lytic bacteriophage to disrupt Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yannan; Mi, Zhiqiang; Niu, Wenkai; An, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xin; Liu, Huiying; Wang, Yong; Feng, Yuzhong; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xianglilan; Zhang, Zhiyi; Fan, Hang; Peng, Fan; Li, Puyuan; Tong, Yigang; Bai, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to form biofilms and develop antibiotic resistance makes it difficult to control infections caused by this bacterium. In this study, we explored the potential of a lytic bacteriophage to disrupt A. baumannii biofilms. The potential of the lytic bacteriophage to disrupt A. baumannii biofilms was assessed by performing electron microscopy, live/dead bacterial staining, crystal violet staining and by determining adenosine triphosphate release. The bacteriophage inhibited the formation of and disrupted preformed A. baumannii biofilms. Results of disinfection assay showed that the lytic bacteriophage lysed A. baumannii cells suspended in blood or grown on metal surfaces. These results suggest the potential of the lytic bacteriophage to disrupt A. baumannii biofilms.

  4. Restarting Lytic Gene Transcription at the Onset of Herpes Simplex Virus Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Anna R; Wilson, Angus C

    2017-01-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a latent reservoir in neurons of human peripheral nerves. In this quiescent state, the viral genome persists as a circular, histone-associated episome, and transcription of viral lytic cycle genes is largely suppressed through epigenetic processes. Periodically, latent virus undergoes reactivation whereby lytic genes are activated and viral replication occurs. In this Gem, we review recent evidence that mechanisms governing the initial transcription of lytic genes are distinct from those of de novo infection and directly link reactivation to neuronal stress response pathways. We also discuss evidence that lytic cycle gene expression can be uncoupled from the full reactivation program, arguing for a less sharply bimodal definition of latency. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Navigating barriers: the challenge of directed secretion at the natural killer cell lytic immunological synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Keri B; Orange, Jordan S

    2010-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have an inherent ability to recognize and destroy a wide array of cells rendered abnormal by stress or disease. NK cells can kill a targeted cell by forming a tight interface-the lytic immunological synapse. This represents a dynamic molecular arrangement that over time progresses through a series of steps to ultimately deliver the contents of specialized organelles known as lytic granules. In order to mediate cytotoxicity, the NK cell faces the challenge of mobilizing the lytic granules, polarizing them to the targeted cell, facilitating their approximation to the NK cell membrane, and releasing their contents. This review is focused upon the final steps in accessing function through the lytic immunological synapse.

  6. Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay M Nawandar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1 promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells.

  7. Prescribing Optimal Nutrition and Physical Activity as “First-Line” Interventions for Best Practice Management of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Osteoarthritis: Evidence Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into “first-line” osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients’ overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient’s risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis.

  8. Comparison of functional outcomes following surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in single level low grade lumbar degenerative versus isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Rahimi, Mohammad Dawood; Khanzadeh, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The two most common types of surgically treated lumbar spondylolisthesis in adults include the degenerative and isthmic types. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical outcomes in surgically treated patients with single level, low grade lumbar degenerative, and isthmic spondylolisthesis (groups A and B, respectively) from August 2007 to April 2011. We tried to compare paired settings with similar initial conditions. Group A included 52 patients with a mean age of 49.2 ± 6.1 years, and group B included 52 patients with a mean age of 47.3 ± 7.4 years. Minimum follow-up was 24 months. The surgical procedure comprised neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion. Pain and disability were assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare indices. The most common sites for degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis were at the L4-L5 (88.5%) and L5-S1 (84.6%) levels, respectively. Surgery in both groups significantly improved VAS and ODI scores. The efficacy of surgery based on subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in the degenerative and isthmic groups. Notable complications were also comparable in both groups. Neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion significantly improved pain and disability in patients with degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. The efficacy of surgery for overall subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in both groups.

  9. The visuospatial functions in children after cerebellar low-grade astrocytoma surgery: A contribution to the pediatric neuropsychology of the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starowicz-Filip, Anna; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Milczarek, Olga; Kwiatkowski, Stanisław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to specify whether cerebellar lesions cause visuospatial impairments in children. The study sample consisted of 40 children with low-grade cerebellar astrocytoma, who underwent surgical treatment and 40 healthy controls matched with regard to age and sex. Visuospatial abilities were tested using the spatial WISC-R subtests (Block Design and Object Assembly), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, PEBL Mental Rotation Task, and Benton Visual Retention Test. To exclude general diffuse intellectual dysfunction, the WISC-R Verbal Intelligence IQ, Performance IQ, and Full-Scale IQ scores were analysed. Post-surgical medical consequences were measured with the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Compared to controls, the cerebellar group manifested problems with mental rotation of objects, visuospatial organization, planning, and spatial construction processes which could not be explained by medical complications or general intellectual retardation. The intensity of visuospatial syndrome highly depends on cerebellar lesion side. Patients with left-sided cerebellar lesions display more severe spatial problems than those with right-sided cerebellar lesions. In conclusion, focal cerebellar lesions in children affect their visuospatial ability. The impairments profile is characterized by deficits in complex spatial processes such as visuospatial organization and mental rotation, requiring reconstruction of visual stimuli using the imagination, while elementary sensory analysis and perception as well as spatial processes requiring direct manipulation of objects are relatively better preserved. This pattern is analogous to the one previously observed in adult population and appears to be typical for cerebellar pathology in general, regardless of age. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. [Isolation and physiological characteristics of lytic bacteriophages of Vibrio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Ye, Dezan; Kochel, Agnes; Jost, Guenter

    2008-06-01

    Vibrio is a widely distributed pathogen in aquatic environment. Our study aimed at searching for possible biological control of pathogenic vibrio. We collected natural samples from coast and lakes in spring of 2006 and autumn of 2005; and isolated lytic phages by double-layer plate method. We identified the hosts with 16S rDNA sequencing and observed their morphology with phages under electron microscopy. We also tested the physiological characteristics of phages. We isolated 96 bacteria and 2 phages (Vibio/XM/P1, Vibio/XM/P2). Their hosts belonged to Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio anguillarum. Both phages were hexagonal-headed and one with a tail. Physiological tests show that their optimum grow condition were pH7, 25 degrees C and pH8, 30 degrees C. Both phages were sensitive to high temperature and UV light. Vibrio/XM/P2 was sensitive to aether and chloroform whereas Vibrio/XM/P1 not.

  11. Chromatin Dynamics during Lytic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kristen L.; Schang, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Latent HSV-1 genomes are chromatinized with silencing marks. Since 2004, however, there has been an apparent inconsistency in the studies of the chromatinization of the HSV-1 genomes in lytically infected cells. Nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that the genomes were not regularly chromatinized, having only low histone occupancy. However, the chromatin modifications associated with transcribed and non-transcribed HSV-1 genes were those associated with active or repressed transcription, respectively. Moreover, the three critical HSV-1 transcriptional activators all had the capability to induce chromatin remodelling, and interacted with critical chromatin modifying enzymes. Depletion or overexpression of some, but not all, chromatin modifying proteins affected HSV-1 transcription, but often in unexpected manners. Since 2010, it has become clear that both cellular and HSV-1 chromatins are highly dynamic in infected cells. These dynamics reconcile the weak interactions between HSV-1 genomes and chromatin proteins, detected by nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation, with the proposed regulation of HSV-1 gene expression by chromatin, supported by the marks in the chromatin in the viral genomes and the abilities of the HSV-1 transcription activators to modulate chromatin. It also explains the sometimes unexpected results of interventions to modulate chromatin remodelling activities in infected cells. PMID:23863878

  12. Optimization of lytic phage manufacturing in bioreactor using monolithic supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Franc; Ciringer, Mateja; Jančar, Janez; Raspor, Peter; Štrancar, Aleš; Podgornik, Aleš

    2011-08-01

    A process for manufacturing large quantities of lytic bacteriophages was developed. Determination of cultivation termination was found to be essential to achieve high phage quantity and purity. When optimal cultivation termination is missed, phage fraction was found to be highly contaminated with deoxyribonucleic acid released from Escherichia coli cells. Besides, an already established method for monitoring of phage cultivation based on optical density, where its peak indicates point when maximal phage titer is achieved, a new indirect chromatographic method using methacrylate monoliths is proposed for on-line estimation of phage titer. It is based on the measurement of released E. coli deoxyribonucleic acid and shows high correlation with phage titer obtained from plaque assay. Its main advantage is that the information is obtained within few minutes. In addition, the same method can also be used to determine purity of a final phage fraction. Two strategies to obtain highly pure phage fractions are proposed: an immediate purification of phage lysate using monolithic columns or an addition of EDTA before chromatographic purification. The developed protocol was shown to give phage purity above 90% and it is completed within one working day including cultivation and phage titer in the final formulation using developed chromatographic method. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Percutaneous cementoplasty of lytic metastasis in left acetabulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, K; Pugash, R; David, E; Yee, A; Sinclair, E; Myers, J; Chow, E

    2007-02-01

    Minimally invasive procedures such as percutaneous cementoplasty can provide immediate pain relief and can restore mechanical stability for patients with bone metastases who are not candidates for surgery or who show resistance to radiotherapy or analgesic treatment. Here, we examine a case of percutaneous cementoplasty to treat a lytic lesion of the acetabulum from breast cancer. Good filling was observed, and no complications occurred. A research assistant recorded the patient's scores on the Karnofsky Performance Scale, Townsend Functional Assessment Scale, and Brief Pain Inventory before surgery and at days 1, 2, and 4 and weeks 1, 2, and 4 post-procedure. Improvement in pain and walking ability was demonstrated within the first 48 hours of treatment, and that improvement remained constant throughout follow-up. These findings echo the literature, in that percutaneous cementoplasty provides immediate and long-term pain relief with few complications. We recommend that percutaneous cementoplasty be used as an additional tool for palliative treatment of patients with bone metastases.

  14. Classifying low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer using label-free serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjiao; Lai, Xiaoping; Zeng, Qiuyao; Li, Linfang; Lin, Lin; Li, Shaoxin; Liu, Zhiming; Su, Chengkang; Qi, Minni; Guo, Zhouyi

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to classify low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer (BC) patients using serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. Serum SERS spectra are acquired from 88 serum samples with silver nanoparticles as the SERS-active substrate. Diagnostic accuracies of 96.4% and 95.4% are obtained when differentiating the serum SERS spectra of all BC patients versus normal subjects and low-grade versus high-grade BC patients, respectively, with optimal SVM classifier models. This study demonstrates that the serum SERS technique combined with SVM has great potential to noninvasively detect and classify high-grade and low-grade BC patients.

  15. Positron emission tomography changes management, improves prognostic stratification and is superior to gallium scintigraphy in patients with low-grade lymphoma: results of a multicentre prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Andrew M.; Gunawardana, Dishan H.; Wong, Joseph; Kirkwood, Ian; Hicks, Rodney J.; Ho Shon, Ivan; Ramshaw, Jayne E.; Robins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was evaluated in low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to determine its impact on staging and management and to compare PET and gallium scans. PET resulted in management plan changes in 74 patients with untreated low-grade NHL stages I to III. Patient outcomes to 12 months were documented. PET identified additional lesions in 50% of patients, led to a change in stage in 32%, and had a significant impact on management in 34%. Inferior progression-free survival was noted in patients with additional lesions detected by PET (p=0.001) and in the 28% of patients upstaged by PET to stage III or IV (p=0.024). In a subset of 16 patients undergoing both PET and gallium scans, PET was found to be superior. PET has a major role in the management of low-grade NHL in addition to its proven role in aggressive lymphoma. (orig.)

  16. Ganglioglioma: comparison with other low-grade brain tumors Ganglioglioma: estudo comparativo com outros tumores cerebrais primarios de baixo grau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Thadeu Brainer-Lima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available METHOD: Forty-two patients with low-grade brain tumor and refractory epilepsy were studied. The mean age was 22.3 years. They were divided into two groups: Group A, patients with ganglioglioma (n=19 and group B, patients with other low-grade tumors (n=23 (14 astrocytoma, 6 oligodendroglioma, 2 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, and 1 xanthoastrocytoma. RESULTS: Age at seizure’s onset was 7 years or less in 73% of the patients in group A and in 30.4% of the patients in group B (p=0.045. Complex partial occurred frequently in group A and B (94.7% versus 82%, respectively. Seizure’s frequency was higher in group B (p=0.002.Computerized tomography (CT was normal in 36.8% of group A patients and abnormal in all group B patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was abnormal in all patients. Surgical removal was complete in 89.5% of the patients in group A and in 78.2% of the patients in group B. CONCLUSION: The association of refractory epilepsy and complex partial seizures, at a relatively low frequency, in young patients potentially normal CT and a MRI hypointense temporal lobe lesion in T1-weighed slices were habitual image findings in ganglioglioma, rather than other low-grade tumor.MÉTODO: Foram estudados 42 pacientes com tumor cerebral primário de baixo grau e epilepsia refratária. A idade média foi 22,3 anos. Eles foram divididos em dois grupos: no grupo A os pacientes com ganglioglioma (n=19 e no grupo B os pacientes com outros tumores primários de crescimento lento (n=23 (14 astrocitomas, 6 oligodendrogliomas, 2 tumores desembrioblástico neuroepitelial e um xantoastrocitoma. RESULTADOS: A idade de início das crises convulsivas foi 7 anos ou menos em 73% dos pacientes no grupo A e 30,4% dos pacientes no grupo B (p=0,045. A crise convulsiva do tipo parcial complexa foi a mais identificada nos grupos A e B (94,7% versus 82%, respectivamente. A freqüência de crise foi mais alta no grupo B (p=0,002. A tomografia computadorizada

  17. Staphylococcal phage 2638a endolysin is lytic for Staphylococcus aureus and harbors an inter-lytic-domain cryptic translational start site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus, a notorious pathogen with a propensity for developing resistance to virtually all antibiotics. Staphylococcal phage 2638A endolysin is a peptidoglycan hydrolase that is lytic for Staphylococcus aureus when exposed externally, making it a new candidate antimicrobial. It sha...

  18. Organic Fluids and Passive Cooling in a Supercritical Rankine Cycle for Power Generation from Low Grade Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhi, Rachana

    Low grade heat sources have a large amount of thermal energy content. Due to low temperature, the conventional power generation technologies result in lower efficiency and hence cannot be used. In order to efficiently generate power, alternate methods need to be used. In this study, a supercritical organic Rankine cycle was used for heat source temperatures varying from 125°C to 200°C. Organic refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential and their mixtures were selected as working fluid for this study while the cooling water temperature was changed from 10-25°C. Operating pressure of the cycle has been optimized for each fluid at every heat source temperature to obtain the highest thermal efficiency. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the thermodynamic cycle have been obtained as a function of heat source temperature. Efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle depends significantly on the sink temperature. At areas where water cooling is not available and ambient air temperature is high, efficient power generation from low grade heat sources may be a challenge. Use of passive cooling systems coupled with the condenser was studied, so that lower sink temperatures could be obtained. Underground tunnels, buried at a depth of few meters, were used as earth-air-heat-exchanger (EAHE) through which hot ambient air was passed. It was observed that the air temperature could be lowered by 5-10°C in the EAHE. Vertical pipes were used to lower the temperature of water by 5°C by passing it underground. Nocturnal cooling of stored water has been studied that can be used to cool the working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. It was observed that the water temperature can be lowered by 10-20°C during the night when it is allowed to cool. The amount of water lost was calculated and was found to be approximately 0.1% over 10 days. The different passive cooling systems were studied separately and their effects on the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle were investigated. They were

  19. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy versus conventional radiological imaging for the management of late, low-grade vascular prosthesis infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, P.A. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Leo, G. [ASL Lecce, U.O. Gestione Rapporti Convenzionali, U.O. Chirurgia Generale, Lecce, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Sollini, M. [Az. Osp. S.Maria Nuova - IRCCS Reggio Emilia, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Tascini, C.; Menichetti, F. [University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Infectious Diseases, Pisa (Italy); Boni, R.; Lazzeri, E.; Mariani, G. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Berchiolli, R.N.; Ferrari, M. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In this study we evaluated the diagnostic performance of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-leucocyte ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC) scintigraphy in a consecutive series of 55 patients (46 men and 9 women, mean age 71 ± 9 years, range 50 - 88 years) with a suspected late or a low-grade late vascular prosthesis infection (VPI), also comparing the diagnostic accuracy of WBC with that of other radiological imaging methods. All patients suspected of having VPI underwent clinical examination, blood tests, microbiology, US and CT, and were classified according to the Fitzgerald criteria. A final diagnosis of VPI was established in 47 of the 55 patients, with microbiological confirmation after surgical removal of the prosthesis in 36 of the 47. In the 11 patients with major contraindications to surgery, the final diagnosis was based on microbiology and clinical follow-up of at least 18 months. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC planar, SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging identified VPI in 43 of 47 patients (20 of these also showed infection at extra-prosthetic sites). In the remaining eight patients without VPI, different sites of infections were found. The use of SPECT/CT images led to a significant reduction in the number of false-positive findings in 37 % of patients (sensitivity and specificity 100 %, versus 85.1 % and 62.5 % for stand-alone SPECT). Sensitivity and specificity were 34 % and 75 % for US, 48.9 % and 83.3 % for CT, and 68.1 % and 62.5 % for the FitzGerald classification. Perioperative mortality was 5.5 %, mid-term mortality 12 %, and long-term mortality 27 %. Survival rates were similar in patients treated with surgery and antimicrobial therapy compared to patients treated with antimicrobial therapy alone (61 % versus 63 %, respectively), while infection eradication at 12 months was significantly higher following surgery (83.3 % versus 45.5 %). {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC SPECT/CT is useful for detecting, localizing and defining the extent of graft infection in patients with late and low-grade late VPI

  20. K-Ar dating celadonite: A contribution to timing of a very low-grade metamorphism in the Central Andes of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmar, M; Schmidt, S.; Frey, M

    2001-01-01

    Clay minerals have been used in several studies to date very low-grade metamorphism processes and hydrothermal episodes. The technique of using the K-Ar isotopic dating was demonstrated by many authors (e.g. Hunziker et al., 1986; Clauer et al., 1995; Kirschner et al 1995; Zhao et al., 1997; Glasmacher et al., 2001). White mica and illitic materials of different size are usually analysed, whereasceladonite mineral with high potassium content has been low developed and few data are published. Successful dating of continental Andean celadonite could mean that is possible to date the very low-grade metamorphism (zeolites facies) in which celadonites are very often observed (au)

  1. Longitudinal Relationship of Low Leisure Satisfaction but not Depressive Symptoms With Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Dementia Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to further elucidate the biobehavioral mechanisms linking dementia caregiving with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that both elevated depressive symptoms and a behavioral correlate of depression, low leisure satisfaction, are associated with systemic inflammation. Method. We studied 121 elderly Alzheimer’s disease caregivers who underwent 4 annual assessments for depressive symptoms, leisure satisfaction, and circulating levels of inflammatory markers. We used mixed-regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic and health-relevant covariates to examine longitudinal relationships between constructs of interest. Results. There were inverse relationships between total leisure satisfaction and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; p = .047), interleukin-8 (IL-8; p leisure activities was related to higher levels of TNF-α (p = .045), IL-8 (p leisure activities was related only to higher IL-8 levels (p = .023). Depressive symptoms were not associated with any inflammatory marker (all p values > .17). Depressive symptoms did not mediate the relationship between leisure satisfaction and inflammation. Discussion. Lower satisfaction with leisure activities is related to higher low-grade systemic inflammation. This knowledge may provide a promising way of improving cardiovascular health in dementia caregivers through behavioral activation treatments targeting low leisure satisfaction. PMID:23650246

  2. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan-Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified, including chlorites, hornblende, actinolite, epidote and white micas. The rock samples were grouped into mineral assemblages based on their spectrally identified minerals and stratigraphic positions. The metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies could be identified from the SWIR spectroscopic data as well as three sub zones of the greenschist facies: 1) a zone containing Fe-chlorite; 2) a zone containing intermediate chlorite and epidote; and 3) a zone containing intermediate chlorite, actinolite and hornblende. Spectral parameters were calculated from the reflectance spectra to assess the metamorphic grade and zones. Plots of the depth parameters of the Fe-OH feature near 2250 nm versus the Mg-OH feature near 2390 nm differentiate the metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies and a transition zone between the two. The wavelength position parameter of the Mg-OH absorption feature near 2340 nm also serves to discriminate between the various metamorphic sub zones. The identification of the metamorphic grades of the volcanic sequences in greenstone belts with SWIR spectroscopy is useful for regional geological field studies, exploration for metamorphic mineral deposits hosted in the greenstone belts and the interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing data sets covering similar types of terranes.

  3. New concepts in the management of diffuse low-grade glioma: Proposal of a multistage and individualized therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse low-grade glioma grows, migrates along white matter tracts, and progresses to high-grade glioma. Rather than a "wait and see" policy, an aggressive attitude is now recommended, with early surgery as the first therapy. Intraoperative mapping, with maximal resection according to functional boundaries, is associated with a longer overall survival (OS) while minimizing morbidity. However, most studies have investigated the role of only one specific treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) without taking a global view of managing the cumulative time while preserving quality of life (QoL) versus time to anaplastic transformation. Our aim is to switch towards a more holistic concept based upon the anticipation of a personalized and long-term multistage therapeutic approach, with online adaptation of the strategy over the years using feedback from clinical, radiological, and histomolecular monitoring. This dynamic strategy challenges the traditional approach by proposing earlier therapy, by repeating treatments, and by reversing the classical order of therapies (eg, neoadjuvant chemotherapy when maximal resection is impossible, no early radiotherapy) to improve OS and QoL. New individualized management strategies should deal with the interactions between the course of this chronic disease, reaction brain remapping, and oncofunctional modulation elicited by serial treatments. This philosophy supports a personalized, functional, and preventive neuro-oncology. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a combined power cycle using low grade heat source and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a combined cycle using a low grade heat source and LNG cold energy was carried out. The combined cycle consisted of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle with and without regeneration and a LNG Rankine cycle. A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters, such as ammonia mass fraction, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature. The effects of the ammonia mass fraction on the temperature distributions of the hot and cold streams in heat exchangers were also investigated. The characteristic diagram of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability was proposed to consider the system performance and expenditure of the heat exchangers simultaneously. The simulation showed that the system performance is influenced significantly by the parameters with the ammonia mass fraction having largest effect. The net work output of the ammonia–water cycle may have a peak value or increase monotonically with increasing ammonia mass fraction, which depends on turbine inlet pressure or condensation temperature. The exergy efficiency may decrease or increase or have a peak value with turbine inlet pressure depending on the ammonia mass fraction. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis was performed for a combined cycle utilizing LNG cold energy. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle and LNG Rankine cycle was combined. • A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters. • Characteristics of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability were proposed. • The system performance was influenced significantly by the ammonia mass fraction

  5. In diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy impaired microvascular function is related to long lasting metabolic control and low grade inflammatory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Soska, Jacek; Borucka, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Marta; Niedzwiecki, Pawel; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna; Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Dorota

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess microvascular function associated with the occurrence of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) in patients with diabetes. We evaluated 70 diabetic patients (54 men) with Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN-DM), median age 59 (IQR: 51-62), mean disease duration 16±8years. The control group were 70 subjects with diabetes and without Charcot neuroarthropathy (DM), 54 men, median age 60 (54-62), mean diabetes duration 15±7years. We assessed metabolic control of diabetes, serum C-reactive protein concentration (CRP) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). We used AGE-Reader to measure skin autofluorescence (AF) associated with accumulation of advanced glycation end products that reflects long lasting metabolic control. Microvascular function was examined by laser Doppler flowmetry (PERIFLUX 5000) with thermal hyperemia (TH) and postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH). CN-DM patients as compared to DM subjects had lower HbA1c level [7.6 (6.6-8.4) vs 8.4 (7.3-9.7)%, plevel (Rs=0.42, plevel (Rs=-0.23, p=0.04). Deterioration of microvascular function and autonomic system dysfunction are present in Charcot neuroarthropathy. Impaired microvascular reactivity is associated with worse long lasting metabolic control of diabetes and low grade inflammatory process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of iron and oxidizing flux addition on the fire assay of low grade pyritic refractory gold ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, experiments were conducted to understand the effects of different quantities of additional iron and oxidizing flux (Na2O2 on the direct fire assay of low grade pyritic refractory gold ores instead of performing any pre-treatment like roasting before fire assay. A portion of the pyritic ore was primarily roasted using a rotary kiln to remove sulphur content for the comparison of the results obtained from direct fire assay of the pyritic ore. Then, fire assay process was performed to the roasted ore and gold and silver content in the ore was determined. Unroasted ore specimens were fused by using fluxes and PbO, which accumulates the precious metals, with various quantities of iron. Correlation between the quantity of additional iron and the recovery of gold-silver were investigated. Various quantities of Na2O2, as an oxidizing flux, were added to the smelting charge with iron additions, from which the highest gold and silver recoveries were obtained from previous experiments. From the results, it was clear that the increase in additional iron and Na2O2 quantities was the reason for the increase in the recovered amounts of lead, gold and silver during the process.

  7. Calorimetry of the PD-D2O system: The drive towards high levels of low grade heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, M.; Pons, S.

    1995-01-01

    We review some of the factors which prompted our search for anomalously fast nuclear reactions of D + electrochemically compressed into Pd (and Pd-alloy) host lattices using calorimetry as a principal means of investigation. The most surprising results are that the high levels of excess heat generated are riot accompanied by the expected levels of tritium and neutrons (low but significant levels of these open-quotes nuclear ashesclose quotes are detected). It has been found that excess heat generation is dependent on the protocol of the experiments mainly because of positive feedback. A rationale for such positive feedback is presented; this also leads to oscillation in the system properties which must be minimised so as to reach high levels of excess enthalpy generation at intermediate temperatures (∼100 degrees C i.e. low grade heat). We illustrate the progressive development by the achievement of specific rates of ∼20Wcm -3 , ∼100Wcm -3 and 4kWcm -3 corresponding to those of gas cooled, pressurised water and fast breeder reactors. The highest levels require restrictions of the engineering of the systems which we will outline

  8. Multi-objective optimization of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low grade waste heat recovery using evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangfeng; Yan, Zhequan; Wang, Man; Li, Maoqing; Dai, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization of an ORC is conducted to obtain optimum performance. • NSGA-II is employed to solve this multi-objective optimization problem. • The effects of parameters on the exergy efficiency and capital cost are examined. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can effectively recover low grade waste heat due to its excellent thermodynamic performance. Based on the examinations of the effects of key thermodynamic parameters on the exergy efficiency and overall capital cost, multi-objective optimization of the ORC with R134a as working fluid is conducted to achieve the system optimization design from both thermodynamic and economic aspects using Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The exergy efficiency and overall capital cost are selected as two objective functions to maximize the exergy efficiency and minimize the overall capital cost under the given waste heat conditions. Turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, pinch temperature difference, approach temperature difference and condenser temperature difference are selected as the decision variables owing to their significant effects on the exergy efficiency and overall capital cost. A Pareto frontier obtained shows that an increase in the exergy efficiency can increase the overall capital cost of the ORC system. The optimum design solution with their corresponding decision variables is selected from the Pareto frontier. The optimum exergy efficiency and overall capital cost are 13.98% and 129.28 × 10 4 USD, respectively, under the given waste heat conditions

  9. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery with carbon-silver electrodes for converting low-grade waste heat to electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Kim, Taeyoung; Gorski, Christopher A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2018-01-01

    Thermally regenerative ammonia batteries (TRABs) have shown great promise as a method to convert low-grade waste heat into electrical power, with power densities an order of magnitude higher than other approaches. However, previous TRABs based on copper electrodes suffered from unbalanced anode dissolution and cathode deposition rates during discharging cycles, limiting practical applications. To produce a TRAB with stable and reversible electrode reactions over many cycles, inert carbon electrodes were used with silver salts. In continuous flow tests, power production was stable over 100 discharging cycles, demonstrating excellent reversibility. Power densities were 23 W m-2-electrode area in batch tests, which was 64% higher than that produced in parallel tests using copper electrodes, and 30 W m-2 (net energy density of 490 Wh m-3-anolyte) in continuous flow tests. While this battery requires the use a precious metal, an initial economic analysis of the system showed that the cost of the materials relative to energy production was 220 per MWh, which is competitive with energy production from other non-fossil fuel sources. A substantial reduction in costs could be obtained by developing less expensive anion exchange membranes.

  10. Dynamic study of steam generation from low-grade waste heat in a zeolite–water adsorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Bing; Meng, Xiangrui; Wei, Xinli; Nakaso, Koichi; Fukai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A novel zeolite–water adsorption heat pump system based on a direct-contact heat exchange method to generate steam from low-grade waste gas and water has been proposed and examined experimentally. Superheated steam (200 °C, 0.1 MPa) is generated from hot water (70–80 °C) and dry air (100–130 °C). A dynamic model for steam generation process is developed to describe local mass and heat transfer. This model features a three-phase calculation and a moving water–gas interface. The calculations are carried out in the zeolite–water and zeolite–gas regions. Model outputs are compared with experimental results for validation. The thermal response inside the reactor and mass of steam generated is well predicted. Numerical results show that preheat process with low-temperature steam is an effective method to achieve local equilibrium quickly, thus generation process is enhanced by prolonging the time and increasing mass of the generated steam. Besides, high-pressure steam generation up to 0.5 MPa is possible from the validated dynamic model. Future work could be emphasized on enhancing high-pressure steam generation with preheat process or mass recovery operation

  11. Comprehensive recovery of gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-juan; Liu, Shuang; Song, Yong-sheng; Wen, Jian-kang; Zhou, Gui-ying; Chen, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The comprehensive recovery of small amounts of valuable minerals such as gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore was investigated. The following treatment strategy was applied to a sample of this ore: gold flotation-gold concentrate leaching-lead and zinc flotation from the gold concentrate leaching residue. Closed-circuit trials of gold flotation yielded a gold concentrate that assayed at 40.23 g·t-1 Au with a recovery of 86.25%. The gold concentrate leaching rate was 98.76%. Two variants of lead-zinc flotation from the residue—preferential flotation of lead and zinc and bulk flotation of lead and zinc—were tested using the middling processing method. Foam from the reflotation was returned to the lead rougher flotation or lead-zinc bulk flotation, whereas middlings from reflotation were discarded. Sulfur concentrate was a byproduct. The combined strategy of flotation, leaching, and flotation is recommended for the treatment of this kind of ore.

  12. Loss of polarity alters proliferation and differentiation in low-grade endometrial cancers by disrupting Notch signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Williams

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion and apicobasal polarity together maintain epithelial tissue organization and homeostasis. Loss of adhesion has been described as a prerequisite for the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, what role misregulation of apicobasal polarity promotes tumor initiation and/or early progression remains unclear. We find that human low-grade endometrial cancers are associated with disrupted localization of the apical polarity protein Par3 and Ezrin while, the adhesion molecule E-cadherin remains unchanged, accompanied by decreased Notch signaling, and altered Notch receptor localization. Depletion of Par3 or Ezrin, in a cell-based model, results in loss of epithelial architecture, differentiation, increased proliferation, migration and decreased Notch signaling. Re-expression of Par3 in endometrial cancer cell lines with disrupted Par3 protein levels blocks proliferation and reduces migration in a Notch dependent manner. These data uncover a function for apicobasal polarity independent of cell adhesion in regulating Notch-mediated differentiation signals in endometrial epithelial cells.

  13. Leaching of low-grade copper ores: A case study for 'Kraku Bugaresku-Cementacija' deposits (Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Grozdanka D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of column leaching of low-grade ores from the copper mine Cerovo, Serbia (the approximate Cu content in the ore ranges from 0.2 - 0.3 % with >10 % copper in the form of oxide minerals. The leaching experiments were performed using sulphuric acid solutions, whereby the kinetics of copper leaching was investigated with respect to acid concentration and solid to liquid ratio. The copper concentration in the leach solution ranged from 0.80 to 1.75 g dm-3. The total Cu recovery rate ranged from 30 to 56 %, whereas the recovery rate of copper oxide minerals ranged from 67 to 100 %. Furthermore, with increasing the amount of liquid phase, copper recovery increases as well, and copper oxide minerals were completely leached out. Besides copper ions, considerably high ferrous/ferric ion concentrations were achieved in the leach solution. This concentration was sufficiently high for the use of either solvent extraction or ion exchange techniques or both for further treatment of the leach solution.

  14. Economic assessment of greenhouse gas reduction through low-grade waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Byung Sik; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Usman, Muhammad [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Low-grade waste heat recovery technologies reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels and improve overall efficiency. This paper presents the economic assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction through waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The ORC engine is one of the mature low temperature heat engines. The low boiling temperature of organic working fluid enables ORC to recover low-temperature waste heat. The recovered waste heat is utilized to produce electricity and hot water. The GHG emissions for equivalent power and hot water from three fossil fuels-coal, natural gas, and diesel oil-are estimated using the fuel analysis approach and corresponding emission factors. The relative decrease in GHG emission is calculated using fossil fuels as the base case. The total cost of the ORC system is used to analyze the GHG reduction cost for each of the considered fossil fuels. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to investigate the effect of the key parameter of the ORC system on the cost of GHG reduction. Throughout the 20-year life cycle of the ORC plant, the GHG reduction cost for R245fa is 0.02 $/kg to 0.04 $/kg and that for pentane is 0.04 $/kg to 0.05 $/kg. The working fluid, evaporation pressure, and pinch point temperature difference considerably affect the GHG emission.

  15. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural determinants of bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Zarah; Bissaro, Bastien; Gullesen, Jonathan; Dalhus, Bjørn; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2018-01-26

    Bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO10s) use redox chemistry to cleave glycosidic bonds in the two foremost recalcitrant polysaccharides found in nature, namely cellulose and chitin. Analysis of correlated mutations revealed that the substrate-binding and copper-containing surface of LPMO10s composes a network of co-evolved residues and interactions, whose roles in LPMO functionality are unclear. Here, we mutated a subset of these correlated residues in a newly characterized C1/C4-oxidizing LPMO10 from Micromonospora aurantiaca ( Ma LPMO10B) to the corresponding residues in strictly C1-oxidizing LPMO10s. We found that surface properties near the catalytic copper, i.e. side chains likely to be involved in substrate positioning, are major determinants of the C1:C4 ratio. Several Ma LPMO10B mutants almost completely lost C4-oxidizing activity while maintaining C1-oxidizing activity. These mutants also lost chitin-oxidizing activity, which is typically observed for C1/C4-oxidizing, but not for C1-oxidizing, cellulose-active LPMO10s. Selective loss in C1-oxidizing activity was not observed. Additional mutational experiments disclosed that neither truncation of the Ma LPMO10B family 2 carbohydrate-binding module nor mutations altering access to the solvent-exposed axial copper coordination site significantly change the C1:C4 ratio. Importantly, several of the mutations that altered interactions with the substrate exhibited reduced stability. This effect could be explained by productive substrate binding that protects LPMOs from oxidative self-inactivation. We discuss these stability issues in view of recent findings on LPMO catalysis, such as the involvement of H 2 O 2 Our results show that residues on the substrate-binding surface of LPMOs have co-evolved to optimize several of the interconnected properties: substrate binding and specificity, oxidative regioselectivity, catalytic efficiency, and stability. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry

  17. Gammaherpesvirus Colonization of the Spleen Requires Lytic Replication in B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Clara; de Miranda, Marta Pires; May, Janet; Wyer, Orry; Simas, J Pedro; Stevenson, Philip G

    2018-04-01

    Gammaherpesviruses infect lymphocytes and cause lymphocytic cancers. Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), Epstein-Barr virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus all infect B cells. Latent infection can spread by B cell recirculation and proliferation, but whether this alone achieves systemic infection is unclear. To test the need of MuHV-4 for lytic infection in B cells, we flanked its essential ORF50 lytic transactivator with loxP sites and then infected mice expressing B cell-specific Cre (CD19-Cre). The floxed virus replicated normally in Cre - mice. In CD19-Cre mice, nasal and lymph node infections were maintained; but there was little splenomegaly, and splenic virus loads remained low. Cre-mediated removal of other essential lytic genes gave a similar phenotype. CD19-Cre spleen infection by intraperitoneal virus was also impaired. Therefore, MuHV-4 had to emerge lytically from B cells to colonize the spleen. An important role for B cell lytic infection in host colonization is consistent with the large CD8 + T cell responses made to gammaherpesvirus lytic antigens during infectious mononucleosis and suggests that vaccine-induced immunity capable of suppressing B cell lytic infection might reduce long-term virus loads. IMPORTANCE Gammaherpesviruses cause B cell cancers. Most models of host colonization derive from cell cultures with continuous, virus-driven B cell proliferation. However, vaccines based on these models have worked poorly. To test whether proliferating B cells suffice for host colonization, we inactivated the capacity of MuHV-4, a gammaherpesvirus of mice, to reemerge from B cells. The modified virus was able to colonize a first wave of B cells in lymph nodes but spread poorly to B cells in secondary sites such as the spleen. Consequently, viral loads remained low. These results were consistent with virus-driven B cell proliferation exploiting normal host pathways and thus having to transfer lytically to new B cells for new proliferation. We

  18. The AP-3 β adaptin mediates the biogenesis and function of lytic vacuoles in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraru, Elena; Paciorek, Tomasz; Feraru, Mugurel I; Zwiewka, Marta; De Groodt, Ruth; De Rycke, Riet; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Friml, Jirí

    2010-08-01

    Plant vacuoles are essential multifunctional organelles largely distinct from similar organelles in other eukaryotes. Embryo protein storage vacuoles and the lytic vacuoles that perform a general degradation function are the best characterized, but little is known about the biogenesis and transition between these vacuolar types. Here, we designed a fluorescent marker-based forward genetic screen in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified a protein affected trafficking2 (pat2) mutant, whose lytic vacuoles display altered morphology and accumulation of proteins. Unlike other mutants affecting the vacuole, pat2 is specifically defective in the biogenesis, identity, and function of lytic vacuoles but shows normal sorting of proteins to storage vacuoles. PAT2 encodes a putative β-subunit of adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) that can partially complement the corresponding yeast mutant. Manipulations of the putative AP-3 β adaptin functions suggest a plant-specific role for the evolutionarily conserved AP-3 β in mediating lytic vacuole performance and transition of storage into the lytic vacuoles independently of the main prevacuolar compartment-based trafficking route.

  19. Coordination of KSHV Latent and Lytic Gene Control by CTCF-Cohesin Mediated Chromosome Conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyojeung; Wiedmer, Andreas; Yuan, Yan; Robertson, Erle; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Herpesvirus persistence requires a dynamic balance between latent and lytic cycle gene expression, but how this balance is maintained remains enigmatic. We have previously shown that the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) major latency transcripts encoding LANA, vCyclin, vFLIP, v-miRNAs, and Kaposin are regulated, in part, by a chromatin organizing element that binds CTCF and cohesins. Using viral genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (3C) methods, we now show that KSHV latency control region is physically linked to the promoter regulatory region for ORF50, which encodes the KSHV immediate early protein RTA. Other linkages were also observed, including an interaction between the 5′ and 3′ end of the latency transcription cluster. Mutation of the CTCF-cohesin binding site reduced or eliminated the chromatin conformation linkages, and deregulated viral transcription and genome copy number control. siRNA depletion of CTCF or cohesin subunits also disrupted chromosomal linkages and deregulated viral latent and lytic gene transcription. Furthermore, the linkage between the latent and lytic control region was subject to cell cycle fluctuation and disrupted during lytic cycle reactivation, suggesting that these interactions are dynamic and regulatory. Our findings indicate that KSHV genomes are organized into chromatin loops mediated by CTCF and cohesin interactions, and that these inter-chromosomal linkages coordinate latent and lytic gene control. PMID:21876668

  20. Evidence of contrasting low-grade metamorphic conditons from clay mineral assablages in Triassic Alpujárride-Maláguide transtional units in the Betic Cordilleras, Spain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruiz Cruz, M. D.; Franco, F.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Novák, Jiří Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, 2 (2006), s. 621-638 ISSN 0009-8558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : low- grade metamorphism * clay minerals * Betic Cordilleras Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2006

  1. A Comparison of Brain Wave Patterns of High and Low Grade Point Average Students During Rest, Problem Solving, and Stress Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montor, Karel

    The purpose of this study was to compare brain wave patterns produced by high and low grade point average students, while they were resting, solving problems, and subjected to stress situations. The study involved senior midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy. The high group was comprised of those whose cumulative grade point average was…

  2. Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases : causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Nunez, Begona; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An

  3. Alcohol and red wine consumption, but not fruit, vegetables, fish or dairy products, are associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussel, van B.C.T.; Henry, R.M.A.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are key phenomena in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their dietary modification might explain the observed reduction in CVD that has been associated with a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables and fish, low in dairy

  4. Short-term simvastatin treatment has no effect on plasma cytokine response in a human in vivo model of low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, C; Ullum, H; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2006-01-01

    Statins reduce plasma cholesterol, but clinical trials and in vitro studies indicate that they might also possess anti-inflammatory properties. The effect of simvastatin on circulating cytokines and leucocytes was evaluated in a human in vivo model of low-grade inflammation. Thirty young healthy...

  5. Gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma, high-grade MALT lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma show different frequencies of trisomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M A; Gisbertz, I A; Schouten, H C; Schuuring, E; Bot, F J; Hermans, J; Hopman, A; Kluin, P M; Arends, J E; van Krieken, J H

    1999-01-01

    Gastric MALT lymphoma is a distinct entity related to Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Some studies suggest a role for trisomy 3 in the genesis of these lymphomas, but they mainly focused on low-grade MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma, however, comprises a spectrum from low- to high-grade cases.

  6. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  7. Diffusion Profiling via a Histogram Approach Distinguishes Low-grade from High-grade Meningiomas, Can Reflect the Respective Proliferative Potential and Progesterone Receptor Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gihr, Georg Alexander; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Garnov, Nikita; Kohlhof-Meinecke, Patricia; Ganslandt, Oliver; Henkes, Hans; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Surov, Alexey; Schob, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Presurgical grading, estimation of growth kinetics, and other prognostic factors are becoming increasingly important for selecting the best therapeutic approach for meningioma patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides microstructural information and reflects tumor biology. A novel DWI approach, histogram profiling of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volumes, provides more distinct information than conventional DWI. Therefore, our study investigated whether ADC histogram profiling distinguishes low-grade from high-grade lesions and reflects Ki-67 expression and progesterone receptor status. Pretreatment ADC volumes of 37 meningioma patients (28 low-grade, 9 high-grade) were used for histogram profiling. WHO grade, Ki-67 expression, and progesterone receptor status were evaluated. Comparative and correlative statistics investigating the association between histogram profiling and neuropathology were performed. The entire ADC profile (p10, p25, p75, p90, mean, median) was significantly lower in high-grade versus low-grade meningiomas. The lower percentiles, mean, and modus showed significant correlations with Ki-67 expression. Skewness and entropy of the ADC volumes were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression. ROC analysis revealed entropy to be the most accurate parameter distinguishing low-grade from high-grade meningiomas. ADC histogram profiling provides a distinct set of parameters, which help differentiate low-grade versus high-grade meningiomas. Also, histogram metrics correlate significantly with histological surrogates of the respective proliferative potential. More specifically, entropy revealed to be the most promising imaging biomarker for presurgical grading. Both, entropy and skewness were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression and therefore should be investigated further as predictors for prognostically relevant tumor biological features. Since absolute ADC

  8. The Lytic SA Phage Demonstrate Bactericidal Activity against Mastitis Causing Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ameer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major causative agent of mastitis among dairy animals as it causes intramammary gland infection. Due to antibiotic resistance and contamination of antibiotics in the milk of diseased animals; alternative therapeutic agents are required to cure mastitis. Lytic bacteriophages and their gene products can be potential therapeutic agents against bacteria as they are host specific and less harmful than antibiotics. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from milk samples of the infected animals and identified biochemically. SA phage was isolated from sewage water showing lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The highest lytic activity of bacteriophages was observed at 37°C and pH 7, and the most suitable storage condition was at 4°C. SA phage efficiently reduced bacterial growth in the bacterial reduction assay. The characterization and bacterial growth reduction activity of the bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus signifies their underlying potential of phage therapy against mastitis.

  9. The importance of lytic and nonlytic immune responses in viral infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2002-01-01

    of the two types of component depend on the cytopathicity of the virus relative to its rate of replication. If the viral cytopathicity is low relative to the rate of viral replication, the model predicts that a combination of lytic and nonlytic effector mechanisms is likely to be required to resolve...... the disease, particularly if the virus replicates at a fast rate. By contrast, if viral cytopathicity is high relative to the replication rate of the virus, then lytic and nonlytic mechanisms can, in principle, resolve the infection independently. We discuss our findings in the context of specific viral......Antiviral immune effector mechanisms can be divided broadly into lytic and nonlytic components. We use mathematical models to investigate the fundamental question of which type of response is required to combat different types of viral infection. According to our model, the relative roles...

  10. Bromodomain and extraterminal inhibitors block the Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle at two distinct steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Kristin M; Moquin, Stephanie A; He, Amanda; Fernandez, Samantha G; Somberg, Jessica J; Liu, Stephanie M; Martinez, Delsy M; Miranda, Jj L

    2017-08-11

    Lytic infection by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) poses numerous health risks, such as infectious mononucleosis and lymphoproliferative disorder. Proteins in the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family regulate multiple stages of viral life cycles and provide promising intervention targets. Synthetic small molecules can bind to the bromodomains and disrupt function by preventing recognition of acetylated lysine substrates. We demonstrate that JQ1 and other BET inhibitors block two different steps in the sequential cascade of the EBV lytic cycle. BET inhibitors prevent expression of the viral immediate-early protein BZLF1. JQ1 alters transcription of genes controlled by the host protein BACH1, and BACH1 knockdown reduces BZLF1 expression. BET proteins also localize to the lytic origin of replication (OriLyt) genetic elements, and BET inhibitors prevent viral late gene expression. There JQ1 reduces BRD4 recruitment during reactivation to preclude replication initiation. This represents a rarely observed dual mode of action for drugs.

  11. IDH mutation and 1p19q codeletion distinguish two radiological patterns of diffuse low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlix, Amélie; Deverdun, Jérémy; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Castan, Florence; Zouaoui, Sonia; Rigau, Valérie; Fabbro, Michel; Yordanova, Yordanka; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bauchet, Luc; Gozé, Catherine; Duffau, Hugues

    2017-05-01

    Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) prognosis is variable, depending on several factors, including the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and the 1p19q codeletion. A few studies suggested associations between these parameters and tumor radiological characteristics including topography. Our aim was analyzing the correlations between the IDH and 1p19q statuses and the tumor intracerebral distribution (at the lobar and voxel levels), volume, and borders. We conducted a retrospective, monocentric study on a consecutive series of 198 DLGG patients. The IDH and 1p19q statuses were recorded. The pre-treatment magnetic resonance FLAIR imagings were reviewed for determination of lobar topography, tumor volume, and characterisation of tumor borders (sharp or indistinct). We conducted a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis to investigate the correlations between the IDH and 1p19q statuses and topography at the voxel level. The IDH mutation and 1p19q statuses were correlated with the tumor topography defined using lobar anatomy (p IDH-mutant (87.1 vs. 57.4%) and 1p19q codeleted (45.2 vs. 17.0%) than temporo-insular lesions. At the voxel level, these associations were not found. Tumors with sharp borders were more frequently IDH-mutant (p = 0.001) while tumors with indistinct borders were more frequently IDH wild-type and 1p19q non-codeleted (p IDH-mutant (p IDH wild-type, 1p19q non-codeleted temporo-insular tumors are distinct from IDH-mutant, 1p19q codeleted frontal tumors. Further studies are needed to determine whether the therapeutic strategy should be adapted to each pattern.

  12. IDH mutation status trumps the Pignatti risk score as a prognostic marker in low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxaniz, Olatz; Carrato, Cristina; de Aguirre, Itziar; Queralt, Cristina; Muñoz, Ana; Ramirez, José L; Rosell, Rafael; Villà, Salvador; Diaz, Rocio; Estival, Ana; Teixidor, Pilar; Indacochea, Alberto; Ahjal, Sara; Vilà, Laia; Balañá, Carme

    2017-11-01

    Management of low-grade gliomas (LGG) is based on clinical and radiologic features, including the Pignatti prognostic scoring system, which classifies patients as low- or high-risk. To determine whether molecular data can offer advantages over these features, we have examined the prognostic impact of several molecular alterations in LGG. In a cohort of 58 patients with LGG, we have retrospectively analyzed clinical and molecular characteristics, including the Pignatti criteria, IDH mutations, TP53 mutations, the 1p/19q deletion, and MGMT methylation, and correlated our findings with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Mean age of patients was 45 years; 71% were classified as low-risk by the Pignatti system. IDH mutations were detected in 62%, p53 mutations in 17%, the 1p/19q codeletion in 46%, and MGMT methylation in 40% of patients. Survival analyses were performed in the 49 patients without contrast enhancement. In the univariate analysis, IDH mutations, the 1p/19q codeletion, and the combination of IDH mutations with the 1p/19q codeletion were associated with both longer PFS (P = 0.006, P = 0.037, and P = 0.003, respectively) and longer OS (P IDH mutations as a factor for greater risk of progression [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.1; P = 0.007]and death (HR = 6.4; P IDH mutations may be more effective than the Pignatti score in discriminating low- and high-risk patients with LGG.

  13. Expression of dog1 in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: A study of 19 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Benítez, Ana; Rodríguez-Zarco, Enrique; Carrasco, Sara Pabón; Pereira-Gallardo, Sofia; Brugal Molina, Javier; García-Escudero, Antonio; Robles Frías, Antonio; Marcilla, David; González-Cámpora, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    DOG1 is a highly-sensitive marker often included in the immunohistochemical panel for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Recent research has shown that DOG1 may also be expressed by low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas (LGFMSs); this may give rise to diagnostic error when the sarcoma is located in the abdominal cavity. This paper reports on immnohistochemical expression of DOG1 in 19 LGFMSs using two different monoclonal antibodies: K9 (Leica, Novocastra Laboratories, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) and SP31 (Thermo Scientific, Freemont, USA). All LGFMSs displayed the standard histological pattern of alternating myxoid and fibrous areas, low cellularity and bland spindle-cell morphology. Positive staining for MUC4 was observed in 18/19 cases (94.7%), while there was rearrangement of the FUS gene in 14/19 (73.7%) cases and of the EWR1 gene in 2/19 (10.5%). The sarcoma staining negative for MUC4 displayed FUS gene rearrangement. Whole-section immunohistochemistry revealed positive staining for DOG1 in 8/19 cases (42.1%), though only with clone K9. Cytoplasmic as well as membrane staining was observed in all cases; staining was focal (10-30%) and of varying intensity (1+ to 2+). In conclusion, DOG1 clone K9 exhibited low sensitivity (42.1%) for the diagnosis of LGFMS, although higher than clone SP31. Since the two clones display similar sensitivity and specificity for GIST diagnosis, SP31 would appear to be more specific for this purpose, since no reaction was observed here with LGFMS, a GIST-mimicking lesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2014-06-01

    All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

  15. Mineralogy, geochemistry and low grade metamorphism of green tuffs of Karaj formation in Hesarbon area (south west Firoozkooh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Bahrami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies show plagioclase (albite and oligoclase, alkali feldspar (sanidine, quartz, cristobalite, biotite and hornblende are the major minerals in the rocks studied. Secondary minerals such as analcime, chlorite, prehnite and clay minerals are mainly present in the groundmass of the rocks. Extensive tectonic activities have created a variety of structural features including numerous folds and faults and therefore, have caused the green tuffs to be crushed and converted to breccia tuffs in many parts. Veins and cavities are filled by considerable amounts of zeolitic minerals including heulandite group, clinoptilolite and natrolite along with calcite and secondary quartz. Based on geochemical data, they lie on the dacite and rhyodacite field showing a calc-alkaline nature in the corresponding diagrams. According to the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams of trace elements, negative anomalies of Eu, Nb, Ti, P and depletion of HFSE together with their position in the petrogenesis discrimination diagrams, it is most likely that these rocks are formed in the active continental margin of a subduction zone. The existence of analcime and prehnite in the groundmass demonstrate that these rocks have undergone some degrees of low-grade metamorphism due to the overburden of the layers in the temperature range 200-300 °C. The present study shows that zeolite minerals filling the fractures and cavities of tuffs are precipitated by hydrothermal fluids with a neutral pH to acidic

  16. Evaluation of low-grade glioma structural changes after chemotherapy using DTI-based histogram analysis and functional diffusion maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, Antonella; Iadanza, Antonella; Falini, Andrea [San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Neuroradiology Unit and CERMAC, Milano (Italy); Donativi, Marina [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics ' ' Ennio De Giorgi' ' and A.D.A.M. (Advanced Data Analysis in Medicine), Lecce (Italy); Ruda, Roberta; Bertero, Luca; Soffietti, Riccardo [University of Torino, Department of Neuro-oncology, Turin (Italy); De Nunzio, Giorgio [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics ' ' Ennio De Giorgi' ' and A.D.A.M. (Advanced Data Analysis in Medicine), Lecce (Italy); INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics), Lecce (Italy); Riva, Marco; Bello, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, and Humanitas Research Hospital, Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Rucco, Matteo [University of Camerino, School of Science and Technology, Computer Science Division, Camerino, MC (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    To explore the role of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based histogram analysis and functional diffusion maps (fDMs) in evaluating structural changes of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) receiving temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Twenty-one LGG patients underwent 3T-MR examinations before and after three and six cycles of dose-dense TMZ, including 3D-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences and DTI (b = 1000 s/mm{sup 2}, 32 directions). Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and tensor-decomposition DTI maps (p and q) were obtained. Histogram and fDM analyses were performed on co-registered baseline and post-chemotherapy maps. DTI changes were compared with modifications of tumour area and volume [according to Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria], and seizure response. After three cycles of TMZ, 20/21 patients were stable according to RANO criteria, but DTI changes were observed in all patients (Wilcoxon test, P ≤ 0.03). After six cycles, DTI changes were more pronounced (P ≤ 0.005). Seventy-five percent of patients had early seizure response with significant improvement of DTI values, maintaining stability on FLAIR. Early changes of the 25th percentiles of p and MD predicted final volume change (R{sup 2} = 0.614 and 0.561, P < 0.0005, respectively). TMZ-related changes were located mainly at tumour borders on p and MD fDMs. DTI-based histogram and fDM analyses are useful techniques to evaluate the early effects of TMZ chemotherapy in LGG patients. (orig.)

  17. Thermal performance of a modified ammonia–water power cycle for reclaiming mid/low-grade waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junye, Hua; Yaping, Chen; Jiafeng, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified Kalina cycle is proposed for power and heat cogeneration from mid/low-grade waste heat. • A water-cooling solution cooler is set for cogeneration of sanitary or heating hot water. • Work concentration is determined for suitable turbine inlet pressure and positive back pressure. • Basic concentration should match work concentration for higher efficiency. • Sanitary water with 50.7 °C and capacity of a quarter of total reclaimed heat load is cogenerated. - Abstract: A modified Kalina cycle was simulated, which is a triple-pressure ammonia–water power cycle adding a preheater and a water-cooling solution cooler to the original loop. The cycle acquires higher power recovery efficiency by realizing proper internal recuperation and suitable temperature-difference in phase change processes to match both heat source and cooling water. The influences of some key parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the cycle were discussed, including the work and basic concentrations of solution, circulation multiple and the turbine inlet temperature. It is shown that the basic concentration should match the work concentration for higher efficiency. Although higher work concentration could be slightly beneficial to cycle efficiency, the work concentration is mainly determined by considering the suitable turbine inlet/back pressure. Besides, this cycle can be used as a cogeneration system of power and sanitary or heating hot water. The calculation example presented finally with the turbine inlet parameters of 300 °C/6 MPa and the cycle lowest temperature of 30 °C shows that the power recovery efficiency reaches 15.87%, which is about 16.6% higher than that of the steam Rankine cycle. And it also provides 50.7 °C sanitary water with about a quarter of the total heating load reclaimed

  18. Immunohistochemical pattern of pleomorphic adenoma, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma in minor salivary glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zaib

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the immunohistochemical pattern of CD 117, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, smooth muscle actin (SMA and CD 43 in pleomorphic adenoma (PA, adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA of minor salivary glands.Twenty cases of PA, 20 cases of AdCC and 10 cases of PLGA were retrieved from record files along with their paraffin blocks at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Pakistan. New histological diagnosis was made on freshly prepared H&E sections followed by application and analysis of immunostains.The mean age of the patients was 44 ± 15 (mean SD (range; 17-86 years. There were 26 male and 24 female patients with a male to female ratio of 1.08:1. Fourteen cases of PA, 14 cases of AdCC and 6 cases of PLGA were positive for CD117. In case of GFAP, only 9 cases of AdCC and 3 cases of PLGA were positive; however, 16 cases of PA were also positive. Twelve cases of AdCC and 7 cases of PA were positive for SMA and half of the PLGA cases were also reactive. Nonetheless, the least expression was seen in case of CD 43, where only five cases of AdCC were positive. Six cases of PA and three cases of PLGA were also positive.Our results suggest that the use of GFAP, SMA, CD 117 and CD 43 as an adjunct to histological examination is not helpful in differentiating PA, AdCC and PLGA from one another.

  19. Low-grade neuroinflammation due to chronic sleep deprivation results in anxiety and learning and memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Shaffi; Singh, Harpal; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2018-03-16

    Chronic sleep loss/fragmentation prevalent in the current 24/7 society is associated with irreversible consequences on health and overall wellbeing. Various studies have well documented the ill effects of acute sleep loss on cognitive functions of individuals; however, the underlying mechanism behind the chronic sleep loss is yet to be explored. The present study was aimed to investigate whether chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) triggers anxiety-like behaviour and memory decline in male Wistar rats. Rats were sleep deprived by placing them over slowly rotating drum (2 rpm) for 18 h (between 4 pm and 10 am) followed by 6 h of recovery sleep for 21 consecutive days. Post CSD regimen, rats were subjected to behavioural tests such as elevated plus maze (EPM), Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Rotarod performance test and then sacrificed to remove brain for further molecular studies. The study demonstrated that CSD rats showed anxiogenic behaviour along with recognition memory decline compared to control rats. CSD rats further showed elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β) along with activation of NFκB and AP1 transcription factors in hippocampus and piriform cortex (PC) regions of brain. These observations were also accompanied by enhanced expression of GFAP and Iba1 in the two brain regions. The data suggest that CSD triggered low-grade neuroinflammation which caused anxiogenic response and recognition memory impairment. The study provides preliminary leads to further explore the role of astrocytes/microglial cells and inflammatory cytokines in mediating these neurobehavioural consequences of chronic sleep loss and to develop effective interventions to combat them.

  20. Evidence for chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in individuals with agoraphobia from a population-based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Young N Wagner

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been linked to an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease in which inflammation plays a key pathogenic role. To date, no studies have looked at the association between proinflammatory markers and agoraphobia.In a random Swiss population sample of 2890 persons (35-67 years, 53% women, we diagnosed a total of 124 individuals (4.3% with agoraphobia using a validated semi-structured psychiatric interview. We also assessed socioeconomic status, traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., body mass index, hypertension, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, and health behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and other major psychiatric diseases (other anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, drug dependence which were treated as covariates in linear regression models. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers, statistically controlled for the baseline demographic and health-related measures, were determined at a mean follow-up of 5.5 ± 0.4 years (range 4.7 - 8.5.Individuals with agoraphobia had significantly higher follow-up levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.007 and tumor-necrosis-factor-α (p = 0.042 as well as lower levels of the cardioprotective marker adiponectin (p = 0.032 than their non-agoraphobic counterparts. Follow-up levels of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 did not significantly differ between the two groups.Our results suggest an increase in chronic low-grade inflammation in agoraphobia over time. Such a mechanism might link agoraphobia with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and needs to be tested in longitudinal studies.

  1. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Thermal energy was shown to be efficiently converted into electrical power in a thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery (TRAB) using copper-based redox couples [Cu(NH3)4 2+/Cu and Cu(ii)/Cu]. Ammonia addition to the anolyte (2 M ammonia in a copper-nitrate electrolyte) of a single TRAB cell produced a maximum power density of 115 ± 1 W m-2 (based on projected area of a single copper mesh electrode), with an energy density of 453 W h m-3 (normalized to the total electrolyte volume, under maximum power production conditions). Adding a second cell doubled both the voltage and maximum power. Increasing the anolyte ammonia concentration to 3 M further improved the maximum power density to 136 ± 3 W m-2. Volatilization of ammonia from the spent anolyte by heating (simulating distillation), and re-addition of this ammonia to the spent catholyte chamber with subsequent operation of this chamber as the anode (to regenerate copper on the other electrode), produced a maximum power density of 60 ± 3 W m-2, with an average discharge energy efficiency of ∼29% (electrical energy captured versus chemical energy in the starting solutions). Power was restored to 126 ± 5 W m-2 through acid addition to the regenerated catholyte to decrease pH and dissolve Cu(OH)2 precipitates, suggesting that an inexpensive acid or a waste acid could be used to improve performance. These results demonstrated that TRABs using ammonia-based electrolytes and inexpensive copper electrodes can provide a practical method for efficient conversion of low-grade thermal energy into electricity.

  2. Lack of MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex detection occurs frequently in low-grade epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Simone; Samartzis, Eleftherios P; Zimmermann, Anne-Katrin; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Noske, Aurelia; Dedes, Konstantin J

    2017-01-10

    BRCA1/2-deficient ovarian carcinomas are recognized as target for Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are involved in homologous recombination repair of double-strand DNA breaks. The relevance of other homologous recombination repair proteins, e.g. MRE11, RAD50, NBS1 (MRN complex) in ovarian carcinomas is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of lack of MRE11, RAD50, NBS1 protein detection in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). A tissue microarray (TMA) with 134 EOC was immunohistochemically evaluated for MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1. Data was analysed for associations with clinicopathological parameters, histological subtype, patient overall survival and mismatch repair (MMR) protein status. Sensitivity towards the PARP inhibitor BMN673 was tested in two ovarian cancer cell lines (TOV-21 and OVTOKO) using colony formation assays. Lack of MRN complex protein detection was seen in 41% (55/134) of EOC and was more frequent in low-grade (57.6%; 19/33) than in high-grade EOC (18.8%; 36/101; n = 134; p = 0.04). There was an association with the ovarian carcinoma subtype (60.3%; 35/58 lack of detection in type I versus 26.3%; 20/76 in type II; n = 134; p lack of MRE11, RAD50, NBS1 protein detection in type I human ovarian carcinomas is observed in EOC and our data suggests further investigation regarding sensitivity to PARP-inhibition in tumours lacking MRE11 expression.

  3. Exergoeconomic comparison of TLC (trilateral Rankine cycle), ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycle using a low grade heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Mehr, A.S.; Zare, V.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Rosen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the TLC (trilateral power cycle) has attracted significant interest as it provides better matching between the temperature profiles in the evaporator compared to conventional power cycles. This article investigates the performance of this cycle and compares it with those for the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and the Kalina cycle, from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and thermoeconomics. A low-grade heat source with a temperature of 120 °C is considered for all the three systems. Parametric studies are performed for the systems for several working fluids in the ORC and TLC. The systems are then optimized for either maximum net output power or minimum product cost, using the EES (engineering equation solver) software. The results for the TLC indicate that an increase in the expander inlet temperature leads to an increase in net output power and a decrease in product cost for this power plant, whereas this is not the case for the ORC system. It is found that, although the TLC can achieve a higher net output power compared with the ORC and Kalina (KCS11 (Kalina cycle system 11)) systems, its product cost is greatly affected by the expander isentropic efficiency. It is also revealed that using n-butane as the working fluid can result in the lowest product cost in the ORC and the TLC. In addition, it is observed that, for both the ORC and Kalina systems, the optimum operating condition for maximum net output power differs from that for minimum product cost. - Highlights: • Exergoeconomic analysis of trilateral Rankine cycle is performed. • The system performance is compared with Organic Rankine and Kalina cycles. • Net power from trilateral Rankine cycle is higher than the other power systems. • Superiority of trilateral cycle depends on its expander isentropic efficiency

  4. Chronic low grade inflammation measured by dietary inflammatory index and its association with obesity among school teachers in Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Khin Mittar Moe; Fahmida, Umi; Wijaksono, Fiastuti; Lin, Htin; Zaw, Ko Ko; Htet, Min Kyaw

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association between obesity and chronic low grade inflammation (CLGI) measured by Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) as a proxy indicator of CLGI among obese and non-obese teachers. We conducted a cross sectional study among 128 non-obese (BMI =25) female teachers aged 25-60 years from six urban schools in Yangon, Myanmar between January and March 2015. Usual dietary intake was collected by 3-day nonconsecutive estimated 24 hour's dietary records and semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires. Adapted DII was calculated by standardized methods using literature-derived population-based dietary inflammatory weights of 31 food parameters. C-reactive protein (CRP) was analysed by a sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Mean DII between obese and non-obese was compared by independent t test. The association between obesity indices and high DII (DII >=1.1) and high CRP (>3 mg/L) were investigated by logistic regression. Obese teachers had lower intakes of anti-inflammatory nutrients (vitamin B-6, vitamin A and zinc)/food (onion) compared with non-obese teachers (p<0.05) and obesity was significantly associated with CRP (Odd ratio (OR)=5.5, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.2-24.1, p=0.02). However, there was no significant association between obesity and DII (OR=1.4, 95% CI -0.8-2.3, p=0.23). Role of antiinflammatory foods should be promoted for prevention of obesity and related diseases. Further use of DII among Myanmar general population for prevention of obesity and its related diseases should be explored with longitudinal studies.

  5. Long-Term Cognitive Functioning and Psychological Well-Being in Surgically Treated Patients with Low-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Fabio; Palese, Alvisa; Del Missier, Fabio; Moreale, Renzo; Ius, Tamara; Shallice, Tim; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an in-depth investigation of the impact of low-grade gliomas (LGG) and their surgery on patients' cognitive and emotional functioning and well-being, carried out via a comprehensive and multiple-measure psychological and neuropsychological assessment. Fifty surgically treated patients with LGG were evaluated 40 months after surgery on their functioning over 6 different cognitive domains, 3 core affective/emotional aspects, and 3 different psychological well-being measures to obtain a clearer picture of the long-term impact of illness and surgery on their psychological and relational world. Close relatives were also involved to obtain an independent measure of the psychological dimensions investigated. Cognitive status was satisfactory, with only mild short-term memory difficulties. The affective and well-being profile was characterized by mild signs of depression, good satisfaction with life and psychological well-being, and good personality development, with patients perceiving themselves as stronger and better persons after illness. However, patients showed higher emotional reactivity, and psychological well-being measures were negatively affected by epileptic burden. Well-being was related to positive affective/emotional functioning and unrelated to cognitive functioning. Good agreement between patients and relatives was found. In the long-term, patients operated on for LGG showed good cognitive functioning, with no significant long-term cognitive sequelae for the extensive surgical approach. Psychologically, patients appear to experience a deep psychological change and maturation, closely resembling that of so-called posttraumatic growth, which, to our knowledge, is for the first time described and quantified in patients with LGG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting Deletion of Chromosomal Arms 1p/19q in Low-Grade Gliomas from MR Images Using Machine Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Ali, Issa; Sedlář, Jiří; Agrawal, Jay P; Parney, Ian F; Giannini, Caterina; Erickson, Bradley J

    2017-08-01

    Several studies have linked codeletion of chromosome arms 1p/19q in low-grade gliomas (LGG) with positive response to treatment and longer progression-free survival. Hence, predicting 1p/19q status is crucial for effective treatment planning of LGG. In this study, we predict the 1p/19q status from MR images using convolutional neural networks (CNN), which could be a non-invasive alternative to surgical biopsy and histopathological analysis. Our method consists of three main steps: image registration, tumor segmentation, and classification of 1p/19q status using CNN. We included a total of 159 LGG with 3 image slices each who had biopsy-proven 1p/19q status (57 non-deleted and 102 codeleted) and preoperative postcontrast-T1 (T1C) and T2 images. We divided our data into training, validation, and test sets. The training data was balanced for equal class probability and was then augmented with iterations of random translational shift, rotation, and horizontal and vertical flips to increase the size of the training set. We shuffled and augmented the training data to counter overfitting in each epoch. Finally, we evaluated several configurations of a multi-scale CNN architecture until training and validation accuracies became consistent. The results of the best performing configuration on the unseen test set were 93.3% (sensitivity), 82.22% (specificity), and 87.7% (accuracy). Multi-scale CNN with their self-learning capability provides promising results for predicting 1p/19q status non-invasively based on T1C and T2 images. Predicting 1p/19q status non-invasively from MR images would allow selecting effective treatment strategies for LGG patients without the need for surgical biopsy.

  7. Hydrometallurgical recovery of heavy metals from low grade automobile shredder residue (ASR): An application of advanced Fenton process (AFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the leaching and recovery of heavy metals from low-grade automobile shredder residue (ASR), the effects of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature and ASR particle size fractions on the heavy metal leaching rate were determined. The heavy metals were recovered by fractional precipitation and advanced Fenton process (AFP) at different pHs. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was also performed in the residue remaining after heavy metal leaching to evaluate the potential toxicity of ASR. The heavy metal leaching efficiency was increased with increasing HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations, L/S ratio and temperature. The heavy metal leaching efficiencies were maximized in the lowest ASR size fraction at 303 K and L/S ratio of 100 mL/g. The kinetic study showed that the metal leaching was best represented by a second-order reaction model, with a value of R(2) > 0.99 for all selected heavy metals. The determined activation energy (kJ/mol) was 21.61, 17.10, 12.15, 34.50, 13.07 and 11.45 for Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr, respectively. In the final residue, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Pb were under their threshold limits in all ASR size fractions. Hydrometallurgical metal recovery was greatly increased by AFP up to 99.96% for Zn, 99.97% for Fe, 95.62% for Ni, 99.62% for Pb, 94.11% for Cd and 96.79% for Cr. AFP is highly recommended for the recovery of leached metals from solution even at low concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stabilization and solidification of electric arc furnace dust originating from steel industry by using low grade MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayraktar Ahmet Can

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD which is generated during the production of steel from scrap metals and classified as hazardous waste were investigated by using different ratios of cement and low grade MgO (LG MgO as binding agents. Type I PC 42.5 R portland cement and LG MgO which contains 70–80% MgO were used. S/S blocks that contain different ratios of binding agents which have 1/0.5 – 1/1 – 1/2 – 1/3 – 1/4 – 1/5 cement/LG MgO ratio and S/S blocks which contain only cement and no LG MgO agents were prepared. These blocks, which contain 3 different waste ratios according to weight, 20%, 30% and 40% respectively, were produced and exposed to 28-day water purification. At the end of the purification process, S/S blocks were extracted using TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests in order to determine the leaching behavior of Zn, Pb, and Cd in S/S blocks. By the end of this study, it was concluded that the recovery of EAFD is possible and applicable by immobilization. The findings of the study concluded that environmental performances or structural properties of blocks contain 30% waste by weight are suitable. This method is a proper one for recovering and treatment of EAFD with mixture of cement and LG MgO.

  9. Genetic disruption of KSHV major latent nuclear antigen LANA enhances viral lytic transcriptional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuhua; Zhou, Fuchun; Ye, Fengchun; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2008-09-30

    Following primary infection, KSHV establishes a lifelong persistent latent infection in the host. The mechanism of KSHV latency is not fully understood. The latent nuclear antigen (LANA or LNA) encoded by ORF73 is one of a few viral genes expressed during KSHV latency, and is consistently detected in all KSHV-related malignancies. LANA is essential for KSHV episome persistence, and regulates the expression of viral lytic genes through epigenetic silencing, and inhibition of the expression and transactivation function of the key KSHV lytic replication initiator RTA (ORF50). In this study, we used a genetic approach to examine the role of LANA in regulating KSHV lytic replication program. Deletion of LANA did not affect the expression of its adjacent genes vCyclin (ORF72) and vFLIP (ORF71). In contrast, the expression levels of viral lytic genes including immediate-early gene RTA, early genes MTA (ORF57), vIL-6 (ORF-K2) and ORF59, and late gene ORF-K8.1 were increased before and after viral lytic induction with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and sodium butyrate. This enhanced expression of viral lytic genes was also observed following overexpression of RTA with or without simultaneous chemical induction. Consistent with these results, the LANA mutant cells produced more infectious virions than the wild-type virus cells did. Furthermore, genetic repair of the mutant virus reverted the phenotypes to those of wild-type virus. Together, these results have demonstrated that, in the context of viral genome, LANA contributes to KSHV latency by regulating the expression of RTA and its downstream genes.

  10. Undetectable bacterial resistance to phage lytic proteins from the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increase in antibiotic resistance world-wide revitalized the interest in the use of phage lysins to combat pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we tested for the emergence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus to any of three phage lytic proteins constructs. The investigated cell wall lytic enzymes w...

  11. The importance of lytic and nonlytic immune responses in viral infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2002-01-01

    Antiviral immune effector mechanisms can be divided broadly into lytic and nonlytic components. We use mathematical models to investigate the fundamental question of which type of response is required to combat different types of viral infection. According to our model, the relative roles...... the disease, particularly if the virus replicates at a fast rate. By contrast, if viral cytopathicity is high relative to the replication rate of the virus, then lytic and nonlytic mechanisms can, in principle, resolve the infection independently. We discuss our findings in the context of specific viral...... infections and use our model to interpret empirical data....

  12. Staphylococcal phage 2638A endolysin is lytic for Staphylococcus aureus and harbors an inter-lytic-domain secondary translational start site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaev, Igor; Foster-Frey, Juli; Korobova, Olga; Shishkova, Nina; Kiseleva, Natalia; Kopylov, Pavel; Pryamchuk, Sergey; Schmelcher, Mathias; Becker, Stephen C; Donovan, David M

    2013-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen highly successful at developing resistance to virtually all antibiotics to which it is exposed. Staphylococcal phage 2638A endolysin is a peptidoglycan hydrolase that is lytic for S. aureus when exposed externally, making it a new candidate antimicrobial. It shares a common protein organization with more than 40 other reported staphylococcal peptidoglycan hydrolases. There is an N-terminal M23 peptidase domain, a mid-protein amidase 2 domain (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase), and a C-terminal SH3b cell wall-binding domain. It is the first phage endolysin reported with a secondary translational start site in the inter-lytic-domain region between the peptidase and amidase domains. Deletion analysis indicates that the amidase domain confers most of the lytic activity and requires the full SH3b domain for maximal activity. Although it is common for one domain to demonstrate a dominant activity over the other, the 2638A endolysin is the first in this class of proteins to have a high-activity amidase domain (dominant over the N-terminal peptidase domain). The high activity amidase domain is an important finding in the quest for high-activity staphylolytic domains targeting novel peptidoglycan bonds.

  13. Effectiveness of lytic bacteriophages in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations introduced through cross-contamination on fresh cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that lytic bacteriophages (phages) can kill E. coli O157:H7 on produce surfaces. The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield) at 10^8 PFU/m...

  14. Excess ω-6 fatty acids influx in aging drives metabolic dysregulation, electrocardiographic alterations, and low-grade chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Vasundhara; Ingle, Kevin A; Kachman, Maureen; Baum, Heidi; Shanmugam, Gobinath; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Young, Martin E; Halade, Ganesh V

    2018-02-01

    Maintaining a balance of ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids is essential for cardiac health. Current ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids in the American diet have shifted from the ideal ratio of 2:1 to almost 20:1; while there is a body of evidence that suggests the negative impact of such a shift in younger organisms, the underlying age-related metabolic signaling in response to the excess influx of ω-6 fatty acids is incompletely understood. In the present study, young (6 mo old) and aging (≥18 mo old) mice were fed for 2 mo with a ω-6-enriched diet. Excess intake of ω-6 enrichment decreased the total lean mass and increased nighttime carbohydrate utilization, with higher levels of cardiac cytokines indicating low-grade chronic inflammation. Dobutamine-induced stress tests displayed an increase in PR interval, a sign of an atrioventricular defect in ω-6-fed aging mice. Excess ω-6 fatty acid intake in aging mice showed decreased 12-lipoxygenase with a concomitant increase in 15-lipoxygenase levels, resulting in the generation of 15( S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, whereas cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 generated prostaglandin E 2 , leukotriene B 4, and thromboxane B 2 . Furthermore, excessive ω-6 fatty acids led to dysregulated nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant-responsive element in aging mice. Moreover, ω-6 fatty acid-mediated changes were profound in aging mice with respect to the eicosanoid profile while minimal changes were observed in the size and shape of cardiomyocytes. These findings provide compelling evidence that surplus consumption of ω-6 fatty acids, coupled with insufficient intake of ω-3 fatty acids, is linked to abnormal changes in ECG. These manifestations contribute to functional deficiencies and expansion of the inflammatory mediator milieu during later stages of aging. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Aging has a profound impact on the metabolism of fatty acids to maintain heart function. The excess influx of ω-6 fatty acids in aging perturbed

  15. Low-Grade Dysplastic Nodules Revealed as the Tipping Point during Multistep Hepatocarcinogenesis by Dynamic Network Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lina; Jiang, Zhonglin; Dai, Yulin; Chen, Luonan

    2017-10-13

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex disease with a multi-step carcinogenic process from preneoplastic lesions, including cirrhosis, low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs), and high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDNs) to HCC. There is only an elemental understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, for which a key problem is to identify when and how the critical transition happens during the HCC initiation period at a molecular level. In this work, for the first time, we revealed that LGDNs is the tipping point (i.e., pre-HCC state rather than HCC state) of hepatocarcinogenesis based on a series of gene expression profiles by a new mathematical model termed dynamic network biomarkers (DNB)-a group of dominant genes or molecules for the transition. Different from the conventional biomarkers based on the differential expressions of the observed genes (or molecules) for diagnosing a disease state, the DNB model exploits collective fluctuations and correlations of the observed genes, thereby predicting the imminent disease state or diagnosing the critical state. Our results show that DNB composed of 59 genes signals the tipping point of HCC (i.e., LGDNs). On the other hand, there are a large number of differentially expressed genes between cirrhosis and HGDNs, which highlighted the stark differences or drastic changes before and after the tipping point or LGDNs, implying the 59 DNB members serving as the early-warning signals of the upcoming drastic deterioration for HCC. We further identified the biological pathways responsible for this transition, such as the type I interferon signaling pathway, Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor signaling pathway, cell adhesion molecules, and cell cycle. In particular, pathways related to immune system reactions and cell adhesion were downregulated, and pathways

  16. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Hernandez Valencia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficultto- treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL. Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral and topical (spray - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74% (P<0.001. However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL, treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used

  17. Triage of Women with Low-Grade Cervical Lesions - HPV mRNA Testing versus Repeat Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Arbyn, Marc; Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve

    2011-01-01

    Background In Norway, women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are followed up after six months in order to decide whether they should undergo further follow-up or be referred back to the screening interval of three years. A high specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the triage test is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Materials and Methods At the University Hospital of North Norway, repeat cytology and the HPV mRNA test PreTect HPV-Proofer, detecting E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45, are used in triage of women with ASC-US and LSIL. In this study, women with LSIL cytology in the period 2005–2008 were included (n = 522). Two triage methods were evaluated in two separate groups: repeat cytology only (n = 225) and HPV mRNA testing in addition to repeat cytology (n = 297). Histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was used as the study endpoint. Results Of 522 women with LSIL, 207 had biopsies and 125 of them had CIN2+. The sensitivity and specificity of repeat cytology (ASC-US or worse) were 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 72.1, 92.2) and 54.4 % (95% CI: 46.9, 61.9), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPV mRNA test were 94.2% (95% CI: 88.7, 99.7) and 86.0% (95% CI: 81.5, 90.5), respectively. The PPV of repeat cytology was 38.4% (95% CI: 29.9, 46.9) compared to 67.0% (95% CI: 57.7, 76.4) of the HPV mRNA test. Conclusion HPV mRNA testing was more sensitive and specific than repeat cytology in triage of women with LSIL cytology. In addition, the HPV mRNA test showed higher PPV. These data indicate that the HPV mRNA test is a better triage test for women with LSIL than repeat cytology. PMID:21918682

  18. Crystal structure and mechanism of the lytic transglycosylase MltA from Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, Karin

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the determination and analysis of the 3D-structure of the lytic transglycosylase MltA from Escherichia coli by X-ray crystallography. This work aims to further increase our knowledge of the molecular details of the cleaving mechanism and the typical 1,6- anhydromuropeptide

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Edwardsiella tarda-Lytic Bacteriophages KF-1 and IW-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Sugaya, Emi; Nakamura, Yoji; Shigenobu, Yuya; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Kai, Wataru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Sano, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of two Edwardsiella tarda-lytic bacteriophages isolated from flounder kidney (KF-1) and seawater (IW-1). These newly sequenced phage genomes provide a novel resource for future studies on phage-host interaction mechanisms and various applications of the phages for control of edwardsiellosis in aquaculture.

  20. Oncogenic Herpesvirus Utilizes Stress-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints for Efficient Lytic Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Balistreri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV causes Kaposi's sarcoma and certain lymphoproliferative malignancies. Latent infection is established in the majority of tumor cells, whereas lytic replication is reactivated in a small fraction of cells, which is important for both virus spread and disease progression. A siRNA screen for novel regulators of KSHV reactivation identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 as a negative regulator of viral reactivation. Depletion of MDM2, a repressor of p53, favored efficient activation of the viral lytic transcription program and viral reactivation. During lytic replication cells activated a p53 response, accumulated DNA damage and arrested at G2-phase. Depletion of p21, a p53 target gene, restored cell cycle progression and thereby impaired the virus reactivation cascade delaying the onset of virus replication induced cytopathic effect. Herpesviruses are known to reactivate in response to different kinds of stress, and our study now highlights the molecular events in the stressed host cell that KSHV has evolved to utilize to ensure efficient viral lytic replication.

  1. Fungal secretomics to probe the biological functions of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrin, Jean-Guy; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2017-01-01

    to starch, the main carbon storage reservoir. In this review, we focus on the identification of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and their redox partners in fungal secretomes to highlight the biological functions of these remarkable enzyme systems and we discuss future trends related to LPMO...

  2. Survival of Salmonella Newport on whole and fresh-cut cucumbers treated with lytic bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) has led to foodborne outbreaks in the U.S. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to Salmonella spp. contamination during growing and harvesting. The application of lytic bacteriophages specific for Salmonella spp...

  3. Role of the adenovirus early region 1B tumor antigens in transformation and lytic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Leeuw, M.G.W. de; Houweling, A.; Eb, A.J. van der

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the contribution of each of the two adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) major early region lb (Elb) proteins in cell transformation and in lytic infection. An Ad5 El plasmid, in which the reading frame for the 19-kDa Elb protein was abolished by a stop codon close to the initiation codon,

  4. THE CATALYTIC DOMAIN OF A BACTERIAL LYTIC TRANSGLYCOSYLASE DEFINES A NOVEL CLASS OF LYSOZYMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W.H.; Isaacs, Neil W.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    The 70-kDa soluble lytic transglycosylase (SLT70) from Escherichia coli is a bacterial exo-muramidase that cleaves the cell wall peptidoglycan, producing 1,6-anhydro-muropeptides. The X-ray structure of SLT70 showed that one of its domains is structurally related to lysozyme, although there is no

  5. Hemoglobin is a co-factor of human trypanosome lytic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widener, Justin; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Shiflett, April

    2007-01-01

    Trypanosome lytic factor (TLF) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass providing innate protection to humans against infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Two primate-specific plasma proteins, haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) and apolipoprotein L-1 (ApoL-1), have be...

  6. Insulin secretion after short- and long-term low-grade free fatty acid infusion in men with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Jensen, Christine B; Vaag, Allan A

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of a low-grade short- and long-term 20% Intralipid infusion (0.4 mL(-1) x kg(-1) x h(-1)) on insulin secretion and insulin action in 15 elderly obese men; 7 glucose intolerant first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] relatives) and 8...... secretion rates (ISR). ISR were calculated by deconvolution of plasma C-peptide concentrations. Insulin action was determined by performing a 120-minute hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. All tests were performed 3 times, preceded by 0, 2, or 24 hours Intralipid infusion. Disposition indices (DI) were......- and long-term Intralipid infusion is not balanced by an adequate compensatory increase in insulin secretion in IGT relatives or in matched controls. IGT relatives appear to be more sensitive to the deleterious effects of low-grade fat infusion on insulin secretion than normal glucose tolerant control...

  7. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jens M; Helge, Jørn W; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    RNA expression of adiponectin (P macrophage-specific markers (CD14, CD68), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P macrophage infiltration in AT, only IL-6 mRNA was decreased (P markers were......Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of a 15-wk lifestyle intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) on inflammatory markers in plasma, adipose tissue (AT), and skeletal muscle...... found in SM. The intervention had no effect on adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA in AT or SM. Thus hypocaloric diet and increased physical activity improved insulin sensitivity and reduced low-grade inflammation. Markers of inflammation were particularly reduced in AT, whereas SM does not contribute...

  8. Two-peaked 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence emission spectrum distinguishes glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcel, Bruno; Mahieu-Williame, Laurent; Armoiry, Xavier; Meyronet, David; Guyotat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence enables to guiding in intra-operative surgical glioma resection. However at present, it has yet to be shown that this method is able to identify infiltrative component of glioma. In extracted tumor tissues we measured a two-peaked emission in low grade gliomas and in the infiltrative component of glioblastomas due to multiple photochemical states of PpIX. The second emission peak appearing at 620 nm (shifted by 14 nm from the main peak at 634 nm) limits the sensibility of current methods to measured PpIX concentration. We propose new measured parameters, by taking into consideration the two-peaked emission, to overcome these limitations in sensitivity. These parameters clearly distinguish the solid component of glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas.

  9. Peripheral ameloblastoma with histologically low-grade malignant features of the buccal mucosa: a case report with immunohistochemical study and genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Hiroyuki; Nakashiro, Kohichi; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral ameloblastoma (PA), a rare and unusual variant of odontogenic tumors, comprises about 1% of all ameloblastomas. PA is an exophytic growth localized to the soft tissues overlying the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, and the initial diagnosis is often fibrous epulis. PA with histologically low-grade malignant features is extremely rare. We report a case of peripheral ameloblastoma with histologically low-grade malignant features in a 69-year-old woman that presented with a hemorrhage from a tumor on the right buccal mucosa. The tumor was surgically removed by blunt dissection, with no evidence of recurrence after two years and six months. After the case presentation, microscopic and genetic findings are discussed.

  10. Effect of EFB content on reducibility of low grade iron ore composite at 1000°C – 1200°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, H.; Salleh, H. M.; Mohamad, A. S.; Zakiyuddin, A.; Rozhan, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focus on reduction of low grade iron at high temperature using palm oil empty fruit bunch as a reductant. The samples were crushed and compacted into composite pellet with EFB before drying at 110°C for 24 hours. The reduction test was then conducted by heating the composite pellet in an electric tube furnace. The parameter used was at temperature range 1000°C to 1200°C and under argon gas atmosphere. The efficiency of the empty fruit bunch in the reduction process was investigated based on the extent of reduction of the iron oxide. The results showed that the extent of reduction obtained was 38.97% at 1200°C. This study demostrates that within the temperature range studied, reducibility of low grade iron ore with an empty fruit bunch tends to increase as the temperature increase.

  11. A Sustainable and Selective Roasting and Water-Leaching Process to Simultaneously Extract Valuable Metals from Low-Grade Ni-Cu Matte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fuhui; Mu, Wenning; Wang, Shuai; Xin, Haixia; Xu, Qian; Zhai, Yuchun

    2018-03-01

    Due to stringent environmental requirements and the complex occurrence of valuable metals, traditional pyrometallurgical methods are unsuitable for treating low-grade nickel-copper matte. A clean and sustainable two-stage sulfating roasting and water-leaching process was used to simultaneously extract valuable metals from low-grade nickel-copper matte. Ammonium and sodium sulfate were used as sulfating agents. The first roasting temperature, mass ratio of ammonium sulfate to matte, roasting time, dosage of sodium sulfate, second roasting temperature and leaching temperature were studied. Under optimal conditions, 98.89% of Ni, 97.48% of Cu and 95.82% of Co, but only 1.34% of Fe, were extracted. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to reveal the sulfating mechanism during the roasting process.

  12. Zoning of the Territory of Russia According to the Efficiency of the Use of Low-Grade Ground Heat for Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of study on the effectiveness of using low-grade ground heat in heat pump systems under the climatic conditions of Russia. The study was performed using the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, which simulates the non-stationary thermal conditions of ground source heat pumps (GSHPs over several years of operation. The paper presents the results of the zoning of the territory of Russia according to the effectiveness of using low-grade ground heat in heat pump systems. The zoning was performed with consideration of the decrease of the soil temperatures over several years of heat collection system operation. The soil temperatures expected on the fifth year of operation were considered to be the design temperatures. The described study was performed with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia. Contract ID RFMEFI57914X0026.

  13. Genetic characterization of ØVC8 lytic phage for Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Sánchez, Alejandro; Hernández-Chiñas, Ulises; Navarro-Ocaña, Armando; De la Mora, Javier; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Eslava-Campos, Carlos

    2016-03-22

    Epidemics and pandemics of cholera, a diarrheal disease, are attributed to Vibrio cholera serogroups O1 and O139. In recent years, specific lytic phages of V. cholera have been proposed to be important factors in the cyclic occurrence of cholera in endemic areas. However, the role and potential participation of lytic phages during long interepidemic periods of cholera in non-endemic regions have not yet been described. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize specific lytic phages of V. cholera O1 strains. Sixteen phages were isolated from wastewater samples collected at the Endhó Dam in Hidalgo State, Mexico, concentrated with PEG/NaCl, and purified by density gradient. The lytic activity of the purified phages was tested using different V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains. Phage morphology was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and phage genome sequencing was performed using the Genome Analyzer IIx System. Genome assembly and bioinformatics analysis were performed using a set of high-throughput programs. Phage structural proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixteen phages with lytic and lysogenic activity were isolated; only phage ØVC8 showed specific lytic activity against V. cholerae O1 strains. TEM images of ØVC8 revealed a phage with a short tail and an isometric head. The ØVC8 genome comprises linear double-stranded DNA of 39,422 bp with 50.8 % G + C. Of the 48 annotated ORFs, 16 exhibit homology with sequences of known function and several conserved domains. Bioinformatics analysis showed multiple conserved domains, including an Ig domain, suggesting that ØVC8 might adhere to different mucus substrates such as the human intestinal epithelium. The results suggest that ØVC8 genome utilize the "single-stranded cohesive ends" packaging strategy of the lambda-like group. The two structural proteins sequenced and analyzed are proteins of known function. ØVC8 is a lytic phage with specific activity against V. cholerae

  14. Isotopic dating of low-grade metamorphic shales in northern Namibia (South West Africa) and implications for the orogenic evolution of the Pan-African Damara Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroener, A.; Clauer, N.

    1979-01-01

    The fine mineral fractions (<2 μm) from pelitic sediments of the molasse-type Mulden Group in the Pan-African Damara belt of Namibia were dated by the Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. The sediments contain two major parageneses of metamorphic origin which can be related to two separate low-grade regional tectono-thermal events of anchizonal intensity at about 535 (545) Ma and 455 (465) Ma respectively. (Auth.)

  15. Alcohol and red wine consumption, but not fruit, vegetables, fish or dairy products, are associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation: the Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, B C T; Henry, R M A; Schalkwijk, C G; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G; Feskens, E J M; Stehouwer, C D A

    2017-03-27

    Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are key phenomena in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their dietary modification might explain the observed reduction in CVD that has been associated with a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables and fish, low in dairy products and with moderate alcohol and red wine consumption. We investigated the associations between the above food groups and endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a population-based cohort of Dutch elderly individuals. Diet was measured by food frequency questionnaire (n = 801; women = 399; age 68.5 ± 7.2 years). Endothelial dysfunction was determined (1) by combining von Willebrand factor, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, endothelial selectin and thrombomodulin, using Z-scores, into a biomarker score and (2) by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), and low-grade inflammation by combining C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, tumour necrosis factor α and sICAM-1 into a biomarker score, with smaller FMD and higher scores representing more dysfunction and inflammation, respectively. We used linear regression analyses to adjust associations for sex, age, energy, glucose metabolism, body mass index, smoking, prior CVD, educational level, physical activity and each of the other food groups. Moderate [β (95% CI) -0.13 (-0.33; 0.07)] and high [-0.22 (-0.45; -0.003)] alcohol consumption, and red wine [-0.16 (-0.30; -0.01)] consumption, but none of the other food groups, were associated with a lower endothelial dysfunction biomarker score and a greater FMD. The associations for FMD were, however, not statistically significant. Only red wine consumption was associated with a lower low-grade inflammation biomarker score [-0.18 (-0.33; -0.04)]. Alcohol and red wine consumption may favourably influence processes involved in atherothrombosis.

  16. Oncologic results of nephron sparing endoscopic approach for upper tract low grade transitional cell carcinoma in comparison to nephroureterectomy - a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Azik; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Erlich, Yaron; Holland, Ronen; Lifshitz, David

    2014-12-02

    There is paucity of data as to the results of the endoscopic approach in comparison to the golden standard of nephro-ureterectomy in elective, low grade TCC, patients. Our purpose is to report our results of a nephron sparing approach compared to nephro-ureterectomy in those patients. From a retrospective data base we identified 25 patients and 23 patients who underwent a nephron sparing ureterosocpic resection and nephro-reterectomy for low grade UT-TCC, respectively. The endoscopic technique included endoscopic tumor biopsy followed by primary resection and/or fulguration. The nephron sparing group was followed by bi-annual ureteroscopy and upper tract imaging, timely cystoscopy and urine cytology collection. Data for overall and disease related mortality, bladder and ureteral TCC recurrence and renal function are reported in both groups. Median follow - up time was 26 months. 11 (44%) patients developed bladder recurrence at a median period of 9 months after initial ureteroscopy, compared to 9 (39%) in the NUx group (P low grade TCC was observed in 9 patients (median: 9 months). All were treated endoscopicaly successfully. Renal function remained stable in the nephron sparing group. No disease related mortality was recorded in the nephron-sparing group while one patient died of his disease following NUx. Disease related mortality following a nephron sparing endoscopic approach or nephroureterectomy for low grade upper tract TCC is excellent. However, the nephron sparing approach is associated with a relatively high rate of ureteral and bladder recurrence. Therefore, a stringent follow-up protocol is required.

  17. Biohydrometallurgy and membrane technology for resource recovery from low-grade ores and mining residuals; Biohydrometallurgie und Membrantechnik zur Wertstoffgewinnung aus Armerzlagerstaetten und bergbaulichen Altablagerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Arite; Meschke, Katja; Bohlke, Kevin; Haseneder, Roland [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelt-, Naturstoffverfahrenstechnik (ITUN); Daus, Birgit [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Analytik; Repke, Jens-Uwe [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). FG Dynamik und Betrieb Technischer Anlagen

    2017-02-15

    The recovery of strategic elements from secondary mineral resources and low grade ores is of increasing relevance, due to a changing global market as well as for reasons of sustainability. The present article shows the potential of biohydrometallurgy as an efficient technology for mobilization of metals from secondary mineral resources. Furthermore, the application of membrane separation as a successful technique for the recovery of metals from bioleaching solutions is presented. These issues are discussed within the scope of recent research projects.

  18. The Correlation Between Restoration of Lumbar Lordosis and Surgical Outcome in the Treatment of Low-grade Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis With Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsien-Ta; Yang, Stephen S; Chen, Tzu Yung

    2016-02-01

    Retrospective clinical study. To investigate the relationship between the restoration of the lumbar lordosis (LL) and the surgical outcome of patients undergoing spinal fusion for low-grade lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Correlation between low back pain and the loss of LL in the treatment of low-grade lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis has seldom been reported. Between May 2005 and July 2011, 59 patients with low back pain and neurogenic claudication due to low-grade lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent spinal decompression and fusion by a senior surgeon. Ten patients were lost to follow-up. The mean age of the remaining 49 patients (10 men and 39 women) was 64.0 years (range, 47-88 y). Patients were categorized on the basis of the spino-pelvic posture: type 1 [pelvic incidence (PI)60 degrees) (n=13). The LL restoration ratio was calculated by the actual LL divided by the predicted LL. The clinical results were evaluated using a visual analogue scale and the Oswestry Disability Index. Postoperative 36-inch spinal films were used to assess the sagittal balance. The mean follow-up period was 43.2 months (range, 28-62 mo). Forty-eight patients showed significant improvement with respect to visual analogue scale and Oswestry Disability Index regardless of whether the LL was restored higher or lower. Postoperative 36-inch spinal films showed the C7 plumb line to be within an average of 4.4 cm (range, 0.6-5.6 cm) from the posterior-superior corner of the S1 vertebrae. Patients with smaller PI tended to be restored higher, and those patients with a larger PI were more likely to be restored lower. For patients with normal sagittal balance, the surgical outcomes in the treatment of low-grade lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal fusion are not correlated with restoration of the LL.

  19. Comparison of indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging with sequential technetium-gallium scanning in the diagnosis of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We prospectively compared sequential technetium-gallium imaging with indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging in fifty patients with suspected low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. Adequate images and follow-up examinations were obtained for forty-two patients. The presence or absence of low-grade sepsis was confirmed by histological and bacteriological examinations of tissue specimens taken at surgery in thirty of the forty-two patients. In these thirty patients, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 48 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 57 per cent, whereas the sensitivity of the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was 83 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 83 per cent. When the additional twelve patients for whom surgery was deemed unnecessary were considered, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 50 per cent, the specificity was 78 per cent, and the accuracy was 62 per cent, as compared with a sensitivity of 83 per cent, a specificity of 94 per cent, and an accuracy of 88 per cent with the indium-labeled-leukocyte method. In patients with a prosthesis the indium-labeled-leukocyte image was 94 per cent accurate, compared with 75 per cent accuracy for sequential Tc-Ga imaging. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated that the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was superior to sequential Tc-Ga imaging in detecting areas of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis

  20. Ovarian Low-grade Serous Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic Study of 33 Cases With Primary Surgery Performed at a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Ekene; Euscher, Elizabeth D; Malpica, Anais

    2016-05-01

    Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) is an entity with distinct pathologic and clinical features. The number of studies on this type of tumor is limited. In this article, we present our experience with 33 cases of ovarian LGSC with primary surgical treatment at our institution. For comparison, a cohort of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) was also studied. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' charts or from the treating physicians. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed of 28 available LGSCs, and the following parameters were recorded: presence/absence of a serous borderline tumor (SBT), presence/absence of micropapillary/cribriform pattern (MP/CP), architectural pattern in the invasive component, and presence/absence of desmoplasia or fibrosis. The incidence of ovarian LGSC was 4.7%. LGSC patients ranged in age from 19 to 79 years (mean, 52 y), with 21.2% younger than 40 years. HGSC patients ranged in age from 38 to 90 years (mean, 62 y), with 1.6% younger than 40 years. LGSCs were staged as follows: stage I (2), stage III (23), and stage IV (8). Twenty-eight of 33 LGSC cases had concurrent SBT, with this component accounting for >50% of the neoplasm in 15 cases. In addition, MP/CP was noted in 19 cases. Invasion patterns included micropapillae (93%), cribriform nests (74%), elongated papillae (26%), glandular (44.4%), medium-sized papillae (33.3%), solid nests (22.2%), macropapillae (19%), and single cells (19%). In addition, desmoplasia (44.4%) and fibrosis (37%) were noted. Follow-up data ranging from 13 to 195 months (median 61.2 mo) were available on 30/33 LGSC patients: 18 (60%) were dead of disease; 1 (3.3%) was dead of other cause; 5 (16.7%) were alive with disease; and 6 (20%) had no evidence of disease. Follow-up data from 1 to 169 months (median 48 mo) were available on 185 HGSC patients: 132 (71.4%) were dead of disease; 3 (1.6%) were dead of other cause; 21 (11.4%) were alive with disease; and 29 (15.7%) had no

  1. Recovery of uranium low grade ores by froth flotation: study of the texture and synergetic effects of flotation reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger, Agathe

    2013-01-01

    Due to the energy growing demand, uranium low grade ores may be those exploited in the future. Uranium ores conventional treatment does not often use mineral processing such as concentration methods for reducing leaching reagent consumption. The aim of this work is to develop an upgrading process to improve the operating process (alkaline heap leaching) taking into account the mineralogical and textural variability of the ore. The Trekkopje deposit is composed of calcrete and a gypscrete. The uranium bearing mineral is carnotite (K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 [VO 4 ] 2 .3H 2 O). The gangue minerals are composed by silicates, such as quartz, feldspars, micas and Ca-minerals, calcite and gypsum (XRD and ICP-MS analysis). A SEM image processing was used to study the textural properties and the exposed free surface of mineral inclusions in clay clusters. In calcrete milled to -200 μm, 50 % of all carnotite is associated with clay clusters, which are composed by 98 % of palygorskite, 2 % of illite, montmorillonite, and interbedded clays (XRD and microprobe analysis). The carnotite grain size is 95 % less than 70 μm. Calcite is the main inclusion in clay clusters. Indeed, the calcite inclusions average rate in the clay clusters is 12 % and 5 % for carnotite inclusion. And the free exposed surface percentage of these minerals in clay clusters is 3 % and 6 %, thus indicating that the inclusions should not affect the behavior of mixed clay particles. However, ore flotation essays did not verify this hypothesis. Three minerals separation have been proposed based on the mineral ability to consume leaching reagents: separating Ca-minerals from silicates, palygorskite from gangue minerals and carnotite from gangue minerals. A study of silicates and Ca-minerals electrokinetic properties (electrophoresis) was carried out to select the collectors and the optimum pH range for selective flotation. Basic pH near neutral was proved to be optimal for the separation of gangue minerals with cationic

  2. Activación de arcillas de bajo grado a altas temperaturas Activation of low grade clays at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rancés Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una propuesta de producción de puzolanas artificiales a partir de activar arcillas de baja pureza, como alternativa de producción de Metacaolín. Se trabajó básicamente con tierra rica en minerales arcillosos, principalmente caolín. Este material fue sedimentado y luego calcinado a 900 grados Celsius. Igual proceso se realizó al material original sin sedimentar. Producto de la calcinación disminuyó considerablemente la superficie específica, y por ende la actividad puzolánica, que fue evaluada monitoreando el consumo de HC en pastas a varias edades, y la resistencia a compresión en morteros. El material calcinado, aparentemente inerte, fue molido hasta una alta finura. Se introdujo una serie experimental con ceniza de paja de caña, como referencia de puzolana anteriormente estudiada. Las arcillas calcinadas molidas incrementaron cuantiosamente su actividad puzolánica, caracterizado por un mayor consumo de HC en pastas, y una mayor resistencia a compresión en morteros. Aparentemente este cambio se debe al efecto del molido sobre la reactividad de los suelos arcillosos calcinados. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron para las muestras sedimentadas antes de calcinar. La resistencia a compresión de morteros, sustituyendo un 30% del peso de cemento por dicho material, es similar al control (100% cemento a 7 días, y mayor a 28 y 60 días. Aunque dicha sustitución no disminuye la porosidad total, se disminuye la sorptividad, principalmente en muestras producidas con material sedimentado calcinado y molido. Posiblemente este fenómeno ocurra por un proceso de refinación de poros capilares inducido por la precipitación de productos de la reacción puzolánica.This paper introduces a proposal to produce artificial pozzolans by means of activation of low grade clays, as an alternative to metakaolin production. Basically the work considered clay mineral enriched soils, mainly kaolin. Such material was sediment and later

  3. A comparative study on the activity of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases for the depolymerization of cellulose in soybean spent flakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Zhang, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent enzymes capable of the oxidative breakdown of polysaccharides. They are of industrial interest due to their ability to enhance the enzymatic depolymerization of recalcitrant substrates by glycoside hydrolases. In this paper, twenty-...

  4. Epstein-Barr virus latency type and spontaneous reactivation predict lytic induction levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, An T; Fernandez, Samantha G; Somberg, Jessica J; Keck, Kristin M; Miranda, Jj L

    2016-05-20

    The human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) evades the immune system by entering a transcriptionally latent phase in B cells. EBV in tumor cells expresses distinct patterns of genes referred to as latency types. Viruses in tumor cells also display varying levels of lytic transcription resulting from spontaneous reactivation out of latency. We measured this dynamic range of lytic transcription with RNA deep sequencing and observed no correlation with EBV latency types among genetically different viruses, but type I cell lines reveal more spontaneous reactivation than isogenic type III cultures. We further determined that latency type and spontaneous reactivation levels predict the relative amount of induced reactivation generated by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs. Our work has potential implications for personalizing medicine against EBV-transformed malignancies. Identifying latency type or measuring spontaneous reactivation may provide predictive power in treatment contexts where viral production should be either avoided or coerced. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of lympho-vascular space invasion on tumor characteristics and survival outcome of women with low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Fotopoulou, Christina; Blake, Erin A; Robertson, Sharon E; Pejovic, Tanja; Frimer, Marina; Pardeshi, Vishakha; Hu, Wei; Choi, Jong-Sun; Sun, Charlotte C; Richmond, Abby M; Marcus, Jenna Z; Hilliard, Maren A M; Mostofizadeh, Sayedamin; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Abdulfatah, Eman; Post, Miriam D; Saglam, Ozlen; Shahzad, Mian M K; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Gabra, Hani; Roman, Lynda D; Sood, Anil K; Gershenson, David M

    2018-02-01

    To examine association of lympho-vascular space invasion (LVSI) with clinico-pathological factors and to evaluate survival of women with low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma containing areas of LVSI. This is a multicenter retrospective study examining consecutive cases of surgically treated stage I-IV low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (n = 178). Archived histopathology slides for the ovarian tumors were reviewed, and LVSI was scored as present or absent. LVSI status was correlated to clinico-pathological findings and survival outcome. LVSI was seen in 79 cases (44.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 37.1-51.7). LVSI was associated with increased risk of omental metastasis (87.0% vs 64.9%, odds ratio [OR] 3.62, P = 0.001), high pelvic lymph node ratio (median 12.9% vs 0%, P = 0.012), and malignant ascites (49.3% vs 32.6%, OR 2.01, P = 0.035). On multivariable analysis, controlling for age, stage, and cytoreductive status, presence of LVSI in the ovarian tumor remained an independent predictor for decreased progression-free survival (5-year rates 21.0% vs 35.7%, adjusted-hazard ratio 1.57, 95%CI 1.06-2.34, P = 0.026). LVSI was significantly associated with increased risk of recurrence in lymph nodes (OR 2.62, 95%CI 1.08-6.35, P = 0.047). LVSI in the ovarian tumor is associated with adverse clinico-pathological characteristics and decreased progression-free survival in women with low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Altered effective connectivity network of the basal ganglia in low-grade hepatic encephalopathy: a resting-state fMRI study with Granger causality analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basal ganglia often show abnormal metabolism and intracranial hemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE. Little is known about how the basal ganglia affect other brain system and is affected by other brain regions in HE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effective connectivity network associated with the basal ganglia is disturbed in HE patients by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty five low-grade HE patients and thirty five age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The effective connectivity networks associated with the globus pallidus, the primarily affected region within basal ganglia in HE, were characterized by using the Granger causality analysis and compared between HE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the abnormal effective connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels and neuropsychological performances of all HE patients. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with low-grade HE demonstrated mutually decreased influence between the globus pallidus and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cuneus, bi-directionally increased influence between the globus pallidus and the precuneus, and either decreased or increased influence from and to the globus pallidus in many other frontal, temporal, parietal gyri, and cerebellum. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that the blood ammonia levels in HE patients negatively correlated with effective connectivity from the globus pallidus to ACC, and positively correlated with that from the globus pallidus to precuneus; and the number connectivity test scores in patients negatively correlated with the effective connectivity from the globus pallidus to ACC, and from superior frontal gyrus to globus pallidus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low-grade HE patients had disrupted effective

  7. Maternal obesity increases insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and osteochondrosis lesions in foals and yearlings until 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, M; Nouveau, E; Gautier, C; Mendoza, L; Dubois, C; Dahirel, M; Lagofun, B; Aubrière, M-C; Lejeune, J-P; Caudron, I; Guenon, I; Viguié, C; Wimel, L; Bouraima-Lelong, H; Serteyn, D; Couturier-Tarrade, A; Chavatte-Palmer, P

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a growing concern in horses. The effects of maternal obesity on maternal metabolism and low-grade inflammation during pregnancy, as well as offspring growth, metabolism, low-grade inflammation, testicular maturation and osteochondrotic lesions until 18 months of age were investigated. Twenty-four mares were used and separated into two groups at insemination according to body condition score (BCS): Normal (N, n = 10, BCS ≤4) and Obese (O, n = 14, BCS ≥4.25). BCS and plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, urea, non-esterified fatty acid, serum amyloid A (SAA), leptin and adiponectin concentrations were monitored throughout gestation. At 300 days of gestation, a Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIGT) was performed. After parturition, foals' weight and size were monitored until 18 months of age with plasma SAA, leptin, adiponectin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol concentrations measured at regular intervals. At 6, 12 and 18 months of age, FSIGT and osteoarticular examinations were performed. Males were gelded at one year and expression of genes involved in testicular maturation analysed by RT-qPCR. Throughout the experiment, maternal BCS was higher in O versus N mares. During gestation, plasma urea and adiponectin were decreased and SAA and leptin increased in O versus N mares. O mares were also more insulin resistant than N mares with a higher glucose effectiveness. Postnatally, there was no difference in offspring growth between groups. Nevertheless, plasma SAA concentrations were increased in O versus N foals until 6 months, with O foals being consistently more insulin resistant with a higher glucose effectiveness. At 12 months of age, O foals were significantly more affected by osteochondrosis than N foals. All other parameters were not different between groups. In conclusion, maternal obesity altered metabolism and increased low-grade inflammation in both dams and foals. The risk of developing

  8. What is the significance of low grade uptake in 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, K.; Beadsmoore, C.; Balan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the significance of low grade uptake of 99 mTc-HMPAO white cells (WBCs) in the abdomen, during imaging for suspected or recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: A retrospective review of all the 99 mTc-HMPAO labelled white cell studies performed in suspected/recurrent IBD over a two-year period and the clinical follow-up of patients for up to 5 years following the first scintiscan. Results: Of the total 1341 99 mTc-HMPAO WBC studies in 1157 patients, 95 (8%) patients showed low grade (Grade 1) uptake within the abdomen or pelvis. 29 patients (31%) had previous IBD and 18 patients incomplete follow-up. In the remaining 48 patients with complete follow-up (mean 58 months, range 8 - 60 months), the main presenting symptoms were abdominal pain with or without diarrhoea and diarrhoea alone. 6 patients whose other investigations were normal at presentation developed IBD on follow-up. Of the 5 patients with abnormal barium enema examination close to the first WBC imaging, two had diverticular disease, one nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLHP) and the remaining two, mucosal irregularity suggestive of IBD. The positive findings on sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and biopsy were non-conclusive. One patient was positive for C. difficile on stool culture. Irritable bowel syndrome, NSAIDs intake, pelvic inflammatory disease and gastrointestinal bleeding were the important causes of non-specific WBC uptake. Conclusions: Low grade uptake is common during 99 mTc-HMPAO WBC imaging for suspected / recurrent IBD; the commonest cause being inactive disease. The presence of mild uptake alone is unreliable in the diagnosis of IBD but recurrent symptoms may warrant appropriate investigations to completely rule out this condition. Finally, it is important to be aware of the other causes of WBC uptake, especially NSAIDs, to avoid misinterpretation of the images

  9. KRAS mutation testing in borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas with a rapid, fully integrated molecular diagnostic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlecki, Pawel; Antosik, Paulina; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grabiec, Marek; Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of tumors, including various malignancies with distinct clinicopathologic and molecular features. Mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes are the most frequent genetic aberrations found in low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and serous and mucinous borderline tumors. Implementation of targeted therapeutic strategies requires access to highly specific and highly sensitive diagnostic tests for rapid determination of mutation status. One candidate for such test is fully integrated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla™ system for quick and simple detection of KRAS mutations in formaldehyde fixed-paraffin embedded tumor samples. The primary aim of this study was to verify whether fully integrated real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla system may be useful in determination of KRAS mutation status in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 37 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland) between January 2009 and June 2012. Based on histopathological examination of surgical specimens, 30 lesions were classified as low-grade ovarian carcinomas and 7 as borderline ovarian tumors. Seven patients examined with Idylla KRAS Mutation Test tested positive for KRAS mutation. No statistically significant association was found between the incidence of KRAS mutations and histopathological type of ovarian tumors. Mean survival of the study subjects was 48.51 months (range 3-60 months). Presence of KRAS mutation did not exert a significant effect on the duration of survival in our series. Our findings suggest that Idylla KRAS Mutation Test may be a useful tool for rapid detection of KRAS mutations in ovarian tumor tissue.

  10. Transmission of Vibrio cholerae is antagonized by lytic phage and entry into the aquatic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Nelson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholera outbreaks are proposed to propagate in explosive cycles powered by hyperinfectious Vibrio cholerae and quenched by lytic vibriophage. However, studies to elucidate how these factors affect transmission are lacking because the field experiments are almost intractable. One reason for this is that V. cholerae loses the ability to culture upon transfer to pond water. This phenotype is called the active but non-culturable state (ABNC; an alternative term is viable but non-culturable because these cells maintain the capacity for metabolic activity. ABNC bacteria may serve as the environmental reservoir for outbreaks but rigorous animal studies to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. In this project, we wanted to determine the relevance of ABNC cells to transmission as well as the impact lytic phage have on V. cholerae as the bacteria enter the ABNC state. Rice-water stool that naturally harbored lytic phage or in vitro derived V. cholerae were incubated in a pond microcosm, and the culturability, infectious dose, and transcriptome were assayed over 24 h. The data show that the major contributors to infection are culturable V. cholerae and not ABNC cells. Phage did not affect colonization immediately after shedding from the patients because the phage titer was too low. However, V. cholerae failed to colonize the small intestine after 24 h of incubation in pond water-the point when the phage and ABNC cell titers were highest. The transcriptional analysis traced the transformation into the non-infectious ABNC state and supports models for the adaptation to nutrient poor aquatic environments. Phage had an undetectable impact on this adaptation. Taken together, the rise of ABNC cells and lytic phage blocked transmission. Thus, there is a fitness advantage if V. cholerae can make a rapid transfer to the next host before these negative selective pressures compound in the aquatic environment.

  11. Transmission of Vibrio cholerae is antagonized by lytic phage and entry into the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eric J; Chowdhury, Ashrafuzzaman; Flynn, James; Schild, Stefan; Bourassa, Lori; Shao, Yue; LaRocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Cholera outbreaks are proposed to propagate in explosive cycles powered by hyperinfectious Vibrio cholerae and quenched by lytic vibriophage. However, studies to elucidate how these factors affect transmission are lacking because the field experiments are almost intractable. One reason for this is that V. cholerae loses the ability to culture upon transfer to pond water. This phenotype is called the active but non-culturable state (ABNC; an alternative term is viable but non-culturable) because these cells maintain the capacity for metabolic activity. ABNC bacteria may serve as the environmental reservoir for outbreaks but rigorous animal studies to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. In this project, we wanted to determine the relevance of ABNC cells to transmission as well as the impact lytic phage have on V. cholerae as the bacteria enter the ABNC state. Rice-water stool that naturally harbored lytic phage or in vitro derived V. cholerae were incubated in a pond microcosm, and the culturability, infectious dose, and transcriptome were assayed over 24 h. The data show that the major contributors to infection are culturable V. cholerae and not ABNC cells. Phage did not affect colonization immediately after shedding from the patients because the phage titer was too low. However, V. cholerae failed to colonize the small intestine after 24 h of incubation in pond water-the point when the phage and ABNC cell titers were highest. The transcriptional analysis traced the transformation into the non-infectious ABNC state and supports models for the adaptation to nutrient poor aquatic environments. Phage had an undetectable impact on this adaptation. Taken together, the rise of ABNC cells and lytic phage blocked transmission. Thus, there is a fitness advantage if V. cholerae can make a rapid transfer to the next host before these negative selective pressures compound in the aquatic environment.

  12. Essential Role of Rta in Lytic DNA Replication of Epstein-Barr Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassi-Nejad, Maryam; Golden, Sean; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2013-01-01

    Two transcription factors, ZEBRA and Rta, switch Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from the latent to the lytic state. While ZEBRA also plays an obligatory role as an activator of replication, it is not known whether Rta is directly required for replication. Rta is dispensable for amplification of an oriLyt-containing plasmid in a transient-replication assay. Here, we assessed the requirement for Rta in activation of viral DNA synthesis from the endogenous viral genome, a function that has not been established. Initially, we searched for a ZEBRA mutant that supports viral replication but not transcription. We found that Z(S186A), a mutant of ZEBRA unable to activate transcription of Rta or viral genes encoding replication proteins, is competent to bind to oriLyt and to function as an origin recognition protein. Ectopic expression of the six components of the EBV lytic replication machinery failed to rescue replication by Z(S186A). However, addition of Rta to Z(S186A) and the mixture of replication factors activated viral replication and late gene expression. Deletion mutagenesis of Rta indicated that the C-terminal 10 amino acids (aa) were essential for the function of Rta in replication. In vivo DNA binding studies revealed that Rta interacted with the enhancer region of oriLyt. In addition, expression of Rta and Z(S186A) together, but not individually, activated synthesis of the BHLF1 transcript, a lytic transcript required for the process of viral DNA replication. Our findings demonstrate that Rta plays an indispensable role in the process of lytic DNA replication. PMID:23077295

  13. Characteristics of a broad lytic spectrum endolysin from phage BtCS33 of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yihui; Peng, Qin; Gao, Meiying

    2012-12-19

    Endolysins produced by bacteriophages lyse bacteria, and are thus considered a novel type of antimicrobial agent. Several endolysins from Bacillus phages or prophages have previously been characterized and used to target Bacillus strains that cause disease in animals and humans. B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 is a Siphoviridae family phage and its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. In the BtCS33 genome, orf18 was found to encode an endolysin protein (PlyBt33). Bioinformatic analyses showed that endolysin PlyBt33 was composed of two functional domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and the C-terminal cell wall binding domain. In this study, the entire endolysin PlyBt33, and both the N- and C-termini,were expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified. The lytic activities of PlyBt33 and its N-terminus were tested on bacteria. Both regions exhibited lytic activity, although PlyBt33 showed a higher lytic activity than the N-terminus. PlyBt33 exhibited activity against all Bacillus strains tested from five different species, but was not active against Gram-negative bacteria. Optimal conditions for PlyBt33 reactivity were pH 9.0 and 50 °C. PlyBt33 showed high thermostability, with 40% of initial activity remaining following 1 h of treatment at 60 °C. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 bound to B. thuringiensis strain HD-73 and Bacillus subtilis strain 168. This cell wall binding domain might be novel, as its amino acid sequence showed little similarity to previously reported endolysins. PlyBt33 showed potential as a novel antimicrobial agent at a relatively high temperature and had a broad lytic spectrum within the Bacillus genus. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 might be a novel kind of cell wall binding domain.

  14. Characteristics of a broad lytic spectrum endolysin from phage BtCS33 of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yihui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endolysins produced by bacteriophages lyse bacteria, and are thus considered a novel type of antimicrobial agent. Several endolysins from Bacillus phages or prophages have previously been characterized and used to target Bacillus strains that cause disease in animals and humans. B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 is a Siphoviridae family phage and its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. In the BtCS33 genome, orf18 was found to encode an endolysin protein (PlyBt33. Results Bioinformatic analyses showed that endolysin PlyBt33 was composed of two functional domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and the C-terminal cell wall binding domain. In this study, the entire endolysin PlyBt33, and both the N- and C-termini,were expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified. The lytic activities of PlyBt33 and its N-terminus were tested on bacteria. Both regions exhibited lytic activity, although PlyBt33 showed a higher lytic activity than the N-terminus. PlyBt33 exhibited activity against all Bacillus strains tested from five different species, but was not active against Gram-negative bacteria. Optimal conditions for PlyBt33 reactivity were pH 9.0 and 50°C. PlyBt33 showed high thermostability, with 40% of initial activity remaining following 1 h of treatment at 60°C. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 bound to B. thuringiensis strain HD-73 and Bacillus subtilis strain 168. This cell wall binding domain might be novel, as its amino acid sequence showed little similarity to previously reported endolysins. Conclusions PlyBt33 showed potential as a novel antimicrobial agent at a relatively high temperature and had a broad lytic spectrum within the Bacillus genus. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 might be a novel kind of cell wall binding domain.

  15. Determination of BRAF V600E (VE1) protein expression and BRAF gene mutation status in codon 600 in borderline and low-grade ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlecki, Pawel; Walentowicz, Pawel; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek; Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata

    2017-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are a group of morphologically and genetically heterogeneous neoplasms. Based on differences in clinical phenotype and genetic background, ovarian neoplasms are classified as low-grade and high-grade tumor. Borderline ovarian tumors represent approximately 10%-20% of all epithelial ovarian masses. Various histological subtypes of ovarian malignancies differ in terms of their risk factor profiles, precursor lesions, clinical course, patterns of spread, molecular genetics, response to conventional chemotherapy, and prognosis. The most frequent genetic aberrations found in low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and serous borderline tumors, as well as in mucinous cancers, are mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes. The most commonly observed BRAF mutation is substitution of glutamic acid for valine in codon 600 (V600E) in exon 15. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether fully integrated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla™ system may be useful in determination of BRAF gene mutation status in codon 600 in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 42 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, who were operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland). Based on histopathological examination of surgical specimens, 35 lesions were classified as low-grade ovarian carcinomas, and 7 as borderline ovarian tumors. Specimens with expression of BRAF V600E (VE1) protein were tested for mutations in codon 600 of the BRAF gene, using an automated molecular diagnostics platform Idylla™. Cytoplasmic immunoexpression of BRAF V600E (VE1) protein was found in three specimens: serous superficial papilloma, serous papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy, and partially proliferative serous cystadenoma. All specimens with the expression of BRAF V600E (VE1) protein were

  16. Analysis and Proposed Changes of TIN ORE Processing System on Cutter Suction Dredges Into Low Grade to Improve Added Value for the Company

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Benny Pahala; Yudoko, Gatot

    2013-01-01

    Mining technology using Cutter Suction Dredges (KIP) is currently performed by PT Timah (Persero) Tbk. Currently tin ore processing system in KIP produces high grade tin ore (±70% Sn). By applying high grade tin ore processing system in KIP, recovery of tin ore is low and associated minerals of tin contained in concentrates secondary jig will be wasted. To change the processing system to be low grade in KIP be enough to negate the sluice box equipment, because the secondary jig produces conce...

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Mg1-xB2 Bulk Samples and Cu/Nb Sheathed Wires with Low Grade Amorphous Boron Powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Alexiou, Aikaterini; Rubesova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    MgB2 bulk and wire samples were prepared using cheap, low grade amorphous boron powders. Based on chemical analysis performed on the starting reagents, three nominal stoichiometries were studied. It was found that the structural and superconducting properties of the bulk samples were not affected...... by the composition, but that residual Mg was left in the wires for the nominal MgB2 composition. In contrast, slightly Mg-deficient compositions were free from residual Mg and exhibited higher critical current densities. The MgB2 phase formation kinetics was not influenced by the variations in the nominal powder...

  18. No association between rs6897932 in the gene encoding interleukin-7 receptor α and low-grade inflammation or self-reported health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Hans J; Sørensen, Cecilie J; Rigas, Andreas S

    2015-01-01

    The T-allele in the single nucleotide polymorphism rs6897932 in the gene encoding the IL-7 receptor α (IL7RA) is associated with reduced risk of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis and also affects the course of HIV infection. Low-grade inflammation (LGI) and self-reported, health......-related quality of life (HRQL) are often associated with chronic diseases and widely used in assessing and monitoring health status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the T-allele in rs6897932 is associated with reduced risk of LGI (hsCRP 3-10 mg/L), history of infectious mononucleosis (IM...

  19. An epigenetic marker panel for recurrence risk prediction of low grade papillary urothelial cell carcinoma (LGPUCC) and its potential use for surveillance after transurethral resection using urine

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Leonel; Brait, Mariana; Michailidi, Christina; Munari, Enrico; Driscoll, Tina; Schultz, Luciana; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Schoenberg, Mark; Sidransky, David; Netto, George J; Hoque, Mohammad Obaidul

    2014-01-01

    By a candidate gene approach, we analyzed the promoter methylation (PM) of 8 genes (ARF, TIMP3, RAR-β2, NID2, CCNA1, AIM1, CALCA and CCND2) by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) in the DNA of 17 non-recurrent and 19 recurrent noninvasive low grade papillary urothelial cell carcinoma (LGPUCC) archival tissues. Among the genes tested, by establishing an empiric cutoff value, CCND2, CCNA1, NID2, and CALCA showed higher frequency of methylation in recurrent than in non-recurrent LGPUCC:...

  20. Radiation-induced low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the chest wall nine years subsequent to radiotherapy for breast carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Shino; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Yamashita, Hideomi; Kobayashi, Reiko; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    The present study reports a case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma that occurred in a 62-year-old woman 9 years subsequent to whole breast irradiation for a carcinoma of the left breast, and 18 years following chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; diagnosed at the age of 43). The patient was 53 years of age when a cT2N0M0 stage IIA breast tumor was identified and excised. A 2.5 cm diameter nodule with dimpling in the upper-outer region of the left breast was detected. Pathological examination revealed that the tumor was an invasive ductal carcinoma, of a solid tubular type. The patient was treated with post-surgical whole breast RT. The left breast received 46 Gy in 23 fractions (2 Gy per fraction) for 4 weeks and 3 days, followed by a cone down boost of 14 Gy in 7 fractions (2 Gy per fraction); therefore a total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions was administered. In total, 9 years subsequent to RT, the patient observed a small lump in the left chest wall. The patient underwent excision of the tumor and pectoralis major fascia. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of atypical spindle cells with myxoid stroma. Pathologists concluded that the tumor was a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Since the tumor developed from tissue in a previously irradiated region, it was considered to be RT-induced, and was classified using the radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) criteria as dictated by Cahan. Although the majority of RIS cases are angiosarcomas, a rare, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma was observed in the present study. The present study hypothesizes that there may have been an overlap region between the RT for supraclavicular nodes of NHL and the whole breast RT for primary breast cancer, due to the results of a retrospective dose reconstruction undertaken by the present study. The patient remained clinically stable for 4 years thereafter, until 2008 when the patient experienced a local relapse and underwent surgery. On 19 October 2011, the patient

  1. Leflunomide/teriflunomide inhibit Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- induced lymphoproliferative disease and lytic viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Andrea; Plowshay, Julie; Ma, Shidong; Nawandar, Dhananjay; Barlow, Elizabeth A; Romero-Masters, James C; Bristol, Jillian A; Li, Zhe; Tsai, Ming-Han; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Kenney, Shannon C

    2017-07-04

    EBV infection causes mononucleosis and is associated with specific subsets of B cell lymphomas. Immunosuppressed patients such as organ transplant recipients are particularly susceptible to EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), which can be fatal. Leflunomide (a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis) and its active metabolite teriflunomide (used to treat multiple sclerosis) inhibit de novo pyrimidine synthesis by targeting the cellular dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, thereby decreasing T cell proliferation. Leflunomide also inhibits the replication of cytomegalovirus and BK virus via both "on target" and "off target" mechanisms and is increasingly used to treat these viruses in organ transplant recipients. However, whether leflunomide/teriflunomide block EBV replication or inhibit EBV-mediated B cell transformation is currently unknown. We show that teriflunomide inhibits cellular proliferation, and promotes apoptosis, in EBV-transformed B cells in vitro at a clinically relevant dose. In addition, teriflunomide prevents the development of EBV-induced lymphomas in both a humanized mouse model and a xenograft model. Furthermore, teriflunomide inhibits lytic EBV infection in vitro both by preventing the initial steps of lytic viral reactivation, and by blocking lytic viral DNA replication. Leflunomide/teriflunomide might therefore be clinically useful for preventing EBV-induced LPD in patients who have high EBV loads yet require continued immunosuppression.

  2. Diversity of phage infection types and associated terminology: the problem with 'Lytic or lysogenic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Zack; Abedon, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses of members of domain Bacteria. These viruses play numerous roles in shaping the diversity of microbial communities, with impact differing depending on what infection strategies specific phages employ. From an applied perspective, these especially are communities containing undesired or pathogenic bacteria that can be modified through phage-mediated bacterial biocontrol, that is, through phage therapy. Here we seek to categorize phages in terms of their infection strategies as well as review or suggest more descriptive, accurate or distinguishing terminology. Categories can be differentiated in terms of (1) whether or not virion release occurs (productive infections versus lysogeny, pseudolysogeny and/or the phage carrier state), (2) the means of virion release (lytic versus chronic release) and (3) the degree to which phages are genetically equipped to display lysogenic cycles (temperate versus non-temperate phages). We address in particular the use or overuse of what can be a somewhat equivocal phrase, 'Lytic or lysogenic', especially when employed as a means of distinguishing among phages types. We suggest that the implied dichotomy is inconsistent with both modern as well as historical understanding of phage biology. We consider, therefore, less ambiguous terminology for distinguishing between 'Lytic' versus 'Lysogenic' phage types. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Transfection of mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte with an antisense granzyme A vector reduces lytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento, A; Nguyen, M; Law, S; Wu, J K; Poe, M; Blake, J T; Patel, M; Wu, T J; Manyak, C L; Silberklang, M

    1992-12-15

    Murine CTL have seven serine proteases, known as granzymes, in their lytic granules. Despite considerable effort, convincing evidence that these enzymes play an obligatory role in the lytic process has not been presented. To investigate the function of one of these proteases, granzyme A (GA), we utilized an antisense expression vector to lower the level of the enzyme in the cells. An expression vector containing antisense cDNA for GA and the gene for hygromycin B resistance was constructed and electroporated into the murine CTL line, AR1. Transfectants were selected based on resistance to hygromycin B, and a number of stable lines were developed. One of the antisense lines had greatly reduced levels of GA mRNA, when compared to the parental cells or to control lines transfected with the vector lacking the antisense DNA. The message levels for two other CTL granule proteins, granzyme B and perforin, were unaffected by the antisense vector. The amount of GA, as measured by enzymatic activity, was 3- to 10-fold lower in the transfectant. Most significantly, this line also consistently showed 50 to 70% lower ability to lyse nucleated target cells and to degrade their DNA. Furthermore, it exhibited 90 to 95% lower lytic activity to anti-CD3-coated SRBC. Conjugate formation with target cells, however, was normal. These data provide strong evidence that GA plays an important role in the cytolytic cycle, and that the quantity of enzyme is a limiting factor in these cytolytic cells.

  4. A lytic bacteriophage of the newly emerging rainbow trout pathogen Weissella ceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Truong Dinh; Mitomi, Kyoka; Nishiki, Issei; Yoshida, Terutoyo

    2018-03-02

    This study was conducted to isolate and characterize a bacteriophage of a newly emerging pathogen, Weissella ceti, which causes weissellosis outbreaks of intensively farmed rainbow trout worldwide. The phage appeared together with the cultured Weissella ceti during isolation of pathogen from kidney of diseased rainbow trout. The morphological, physiological, proteomic and lytic spectrum were characterized. This phage, named PWc, belonged to the family Siphoviridae and possessed an isometric head (approximately 65 nm in diameter) and a flexible, non-contractile tail of 170-180 nm in length. The latent time and burst size of PWc were approximately 25 min and 16 PFU/infected cells, respectively. The PWc was relatively stable over a wide range of temperatures and pH values and possessed a broad lytic spectrum, lysing all 36 tested W. ceti strains isolated from diseased rainbow trout in Japan. The protein profile of the phage was obtained using SDS-PAGE analysis, and the potential packaging strategy was determined based on terminase large subunit sequence analysis. This is the first study to investigate a lytic bacteriophage of a newly emerging pathogen W. ceti that causes infectious disease in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in Young Adults — Clinical Experience at Taipei Veterans General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ching Wen

    2005-06-01

    Conclusion: Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in young adults is usually associated with low grade and low stage. Invasive bladder cancer had no worse a survival rate than superficial bladder cancer.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of decompression according to Gill versus instrumented spondylodesis in the treatment of sciatica due to low grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: A prospective randomised controlled trial [NTR1300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Arts (Mark); M.J.T. Verstegen (Marco); R. Brand (René); B.W. Koes (Bart); M.E. van den Akker-van Marle (Elske); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Nerve root decompression with instrumented spondylodesis is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with symptomatic low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Nerve root decompression without instrumented fusion, i.e. Gill's procedure,

  7. Low grade inflammation as a common pathogenetic denominator in age-related diseases: novel drug targets for anti-ageing strategies and successful ageing achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candore, G; Caruso, C; Jirillo, E; Magrone, T; Vasto, S

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, people are living much longer than they used to do, however they are not free from ageing. Ageing, an inexorable intrinsic process that affects all cells, tissues, organs and individuals, is a post-maturational process that, due to a diminished homeostasis and increased organism frailty, causes a reduction of the response to environmental stimuli and, in general, is associated to an increased predisposition to illness and death. However, the high incidence of death due to infectious, cardiovascular and cancer diseases underlies a common feature in these pathologies that is represented by dysregulation of both instructive and innate immunity. Several studies show that a low-grade systemic inflammation characterizes ageing and that inflammatory markers are significant predictors of mortality in old humans. This pro-inflammatory status of the elderly underlies biological mechanisms responsible for physical function decline and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis are initiated or worsened by systemic inflammation. Understanding of the ageing process should have a prominent role in new strategies for extending the health old population. Accordingly, as extensively discussed in the review and in the accompanying related papers, investigating ageing pathophysiology, particularly disentangling age-related low grade inflammation, is likely to provide important clues about how to develop drugs that can slow or delay ageing.

  8. Parametric and working fluid analysis of a combined organic Rankine-vapor compression refrigeration system activated by low-grade thermal energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, B

    2016-09-01

    The potential use of many common hydrofluorocarbons and hydrocarbons as well as new hydrofluoroolefins, i.e. R1234yf and R1234ze(E) working fluids for a combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression refrigeration (ORC-VCR) system activated by low-grade thermal energy is evaluated. The basic ORC operates between 80 and 40 °C typical for low-grade thermal energy power plants while the basic VCR cycle operates between 5 and 40 °C. The system performance is characterized by the overall system coefficient of performance (COPS) and the total mass flow rate of the working fluid for each kW cooling capacity ([Formula: see text]). The effects of different working parameters such as the evaporator, condenser, and boiler temperatures on the system performance are examined. The results illustrate that the maximum COPS values are attained using the highest boiling candidates with overhanging T-s diagram, i.e. R245fa and R600, while R600 has the lowest [Formula: see text] under the considered operating conditions. Among the proposed candidates, R600 is the best candidate for the ORC-VCR system from the perspectives of environmental issues and system performance. Nevertheless, its flammability should attract enough attention. The maximum COPS using R600 is found to reach up to 0.718 at a condenser temperature of 30 °C and the basic values for the remaining parameters.

  9. Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins, proliferative markers, cell signaling molecules, CD209, and decorin immunoreactivity in low-grade myxofibrosarcoma and myxoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Justin M M; Memoli, Vincent A; Gonzalez, Raul S

    2015-08-01

    The histologic differential diagnosis between intramuscular myxoma and low-grade myxofibrosarcoma can be quite difficult in some cases. To identify a diagnostic immunohistochemical marker, we compared the staining profiles of 19 different antigens, including cell cycle proteins, apoptosis proteins, and proliferative markers, and selected other signaling and structural proteins in these two tumors. Ten cases each of intramuscular myxoma and low-grade myxofibrosarcoma were stained with antibodies directed against apoptosis regulatory proteins (Bcl2, activated caspase-3, phospho-H2A.X, and cleaved PARP), cell cycle regulatory proteins (Rb1, Cyclin-A, CDKN1B, and Cdt1), proliferative markers (KI67, MCM2, phospho-histone H3, and geminin), cell signalling molecules (c-Myc, EGF, EGFR, PLA2G4A, and HSP90), a dendritic cell marker (CD209), and the extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin. Staining patterns of myxoma and myxofibrosarcoma were compared using Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. For each potential diagnostic marker studied, the proportions of cases scored as positive on both dichotomous or ordinal scales were not significantly different between myxoma and myxofibrosarcoma. Myxoma and myxofibrosarcoma share a common immunophenotype for each of the markers studied. Distinction between these tumors is still predominantly based on morphologic criteria.

  10. Resetting of Rb-Sr whole-rock isochrons during Sveconorwegian low-grade events in the Gjerstad augen gneiss, Telemark, southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, P.C.; Field, D.; Raaheim, A.

    1983-01-01

    The Gjerstad augen gneiss comprises a single igneous body that shows intrusive relationships to the surrounding older Telemark gneisses. The formation of the gneissic structure and augen texture was due to mylonitic deformation along a major shear zone, the Porsgrunn-Kristiansand fault zone. The augen gneiss can be divided petrographically into green, grey (both pyroxene-bearing) and pink types. Samples from three locations were analysed isotopically. Two distinct (at 2sigma level) groups of ages were obtained which are interpreted as: (a) (approx. 1250 Ma) cooling after high temperature deformation and formation of retrogressive corona structures; (b) (approx. 1080 Ma) resetting of whole-rock systems during low-grade mineral alteration by hydrous fluids. At approx. 900 Ma, there was further isotopic disturbance during low-grade alteration related to the intrusion